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Dead Stars

Paz Marquez Benitez

 Born in Lucena, Quezon in 1894
 “Dead Stars” First modern Philippine short story
 An “Outstanding Teacher” at the UP English department.
 Teacher of several major Filipino writers, including Manuel E. Arquila, Bienvinido N.
Santos and Jose Garcia Villa.
 Died on November 10 1983

Unlocking of Difficult Words

1. Melancholy- a feeling of pensive sadness, typically with no obvious cause.\
They lost concreteness diffused into form melancholy.
2. Dappled- marked with spots or rounded patches.
Under the dappled shadow of the trees in plaza.
3. Fervid- intensely enthusiastic or passionate, especially to an excessive degree.
Or was the love that others told about a mere fabrication of a fervid imagination.
4. Tumultuous - excited, confused, or disorderly
…the feeling of tumultuous haste such as he knew so well in his boyhood when
something beautiful was going on somewhere.
5. Recalcitrant- having an obstinately uncooperative attitude toward authority or
Under a straight recalcitrant hair, a thin face was a satisfying breadth of

Setting: Garden Rooftop of Don Julian’s House, Judge Del Valle’s house, Sta. Cruz

Alfredo Salazar- son of Don Julian, a more than 30 years old man and a bachelor. He is
engaged to Esperanza but him still fleeting to Julia Salas.

Esperanza- wife of Alfredo Salazar. She is a homely woman, literal minded and intensely
acquisitive. She is one of those fortunate women who have a gift of uniformly beauty.

Julia Salas- sister-in-law of Judge Del Valle. She is the other girl of Alfredo Salazar that
remains single in her entire life.

Don Julian- an old man, father of Alfredo Salazar and Carmen.

Carmen- sister of Alfredo Salazar

Judge Del Valle- brother-in-law of Julia Salas.

Donna Adella- sister of Julia Salas. She is small and plump, a pretty woman with a
complexion of a baby with an expression of a likeable cow.
Calixta- note-carrier of Alfredo Salazar and Esperanza.

Dionisio- Husband of Donna Adella.

Vicente- Husband of Carmen.

Brigida Samuy- She is the illusive woman whose Alfredo is looking for.

I. Exposition- At Don Julian’s house carmen was asking Don Julian about alfredo and
Esperanza. Alfredo reminiscence how he met Julia Salas.
II. Crisis- He had gone neighboring with Don Julian to Judge Del Valle’s house. He met
Julia Salas. All the time he was calling her Mrs. Del Valle which led him to
III. Conflict-. Coming to Judge’s house became often. Then he realized he was in love
with Julia in spite his engagement with Esperanza.
IV. Climax- After the procession for The Lady of Sorrows Alfredo caught up with Julia. It
was when Julia found out about Alfredo’s wedding so she congratulated him.
Alfredo needs to make a very difficult situation. Would he choose what he wants to?
Or would he choose what he has to?
V. Falling Action- Julia didn’t want Alfredo not to honor his understanding with
Esperanza. She said goodbye. He went home to Esperanza. And there, the last word
has been said.
VI. Resolution/Denouement- Alfredo and Esperanza got married. After eight years, he
was searching for a lady named Brigida samuy-a lady important for his defense in
the court in Sta. Cruz, Julia’s hometown. He went to Julia’s house and he found her
there. Still unmarried. And he realized that his love for Julia was like a Dead Star. It
was non existent.

Dead Star- dream of something non-existent.

Theme: Forbidden love is only apparent; it banes haunt the person until such time that he
realizes his fault.

VII. Conclusion – The decision in “What ifs situations” are able to inflict on others is
clearly explored, and the short story convincingly depicts the protagonist as a calm
man, a bachelor and department in what the society will tell about him.
Figurative Language/ Figure of speech –
1. *A man is happier if he is, as you say calm and placid. Like a carabao in a mud pool.
*A round orange moon, huge as a winnowing basket.
*Why shouldn’t it be? You talked like an immoral man.
2. *The golden streamer was withdrawing, shortening until it looked no more than a pool
far away at the rim of the world.
3. *Oh! Old things, mistakes, encumbrances, old baggage.
4. *Above the measured music rose the untutored voices of the choir, stepped in incense
and the acrid fumes of burning wax.