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STRUCTURAL

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

SIMPLY SUPPORTED W/ OVER HANG (OVERHANGING BEAM)


PROPERTIES OF FORCES
CANTILEVER BEAM
MAGNITUDE the amount of force, N

DIRECTION refers to the orientation of its path or line of action. It is usually described PROPPED CANTILEVER BEAM (indeterminate)
by the angle that the line of action makes with some reference.
CONTINOUS BEAM
SENSE refers to the manner in which it acts along its line of action

FORCE SYSTEM
INTERNAL FORCES TYPES
COPLANAR all acting in a single plane of a vertical wall
TENSION pulls away from joint
PARALLEL all having the same direction
COMPRESSION pushes towards joint
CONCURRENT all having their lines of action intersect at a common point. SHEAR for connections
MOMENT force x distance ASTM
moment can be about any point called CENTER OF MOMENT
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS
MOMENT ARM distance from center of moment to force
shortest or perpendicular distance from the center of moment to line of ACI
action of force. AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE

KINDS OF LOADS According to ACI code, I the strain in concrete reaches


0.003 (Єconc= 0.003), Є=3mm
CONCENTRATED LOADS example is a beam supporting a column 1000
UNIFORM LOADS a series of uniform concentrated loads, but for 5 or
It begins to crack
more uniformly spaced concentrated loads.
AISC
OTHER LOADS varying load, moment load
AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR STEEL CONSTRUCTION

If a grade 60 steel (fy= 60ksi= 414Mpa) reaches a strain 0.0021 it begins to


TYPES OF SUPPORT yield of (2.1mm)

HINGED
ROLLER
FIXED/ RESTRAINED
TYPES OF BEAMS
FEATURES OF A STRAIN STRESS DIAGRAM: the property of a material that enables it to deform in response to an applied force and
to recover its original size and shape upon removal of the force
STRESS- STRAIN DIAGRAM
MALLEABILITY
a graphic representation of the relationship between unit stress values and the
the ability of a material to regain and rebound to original shape when the load is
corresponding unit strains for a specific material
released
1. PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
TOUGHNESS
maximum stress which the material springs back to the original length when
the property of a material that enables it to absorb energy before rupturing, represented
the load is released
by the area under the stress- strain curve derived from a tensile test of the material.
Ductile materials are tougher than brittle materials.
2. ELASTIC LIMIT
maximum stress below which the material does not return to its original
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
length but has incurred a permanent deformation we call permanent set
a coefficient of elasticity of a material expressing the ratio between a unit stress and the
corresponding unit strain caused by the stress, as derived from Hooke’s law and
3.YIELD POINT
represented by the slope of the straight line portion of the stress- strain line diagram.
the stress wherein the deformation increases without any increase in the load.
Also called COEFFICIENT OF ELASTICITY, ELASTIC MODULUS
The material at some portion shows a decrease in its cross section
PERMANENT SET
4. ULTIMATE STRENGTH
the inelastic strain remaining in a material after complete release of the stress producing
the maximum stress that can be attained immediately before actual failure or
deformation
rupture
YIELD STRENGTH
the stress necessary to produce a specific limiting permanent set in a material,
RUPTURE STRENGTH usually 0.2% of its original length when tested in tension. Yield strength is used to
stress at which material specimen breaks determine the limit of usefulness of a material having a poorly defined yield point.
Also called POOR STRESS.
ALLOWABLE STRESS
the maximum unit stress permitted for a material in the design of a structural member, STRAIN- RATE EFFECT
usually a fraction of the material’s elastic limit, yield strength, or ultimate strength. the behavior an increased rate of load application can cause in normally ductile material
Also called ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESS, WORKING STRESS.
TEMPERATURE EFFECT
ELASTIC RANGE the brittle behavior low temperatures can cause in a normally ductile material
the range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits elastic deformation
STRESS RELAXATION
ELASTIC DEFORMATION the time- dependent decrease in stress in a constrained material under a constant load
a temporary change in the dimensions or shape of a body produced by a stress less
than the elastic limit of the material CREEP
the gradual permanent deformation of a body produced by a continued application of
BRITTLENESS stress or prolonged exposure to heat. Creep deflection in a concrete structure continues
the property of material that causes it to rupture suddenly under stress with little evident over time and can be significantly greater than the initial elastic deflection
deformation. Since brittle materials lack the plastic behavior of ductile materials, they
can give no warning of impending material FATIGUE
the weakening or failure of a material at a stress below the elastic limit when subjected
DUCTILITY to a repeated series of stresses
the property of a material that enables it to undergo plastic deformation after being
stressed beyond the elastic limit and before rupturing. Ductility is a desirable property
of a structural material since plastic behavior is an indicator of reserve strength and
can serve as a visual warning of impending failure.
ELASTICITY
STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF A36 STEEL: the internal resistance or reaction of an elastic body to external forces applied to it.
Equal to the ratio of force to area and expressed in units of force per unit of cross-
sectional area.
Maximum allowable stress (Fv) in shear is 14.5 ksi
Also called UNIT STRESS.
Maximum allowable stress (Fb) for bending is 24 ksi
Modulus of elasticity (E) is 29,000 ksi
TENSILE STRESS
the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the
WEIGHT:
collinear tensile forces tending to elongate it.
water= 1000 kg/ m3
steel= 7850 kg/ m3 TENSILE STRAIN
the elongation of a unit length of material produces by a tensile stress
concrete= 2400 kg/ m3
ELONGATION
weight= density x volume a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage increase in length of a
volume of cylinder= pi (diameter)2 x length test specimen after failure in tensile test
4
REDUCTION OF AREA
PROPERTIES OF A MATERIAL a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage decrease in cross-
sectional area of a test specimen after rupturing in a tensile test
TENSION
TENSILE STRENGTH
the act of stretching or state of being pulled apart, resulting in the elongation of an
the resistance of a material to longitudinal stress, measured by the minimum amount of
elastic body
longitudinal stress required to rupture the material
TENSILE FORCE
STRAIN
an applied force producing or tending to produce tension in an elastic body
the deformation of a body under the action of an applied force. Strain is a dimensionless
quantity, equal to the ratio of the change in size and shape to the original size and
AXIAL FORCE
shape of a stressed element.
a tensile or compressive force acting along the longitudinal axis of a structural member
and at the centroid of the cross section, producing axial stress without bending, torsion
STRAIN GAUGE
or shear also called AXIAL LOAD
an instrument for measuring minute deformation in a test specimen caused by tension,
compression, bending or twisting.
AXIAL STRESS
Also called EXTENSOMETER
the tensile or compressive stress that develops to resist axial force, assumed to be
normal to and uniformly distributed over the area of the cross section.
YOUNG’S MODULUS
Also called DIRECT STRESS, NORMAL TRESS
a coefficient of elasticity of material expressing the ratio of longitudinal stress to the
corresponding longitudinal strain caused by the strain.
COMPRESSION
the act of shortening or state of being pushed together, resulting in the reduction in size
POISSON’S RATIO
or volume of an elastic body
the ratio of lateral strain to the corresponding longitudinal strain in an elastic body under
longitudinal stress
COMPRESSIVE FORCE
an applied force producing or tending to produce compression in an elastic body
COMPRESSIVE STRESS
the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the
ECCENTRIC FORCE
collinear compressive forces tending to shorten it.
force applied parallel to the longitudinal axis of a structural member but not to the
centroid of the cross section, producing bending and uneven distribution of stresses in
the section.
Also called ECCENTRIC LOAD.
STRESS-
COMPRESSIVE STRAIN EFFECTIVE LENGTH
the shortening of a unit length of material produced by a compressive stress the depth of concrete section measured from the compression face to the centroid of the
tension reinforcement
SHEAR
the lateral deformation produced in a body by an external force that causes one part of COVER
the body to slide relative to an adjacent part in a direction parallel to their plane contact. the amount of concrete required to protect steel reinforcement from fire and corrosion,
measured from the surface of the reinforcement to outer surface of the concrete section
SHEAR FORCE
an applied force producing or tending to produce shear in the body BOND STRESS
the adhesive for per unit area of contact between reinforcing bar and the surrounding
SHEARING FORCE concrete developed at any section of a flexural member
an internal force tangenial to the surface on which it acts, developed by a body in
response to shear, shearing in a vertical plane necessarily involves shearing in a HOOK
horizontal plane and vise versa a bend or curve given to develop an equivalent embedment length, used where there is
insufficient room to develop in adequate embedment length
SHEARING STRESS
the force per unit area developed along a section of an elastic body to resist a shear STANDARD HOOK
force. a 90º, 135º, 180º bend made at the end of a reinforcing bar according to standards
Also called SHEAR STRESS, TANGENIAL STRESS
ANCHORAGE
SHEARING STRAIN any of various means, as embedment length or hooked bars, for developing tension or
the lateral deformation developed in a body in response to shearing stresses, defined as compression in a reinforcing bar on each side of critical section in order to prevent bond
the tangent of the skew angle of the deformation. failure or splitting

SHEAR MODULUS OF ELASTICITY CRITICAL SECTION


a coefficient elasticity of a material, expressing the ratio between shearing stress and the section of a flexural concrete member at a point of maximum stress, a point of
the corresponding shearing strain produced by the strain. inflection, or appoint within the span where tension bars are no longer needed to resist
Also called MODULUS OF RIGIDITY, MODULUS OF TORSION stress

BENDING BALANCED SECTION


the bowing of an elastic body as an external force is applied transversely to its length. a concrete in which the tension reinforcement theoretically reaches its specified yield
Bending is the structural mechanism that enables a load to be mechanism that enables strength as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain
a load to be channeled in a direction perpendicular to its application.
OVERREINFORCED SECTION
TRANSVERSE FORCE a concrete section in which the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate
a force applied perpendicular to the length of a structural member, strain before the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield strength. This is a
producing bending and shear dangerous condition since failure of the section could occur instantaneously without
warning
TORQUE
the moment of a force system that causes or tends to cause rotation or torsion UNDERREINFORCED SECTION
a concrete section in which the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield
TORSION strength before the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain. This
the twisting of an elastic body about its longitudinal axis caused by two equal and is desirable condition since failure of the section would be preceded by large
opposite torques, producing shearing stresses in the body deformations giving prior warning of impending collapse

REINFORCED CONCRETE
BEAM the shearing stress developed along cross section of a beam to resist transverse shear,
having a maximum value at the neutral axis and decreasing nonlinearly toward the outer
faces
BEAM
a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across spaces
HORIZONTAL SHEARING
supporting elements
the shearing stress developed to prevent slippage along longitudinal planes of a beam
under transverse loading, equal to any point to the vertical shearing stress at that point.
SPAN
Also called LONGITUDINAL SHEARING STRESS
the extent of space between two supports of a structure
FLEXURE FORMULA
CLEAR SPAN
a formula defining the relationship between bending moment, bending stress, and the
the distance between inner faces of the support of a span
cross sectional properties of a beam. Bending stress is directly proportional to bending
moment and inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of a beam section.
EFFECTIVE SPAN
the center to center distance between the supports of a span
MOMENT OF INERTIA
the sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a
BENDING MOMENT
coplanar axis of rotation. Moment of inertia is a geometric property that indicates how
an external moment tending to cause part a structure to rotate or bend, equal to the
the cross sectional area of structural member is distributed and does not reflect the
algebraic sum of the moments about the neutral axis of the section under consideration
intrinsic physical properties of a material
RESISTING MOMENT
SECTION MODULUS
an internal moment equal and opposite to a bending moment, generated by a force
a geometric property of a cross section, defined as the moment of inertia of the section
couple to maintain equilibrium of the section being considered
divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.
DEFLECTION
LATERAL BUCKLING
the perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under
the buckling of a structural member induced by compressive stresses acting on slender
transverse loading, increasing with load and span, and decreasing with an increase in
portion insufficiently rigid in the lateral direction
the moment of inertia of the section of the modulus of elasticity of the material
STRESS TRAJECTORIES
NEUTRAL AXIS
lines depicting the direction but not the magnitude of the principal stresses in a beam
an imaginary line passing through the centroid of the cross section of a beam, other
member subject to bending, along which no bending stresses occur
SHEAR DIAGRAM
a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the external shears present in a
BENDING STRESS
structure for a given set of transverse loads and support conditions concentrated loads
a combination of compressive and tensile stresses developed at a cross section of
produce external shears which are constant in magnitude between the loads uniformly
structural member to resist transverse force, having a maximum value at the surface
distributed loads produce linearly varying shears
furthest from the neutral axis
MOMENT DIAGRAM
CAMBER
a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the bending moment present in
a slight convex curvature intentionally built into beam, girder, or truss to compensate for
a structure for a given set of transverse load and support conditions. The overall
an anticipated deflection
deflected shape of a structure subject to bending can often be inferred from the shape
How is camber treated in a steel truss 25 meters and longer?
of its moment diagram
Camber shall be approximately equal to the dead load deflection
CONCENTRATED LOADS
TRANSVERSE SHEAR
produce bending moments which vary linearly between loads
an external shear force at a cross section of a beam or other member subject to
bending, equal to the algebraic sum of transverse forces on one side of the section
UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS
produce parabolically varying moments
VERTICAL SHEARING
POSITIVE SHEAR
a net resultant of shear forces that acts vertically upward on the left part of the structure fixed end and continuous beams are indeterminate structures for which the values of all
being considered reactions, shears and moments are dependent not only on span and loading but also on
cross sectional shape and material
NEGATIVE SHEAR
a net resultant of shear forces that act vertically downward on the left part of the HAUNCH
structure being considered the part of a beam that is thickened or deepened to develop greater moment resistance.
The efficiency of a beam can be increased by shaping its length in response to the
POSITIVE MOMENT moment and shear values which typically vary along its longitudinal axis
a bending moment that produces moment that produces a concave curvature at a
section of a structure SUSPENDED SPAN
a simple beam supported by the cantilevers of two adjoining spans with pinned
INFLECTION POINT construction joints at points of zero moment. Also called hung span
a point at which a structure changes curvature from convex to concave or vise versa as
it deflects under a transverse load: theoretically an internal hinge and therefore a point EFFECTIVE LENGTH
of zero moment the distance between inflection points in the span of a fixed end or continuous beam,
equivalent in nature to the actual length of simply supported beam
NEGATIVE MOMENT
a bending moment that produces a convex curvature at a section of a structure

SIMPLE BEAM
a beam resisting on simple supports at both ends which are free to rotate and have no
moment resistance. As with any statistically determinate structure, the values of all
reactions, shears, and moments for a simple beam are independent of its cross
sectional shape and material

CANTILEVER BEAM
a projecting beam supported at only one fixed end

CANTILEVER
a beam or other rigid structural member extending beyond a fulcrum and supported by a
balancing member or a downward force behind the fulcrum

OVERHANGING BEAM
a simple beam extending beyond one of its supports. The overhanging reduces the
positive moment at midspan while developing a negative moment at the base of the
cantilever over the support

FIXED END BEAM


a beam having both ends restrained against translation and rotation. The fixed ends
transfer bending stresses, increase the rigidity of the beam and reduces its maximum
deflection

CONTINUOUS BEAM
a beam extending over more than 2 supports in order to develop greater rigidity and
smaller moments than a series of simple beams having similar spans and loading. Both
COLUMN the radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be
concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that axis. For a
structural section, the radius of gyration is equal to the square root of the quotient of the
moment of inertia and the area
COLUMN
The higher the radius of gyration of a structural section, the more resistant the section is
a relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive
to buckling. In determining the cross- sectional shape of a column, the objective is to
loads, applied at the member ends.
providethe necessary radius of gyration about the different axes. For an asymmetrical
cross section, buckling will tend to occur about the weaker axis or in the direction of the
least dimension
POST
a stiff vertical support especially a wooden column in timber framing
LONG COLUMN
a slender column subject to failure by buckling rather than by crushing
BUCKLING
the sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the
action of a compressive load. Buckling can occur well before the yield stress of the
SHORT COLUMN
material is reached
a thick column subject to failure by crushing rather than by buckling. Failure occurs
when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the
material available in the cross section. An eccentric load, however, can produce bending
BUCKLING
and result in uneven stress distribution in the section
the axial load at which a column begins to deflect laterally and becomes unsuitable.

INTERMEDIATE COLUMN
CRITICAL BUCKLING LOAD
a column having a mode of failure between that a short column and a long column, often
the maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it
party inelastic by crushing and partly elastic by buckling
to buckle. The critical buckling load for a column is inversely proportional to the square
of its effective length and directly proportional to the modulus of elasticity of the material
and to the moment of inertia of the cross section.
ECCENTRICITY
Also called EULER BUCKLING LOAD
The amount by which an axis deviates from another parallel axis.

BIFURCATION
P-DELTA EFFECT
the critical point at which a column carrying its critical buckling load, may either buckle
An additional moment developed in a structural member as its longitudinal axis deviates
or remain undeflected. The column is therefore in a state of neutral equilibrium
from the line of action of a compressive force equal to the product of the load and the
member deflection at any point.
CRITICAL BUCKLING STRESS
the critical buckling load for a column divided by the area of its cross section
MIDDLE THIRD RULE
The proposition that a compressive load should be located within the middle third of a
horizontal section of a column or wall to prevent tensile stresses from developing in the
SLENDERNESS RATIO
section.
the ratio of the effective length of a column to its least ratio of gyration
The higher the slenderness ratio, the lower is the critical stress that will cause buckling.
A primary objective in the design of a column is to reduce its slenderness ratio by
EFFECTIVE LENGTH
minimizing its effective length or maximizing its effective length or maximizing the radius
The distance between inflection points in a column subject to buckling load. When this
of gyration of its cross section
portion of a column buckles the entire column falls.

RADIUS OF GYRATION
COMBINED STRESSES ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
A set of tensile and compressive stresses resulting from the superposition of axial and a soil pressure acting on any structure that will tend to push the structure wherein the
bending stresses at a cross section of a structural member, acting in the same direction structure or a wall tends to move away from the soil
and equal at any point to their algebraic sum.
ACCELEROGRAPH
is an instrument which measures the velocity and acceleration of an earthquake in the
KERN ground
The central area of any horizontal section of a column or wall within which the resultant
of all compressive loads must pass if only compressive stresses are to be applied ANCHOR BOLTS
beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop in the section. Also called kern a round, steel bolt embedded in concrete or masonry used to hold down machinery,
area. steel columns or beam casting, shock beam plates and engine heads

BALANCED DESIGN
KERN POINT is one which both the concrete and the steel are so proportioned as to work to their full
A point on either side of the centroidal axis of a horizontal column or wall section working stresses when the member carries its full allowable load
defining the limits of the kern area.
BATTER PILES
are piles at an inclination to resist forces that are not critical. This is also known as brace
LATERAL BRACING pile or spur pile
the bracing of a column or other compression member to reduce its effective length.
Lateral bracing is most effective when the bracing pattern occurs in more than one BEARING WALL SYSTEM
plane. a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame

BENDING MOMENT
is the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces acting on either side of the section of
UNBRACED LENGTH a beam about an axis through the center of the gravity of the section
the distance between the points at which a structural member is braced against buckling
in a direction normal to its length. BORED PILE (bearing pile)
a concrete pile which concreted either with a casing or without a casing at its permanent
location. This is a cast in place pile
EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR
a coefficient for modifying the actual length of a column according to its end conditions CAISSON
in order to determine its effective length. Fixing both ends of a long column reduces its a watertight, cylindrical or rectangular chamber used to in under water construction to
effective length by half and increases its load-carrying capacity by a factor of 4. protect workers from water pressure and soil collapse

CEMENT GUN
is an ejector operated by compressed air to force gunite into cavities or cracks in rocks
TRUSS or cement works

METHOD OF SECTIONS CHUTE


a method of determining member forces in a truss by considering the equilibrium of any is an open-top through which bulk materials are conveyed and by gravity
portion of the truss assembly.
COFFER DAM
a temporary dam- like structure constructed which excludes water from the site of the
METHOD OF JOINTS foundation during its excavation and construction
a method for determining member forces in a truss by considering the equilibrium of the
various joints idealized as points in free body diagrams CONSTRUCTION JOINT
the vertical or horizontal face in a concrete structure where concreting has been stopped
DEFINITION OF TERMS and continued later
COLD JOINT
formed when a concrete surface hardens before the next batch o f concrete is placed GUNITE
is a rich cement mortar which is applied by spraying under high air pressure
CREEP
he tendency of most material to move or deform over time under a constant load The GRADE BEAM
amount of movement varies enormously depending upon the material. The area that is a concrete beam placed directly on the ground to provide foundation for the
highly stressed will move the most. The movement causes stresses to be redistributed. superstructure

COUNTER (inner in retaining wall) GRANOLITHIC FINISH


a cantilever wall that is reinforced with a masonry structure extending upward from the a surface layer or granolithic concrete which maybe laid on a base of either fresh or
foundation or from the inner face of the retaining wall to provide additional resistance to hardened concrete
thrust and are placed at regular intervals. (Buttress if outer)
GRILLAGE
COFFER DAM is a footing which consist of steel beams arranged to distribute a concentrated load to
a temporary watertight enclosure around an area of water or water bearing soil, in which the supporting masonry or soil
construction is to take place, bearing on a stable statum at or above the foundation level
of new construction. The water is pumped from within to permit free access to the area DISTRIBUTION OF HORIZONTAL SHEAR
design analysis requirement, considered as the basis for the structural design of
DIAPHRAGM structures where the total lateral forces are distributed to the various vertical
a horizontal or nearly horizontal system including horizontal bracing system, that act to elements of the lateral force resisting system in proportion to their rigidities
transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements considering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm

DIAPHRAGM STRUT HYBRID STEEL GIRDER


a structural member of a horizontal bracing system that takes axial tension or is a fabricated metal beam composed of flanges with a material of a specified minimum
compression. It is parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers shear to the yield strength different from that of the web plate
vertical resisting elements or distributive loads within the horizontal bracing system
INTENSITY
DIVING BELL the measure of the damage level of an earthquake (subjective to visual assessment)
a watertight bell- shaped steel chamber which can be lowered to or raised from a fresh
or seawater bed crane. It is opened at the bottom and filled with compressed air so that INFLECTION POINT
men can prepare foundations and undertake similar construction work under water. a point in the moment diagram where it changes from positive to negative moment of
vise versa and the value of the moment at this point is zero
DOWEL
a short steel bar extending from one concrete element to another as for instance a
concrete foundation to a concrete column. It may or may not transfer direct stress

DRIFT BOLT JETTING


is a long pin of steel or wood, made with or without the head, driven through the timber a method of driving piles or well points into the sand in the situations where a pile
and into an adjacent timber to hold them together and to transmit stresses hammer might not be suitable owing to the risk of damage by vibration to the piles of
adjacent buildings.
EXPANSION OR CONTRACTION
a joint designed to take expansion and contraction LINTEL BEAM
the designed break in a structure to allow for the drying and temperature shrinkage of a beam especially provided over an opening for a door, window, to carry the wall over
concrete, brickwork of similar material, thereby preventing the formation of harmful the opening
cracks MAGNITUDE
FATIGUE the measure of the energy released by an earthquake (measured by instrument)
is a phenomenon of failure under repeated stresses. A fact, based experience and
experiments, is well known that stresses which are applied to a body a few times without MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
causing apparent structure injury may, if applied repeatedly or causing a great number
of times, causes failure
is the constant which, within the proportional limit, express ratio between the unit stress
to the unit strain. It is the measure of the relative abilities of the different materials of PROPORTIONAL LIMIT
construction to resist deformation under stress within proportional limit is the highest unit stress for which the deformation of a body is proportional to the
stress. Beyond this point, permanent deformation occurs
MODULUS OF RESILIENCE
is a measure of the capacity of the material to absorb energy without danger of being REDUNDANT MEMBER
permanently deformed is any framed structure or truss, is one which maybe omitted in the structure without
affect in the possibility of analyzing the frame or truss by ordinary static method of
MOMENT OF RESITANCE computations such as the counter diagonal truss
is the internal resisting moment of a beam. It is opposite in sense to the bending
moment but of the same magnitude RIP-RAP
consist of rough stones of various placed compactly or irregularly to prevent scour by
MORTAR water and protect material which maybe washed out by the water
is a mixture, composed of one part of Portland cement and one part of clean sand, used
as a filter SAGROD
structural member in the steel truss framing that counteracts forces in compression
MULLION because of high probability of the purlins to deflect and bend down during purlin
is a vertical member between two portions of window sash usually designed to resist installation.
wind load and not vertical load. It is different from muntin, which is smaller member
which separates the panels of glass within the whole sash. SAND DRAIN
it is provided to help in the compaction of natural soil which provide channels through
NON- BEARING WALL which water can escape much more rapidly then through the clay itself. The weight of
is wall that carries no load other than its own weight the drain itself helps in the compaction.

ORTHOGONAL EFFECT SHEAR WALL


the effect on the structure due to extreme lateral (earthquake) motions acting in a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall
directions other than parallel to the direction to the direction of resistance under
consideration SOFFIT is the concave surface of an arch

PARTY WALL SPANDREL BEAM


is a wall used or adopted for joint service between two buildings is a beam from column to column, carrying an exterior wall in a skeleton building

PLASTER CEMENT FINISH STIFFNESS RATIO (K)


a mixture of Portland cement, with water and sand applied to surfaces such as walls in moment distribution method- (as used in analysis of indeterminate structures) is the
ceilings in a plastic state, later it sets to form a hard surface ratio of moment of inertia of the cross section of its length

POINTING STRESS
in masonry, the final treatment of joints by the troweling of mortar or putty like filler into is the cohesive force in a body, which resists the tendency of an external force to change
joints the shape of the body

PORTAL METHOD STRAIN OR DEFORMATION


method of analyzing indeterminate modular building frames by assuming hinges at the is the change in the shape of any material when subjected to the action force
center of beam spans and column heights or the interior column carries twice as much
shear as the exterior column
TIE BAR
PORTLAND CEMENT a deformed bar, embedded in a concrete construction at a joint and designed to hold a
is the product obtained by finely pulverizing clinker produced by calcining to incipient butting edges together, not designed for direct load transfer
fusion an intimate and properly proportioned mixture of argillaceous and calcareous
materials with no additions subsequent to calcinations except water and calcined or TORSION OR MOMENT OF INERTIA
uncalcined gypsum is a quality which measures the resistance of the mass to being revolved about a line
TRANSFORMED SECTION BASE SHEAR
is one in which the flexural steel is conceived to be replaced by large area of imaginary is the total designed lateral force or shear at the base of the structure
concrete which can take tension. This gives a homogeneous section of concrete to
which ordinary beam analysis may be applied BEARING WALL SYSTEM (shear type)
is a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame
TREMIE
is a watertight pipe 300 mm to 600 mm in diameter with a flared top used in depositing BOUNDARY ELEMENT
concrete under water is an element at edges of opening or at the perimeters of shear walls or diaphragm

UNDERPINNING BRACED FRAME


is an art of placing new foundation under old foundation is an essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type which is
provided to resist lateral forces
VIBRATOR
is an oscillating power operated machine used to agitate fresh concrete so as to BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM
eliminate gross voids including entrapped air and to produce intimate contact with form is an essentially complete space frame which provides supports for gravity loads
surfaces and embedded materials
CONCENTRIC BRACED FRAME
VOID- CEMENT RATIO is a braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces
is the ratio of volume of air plus water to the volume cement
COLLECTOR
WALL FOOTING is a member or an element provided to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a
a continuous type of spread footing the supports vertical load, the weight of the wall structure to the vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system
itself and the weight of the footing
DIAPHRAGM
WATER CEMENT RATIO is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system (including horizontal bracing system) acting to
the ration of the amount of water, to the amount of cement in a concrete or mortar transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements
mixture
DIAPHRAGM STRUT
WEB CRIPPLING also known as tie or collector, is the element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load
local failure of a thin web plate of a steel beam or girder in the immediate vicinity of a which collects and transfer diaphragm shear to the vertical resisting elements or
concentrated load distribute loads within the diaphragm. Such members may also take axial tension or
compression.

ASD DIAPHRAGM CHORD


ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN is the boundary element of a diaphragm or a shear wall which is assumed to take axial
stresses analogous to the flanges of the beam
LRFD
LOAD RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN

DUAL SYSTEM
is a combination of a Special or Intermediate Moment Resisting Space Frame and
SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISION Shearwalls or Braced Frame

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES
ARTIFICIAL RIGIDITY
are those structures which are necessary for emergency post- earthquake operations
will cause torsion (twisting)
FLEXIBLE ELEMENT
BASE
an element or system is one whose deformation under lateral load significantly larger
is the level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the
than adjoining parts of the system
structure
HARMONIC MOTION SPACE FRAME
the coincidence of the natural period of structural with the dominant frequency in the is a three dimensional structural system without bearing walls composed of members
ground interconnected so as to function as a complete self contained unit with or without the aid
of horizontal diaphragms or bracing systems
MOMENT RESISTING FRAME
is a space frame in which the members and joints are capable of resisting forces STOREY
primarily by flexure is the space between levels. Storey x is the storey below level x

ORTHOGONAL EFFECT STOREY SHEAR


is the effect of the structure due to earthquake motions acting in directions other than is the summation of design lateral forces above the storey under consideration
parallel to the direction of resistance under consideration
STOREY DRIFT
P- DELTA EFFECT is the displacement of one level relative to the level above or below
is the secondary effect on shears and moments of frame members induced by the
vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced building frame STOREY DRIFT RATIO
is the storey drift divided by the storey height
PERT-CPM
PROGRAM EVALUATION REVIEW TECHNIQUE- CRITICAL PATH METHOD STRUCTURE
it is a presentation of project plan by a schematic diagram or network that depicts the is an assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist
sequence and interrelation of all the component parts of the project, and the logically lateral forces. They maybe categorized as building or non- building.
analysis and manipulation of this network in determining the best overall program of
operation. RAINWATER LEADER
it is another term of a downspout. It is a vertical pipe, often of sheet metal, used to
PLATFORM conduct water from a roof drain or gutter to the ground.
is the lower rigid portion of a structure having vertical combination of structural system
TORSION RIGIDITY (is used in seismic design)
PNEUMATIC MORTAR refers to the relative stiffness of the structure to resist torsional stress
mortar applied to a surface with a cement gun in the same manner as gunite, with such
mortar has a cube crushing strength of 20.68 Mpa TOWER
at 28 days with water/ cement ratio of 0.45 is the upper flexible portion of a structure having a vertical combination of structural
system
SHEAR WALL
is a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall (sometimes VERTICAL LOAD CARRYING SPACE FRAME
referred to or a structural wall) is a space frame designed to carry all vertical (gravity) loads

SOFT STOREY WEAK STOREY


is a storey whose lateral stiffness is less than 70% of the stiffness of the storey above is a storey whose strength is less than 80% of the strength of the storey
SEISMIC REQUIREMENT FOR TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT
SOIL- STRUCTURE RESONANCE
is the coincidence of the natural period of structure which dominant frequency in the
1. maximum spacing of hoops shall not exceed 24 times the diameter of the hoop bars
ground motion
2. maximum spacing of hoops shall not be 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal
STRENGTH
bars
is the usable capacity of a structure or its members to carry loads within the deformation
limits prescribed in the code
3. maximum spacing of hoops shall not be more than d/4
SOIL STABILIZATION
4. the first hoop shall be located not more than 50 mm from the face of the supporting
is the process of improving the properties of a soil to make it more suitable for a
member
particular purpose
ANCHORAGE
in post tensioning, a device used to anchor tendon to concrete member, in pre-
tensioning, a device used to anchor a tendon during hardening of concrete
GRADING AND EARTHWORK
BONDED TENDON
pre-stressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting
AS GRADED is the extent of surface conditions on completion of grading
COLUMN
BEDROCK is in-place solid rock
member with a ratio to least lateral dimension of 3 or greater used primarily to support
axial compressive load
BENCH is a relatively level step excavated into earth material
on which fill is to be placed
COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS
concrete flexural members of pre-cast and/or cast in place concrete elements but so
BURROW is earth material acquired from an off site location
interconnected that all elements respond to loads as a unit
for use in grading on a site
CONCRETE
COMPACTION s the densification of a fill by mechanical means
mixture of Portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate, and water, with or without admixtures
EARTH MATERIAL is any rock, natural soil or fill or any combination
SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE (f’)
EROSION is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the
compressive strength of concrete used in design expressed in megapascals (Mpa).
movement of the wind, water or ice
Whenever the quantity F”c is under a radical sign, square root of numerical value only is
EXCAVATION s the mechanical removal of the earth material intended, and result has units of megapascals (Mpa).

FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial means CONCRETE, STRUCTURAL LIGHT WEIGHT
concrete containing lightweight aggregate and has an air-dry unit weight not
GRADE is the vertical location of the ground surface exceeding 1900 kg/m3. lightweight concrete without natural sand is termed all- light
weight concrete and lightweight concrete in which of the fine aggregate consists of
EXISTING GRADE is the grade prior to the grading normal weight sand is termed sand- lightweight concrete.

FINISH GRADE is the final grade of the site that conforms to the approved plan CURVATURE FRICTION
friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified pre-stressing tendon profile
GRADING is any excavating or filling or combination thereof

KEY is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench excavated material


beneath the toe of a proposed fill slope
REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN
DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT
ADMIXTURE deformed reinforcing bars, bar mats, deformed wire fabric and welded deformed fabric.
a material used as ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its
mixing to modify its properties DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design strength of
AGGREGATE reinforcement at a critical section
granular material such as sand gravel stone and iron blast furnace slag used with a
cementing medium to form a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION (d)
distance measure from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement
AGGREGATE LIGHTWEIGHT
aggregate with a dry, loose weight of 100 kg/m or less EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS
stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses has occurred, excluding effects
of dead load and super imposed load
plain or reinforced concrete element cast elsewhere than its final position in the
EMBEDMENT LENGTH structure
length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section
POSTENSIONING
JACKING FORCE method of prestressing concrete which the tendons are tensioned before concrete is
in prestressed concrete, temporary force exerted into prestressing tendons placed

DEAD LOAD (DL) REINFORCED CONCRETE


dead weight supported by a member. designed on the assumption that two materials act together in resisting forces
Loads of constant magnitude that remains in one position.
SPIRAL REINFORCEMNT
LIVE LOAD (LL) continuously wound reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical helix
loads that may change in magnitude and position
STIRRUP
FACTORED LOAD reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural member: typically
load multiplied by appropriate load factors, used to proportion a members by the bars, wires or welded wire fabric (smooth or deformed) either single leg or bent into L, U
strength design method. or rectangular shapes and located perpendicularly to or at angle to longitudinal
reinforcement (The term stirrups is usually applied to lateral reinforcement in flexural
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY members and the term ties to those in compression members.)
ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below
proportional limit of material DEIGN STRENGTH
nominal strength reduction factor, Ø
MODULUS, APARENT (concrete)
also known as long term modulus, is determined by using the stress and strain obtained NOMINAL STRENGTH
after the load has been applied for a certain length of time strength of a member or cross- section before application of any strength reduction
factors
MODULUS, INITIAL (concrete)
the slope of the stress strain diagram at the origin of the curve REQUIRED STRENGTH
strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related internal
MODULUS, SECANT (concrete) moments and forces in such combinations
the slope of the line drawn from the origin to appoint on the curve somewhere between
25% and 50% of its ultimate compressive strength TENDON
steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rods or strand, or a bundle of such elements
MODULUS, TENGENT (concrete) used to impart prestress to concrete
the slope of tangent to the curve to some point along the curve
TIE
PEDESTAL loop or reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement
an upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least
lateral dimensions of less than 3 TRANSFER
act of transferring stress in prestressing tendons from jacks
PLAIN CONCRETE or pretensioning bed to concrete member
concrete that does not conform to the definition of reinforced concrete
WALL
PLAIN REINFORCEMENT member, usually vertical, used to enclose or separate spaces
reinforcement that does not conform to the definition of deformed reinforcement
WOBBLE FRICTION
POST TENSIONING in pre-stressed concrete, friction caused by unintended deviation of prstressing sheath
method of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened or duct from its specified profile

PRECAST CONCRETE YIELD STRENGTH


specified minimum yield strength or yield point or reinforcing in Mpa 75 mm -for concrete cast and permanently exposed to earth such as footings

BALANCED DESIGN 40-50 mm for concrete members exposed to weather


a design so proportioned that the maximum stress in concrete (with strain of 0.003) and
steel (with strain of Fy/Es) are reached simultaneously once the ultimate load is 40 mm concrete cover of pipes, conduits or fittings and exposed to weather
reached, causing them to fall simultaneously
40 mm for beams and columns
UNDERREINFORCED DESIGN
a design in which the steel reinforcement is lesser than what is required for balanced 20 mm for concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground, such as slabs,
conditioned. Failure under this condition is ductile and will give warning to the user of walls and joists
thee structure to decrease the load

OVERREINFORCED DESIGN FOR BUNDLED BARS


a design in which the steel reinforcement is more than what is required for balanced
condition
a. groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in contact as a unit shall be limited to 4 in any
one bundle

b. bundled bars shall be enclosed within stirrups or ties

c. bars larger than 32mm shall not be bundled in beams

d. individual bars within a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members should
terminate at a different points at least 40db stagger

The minimum concrete cover for bundled bars shall be:

 Equal to the equivalent diameter of the bundle but not exceeding 50 mm

 75 mm- for concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth

STANDARD HOOKS

AGGREGATES A. 180º bend plus 4db extension but not less than 65 mm at free end

Fine aggregates- sand B. 90º bend plus 12db extension, at free end of bar
are those that passes through a No.4 sieve (about 6mm in size)
C. for stirrups and tie hooks:
Coarse aggregate -gravel or crushed stone
 16 mm bar and smaller, 90º bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar or
Coarse aggregate shall not be less than:
 1/5 the narrowest dimension between sides of forms  20 mm and 25 mm bar, 90º bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar or
 1/3 the depth of slabs  25 mm bar and smaller, 135º bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar

¾ minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires, bundle of bars or
prestressing tendons or ducts MINIMUM BEND DIAMETER

The diameter of bend measured on the inside of the bar shall not be less than the following:
CONCRETE PROTECTION FOR REINFORCEMENT
(a.) 6db for 10 mm to 25 mm bar
(b.) 8db for 10 mm to 28 mm bar STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR Ø
(c.) 10db for 10 mm to 36 mm bar
Flexure w/o axial load……………………………………………….. 0.90
4db minimum inside diameter of bend of stirrups and ties for 16 mm bar and smaller in diameter

Axial tension & axial tension w/ flexure……………………………. 0.90


ONE- WAY SLAB
Shear and torsion ……………………………………………………. 0.85
A one-way slab is considered as wide shallow rectangular beam. The reinforcing steel is usually
spaced uniformly over its width. The flexural reinforcement of a one-way slab extends in one Axial compression & axial compression w/ flexure
direction only.
a. spiral reinforcement ………………………………………0.75
Maximum flexural reinforcement spacing:
3 times the slab thickness or 450 mm
b. tie reinforcement …………………………………………. 0.70
Minimum thickness of one-way slab:
Solid one-way slab Bearing on concrete …………………………………………………..0.70
L/20 - simply supported
L/24 - one end continuous
L/28 - both end continuous
L/10 - cantilever
* Span length L is in millimeter

Ribbed one-way slab


L/16 - simply supported
L/18.5 - one end continuous
L/21 - both end continuous REQUIRED STRENGTH, U or Pu
L/8 - cantilever
LOAD FACTORS
Required strength U to resist dead load DL and live load LL is
U= 1.4DL + 1.7LL
Dead load, DL……………………………………………….. 1.40
Wind load W are included in design
Live load, LL…………………………….…………………… 1.70
U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.7W)
Wind load, WL………...…………………………………….. 1.70
Earthquake loads or forces are included in design
U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.87E)
Earthquake, E……………………………………….………. 1.87
Where structural effect T of differential settlement, creep, shrinkage or
Earth or water pressure, H……………………...……….… 1.70
temperature change are significant in design
U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.4T + 1.7LL)

but required strength U shall not be less than


U= 1.4 (DL + T)
d. Concrete cover for pipes, conduits and fittings shall not be less than 40 mm for concrete
exposed to earth or weather
SIZE AND SPACING OF MAIN BARS AND TIES

1. Clear distance between longitudinal bars shall be not less than


1.5 db nor 40 mm CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH BOLTED CONNECTION

1. High-strength bolted parts shall fit solidly together when assembled and shall not be
2. Use 10 mm diameter ties for 32 mm bars or smaller and at least separated by gaskets or any other interposed compressive material.
12 mm in size for 36 mm and bundled longitudinal bars
2. Bolts tightened by means of a calibrated wrench shall be installed with a hardened
3. Vertical spacing of ties shall be the smallest of the following: washer under the nut or bolt head whichever is the element turned in tightening.
a. 16 x db (db = longitudinal bar diameter) 3. When assembled, all joint surfaces, including those adjacent to the washer, shall be free
b. 48 x tie diameter of scale, except tight mill scales, dirts and burns.
c. least dimension of columns
4. Surface in contact with the bolt head and nut head shall have slope of not more than
1:20 with respect to a plane normal to the bolt axis.
4. Ties shall be arrange such that every corner and alternate longitudinal
bar shall have lateral support provided by the corner of the tie with an
included angle of not more than 135º and no bar shall be farther than
150 mm clear on each side along the tie from such a laterally
supported bar. Where longitudinal bars are located around the
perimeter of a circle tie is allowed.
MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCEMNT

1. not less than 12 db

2. not less than 1/16 clear span

3. not less than d


whichever is greater

CRITERION FOR CONDUITS AND PIPES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE

a. Conduits and pipes embedded in slab, the wall or beam shall not be larger in outside
dimension than 1/3 the overall thickness of slab, wall or beam

b. Reinforcement with an area not less than 0.002 times the area of cross- section shall be
provided normal to piping

c. Conduits and pipes with their fittings, embedded within a column shall not displace more
than 4% of the area of the cross section on which strength is calculated