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World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences 11 (1): 01-09, 2016

ISSN 1817-308X
© IDOSI Publications, 2016
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjdfs.2016.11.1.10140

Challenges, Opportunities and Prospects of Dairy Farming in Ethiopia: A Review

Tadesse Guadu and Mengistie Abebaw

Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,

University of Gondar, P.O.Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the Sub-Saharan Africa’s developing country with a large potential in livestock,
being 1st among African countries and 9th in the world. Dairying is one of the livestock production systems
practiced in almost all over the world including Ethiopia, involving a vast number of small, medium, or large-
sized, subsistence or market-oriented farms. Based on climate, land holding and integrated with crop
production; dairy production can be; pastoralism, highland smallholder, urban and peri-urban and intensive
dairy farming system are recognized in Ethiopia. There are over six distinguishable, indigenous cattle types in
Ethiopia mainly Arsi, Barca, Boran, Fogera, Horro and Ogaden are evolved as a source of natural selection. The
main objectives of this seminar paper are to review; the challenges, opportunities and prospects of dairy
farming in Ethiopia. Challenges and problems for dairying vary from one production system to another and/or
from one location to another. These challenges can be technical like, health problems, reproductive problems,
institutional like inadequate extension and training services, policy and socio-economic challenges like
environmental problems and marketing linkage problems. This challenge lowers the production and
reproduction efficiency of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. Dairy farm developments also have different opportunities
such as, the presence of high livestock genetic resources and different production systems, availability of
access services and land inputs, high income generation and employment opportunities, the presence of service
providers, the presence of indigenous knowledge. In line with dairy farm development prospects, getting
accesses to services and inputs that could help promote dairy production and productivity is high; as it
promotes the motto of government policy in creating employment opportunities at house hold level. The
provision of credit facilities and insurance for dairy farms should be encouraged and promoted. Dairying
constitutes an important part of the Ethiopian smallholder dairy sector, a careful planning of dairy policy is
required for the generation of appropriate and demand driven technologies in order to attain sustainable dairy
farm development.

Key words: Cattle Challenges Dairy production Ethiopia Opportunities Prospects

INTRODUCTION Ethiopia is estimated to be 49.3 million heads of cattle.

These are well adapted to the tropical environment
Ethiopia is one of the Sub-Saharan Africa’s producing and reproducing under stress of high degree of
developing country with a large potential in livestock, temperature, high diseases prevalence and low level of
being 1st among African countries and 9th in the world. nutritional states [2].
However, meat and milk production are very low, Agriculture (mainly crop and livestock production)
estimated to be 246,000 tones and 960,000 tones, is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy, employing
respectively, with per capital consumption of 17.1 kg milk approximately 85% of the total population. Livestock
and 5.6 kg meat per year in 1983-1985 [1]. production accounts for approximately 30% of the total
Livestock production constitutes one of the principal agricultural GDP and 16% of national foreign currency
means of achieving improved living standard in many earrings [3]. Despite the huge number of cattle and their
regions of the developing world. The cattle population in economic importance, the productivity is low due to the

Corresponding Author: Tadesse Guadu, Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

World J. Dairy & Food Sci., 11 (1): 01-09, 2016

challenges of disease, nutrition, poor management and Pastoralism: Livestock owners who exploit natural grass
health problem, lack of infrastructure and lack of lands mainly in the arid areas, even though information on
veterinary service provision. For the intensive as well as both absolute numbers and distribution is vary, it
extensive dairy farms, it is characteristic in both tropical estimated that about 30% of the livestock populations are
and temperate regions that the animals which graze found in the pastoral areas [9]. The herd is dominating
relatively near to the milking area or the dairy-lot are given with unimproved Zebu animals and milk production is of
feed purchased from the surrounding area [4]. subsistent type. It is mainly operating in the range lands
Dairying is one of the livestock productions where the peoples involved follow animal based life
practiced almost all over the world including Ethiopia, styles, which requires of them to move from place to place
involving a vast number of small, medium, or large-sized, seasonally, based on feed and water availability.
subsistence or market-oriented farms. The difference Livestock doesn’t provide inputs for crop production but
between large and smallholder farms is mainly determined they are the very back bone of their owners providing all
by herd size [5]. Large scale farms keep large herds of of the consumable and saleable outputs and regard as
cross breed and involve high inputs in terms of land, insurance against adversity, milk production is dependent
labor, housing and feed and health management. Hence, on season due to the rainfall pattern that influenced feed
from dairy development prospect, a careful planning is availability [10].
required for the generation of appropriate and demand
driven technologies in order to attain sustainable dairy Urban and Peri-urban Dairy Farming: Urban and peri-
development. There are a number of challenges which urban dairy farming are emerging as an important
faced in the dairy farm development. These include limited component of the milk production system. It is based on
genetic resources, inadequate veterinary service cross breed dairy stock, mainly Friesian x Zebu and
purchased conserved feeds [11] and it is contributing
provision, poor management, inadequate animal feed
immensely towards filling in the large demand –supply
resources, reproductive challenges and market related
gap for milk and milk production urban center, where
challenges [6]. Dairy farm also creates different
consumption of milk and milk product is remarkably high.
opportunity which includes; livestock genetic resources
The sector contributes immensely to generation, asset
and production system, access services and land inputs,
accumulation and poverty alleviation. Almost all of the
agricultural extension services and technologies, income
fluid milk supplied to major urban and peri-urban centers
generation and employment opportunities [7].
in Ethiopia, for example, comes from urban and peri-urban
smallholder and commercial dairy producers; land is the
Therefore, the Main Objectives of this Paper Are:
major challenges [12].

To review the challenges of dairy farm development Highland Smallholder Dairy Farming: The highland
To know the opportunity of dairy farm development smallholder milk production is found in the central parts
and of Ethiopia where dairying is nearly always parts of the
To highlight the prospectives of dairy farming in subsistence, smallholder mixed crop and livestock
Ethiopia. farming. It becomes important source of house hold
income in Ethiopia. However, the sector is agonized by
Dairy Production Systems in Ethiopia: Dairy production several problems like poor quality and quantity of feed
system is a biological efficient system that converts large resource, lack of appropriate feeding system, poor
quantities of roughage, the most abundant feed in the production and reproduction traits, low productive and
tropics, milk the most nutritious food to man. Dairy reproductive performance and economic and technical
production is a critical issue in Ethiopia, a livestock-based problems [4]. About 93% of the total milk production in
society where livestock and its products are more Ethiopia is produced by the smallholder dairy farmers
important sources of food and income and dairying has living in the villages and exercising, in most instances,
not been fully exploited and promoted. The greatest traditional dairying. This sector also produces 90% of the
potential for few technologies in dairying is expected in overall agriculture output in the country [13].
the highlands of Ethiopia and other Sub-Saharan Africa
and Asian countries, due to low disease pressure and Intensive Dairy Farming: This is a more specialized dairy
good agro-climatic conditions for the cultivation of feeds farming practiced in state sector and very few individuals
[8]. on commercial basis. The urban, peri-urban and intensive

World J. Dairy & Food Sci., 11 (1): 01-09, 2016

dairy farmers produce 2% of the total milk production of including technical challenges, institutional, policy and
the country. Farmers use part or all of their land to grow socio-economic challenges reduce the reproductive and
fodder crops for their dairy cattle. The dairy animals do production potential of dairy farming [18].
not provide draft, but their manure is used as fertilizer on
crops, milk is the main source of farm income. It is mainly Technical Challenges
under taken by small farmers using family labor, but Genetic Limitation: About 99% of the cattle populations
commercial farmers using herd labor also practices this in Ethiopia are indigenous that are adapted to feed and
system on a large scale [14]. The herd is dominated with water shortages, diseases challenges and harsh climates.
improved/cross breed dairy cattle and the production The productivity of indigenous cattle believed to be poor
system is market oriented and milk production is for even if no practical recording scheme has been used to
sale(surplus production) [15]. judge their merit [15]. The main problem of milk production
in the country is that of the poor genetic potential of the
Dairy Cattle Breeds in Ethiopia: Over 99% of the cattle indigenous cattle, which gives to low milk output.
populations in Ethiopia are indigenous and about 42% Crossbreeding has been practiced with encouraging
are milk cows [12]. There are over six distinguishable, results. However, a strictly controlled breeding program
indigenous cattle types in Ethiopia mainly Arsi, has not been practiced. Milk production is as low as 0.5 to
Barca, Boran, Fogera, Horro and Ogaden are evolved as 2 liters per day over a lactation period of 160 to 200 days
a source of natural selection influenced by factors like [19].
climate, altitude, available feed supply, endemic Improving the feeding water availability and health
diseases and functional objectives of conditions care of indigenous cattle did not increase the quantity of
livestock owners, management techniques and market milk per day to allow the animals to be used for
demands that make them adapted to harsh environmental commercial market-oriented milk production [18]. If
conditions [16]. Most of them belong to the Zebu type improvement of the local Ethiopian breeds for milk
with the inclusion of some intermediate short horn Sanga production is targeted, then it is important to have a
type [17]. designed selection program in place for a few selected
Barca breed is originated in west part of Eritrea, but promising breeds [20].
abundant in Tigray and Gondar. This selected breed will
produce about 647 liters of milk per lactation and Inadequate Animal Feed Resources: The primary
considered to be good milk cattle. Arsi type is dominate constraints to increased milk production under all
the highlands of central region of Arsi and Bale, it production systems are inadequate feed resources, poor
produce up to 500 kg of milk lactation with 5.4%-5.8% of pasture development and the ever increasing feed prices.
butter fat. Boran breed is a famous Ethiopian breed which Farmers tend to be keep cattle at stoking rates that for
is originated from Borena awraja, Southern part of the exceeds the carrying capacity of their grazing lands. This
country, which produces about 440 kg of milk per has resulted in degraded pastures and eroded soils. Stock
lactation with 6.0% of butter fat. Fogera type is found in numbers are not normally reduced in the dry season
the North western part of the country around Fogera leading to grazing lands becoming progressively over
which produce about 281 kg of milk per lactation with grazed. In the dominating crop/livestock production
5.8% of butter fat. Horro type is also originated from the system, producers supplement the feeding of their cows
western part of the country particularly in Wollega, which with crop residues and farm by products from their farms
produce up to 543 liters of milk per lactation and Ogaden [21].
is originated in the eastern parts of the country around
Ogden [14]. Animal Health Problems: The prevalence of various
animal diseases, tick borne diseases, internal and external
Challenges of Dairy Farm Development in Ethiopia: parasite and infectious diseases affect dairy development
Challenges and problems for dairying vary from one programs in various scale, depends on ecological zones
production system to another and/or from one location to and management levels. A number of parasite, bacterial,
another. The structure and performance of livestock and fungal and viral diseases and nutritional deficiency which
its products marketing both for domestic consumption are prevalent in the country affect the productivity and
and for export is generally perceived poor in Ethiopia. reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle and make
These challenges faced dairy industry in various level individuals insecure to be involved in and invest on dairy

World J. Dairy & Food Sci., 11 (1): 01-09, 2016

production specially cows used with exotic blood [17]. milk handling and marketing, farm management and dairy
Among these diseases, venereal diseases have a direct production efficiency are not always available to the dairy
effect while nutritional deficiencies and other infectious farmer. There is no extension to supply information about
diseases play an indirect role in hampering the technologies to improve production and marketing to
reproductive efficiency of dairy cows. The animal health estimate certain development. A shift towards a
services provided are inadequate, the costs of drugs is developed dairy industry requires more support from
very high, while the diagnostic services are not readily advisory services and more effective links with research
available to the dairy farmer. This is partly attributed to services [19].
the insufficient budget allocated to veterinary services.
As it has been reported; an overall diseases occurrence Lack of Research and Information Exchange System:
46.8% and 33.6% in urban and per-urban in the central Considering the importance of central institutions to
highlands, respectively [22, 23]. guide and coordinate agricultural researches and
unorganized information system to publicize results of
Reproductive Problems: Reproductive efficiency is a research works, new technologies and policy, weak
critical component of successful dairy operation and act leakages between research, extension and technology
as an important component of a profitable dairy farm, users are one of the critical factors that hinder dairy
whereas reproductive inefficiency is one of the most development in the country. This weakness stems
costly problems facing the dairy industry today. partially from the absence of sound linkage polices in
Reproductive problems occur frequently in lactating dairy the agricultural knowledge generation and transfer
cows and dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in systems [7].
dairy herd. Some of the most common problems include:
twining, dystocia, abortion, stillbirth, retained placenta, Lack of Education and Consultation: There are shortages
pyometra and repeat breeder [24]. These are diverse of qualified personnel, poor education and management
disorders that are similar in that they all can result in expertise of farmers, miss understanding of production
impaired reproductive function. Deciding whether to systems and lack of knowledge gained through
breed, treat, or cull dairy cows exhibiting one or more of researches to farmers, ignorance the experience and
these reproductive problems is a challenges for both knowledge of local farmers and absence of forums for
veterinarians and dairy producers. In addition, there is a consultation and discussion with the farmers [26].
considerable controversy among dairy scientists and
bovine practitioners regarding the economic impacts of Policy and Socio-Economic Challenges: Unavailability
these problems in dairy operation and the most effective of land: The problem of inadequate feed is as a result of
management or therapeutic intervention for treating them the limited land available for pasture establishment,
[25]. especially in the productive highland zones that have a
Dairy farming should focus on prevention and potential for dairy development. In Amhara region, for
control of risk factors associated with each problem rather instance, nearly all the land suitable for cultivation is
than on prescriptive therapeutic interventions [24]. Low already in use, while in Oromia land is scarce in many
fertility reduces the profit by decreasing the average milk areas [27].
production and the number of calves per cow per year. The scarcity of the land is becoming a critical
Poor reproductive performance is a major cause of problem in many parts of Ethiopia, in certain localities are
involuntary culling and therefore reduces the opportunity estimated 50% of the population have a problem of land
for voluntary culling and has a negative effect on the scarcity. If land degradation is not halted and reversed in
productivity of a dairy herd. Reproductive performance is some areas of the country, it would become extremely
influenced by the interactive effect of environment, difficult to expand dairy production. In the traditional
management, health and genetic factors [25]. sector, land becomes a challenge to milk production as a
result of overstocking, in urban and per-urban dairying,
Institutional Challenges lack of grazing land is often a limited factors. The
Inadequate Extension and Training Services: Effective intensification of the dairy industry by using fewer
and adequate extension services, advice on animal numbers of improved dairy cows with increased
nutrition and feeding management, reproduction, hygiene, productivity per cow should be a strategy to be followed
extension works to transfer new technologies, training in [28].

World J. Dairy & Food Sci., 11 (1): 01-09, 2016

Milk Market Linkage Challenges: There are no and communal grazing lands without rehabilitation and
promotional activities being carried out by various conservation works. Hygiene and sanitary hazard and
government offices to portray milk as a highly nutritious pollution of soil, water and air due to a large volume of
and essential food for the health of nation. There are also waste and close human-animal interaction are an
no price regulatory mechanisms in place that can much environmental risks associated with the urban, per-urban
such an important food item easily available and and the intensive commercial dairy production system
affordable to a large segments of the population. As [32].
earlier mentioned, there are no functional quality controls Waste from dairy farm is also a serious problem,
and payment systems in the country [6]. particularly in urban production system. If not properly
Improving market access to dairy product creates an managed, manure is a source of bad odor and flies,
opportunity for enhanced dairy production. However, sources of conflict with neighbors and sources of
marketing and access to market have been reported to be zoonotic diseases. Dairy producers from urban dairy
the major problems [29]. Distance to market, shortage of system complained that manure disposal incurs cost.
milk and seasonal fluctuation in milk supply has been Although urban dairy farming is recognized by public
reported to be the major determinant across all the authorities in some urban center, it was not encouraged in
production systems. Besides, lack of access to market others and so there is a lot of pressures and restriction on
(21.2%), cultural taboo to sell milk (20.8%), spoilage of dairy producers [28].
milk (1.9%) and high transport cost have been identified
to be the major reasons for weak market access [13]. Absence of Operational Breeding Strategy and Policy:
The absence of effective breeding program is the major
Limited Availability of Credit to the Dairy Farmer: Many challenges to the dairy development. The AI services has
farmers are aware of the existence of the improved been inefficient for different reasons in rural areas where
technologies that can offer them higher returns as smallholder farmers predominant. As reported by
compared with their conventional practices. However, Shiferaw et al., 2003, some of these reasons include:
most of the poor farmers do not have financial means inappropriate infrastructure, managerial and financial
required to make the initial investment and acquire the challenges, inefficient heat detection and improper timing
associated technological inputs, financial supports or of insemination, embryonic death and very small numbers
credit facilities to smallholder farmers who intend to enter of AI technician [19, 31].
in to commercial dairy farming are very much limited. The Ethiopia doesn’t have a functional breeding policy.
importance of establishing credit facilities is crucial step Most of the cattle breeding activities have been executed
to the country’s dairy sector as indicated in the livestock under strategy set by various individual organizations.
development master plan [30]. The current conducive policy for investment
opportunities is not supported by an operational breeding
Limited Access and High Cost of Dairy Heifers/cows: policy that determines the types of genetic material to be
The improved cross breed, grade and pure exotic dairy brought in to the country in order to achieve the targeted
cattle are usually in short supply and when available the genetic improvement in different farming system and agro-
high cost is a major problem. The feed government cross ecologies [33].
breed heifers multiplication centers that used to distribute
in calf cross breed heifers to producers at reasonable Opportunities for Dairy Farm Development in Ethiopia
prices have been sold after the introduction of the Livestock Genetic Resources and Production System:
privatization policy. Prices of cross breed cows and Ethiopia is endowed with large and diverse dairy animal
heifers are now unaffordable by the poor smallholder genetic resources, which are widely distributed across the
farmers that would have liked to engage in the dairy various agro-ecologies and climatic conditions prevalent
business [31]. in the country. The country with different breeds of cattle,
indigenous animals have evolved over time through
Environmental Issues: Environmental issues associated natural selection and adaptation to the existing diverse
with the pastoral and highland smallholder dairy ecological conditions of their habitat [34]. Consequently,
production systems are overgrazing and land degradation dairy production system in Ethiopia forms a continuum
that are the results of continuous utilization of crop lands with postural form of production system dominating the

World J. Dairy & Food Sci., 11 (1): 01-09, 2016

lowland agro-ecological set up (livestock production is Research Institution Opportunities: In Ethiopia, research
dominant to sustain the livelihood of society) to market- on dairying started over 5 decades ago. Since the dairy
oriented urban and per-urban dairy production system research system has passed through a lot of
that exists in mid to upper highlands [35]. There are transformations. The existence of various institutions
indications that milk yield among the indigenous animals involved in dairy research and development across the
is variable improving that there are opportunities for different parts of the country is an opportunity to come
improvement [36]. up with a solution for challenges that constrain dairy
production and for low uptake of dairy technologies in the
Accesses Services and Land Inputs: Dairy development country [8].
depends on reliable inputs and services such as Artificial
Insemination, health service and improved forage seeds Indigenous Knowledge: The existence of diverse
supply [37]. Currently, the numbers of AI service centers production system and agro-ecologies coupled with
has been increasing and cover most urban and per-urban diverse flora of species rendered the country to have
areas and some parts of rural highlands [21]. This is an indigenous knowledge, especially in the areas of livestock
opportunity to improve the genetic potential of production and dairy processing. For instance, strong
indigenous dairy animals in the areas where there is indigenous knowledge exists in the preservation of milk in
critical shortage of milk and milk products [38]. Cognizant the agro-pastoral dairy system and milk products in the
of the fact that diseases and parasitic infestations are rural highland dairy system using various sources of
economically important to reduce production, several herbs [36].
public veterinary clinics have been established across the
Prospects of Dairy Farming in Ethiopia: The future
different dairy production systems in the country,
prospects of dairying seems to be bright because the
although its efficiency of operation is low [39].
challenges so far indicated and the government is
attempting them to address through polices and
Demand for and Consumption of Milk: Although, the
strategies. Thus, dairy farmers are on the way to getting
contribution of cow milk is dominant, milk from camels and
accesses to services and inputs that could help promote
goats are also consumed in Ethiopia, especially in pastoral
dairy production and productivity. This mainly include
and agro-pastoral systems of production. In Ethiopia
feed and feeding, breeding services, credit extension,
there is long standing and strong culture of consumption
training veterinary services and appropriate marketing
of dairy products. In addition to row milk, milk products,
system that address costumers demand. Since dairying is
such as butter, cottage cheese, fermented milk (yogurt)
labor intensive, it promotes the motto of government
and whey are also commonly consumed [4].
policy in creating employment opportunities at house
hold level. This improves employment, income and
Income Generation and Employment Opportunities: Dairy
nutrition values of the family of the producers and the
farming supports livelihoods of society under low input other demanders/consumers. The dairy industry would
production systems, generates income and creates address and serve as one of the major instrument of the
employment opportunity under market-oriented governments’ policy in achieving food security. This in
production system. Dairy farmers in urban, per-urban and turn promotes dairy production due to the attention of
rural dairy production system demonstrated strong given by the government [10].
interest to expand dairying as one of the means of income The development of infrastructure like, transportation
generating activity [33]. would help change the traditional thinking of fresh milk
not for sale other than exclusively intended for human
Service Providers: Currently, the number of public consumption among the rural population. On the other
universalities has reached 31 compared to 9 universalities side when the rural farmers expose themselves to the
10 years ago and most of them have programs to train market, their income will increase and be in position to
students in the area of animal science and animal health at buy non-market food types in exchange and there by
under graduate level. Agricultural and technical, improve their living standard. Since the country is an
vocational education training (ATVET) collages are agrarian economy, dairying is much expected to be one of
producing quite a large number of development agents to the major targets of the prospective agro-processing
work grass rest levels to meet the demands of farmers [40]. industries in the country [41].

World J. Dairy & Food Sci., 11 (1): 01-09, 2016

As human population increases in the coming 25 Careful planning of dairy policies and generation of
years, there will be an increase in demand for milk and milk appropriate dairy technologies should be
products in the future in urban areas and, hence, large encouraged in order to attain sustainable dairy
commercial and market oriented smallholder peri-urban development in the country.
dairy production systems have tremendous potential for Feed utilization systems and adequate veterinary
development. Strengthen the linkage on the information services should be improved.
network system on marketing, production and dairy
processing technology including, packaging and prepare ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
action plan and financial statement by law invite general
assembly and approve by leadership election [15]. We would like to thank University of Gondar, Faculty
of Veterinary Medicine for letting us to review on this
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS current global agenda of public health. We wish also to
express our profound gratitude to personnel of the
Dairy farming constitutes an important part of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, who review the paper and
Ethiopian smallholder dairy sector, which plays a crucial suggest valuable comments.
role for economic development of the country as a source
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