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• Cement is an impermeable seal between the casing and the
walls of the borehole
Additional Functions
• To prevent the movement of fluids from one formation to
another or from the formations to surface through the
annulus between the casing and borehole.
• To support the casing string (specifically surface casing)
• To protect the casing from corrosive fluids in the formations.
Casing Accessories
• Guide Shoe
• Float Collar/ Float Shoe
• Centralizer
• Scratchers
Pumping Unit
Cement Slurry

Cement Cement Slurry water


Cement Types
• There are wide range of cement powder
approved by the API.
• Each of these cement powder have different
properties when mixed with water
• The difference in properties is due to
difference in distribution of amount of four
basic compounds compound
• The compounds which are used in make of
these cement powders are C3S,C2S,C3A,C4AF
Compounds In Cement Powder
• C2S DiCalcium Silicate
• C3S Tricalcium Silicate
• C3A tricalcium Aluminate
• C4AF tetra calcium alumino ferrite
Composition Of Cement

High early strength By increasing C3S

Better Retardation By controlling C3S and C3A
Low Heat Of hydration By limiting C3S and C3A content
Resistance to sulfate attack By limiting C3A content
Specification of API Cement
• Shorten thickening time
• Operator wait to get minimum compressive
strength of 500psi
• By using accelerator this process can be reduced
to 4 hours
• It is a good practice to use accelerators with basic
cements because at temperatures below 100oF,
neat cement may require 1 or 2 days to develop a
500 psi compressive strength.
• Common accelerators are sodium
metasilicate, sodium chloride, sea water,
anhydrous calcium chloride, potassium
chloride and gypsum.
• Neat cement slurries set quickly at a BHT greater
than 110oF.
• A retarder is an additive used to increase the
thickening time of cements
• The governing factors for the use of retarders are
temperature and depth.
• Common retarders are lignosulfonates, modified
cellulose, organic acids, organic materials and
• Extended cement slurries are used to reduce
the hydrostatic pressure on weak formations
and to decrease the cost of slurries
• Extenders work by allowing the addition of
more water to the slurry to lighten the
mixture and to keep the solids from
• These additives change the thickening times,
compressive strengths and water loss.
Common extenders are fly ash, bentonite, and
diatomaceous earth
Barite, Heamatitie, Sand
• Fluid loss additives are used to prevent dehydration
of the cement slurry and premature setting.
• Common additives are organic polymers,
carboxymethyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose
• Dispersants are added to improve the flow
properties of the slurry
• In particular they will lower the viscosity of the slurry
so that turbulence will occur at a lower circulating
pressure, thereby reducing the risk of breaking down
• The most common additives are
Polymers, salt , calcium lignosulphanate.
Primary Cementing Technique
The reasons for using a multi-stage operation
are to reduce
• Long pumping times
• High pump pressures
• Excessive hydrostatic pressure on weak
formatiodns due to the relatively high density
of cement slurries
Primary Cementing Technique
Primary Cementing Technique
For large diameter casing, such as conductors and surface
casing, conventional cementing techniques result in:
• The potential for cement contamination during
pumping and displacement
• The use of large cement plugs which can get stuck in
the casing
• Large displacement volumes
• Long pumping times
• Large volume of cement left inside the casing between
float collar and shoe.
Primary Cementing Technique
• Liners are run on drillpipe and therefore the
conventional cementing techniques cannot be
used for cementing a liner.
• As with a full string of casing the liner has a
float collar and shoe installed.
• In addition there is a landing collar, positioned
about two joints above the float collar
Primary Cementing Technique
• A wiper plug is held on the end of the tailpipe
of the running string by shear pins.
• The liner is run on drillpipe and the hanger is
set at the correct point inside the previous
casing string
• Mud is circulated to ensure that the liner and
the annulus is free from debris, and to
condition the mud
Primary Cementing Technique
• Before the cementing operation begins the
liner setting tool is backed off to ensure that it
can be recovered at the end of the cement
Primary Cementing Technique
• Pump spacer ahead of cement slurry
• Pump slurry
• Release pump down plug
• Displace cement down the running string and out of the liner into
the annulus
• Continue pumping until the pump down plug lands on the wiper
• Apply pressure to the pump down plug and shear out the pins on
the wiper plug. This releases the wiper plug
• Both plugs move down the liner until they latch onto landing collar
• Bump the plugs with 1000 psi pressure
• Bleed off pressure and check for back flow
Squeeze Cementing
• Squeeze cementing is the process by which
hydraulic pressure is used to force cement
slurry through holes in the casing and into the
annulus and/or the formation.
• Squeeze cement jobs are often used to carry
out remedial operations during a workover on
the well
Squeeze Cementing
The placement of cement slurry under pressure
against a permeable formation causing cement slurry
to dehydrate and create cementitious seal across the
formation face.
Reasons Of Squeeze Cementing
• Repair primary cement job
• channels
• Voids due to losses
• Shut off produced water
• Shut off produced gas
• Repair casing leaks
• Abandon depleted zone
Planning Squeeze Cementing
• The types of well fluids to be used, which will affect
the pressure to reverse out, and the necessity of
using a spacer (in case of fluid incompatibility)
• The bottomhole static temperature, which affects
the setting time of the cement
• The difference between the depths of the
perforations and the packer (if used), which should
from 100 to 150 ft to allow enough volume to
continue the squeeze after the cement has cleared
the workstring
Planning Squeeze Cementing
• The maximum pressure to be used, which cannot exceed the
pressure limitations of the workstring, casing, BOPs, and other
equipment to be used
• The type of cement to be used, in that fluid-loss additives are
used to ensure that a small amount of cement filter cake will form
against the formation, while the slurry in the casing remains fluid
enough to reverse out
• The amount of cement to be used, which depends on the volume
of the workstring (volume of cement should not exceed the
capacity of the tubular goods) and the length of the interval to be
squeezed (a rule of thumb is to use 2 sk/ft).
Planning Squeeze Cementing
• Testing all wellhead equipment and annulus to the
pressure required to reverse out the maximum
height of cementing the workstring.
Modes Of Operation
High Pressure Squeeze Cementing
• In a high pressure squeeze the formation is initially
fractured (broken down) by a solids free breakdown
• A solids free fluid is used because a solids laiden fluid
such as drilling mud will build up a filter cake and
prevent injection into the formation.
• The direction of the fracture depends on the rock
stresses present in the formation.
• In practice the fracture direction is difficult to predict
since it may follow natural fractures in the formation.
Modes Of Operation
• After the formation is broken down a slurry of
cement is spotted adjacent to the formation, and
then pumped into the zone at a slow rate.
• The injection pressure should gradually build up as
the cement fills up the fractured zone.
• After the cement has been squeezed the pressure
is released to check for back flow.
Modes Of Operation
• No control over the orientation of the fracture
• Large volumes of cement may be necessary to seal
off the fracture
• Mud filled perforations may not be opened up by
fracturing, so the cement may not seal them off
Modes Of Operation
Low pressure Squeeze Cementing
• It is generally accepted that a low pressure squeeze is a
more efficient method of sealing off unwanted perforated
• In a low pressure squeeze the formation is not fractured.
• Instead a cement slurry is gently squeezed against the
• A cement slurry consists of finely divided solids dispersed in
a liquid.
• The solids are too large to be displaced into the formation.
• As pressure is applied, the liquid phase is forced into the
pores, leaving a deposit of solid material or filter cake
Modes Of Operation
• As the filter cake of dehydrated cement begins to build
up, the impermeable barrier prevents further filtrate
• This technique therefore creates an impermeable seal
across the perforated zone.
• Fluid loss additives are important to perform this
technique successfully.
• Neat cement has a high fluid loss, resulting in rapid
dehydration which causes bridging before the other
perforations are sealed off.
• Conversely a very low fluid loss means a slow filter cake
build up and long cement placement time
Modes Of Operation
• If the well has been producing for some time these
perforations have to be washed out, sometimes
with an acid solution.
Job Procedures
• Hesitation
• Running
Principal Methods
• There are three placement technique for carrying
out squeeze
1. Retrievable squeeze packer
2. Drillable cement retainer
3. Braden head Placement
Retrievable Squeeze Packer
• The main objective of using a packer is to isolate the
casing and wellhead while high pressure is applied
• The advantage of the retrievable packer is the fact that
it can be set and released many times
• Retrievable squeeze packers can be either compression
set or tension set.
• This makes them suitable for repairing a series of casing
leaks or selectively squeezing off sets of perforations.
• Squeeze packers have a by-pass valve to allow
circulation of fluids while running in and pulling out of
the hole (to prevent high swab and surge pressures).
While it remain closed during squeeze job
Retrievable Squeeze Packer
• When the packer is released there may be some
backflow, and the cement filter cake may be disturbed.
If this happens the packer should be re-set and the
squeeze pressure applied until the cement sets.
• The packer setting depth should be considered
carefully. If positioned too high above the perforations
the slurry will be contaminated by the wellbore fluids
and large volumes of fluid from below the packer will
be pumped into the formation ahead of the cement.
• Drillable or retrievable bridge plugs can be set to isolate
the casing below the zone to be treated
• When running the retrievable bridge plug, it is normal
to drop frac sand on top of the plug to prevent cement
setting in the release mechanism
Retrievable Squeeze Packer
• If the packer is set too low it may become stuck in
the cement. Generally the packer is set 30 – 50 ft
above the perforations.
• Sometimes a tail pipe is used below the packer to
ensure that only cement is squeezed into the
perforations, and there is less chance of getting
Retrievable Squeeze Packer
Drillable Squeeze Packer (Retainer)
• This type of packer contains a back pressure valve
which will prevent the cement flowing back after
the squeeze.
• These are mainly used for remedial work on
primary cement jobs, or to close off water
producing zones
• The packer is run on drill pipe or wireline and set
just above or between sets of perforations
• When the cement has been squeezed successfully
the drill pipe can be removed, closing the back
pressure valve.
Drillable Squeeze Packer (Retainer)
• Good depth control
• Back pressure valve prevents cement back flowing
• Drill pipe recovered without disturbing cement

• They can only be used once then drilled out.
Braden head Method
• This squeeze technique is the simplest of the
squeeze techniques and does not use a packer.
• It is to be only practiced with the Low Pressure
Squeeze Technique
• Open ended tubing is run to the desired depth, the
slurry is placed using the balanced plug method
and the string raised above the plug
• The rams are closed and squeeze pressure applied.
The 9 5/8” Casing of a well is to be cemented in place
with a single stage cementing operation. The
appropriate calculations are to be conducted prior to
the operation.
The details of the operation are as follows:
9 5/8" casing set at= 13800',
12 1/4" hole= 13810'
13 3/8" 68 lb/ft casing set at = 6200'
TOC outside 9 5/8" casing: 3000' above shoe
Assume gauge hole, add 20% excess in open hole
The casing is to be cemented with class G cement
with the following additives:
0.2% D13R (retarder)
1 % D65 (friction reducer)
Slurry density = 15.9 ppg
The 13 3/8" casing string of a well is to be
cemented using class ‘G’ cement. Calculate the
a. The required number of sacks of cement for
a 1st stage of 700 ft. and a 2nd stage of 500
ft.(Allow 20% excess in open hole)
b. The volume of mixwater required for each
c. The total hydrostatic pressure exerted at the
bottom of each stage of cement
(assume a 10 ppg mud is in the well when
d. The displacement volume for each stage.