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PROPERTIES OF FORCES

CANTILEVER BEAM

MAGNITUDE the amount of force, N

DIRECTION refers to the orientation of its path or line of action. It is usually described PROPPED CANTILEVER BEAM (indeterminate)

by the angle that the line of action makes with some reference.

CONTINOUS BEAM

SENSE refers to the manner in which it acts along its line of action

FORCE SYSTEM

INTERNAL FORCES TYPES

COPLANAR all acting in a single plane of a vertical wall

TENSION pulls away from joint

PARALLEL all having the same direction

COMPRESSION pushes towards joint

CONCURRENT all having their lines of action intersect at a common point. SHEAR for connections

MOMENT force x distance ASTM

moment can be about any point called CENTER OF MOMENT

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS

MOMENT ARM distance from center of moment to force

shortest or perpendicular distance from the center of moment to line of ACI

action of force. AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE

0.003 (Єconc= 0.003), Є=3mm

CONCENTRATED LOADS example is a beam supporting a column 1000

UNIFORM LOADS a series of uniform concentrated loads, but for 5 or

It begins to crack

more uniformly spaced concentrated loads.

AISC

OTHER LOADS varying load, moment load

AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR STEEL CONSTRUCTION

TYPES OF SUPPORT yield of (2.1mm)

HINGED

ROLLER

FIXED/ RESTRAINED

TYPES OF BEAMS

FEATURES OF A STRAIN STRESS DIAGRAM: the property of a material that enables it to deform in response to an applied force and

to recover its original size and shape upon removal of the force

STRESS- STRAIN DIAGRAM

MALLEABILITY

a graphic representation of the relationship between unit stress values and the

the ability of a material to regain and rebound to original shape when the load is

corresponding unit strains for a specific material

released

1. PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

TOUGHNESS

maximum stress which the material springs back to the original length when

the property of a material that enables it to absorb energy before rupturing, represented

the load is released

by the area under the stress- strain curve derived from a tensile test of the material.

Ductile materials are tougher than brittle materials.

2. ELASTIC LIMIT

maximum stress below which the material does not return to its original

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

length but has incurred a permanent deformation we call permanent set

a coefficient of elasticity of a material expressing the ratio between a unit stress and the

corresponding unit strain caused by the stress, as derived from Hooke’s law and

3.YIELD POINT

represented by the slope of the straight line portion of the stress- strain line diagram.

the stress wherein the deformation increases without any increase in the load.

Also called COEFFICIENT OF ELASTICITY, ELASTIC MODULUS

The material at some portion shows a decrease in its cross section

PERMANENT SET

4. ULTIMATE STRENGTH

the inelastic strain remaining in a material after complete release of the stress producing

the maximum stress that can be attained immediately before actual failure or

deformation

rupture

YIELD STRENGTH

the stress necessary to produce a specific limiting permanent set in a material,

RUPTURE STRENGTH usually 0.2% of its original length when tested in tension. Yield strength is used to

stress at which material specimen breaks determine the limit of usefulness of a material having a poorly defined yield point.

Also called POOR STRESS.

ALLOWABLE STRESS

the maximum unit stress permitted for a material in the design of a structural member, STRAIN- RATE EFFECT

usually a fraction of the material’s elastic limit, yield strength, or ultimate strength. the behavior an increased rate of load application can cause in normally ductile material

Also called ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESS, WORKING STRESS.

TEMPERATURE EFFECT

ELASTIC RANGE the brittle behavior low temperatures can cause in a normally ductile material

the range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits elastic deformation

STRESS RELAXATION

ELASTIC DEFORMATION the time- dependent decrease in stress in a constrained material under a constant load

a temporary change in the dimensions or shape of a body produced by a stress less

than the elastic limit of the material CREEP

the gradual permanent deformation of a body produced by a continued application of

BRITTLENESS stress or prolonged exposure to heat. Creep deflection in a concrete structure continues

the property of material that causes it to rupture suddenly under stress with little evident over time and can be significantly greater than the initial elastic deflection

deformation. Since brittle materials lack the plastic behavior of ductile materials, they

can give no warning of impending material FATIGUE

the weakening or failure of a material at a stress below the elastic limit when subjected

DUCTILITY to a repeated series of stresses

the property of a material that enables it to undergo plastic deformation after being

stressed beyond the elastic limit and before rupturing. Ductility is a desirable property

of a structural material since plastic behavior is an indicator of reserve strength and

can serve as a visual warning of impending failure.

ELASTICITY

STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF A36 STEEL: the internal resistance or reaction of an elastic body to external forces applied to it.

Equal to the ratio of force to area and expressed in units of force per unit of cross-

sectional area.

Maximum allowable stress (Fv) in shear is 14.5 ksi

Also called UNIT STRESS.

Maximum allowable stress (Fb) for bending is 24 ksi

Modulus of elasticity (E) is 29,000 ksi

TENSILE STRESS

the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the

WEIGHT:

collinear tensile forces tending to elongate it.

water= 1000 kg/ m3

steel= 7850 kg/ m3 TENSILE STRAIN

the elongation of a unit length of material produces by a tensile stress

concrete= 2400 kg/ m3

ELONGATION

weight= density x volume a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage increase in length of a

volume of cylinder= pi (diameter)2 x length test specimen after failure in tensile test

4

REDUCTION OF AREA

PROPERTIES OF A MATERIAL a measure of ductility of a material, expressed as the percentage decrease in cross-

sectional area of a test specimen after rupturing in a tensile test

TENSION

TENSILE STRENGTH

the act of stretching or state of being pulled apart, resulting in the elongation of an

the resistance of a material to longitudinal stress, measured by the minimum amount of

elastic body

longitudinal stress required to rupture the material

TENSILE FORCE

STRAIN

an applied force producing or tending to produce tension in an elastic body

the deformation of a body under the action of an applied force. Strain is a dimensionless

quantity, equal to the ratio of the change in size and shape to the original size and

AXIAL FORCE

shape of a stressed element.

a tensile or compressive force acting along the longitudinal axis of a structural member

and at the centroid of the cross section, producing axial stress without bending, torsion

STRAIN GAUGE

or shear also called AXIAL LOAD

an instrument for measuring minute deformation in a test specimen caused by tension,

compression, bending or twisting.

AXIAL STRESS

Also called EXTENSOMETER

the tensile or compressive stress that develops to resist axial force, assumed to be

normal to and uniformly distributed over the area of the cross section.

YOUNG’S MODULUS

Also called DIRECT STRESS, NORMAL TRESS

a coefficient of elasticity of material expressing the ratio of longitudinal stress to the

corresponding longitudinal strain caused by the strain.

COMPRESSION

the act of shortening or state of being pushed together, resulting in the reduction in size

POISSON’S RATIO

or volume of an elastic body

the ratio of lateral strain to the corresponding longitudinal strain in an elastic body under

longitudinal stress

COMPRESSIVE FORCE

an applied force producing or tending to produce compression in an elastic body

COMPRESSIVE STRESS

the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an elastic body to resist the

ECCENTRIC FORCE

collinear compressive forces tending to shorten it.

force applied parallel to the longitudinal axis of a structural member but not to the

centroid of the cross section, producing bending and uneven distribution of stresses in

the section.

Also called ECCENTRIC LOAD.

STRESS-

COMPRESSIVE STRAIN EFFECTIVE LENGTH

the shortening of a unit length of material produced by a compressive stress the depth of concrete section measured from the compression face to the centroid of the

tension reinforcement

SHEAR

the lateral deformation produced in a body by an external force that causes one part of COVER

the body to slide relative to an adjacent part in a direction parallel to their plane contact. the amount of concrete required to protect steel reinforcement from fire and corrosion,

measured from the surface of the reinforcement to outer surface of the concrete section

SHEAR FORCE

an applied force producing or tending to produce shear in the body BOND STRESS

the adhesive for per unit area of contact between reinforcing bar and the surrounding

SHEARING FORCE concrete developed at any section of a flexural member

an internal force tangenial to the surface on which it acts, developed by a body in

response to shear, shearing in a vertical plane necessarily involves shearing in a HOOK

horizontal plane and vise versa a bend or curve given to develop an equivalent embedment length, used where there is

insufficient room to develop in adequate embedment length

SHEARING STRESS

the force per unit area developed along a section of an elastic body to resist a shear STANDARD HOOK

force. a 90º, 135º, 180º bend made at the end of a reinforcing bar according to standards

Also called SHEAR STRESS, TANGENIAL STRESS

ANCHORAGE

SHEARING STRAIN any of various means, as embedment length or hooked bars, for developing tension or

the lateral deformation developed in a body in response to shearing stresses, defined as compression in a reinforcing bar on each side of critical section in order to prevent bond

the tangent of the skew angle of the deformation. failure or splitting

a coefficient elasticity of a material, expressing the ratio between shearing stress and the section of a flexural concrete member at a point of maximum stress, a point of

the corresponding shearing strain produced by the strain. inflection, or appoint within the span where tension bars are no longer needed to resist

Also called MODULUS OF RIGIDITY, MODULUS OF TORSION stress

the bowing of an elastic body as an external force is applied transversely to its length. a concrete in which the tension reinforcement theoretically reaches its specified yield

Bending is the structural mechanism that enables a load to be mechanism that enables strength as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain

a load to be channeled in a direction perpendicular to its application.

OVERREINFORCED SECTION

TRANSVERSE FORCE a concrete section in which the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate

a force applied perpendicular to the length of a structural member, strain before the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield strength. This is a

producing bending and shear dangerous condition since failure of the section could occur instantaneously without

warning

TORQUE

the moment of a force system that causes or tends to cause rotation or torsion UNDERREINFORCED SECTION

a concrete section in which the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield

TORSION strength before the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain. This

the twisting of an elastic body about its longitudinal axis caused by two equal and is desirable condition since failure of the section would be preceded by large

opposite torques, producing shearing stresses in the body deformations giving prior warning of impending collapse

REINFORCED CONCRETE

BEAM the shearing stress developed along cross section of a beam to resist transverse shear,

having a maximum value at the neutral axis and decreasing nonlinearly toward the outer

faces

BEAM

a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across spaces

HORIZONTAL SHEARING

supporting elements

the shearing stress developed to prevent slippage along longitudinal planes of a beam

under transverse loading, equal to any point to the vertical shearing stress at that point.

SPAN

Also called LONGITUDINAL SHEARING STRESS

the extent of space between two supports of a structure

FLEXURE FORMULA

CLEAR SPAN

a formula defining the relationship between bending moment, bending stress, and the

the distance between inner faces of the support of a span

cross sectional properties of a beam. Bending stress is directly proportional to bending

moment and inversely proportional to the moment of inertia of a beam section.

EFFECTIVE SPAN

the center to center distance between the supports of a span

MOMENT OF INERTIA

the sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a

BENDING MOMENT

coplanar axis of rotation. Moment of inertia is a geometric property that indicates how

an external moment tending to cause part a structure to rotate or bend, equal to the

the cross sectional area of structural member is distributed and does not reflect the

algebraic sum of the moments about the neutral axis of the section under consideration

intrinsic physical properties of a material

RESISTING MOMENT

SECTION MODULUS

an internal moment equal and opposite to a bending moment, generated by a force

a geometric property of a cross section, defined as the moment of inertia of the section

couple to maintain equilibrium of the section being considered

divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.

DEFLECTION

LATERAL BUCKLING

the perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under

the buckling of a structural member induced by compressive stresses acting on slender

transverse loading, increasing with load and span, and decreasing with an increase in

portion insufficiently rigid in the lateral direction

the moment of inertia of the section of the modulus of elasticity of the material

STRESS TRAJECTORIES

NEUTRAL AXIS

lines depicting the direction but not the magnitude of the principal stresses in a beam

an imaginary line passing through the centroid of the cross section of a beam, other

member subject to bending, along which no bending stresses occur

SHEAR DIAGRAM

a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the external shears present in a

BENDING STRESS

structure for a given set of transverse loads and support conditions concentrated loads

a combination of compressive and tensile stresses developed at a cross section of

produce external shears which are constant in magnitude between the loads uniformly

structural member to resist transverse force, having a maximum value at the surface

distributed loads produce linearly varying shears

furthest from the neutral axis

MOMENT DIAGRAM

CAMBER

a graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the bending moment present in

a slight convex curvature intentionally built into beam, girder, or truss to compensate for

a structure for a given set of transverse load and support conditions. The overall

an anticipated deflection

deflected shape of a structure subject to bending can often be inferred from the shape

How is camber treated in a steel truss 25 meters and longer?

of its moment diagram

Camber shall be approximately equal to the dead load deflection

CONCENTRATED LOADS

TRANSVERSE SHEAR

produce bending moments which vary linearly between loads

an external shear force at a cross section of a beam or other member subject to

bending, equal to the algebraic sum of transverse forces on one side of the section

UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS

produce parabolically varying moments

VERTICAL SHEARING

POSITIVE SHEAR

a net resultant of shear forces that acts vertically upward on the left part of the structure fixed end and continuous beams are indeterminate structures for which the values of all

being considered reactions, shears and moments are dependent not only on span and loading but also on

cross sectional shape and material

NEGATIVE SHEAR

a net resultant of shear forces that act vertically downward on the left part of the HAUNCH

structure being considered the part of a beam that is thickened or deepened to develop greater moment resistance.

The efficiency of a beam can be increased by shaping its length in response to the

POSITIVE MOMENT moment and shear values which typically vary along its longitudinal axis

a bending moment that produces moment that produces a concave curvature at a

section of a structure SUSPENDED SPAN

a simple beam supported by the cantilevers of two adjoining spans with pinned

INFLECTION POINT construction joints at points of zero moment. Also called hung span

a point at which a structure changes curvature from convex to concave or vise versa as

it deflects under a transverse load: theoretically an internal hinge and therefore a point EFFECTIVE LENGTH

of zero moment the distance between inflection points in the span of a fixed end or continuous beam,

equivalent in nature to the actual length of simply supported beam

NEGATIVE MOMENT

a bending moment that produces a convex curvature at a section of a structure

SIMPLE BEAM

a beam resisting on simple supports at both ends which are free to rotate and have no

moment resistance. As with any statistically determinate structure, the values of all

reactions, shears, and moments for a simple beam are independent of its cross

sectional shape and material

CANTILEVER BEAM

a projecting beam supported at only one fixed end

CANTILEVER

a beam or other rigid structural member extending beyond a fulcrum and supported by a

balancing member or a downward force behind the fulcrum

OVERHANGING BEAM

a simple beam extending beyond one of its supports. The overhanging reduces the

positive moment at midspan while developing a negative moment at the base of the

cantilever over the support

a beam having both ends restrained against translation and rotation. The fixed ends

transfer bending stresses, increase the rigidity of the beam and reduces its maximum

deflection

CONTINUOUS BEAM

a beam extending over more than 2 supports in order to develop greater rigidity and

smaller moments than a series of simple beams having similar spans and loading. Both

COLUMN the radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be

concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that axis. For a

structural section, the radius of gyration is equal to the square root of the quotient of the

moment of inertia and the area

COLUMN

The higher the radius of gyration of a structural section, the more resistant the section is

a relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive

to buckling. In determining the cross- sectional shape of a column, the objective is to

loads, applied at the member ends.

providethe necessary radius of gyration about the different axes. For an asymmetrical

cross section, buckling will tend to occur about the weaker axis or in the direction of the

least dimension

POST

a stiff vertical support especially a wooden column in timber framing

LONG COLUMN

a slender column subject to failure by buckling rather than by crushing

BUCKLING

the sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the

action of a compressive load. Buckling can occur well before the yield stress of the

SHORT COLUMN

material is reached

a thick column subject to failure by crushing rather than by buckling. Failure occurs

when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the

material available in the cross section. An eccentric load, however, can produce bending

BUCKLING

and result in uneven stress distribution in the section

the axial load at which a column begins to deflect laterally and becomes unsuitable.

INTERMEDIATE COLUMN

CRITICAL BUCKLING LOAD

a column having a mode of failure between that a short column and a long column, often

the maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it

party inelastic by crushing and partly elastic by buckling

to buckle. The critical buckling load for a column is inversely proportional to the square

of its effective length and directly proportional to the modulus of elasticity of the material

and to the moment of inertia of the cross section.

ECCENTRICITY

Also called EULER BUCKLING LOAD

The amount by which an axis deviates from another parallel axis.

BIFURCATION

P-DELTA EFFECT

the critical point at which a column carrying its critical buckling load, may either buckle

An additional moment developed in a structural member as its longitudinal axis deviates

or remain undeflected. The column is therefore in a state of neutral equilibrium

from the line of action of a compressive force equal to the product of the load and the

member deflection at any point.

CRITICAL BUCKLING STRESS

the critical buckling load for a column divided by the area of its cross section

MIDDLE THIRD RULE

The proposition that a compressive load should be located within the middle third of a

horizontal section of a column or wall to prevent tensile stresses from developing in the

SLENDERNESS RATIO

section.

the ratio of the effective length of a column to its least ratio of gyration

The higher the slenderness ratio, the lower is the critical stress that will cause buckling.

A primary objective in the design of a column is to reduce its slenderness ratio by

EFFECTIVE LENGTH

minimizing its effective length or maximizing its effective length or maximizing the radius

The distance between inflection points in a column subject to buckling load. When this

of gyration of its cross section

portion of a column buckles the entire column falls.

RADIUS OF GYRATION

COMBINED STRESSES ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE

A set of tensile and compressive stresses resulting from the superposition of axial and a soil pressure acting on any structure that will tend to push the structure wherein the

bending stresses at a cross section of a structural member, acting in the same direction structure or a wall tends to move away from the soil

and equal at any point to their algebraic sum.

ACCELEROGRAPH

is an instrument which measures the velocity and acceleration of an earthquake in the

KERN ground

The central area of any horizontal section of a column or wall within which the resultant

of all compressive loads must pass if only compressive stresses are to be applied ANCHOR BOLTS

beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop in the section. Also called kern a round, steel bolt embedded in concrete or masonry used to hold down machinery,

area. steel columns or beam casting, shock beam plates and engine heads

BALANCED DESIGN

KERN POINT is one which both the concrete and the steel are so proportioned as to work to their full

A point on either side of the centroidal axis of a horizontal column or wall section working stresses when the member carries its full allowable load

defining the limits of the kern area.

BATTER PILES

are piles at an inclination to resist forces that are not critical. This is also known as brace

LATERAL BRACING pile or spur pile

the bracing of a column or other compression member to reduce its effective length.

Lateral bracing is most effective when the bracing pattern occurs in more than one BEARING WALL SYSTEM

plane. a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame

BENDING MOMENT

is the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces acting on either side of the section of

UNBRACED LENGTH a beam about an axis through the center of the gravity of the section

the distance between the points at which a structural member is braced against buckling

in a direction normal to its length. BORED PILE (bearing pile)

a concrete pile which concreted either with a casing or without a casing at its permanent

location. This is a cast in place pile

EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR

a coefficient for modifying the actual length of a column according to its end conditions CAISSON

in order to determine its effective length. Fixing both ends of a long column reduces its a watertight, cylindrical or rectangular chamber used to in under water construction to

effective length by half and increases its load-carrying capacity by a factor of 4. protect workers from water pressure and soil collapse

CEMENT GUN

is an ejector operated by compressed air to force gunite into cavities or cracks in rocks

TRUSS or cement works

a method of determining member forces in a truss by considering the equilibrium of any is an open-top through which bulk materials are conveyed and by gravity

portion of the truss assembly.

COFFER DAM

a temporary dam- like structure constructed which excludes water from the site of the

METHOD OF JOINTS foundation during its excavation and construction

a method for determining member forces in a truss by considering the equilibrium of the

various joints idealized as points in free body diagrams CONSTRUCTION JOINT

the vertical or horizontal face in a concrete structure where concreting has been stopped

DEFINITION OF TERMS and continued later

COLD JOINT

formed when a concrete surface hardens before the next batch o f concrete is placed GUNITE

is a rich cement mortar which is applied by spraying under high air pressure

CREEP

he tendency of most material to move or deform over time under a constant load The GRADE BEAM

amount of movement varies enormously depending upon the material. The area that is a concrete beam placed directly on the ground to provide foundation for the

highly stressed will move the most. The movement causes stresses to be redistributed. superstructure

a cantilever wall that is reinforced with a masonry structure extending upward from the a surface layer or granolithic concrete which maybe laid on a base of either fresh or

foundation or from the inner face of the retaining wall to provide additional resistance to hardened concrete

thrust and are placed at regular intervals. (Buttress if outer)

GRILLAGE

COFFER DAM is a footing which consist of steel beams arranged to distribute a concentrated load to

a temporary watertight enclosure around an area of water or water bearing soil, in which the supporting masonry or soil

construction is to take place, bearing on a stable statum at or above the foundation level

of new construction. The water is pumped from within to permit free access to the area DISTRIBUTION OF HORIZONTAL SHEAR

design analysis requirement, considered as the basis for the structural design of

DIAPHRAGM structures where the total lateral forces are distributed to the various vertical

a horizontal or nearly horizontal system including horizontal bracing system, that act to elements of the lateral force resisting system in proportion to their rigidities

transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements considering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm

a structural member of a horizontal bracing system that takes axial tension or is a fabricated metal beam composed of flanges with a material of a specified minimum

compression. It is parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers shear to the yield strength different from that of the web plate

vertical resisting elements or distributive loads within the horizontal bracing system

INTENSITY

DIVING BELL the measure of the damage level of an earthquake (subjective to visual assessment)

a watertight bell- shaped steel chamber which can be lowered to or raised from a fresh

or seawater bed crane. It is opened at the bottom and filled with compressed air so that INFLECTION POINT

men can prepare foundations and undertake similar construction work under water. a point in the moment diagram where it changes from positive to negative moment of

vise versa and the value of the moment at this point is zero

DOWEL

a short steel bar extending from one concrete element to another as for instance a

concrete foundation to a concrete column. It may or may not transfer direct stress

is a long pin of steel or wood, made with or without the head, driven through the timber a method of driving piles or well points into the sand in the situations where a pile

and into an adjacent timber to hold them together and to transmit stresses hammer might not be suitable owing to the risk of damage by vibration to the piles of

adjacent buildings.

EXPANSION OR CONTRACTION

a joint designed to take expansion and contraction LINTEL BEAM

the designed break in a structure to allow for the drying and temperature shrinkage of a beam especially provided over an opening for a door, window, to carry the wall over

concrete, brickwork of similar material, thereby preventing the formation of harmful the opening

cracks MAGNITUDE

FATIGUE the measure of the energy released by an earthquake (measured by instrument)

is a phenomenon of failure under repeated stresses. A fact, based experience and

experiments, is well known that stresses which are applied to a body a few times without MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

causing apparent structure injury may, if applied repeatedly or causing a great number

of times, causes failure

is the constant which, within the proportional limit, express ratio between the unit stress

to the unit strain. It is the measure of the relative abilities of the different materials of PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

construction to resist deformation under stress within proportional limit is the highest unit stress for which the deformation of a body is proportional to the

stress. Beyond this point, permanent deformation occurs

MODULUS OF RESILIENCE

is a measure of the capacity of the material to absorb energy without danger of being REDUNDANT MEMBER

permanently deformed is any framed structure or truss, is one which maybe omitted in the structure without

affect in the possibility of analyzing the frame or truss by ordinary static method of

MOMENT OF RESITANCE computations such as the counter diagonal truss

is the internal resisting moment of a beam. It is opposite in sense to the bending

moment but of the same magnitude RIP-RAP

consist of rough stones of various placed compactly or irregularly to prevent scour by

MORTAR water and protect material which maybe washed out by the water

is a mixture, composed of one part of Portland cement and one part of clean sand, used

as a filter SAGROD

structural member in the steel truss framing that counteracts forces in compression

MULLION because of high probability of the purlins to deflect and bend down during purlin

is a vertical member between two portions of window sash usually designed to resist installation.

wind load and not vertical load. It is different from muntin, which is smaller member

which separates the panels of glass within the whole sash. SAND DRAIN

it is provided to help in the compaction of natural soil which provide channels through

NON- BEARING WALL which water can escape much more rapidly then through the clay itself. The weight of

is wall that carries no load other than its own weight the drain itself helps in the compaction.

the effect on the structure due to extreme lateral (earthquake) motions acting in a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall

directions other than parallel to the direction to the direction of resistance under

consideration SOFFIT is the concave surface of an arch

is a wall used or adopted for joint service between two buildings is a beam from column to column, carrying an exterior wall in a skeleton building

a mixture of Portland cement, with water and sand applied to surfaces such as walls in moment distribution method- (as used in analysis of indeterminate structures) is the

ceilings in a plastic state, later it sets to form a hard surface ratio of moment of inertia of the cross section of its length

POINTING STRESS

in masonry, the final treatment of joints by the troweling of mortar or putty like filler into is the cohesive force in a body, which resists the tendency of an external force to change

joints the shape of the body

method of analyzing indeterminate modular building frames by assuming hinges at the is the change in the shape of any material when subjected to the action force

center of beam spans and column heights or the interior column carries twice as much

shear as the exterior column

TIE BAR

PORTLAND CEMENT a deformed bar, embedded in a concrete construction at a joint and designed to hold a

is the product obtained by finely pulverizing clinker produced by calcining to incipient butting edges together, not designed for direct load transfer

fusion an intimate and properly proportioned mixture of argillaceous and calcareous

materials with no additions subsequent to calcinations except water and calcined or TORSION OR MOMENT OF INERTIA

uncalcined gypsum is a quality which measures the resistance of the mass to being revolved about a line

TRANSFORMED SECTION BASE SHEAR

is one in which the flexural steel is conceived to be replaced by large area of imaginary is the total designed lateral force or shear at the base of the structure

concrete which can take tension. This gives a homogeneous section of concrete to

which ordinary beam analysis may be applied BEARING WALL SYSTEM (shear type)

is a structural system without a complete vertical load carrying space frame

TREMIE

is a watertight pipe 300 mm to 600 mm in diameter with a flared top used in depositing BOUNDARY ELEMENT

concrete under water is an element at edges of opening or at the perimeters of shear walls or diaphragm

is an art of placing new foundation under old foundation is an essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type which is

provided to resist lateral forces

VIBRATOR

is an oscillating power operated machine used to agitate fresh concrete so as to BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM

eliminate gross voids including entrapped air and to produce intimate contact with form is an essentially complete space frame which provides supports for gravity loads

surfaces and embedded materials

CONCENTRIC BRACED FRAME

VOID- CEMENT RATIO is a braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces

is the ratio of volume of air plus water to the volume cement

COLLECTOR

WALL FOOTING is a member or an element provided to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a

a continuous type of spread footing the supports vertical load, the weight of the wall structure to the vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system

itself and the weight of the footing

DIAPHRAGM

WATER CEMENT RATIO is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system (including horizontal bracing system) acting to

the ration of the amount of water, to the amount of cement in a concrete or mortar transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements

mixture

DIAPHRAGM STRUT

WEB CRIPPLING also known as tie or collector, is the element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load

local failure of a thin web plate of a steel beam or girder in the immediate vicinity of a which collects and transfer diaphragm shear to the vertical resisting elements or

concentrated load distribute loads within the diaphragm. Such members may also take axial tension or

compression.

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN is the boundary element of a diaphragm or a shear wall which is assumed to take axial

stresses analogous to the flanges of the beam

LRFD

LOAD RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN

DUAL SYSTEM

is a combination of a Special or Intermediate Moment Resisting Space Frame and

SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISION Shearwalls or Braced Frame

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES

ARTIFICIAL RIGIDITY

are those structures which are necessary for emergency post- earthquake operations

will cause torsion (twisting)

FLEXIBLE ELEMENT

BASE

an element or system is one whose deformation under lateral load significantly larger

is the level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the

than adjoining parts of the system

structure

HARMONIC MOTION SPACE FRAME

the coincidence of the natural period of structural with the dominant frequency in the is a three dimensional structural system without bearing walls composed of members

ground interconnected so as to function as a complete self contained unit with or without the aid

of horizontal diaphragms or bracing systems

MOMENT RESISTING FRAME

is a space frame in which the members and joints are capable of resisting forces STOREY

primarily by flexure is the space between levels. Storey x is the storey below level x

is the effect of the structure due to earthquake motions acting in directions other than is the summation of design lateral forces above the storey under consideration

parallel to the direction of resistance under consideration

STOREY DRIFT

P- DELTA EFFECT is the displacement of one level relative to the level above or below

is the secondary effect on shears and moments of frame members induced by the

vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced building frame STOREY DRIFT RATIO

is the storey drift divided by the storey height

PERT-CPM

PROGRAM EVALUATION REVIEW TECHNIQUE- CRITICAL PATH METHOD STRUCTURE

it is a presentation of project plan by a schematic diagram or network that depicts the is an assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist

sequence and interrelation of all the component parts of the project, and the logically lateral forces. They maybe categorized as building or non- building.

analysis and manipulation of this network in determining the best overall program of

operation. RAINWATER LEADER

it is another term of a downspout. It is a vertical pipe, often of sheet metal, used to

PLATFORM conduct water from a roof drain or gutter to the ground.

is the lower rigid portion of a structure having vertical combination of structural system

TORSION RIGIDITY (is used in seismic design)

PNEUMATIC MORTAR refers to the relative stiffness of the structure to resist torsional stress

mortar applied to a surface with a cement gun in the same manner as gunite, with such

mortar has a cube crushing strength of 20.68 Mpa TOWER

at 28 days with water/ cement ratio of 0.45 is the upper flexible portion of a structure having a vertical combination of structural

system

SHEAR WALL

is a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall (sometimes VERTICAL LOAD CARRYING SPACE FRAME

referred to or a structural wall) is a space frame designed to carry all vertical (gravity) loads

is a storey whose lateral stiffness is less than 70% of the stiffness of the storey above is a storey whose strength is less than 80% of the strength of the storey

SEISMIC REQUIREMENT FOR TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT

SOIL- STRUCTURE RESONANCE

is the coincidence of the natural period of structure which dominant frequency in the

1. maximum spacing of hoops shall not exceed 24 times the diameter of the hoop bars

ground motion

2. maximum spacing of hoops shall not be 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal

STRENGTH

bars

is the usable capacity of a structure or its members to carry loads within the deformation

limits prescribed in the code

3. maximum spacing of hoops shall not be more than d/4

SOIL STABILIZATION

4. the first hoop shall be located not more than 50 mm from the face of the supporting

is the process of improving the properties of a soil to make it more suitable for a

member

particular purpose

ANCHORAGE

in post tensioning, a device used to anchor tendon to concrete member, in pre-

tensioning, a device used to anchor a tendon during hardening of concrete

GRADING AND EARTHWORK

BONDED TENDON

pre-stressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting

AS GRADED is the extent of surface conditions on completion of grading

COLUMN

BEDROCK is in-place solid rock

member with a ratio to least lateral dimension of 3 or greater used primarily to support

axial compressive load

BENCH is a relatively level step excavated into earth material

on which fill is to be placed

COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS

concrete flexural members of pre-cast and/or cast in place concrete elements but so

BURROW is earth material acquired from an off site location

interconnected that all elements respond to loads as a unit

for use in grading on a site

CONCRETE

COMPACTION s the densification of a fill by mechanical means

mixture of Portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse

aggregate, and water, with or without admixtures

EARTH MATERIAL is any rock, natural soil or fill or any combination

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE (f’)

EROSION is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the

compressive strength of concrete used in design expressed in megapascals (Mpa).

movement of the wind, water or ice

Whenever the quantity F”c is under a radical sign, square root of numerical value only is

EXCAVATION s the mechanical removal of the earth material intended, and result has units of megapascals (Mpa).

FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial means CONCRETE, STRUCTURAL LIGHT WEIGHT

concrete containing lightweight aggregate and has an air-dry unit weight not

GRADE is the vertical location of the ground surface exceeding 1900 kg/m3. lightweight concrete without natural sand is termed all- light

weight concrete and lightweight concrete in which of the fine aggregate consists of

EXISTING GRADE is the grade prior to the grading normal weight sand is termed sand- lightweight concrete.

FINISH GRADE is the final grade of the site that conforms to the approved plan CURVATURE FRICTION

friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified pre-stressing tendon profile

GRADING is any excavating or filling or combination thereof

beneath the toe of a proposed fill slope

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT

ADMIXTURE deformed reinforcing bars, bar mats, deformed wire fabric and welded deformed fabric.

a material used as ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its

mixing to modify its properties DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design strength of

AGGREGATE reinforcement at a critical section

granular material such as sand gravel stone and iron blast furnace slag used with a

cementing medium to form a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION (d)

distance measure from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement

AGGREGATE LIGHTWEIGHT

aggregate with a dry, loose weight of 100 kg/m or less EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS

stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses has occurred, excluding effects

of dead load and super imposed load

plain or reinforced concrete element cast elsewhere than its final position in the

EMBEDMENT LENGTH structure

length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section

POSTENSIONING

JACKING FORCE method of prestressing concrete which the tendons are tensioned before concrete is

in prestressed concrete, temporary force exerted into prestressing tendons placed

dead weight supported by a member. designed on the assumption that two materials act together in resisting forces

Loads of constant magnitude that remains in one position.

SPIRAL REINFORCEMNT

LIVE LOAD (LL) continuously wound reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical helix

loads that may change in magnitude and position

STIRRUP

FACTORED LOAD reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural member: typically

load multiplied by appropriate load factors, used to proportion a members by the bars, wires or welded wire fabric (smooth or deformed) either single leg or bent into L, U

strength design method. or rectangular shapes and located perpendicularly to or at angle to longitudinal

reinforcement (The term stirrups is usually applied to lateral reinforcement in flexural

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY members and the term ties to those in compression members.)

ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below

proportional limit of material DEIGN STRENGTH

nominal strength reduction factor, Ø

MODULUS, APARENT (concrete)

also known as long term modulus, is determined by using the stress and strain obtained NOMINAL STRENGTH

after the load has been applied for a certain length of time strength of a member or cross- section before application of any strength reduction

factors

MODULUS, INITIAL (concrete)

the slope of the stress strain diagram at the origin of the curve REQUIRED STRENGTH

strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related internal

MODULUS, SECANT (concrete) moments and forces in such combinations

the slope of the line drawn from the origin to appoint on the curve somewhere between

25% and 50% of its ultimate compressive strength TENDON

steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rods or strand, or a bundle of such elements

MODULUS, TENGENT (concrete) used to impart prestress to concrete

the slope of tangent to the curve to some point along the curve

TIE

PEDESTAL loop or reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement

an upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least

lateral dimensions of less than 3 TRANSFER

act of transferring stress in prestressing tendons from jacks

PLAIN CONCRETE or pretensioning bed to concrete member

concrete that does not conform to the definition of reinforced concrete

WALL

PLAIN REINFORCEMENT member, usually vertical, used to enclose or separate spaces

reinforcement that does not conform to the definition of deformed reinforcement

WOBBLE FRICTION

POST TENSIONING in pre-stressed concrete, friction caused by unintended deviation of prstressing sheath

method of prestressing in which the tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened or duct from its specified profile

specified minimum yield strength or yield point or reinforcing in Mpa 75 mm -for concrete cast and permanently exposed to earth such as footings

a design so proportioned that the maximum stress in concrete (with strain of 0.003) and

steel (with strain of Fy/Es) are reached simultaneously once the ultimate load is 40 mm concrete cover of pipes, conduits or fittings and exposed to weather

reached, causing them to fall simultaneously

40 mm for beams and columns

UNDERREINFORCED DESIGN

a design in which the steel reinforcement is lesser than what is required for balanced 20 mm for concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground, such as slabs,

conditioned. Failure under this condition is ductile and will give warning to the user of walls and joists

thee structure to decrease the load

a design in which the steel reinforcement is more than what is required for balanced

condition

a. groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in contact as a unit shall be limited to 4 in any

one bundle

d. individual bars within a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members should

terminate at a different points at least 40db stagger

STANDARD HOOKS

AGGREGATES A. 180º bend plus 4db extension but not less than 65 mm at free end

Fine aggregates- sand B. 90º bend plus 12db extension, at free end of bar

are those that passes through a No.4 sieve (about 6mm in size)

C. for stirrups and tie hooks:

Coarse aggregate -gravel or crushed stone

16 mm bar and smaller, 90º bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar or

Coarse aggregate shall not be less than:

1/5 the narrowest dimension between sides of forms 20 mm and 25 mm bar, 90º bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar or

1/3 the depth of slabs 25 mm bar and smaller, 135º bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar

¾ minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires, bundle of bars or

prestressing tendons or ducts MINIMUM BEND DIAMETER

The diameter of bend measured on the inside of the bar shall not be less than the following:

CONCRETE PROTECTION FOR REINFORCEMENT

(a.) 6db for 10 mm to 25 mm bar

(b.) 8db for 10 mm to 28 mm bar STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR Ø

(c.) 10db for 10 mm to 36 mm bar

Flexure w/o axial load……………………………………………….. 0.90

4db minimum inside diameter of bend of stirrups and ties for 16 mm bar and smaller in diameter

ONE- WAY SLAB

Shear and torsion ……………………………………………………. 0.85

A one-way slab is considered as wide shallow rectangular beam. The reinforcing steel is usually

spaced uniformly over its width. The flexural reinforcement of a one-way slab extends in one Axial compression & axial compression w/ flexure

direction only.

a. spiral reinforcement ………………………………………0.75

Maximum flexural reinforcement spacing:

3 times the slab thickness or 450 mm

b. tie reinforcement …………………………………………. 0.70

Minimum thickness of one-way slab:

Solid one-way slab Bearing on concrete …………………………………………………..0.70

L/20 - simply supported

L/24 - one end continuous

L/28 - both end continuous

L/10 - cantilever

* Span length L is in millimeter

L/16 - simply supported

L/18.5 - one end continuous

L/21 - both end continuous REQUIRED STRENGTH, U or Pu

L/8 - cantilever

LOAD FACTORS

Required strength U to resist dead load DL and live load LL is

U= 1.4DL + 1.7LL

Dead load, DL……………………………………………….. 1.40

Wind load W are included in design

Live load, LL…………………………….…………………… 1.70

U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.7W)

Wind load, WL………...…………………………………….. 1.70

Earthquake loads or forces are included in design

U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.87E)

Earthquake, E……………………………………….………. 1.87

Where structural effect T of differential settlement, creep, shrinkage or

Earth or water pressure, H……………………...……….… 1.70

temperature change are significant in design

U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.4T + 1.7LL)

U= 1.4 (DL + T)

d. Concrete cover for pipes, conduits and fittings shall not be less than 40 mm for concrete

exposed to earth or weather

SIZE AND SPACING OF MAIN BARS AND TIES

1.5 db nor 40 mm CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH BOLTED CONNECTION

1. High-strength bolted parts shall fit solidly together when assembled and shall not be

2. Use 10 mm diameter ties for 32 mm bars or smaller and at least separated by gaskets or any other interposed compressive material.

12 mm in size for 36 mm and bundled longitudinal bars

2. Bolts tightened by means of a calibrated wrench shall be installed with a hardened

3. Vertical spacing of ties shall be the smallest of the following: washer under the nut or bolt head whichever is the element turned in tightening.

a. 16 x db (db = longitudinal bar diameter) 3. When assembled, all joint surfaces, including those adjacent to the washer, shall be free

b. 48 x tie diameter of scale, except tight mill scales, dirts and burns.

c. least dimension of columns

4. Surface in contact with the bolt head and nut head shall have slope of not more than

1:20 with respect to a plane normal to the bolt axis.

4. Ties shall be arrange such that every corner and alternate longitudinal

bar shall have lateral support provided by the corner of the tie with an

included angle of not more than 135º and no bar shall be farther than

150 mm clear on each side along the tie from such a laterally

supported bar. Where longitudinal bars are located around the

perimeter of a circle tie is allowed.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCEMNT

whichever is greater

a. Conduits and pipes embedded in slab, the wall or beam shall not be larger in outside

dimension than 1/3 the overall thickness of slab, wall or beam

b. Reinforcement with an area not less than 0.002 times the area of cross- section shall be

provided normal to piping

c. Conduits and pipes with their fittings, embedded within a column shall not displace more

than 4% of the area of the cross section on which strength is calculated

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