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Growth and development are similar words but different from each other

though it is not possible to separate them totally.

It is a whole process which includes growth of the body as well as growth


of various aspects of child's personality, e.g., the physical, emotional, social
and cognitive development.

Development is a progressive change the child undergoes which


increases the physical, social, mental and emotional capacities of the child.
Difference between growth and development
 Growth and development are similar words but different from each
other though it is not possible to separate them totally.
It is a whole process which includes growth of the body as well as
growth of various aspects of child's personality, e.g., the physical,
emotional, social and cognitive development.

 Development is a progressive change the child undergoes which


increases the physical, social, mental and emotional capacities of the
child.
Growth
1.Growth is quantitative.
2. Growth comprises of height, weight, size and shape
of body organs like brain, etc.
3. It is due to cell division.
4. Growth is for limited period.
5. Growth can be measured.
6. Growth tells about one aspect of personality but in
limited scope.
Development

1. Development is quantitative as well as qualitative.


2. In this with the physical changes cognitive social and
emotional change are also included.
3. It happen due to motor and adjust mental processes and
their interplay.
4. Development takes place till death.
5. It can be observed by matured behavior.
6. Development deals with all the aspect of personality and
has a vast scope.
PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT
1. DEVELOPMENT INVOLVES CHANGE- The
human being is never static. From the moment of
conception to the time of death, the person
undergoes continued and progressive changes. At
every age, some of the developmental changes are
just beginning, some are at the peak and others are
in the process of decline.
2. DEVELOPMENT IS CONTINUOUS -
One stage of development lays the foundation for
the next stage of development. Infants can move
their limbs (arms and legs) before grasping an
object. Mastery of climbing stairs involves
increasing skills from holding on to walking alone
3. EARLY DEVELOPMENT IS MORE CRITICAL
THAN LATER DEVELOPMENT
The environment in which children live during early
formative years of life has a strong impact on their
hereditary potentials. Favorable relationships with
members of the family, liberal child training methods,
a stimulating environment result in the development
of better adjusted individual in the later life.
4.DEVELOPMENT IS PRODUCT OF
MATURATION AND LEARNING
Maturation refers to the sequential characteristic of
biological growth and development. The biological
changes occur in sequential order and give children
new abilities. Changes in the brain and nervous
system account largely for maturation. These changes
in the brain and nervous system help children to
improve in thinking (cognitive) and motor (physical)
skills.
5. THE DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERN IS PREDICTABLE
1. Development proceeds from the head downward.
This is called the cephalocaudal principle. This principle
describes the direction of growth and development. According to
this principle, the child gains control of the head first, then the arms,
and then the legs. Infants develop control of the head and face
movements within the first two months after birth.
2. Development proceeds from the center of the body
outward.
This is the principle of proximodistal development that also
describes the direction of development. This means that the spinal
cord develops before outer parts of the body. The child’s arms
develop before the hands and the hands and feet develop before the
fingers and toes.
6. DEVELOPMENT PROCEEDS FROM GENERAL
TO SPECIFIC
In motor development, the infant will be able to
grasp an object with the whole hand before using
only the thumb and forefinger. The infant’s first
motor movements are very generalized,
undirected, and reflexive, waving arms or kicking
before being able to reach or creep toward an
object.
7. THERE ARE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN
DEVELOPMENT
Although the patterns and sequences for growth
and development are usually the same for all
children, the rates at which individual children
reach developmental stages will be different.
Some children are more active while others are
more passive
8. THE CHILD DEVELOPS AS A UNIFIED WHOLE
His intellect is related to his physical well-being.
Physical well-being is affected by his emotions
and emotions are affected by his successes and
failures in school and by the environment in the
family. The children who are physically weak are
slow in the development of mental processes also.
9. DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWS AN ODERLY
PROCESS
The development of the child takes place in an
orderly sequence. A child learns to stand before
he walks, he babbles before he speaks clearly and
he learns to sit before he stands.
10. EACH DEVELOPENT TAKES PLACE IN
STAGES
The development of the child takes place in
stages. Each stage has certain unique
characteristics and in each stage, certain types of
behaviour or traits are more conspicuous than
others. The entire period of development is
divided into following five stages:
1. PRENATAL-PERIOD- It is mainly physiological
and consists of growth of all body parts.
1.INFANCY- This is a period of newborn. Growth is
temporarily at a standstill.
2. BABYHOOD- At this stage, the babies are completely
helpless during the early part. Gradually they learn to
control the muscles so that they can become independent.
3. CHILDHOOD- This period lasts from two to thirteen years
of age. It is subdivided into two parts:
. EARLY CHILDHOOD- The child learns to gain control over
the environment and starts learning to make social
adjustments.
. LATE CHILDHOOD- It is the period when sexual maturity
occurs and adolescence begins. The major development is
socialization and is referred as ‘gang age’.
5. ADOLESCENCE- It is twelve years onwards till the
individual assumes adulthood. It is again divided into two
stages:
. EARLY ADOLESCENCE- Physical growth is rapid in
both boys and girls. There is enhanced mental activity in
general.
. LATER ADOLECENCE- it is characterized by tapering
off of physical growth but the psychological development
continues in many complex ways preparing him to adjust
to the demands of society as an adult.
6.ADULTHOOD- By this time, physical changes
are nearly complete but the psychological
adjustments continue throughout the entire stage.
11. EACH DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE HAS
CERTAIN CHARACTERISTIC TRAIT- There
are some peculiar traits that are observed in
children at a particular developmental stage and
go away after some time. The child’s behaviour
should be understood against the expected
behaviour of his age.
12. THERE ARE PERIODS OF ACCELERATED
GROWTH AND DECELERATED GROWTH
During babyhood and the early pre-school years the
growth is rapid. During the school years, the growth
rate decreases. Growth is again rapid during
adolescence but physical growth tapers off during the
later part of adolescence and by the time, an
individual touches adulthood.
13.DEVELOPMENT IS INFLUENCED BY
HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT
A child’s genetic inheritance (i.e., heredity) provides
the basic foundation for many physical and
personality attributes, but the influences of social,
cultural, and familial variables (i.e., environment)
also contribute to development.
14. DEVELOPMENT PROCEEDS AT DIFFERENT
RATES FOR DIFFERENT BEHAVIOUR
Development of mental and physical traits is
continuous but is never uniform for the entire
individual. Development of memory and
understanding is fast during childhood while abstract
thinking, reasoning and capability to take decisions is
at its peak during adolescence.