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(Courtesy of McMaster University, 2002)

1)Listens, and indicates so with appropriate verbal or non-verbal behavior
2)Verbal and non-verbal behavior are neither rude, arrogant nor patronizing
3)Allows others to express opinions and give information without putting down anyone
4)Participates in discussion of differences in moral values
5)Differentiates value of information from value of person
6)Acknowledge others’ contributions
7)Apologizes when late or gives for being so

Communication skills
1)Speaks directly to group members
2)Presents clearly
3)Uses words that others understand
4)Uses open-ended questions appropriately
5)Identifies misunderstanding between self and others or among others
6)Attempts to resolve misunderstanding
7)Tests own assumptions about group members
8)Accepts and discusses emotional issues
9)Able to express own emotional state in appropriate situations
10) Non-verbal behavior is consistent with tone and content of verbal communications
11) Verbal or non-verbal behavior indicates that statements have been understood
12) Recognizes and responds to group member’s non-verbal communication

2)Completes assigned tasks
3)Presents relevant information
4)Identifies irrelevant or excessive information
5)Takes initiative or otherwise helps to maintain group dynamics
6)Advances discussion by responding to or expanding on relevant issues
7)Identifies own emotional or physical state when relevant to own functioning or group
8)Describes strengths and weaknesses of group members in a supportive manner
9)Gives prior notice of intended absence
10) Negotiates alternatives if unable to complete assigned tasks
Self-aware / self-evaluation
1)Acknowledges own difficulty in understanding
2)Acknowledges own lack of appropriate knowledge
3)Acknowledges own discomfort in discussing or dealing with a particular issue
4)Identifies own strengths
5)Identifies own weaknesses
6)Identifies means of correcting deficiencies or weaknesses
7)Responds to fair negative evaluative comment without becoming defensive or blaming
8)Responds to fair negative evaluative comment with reasonable proposals for behavioral
(Courtesy of Queen’s University, 2002)

Appropriate questioning is one of the most important means of facilitating learning. It can
serve to keep the group focused and prevent it getting bogged down. It also can help group
members by forcing them to present information and concepts more precisely. Knowing how and
when to ask appropriate questions is one of the principle skills of a good tutor.
1. Questions may elicit a students’ reasoning process . If a student asks for more
information about the case (e.g. “Did the patient vomit?”), the tutor might ask “. What are
you hoping to find out? What are your reasons for asking that question? How would
knowing the answer make a difference in your understanding of the patient’s problem?
2. Putting this particular situation aside , what is the core information you will need to
know for future similar situations (i.e. five years down the road in your own practice?)
3. Is there anything about this situation that presents a learning issue outside of this
4. The tutor encourages students to make connections. The tutor may ask, “What is
the association between hypertension and headaches? How might issues about patient
lifestyle be related to this problem?
5. Tutors emphasize open-ended questions to promote discussion rather than
focusing on yes/no type questions or using quiz type questions
6. Questions can direct students along another path: assume this is the situation….,
what do you need to know?
7. Tutor must learn to tolerate silence. When communication stops or is at a stand
still, wait thirty seconds, someone is bound to talk. It may help to ask the group why they
are stuck or to ask someone to summarize
8. Tutors should emphasize mechanisms and causes of patients’ problems. The tutor
might ask, “What process could have caused this problem? What are the mechanisms
involved here?
9. Tutor should periodically ask students to explain and define medical terminology
used. The tutor might ask, “What is cholesterol? What does that level of cholesterol usually
10. Tutors should ask higher order questions. For example, in discussions of
treatment it is more helpful to ask “How de we decide what to do?” than “What is the best
11. Other examples of helpful questions are: why do we treat this condition? What is
the mechanism of action of this drug? What is the evidence that treatment makes any
difference? How do you decide which lab tests to do?