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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.

51 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm

Analysis of Thermophysical Properties of

Hybrid Composite Material
(Ti-6Al-4V alloy / Ti-6Al-4V TiB2&TiC)
M. Karthikayan1, S.Krishnamohan2,N.Ramanujam3
M.E Manufacturing Engineering,EGSPEC,Nagapattinam,Tamilnadu,India
Associate Professor,Mechanical Engineering,EGSPEC,Nagapattinam,Tamilnadu,India
Associate Professor,Mechanical Engineering,EGSPEC,Nagapattinam,Tamilnadu,India


In this study, the titanium alloy with In this study the titanium alloy
TiB2&TiC were fabricated and their composites were fabricated and its
thermophysical were analysed and studied. The thermophysical properties were analysed and
main intention of this study is to sustain all were compared with different % of reinforcement.
spacecraft’s components within the permissible The main purpose of the study is to measure the
temperature limits in consideration with different CTE for titanium alloy composites. Thermo
thermal environment it may be exposed. Metal- mechanical method is commonly evolved method
matrix composites have been developed to measure mechanical parameters as function of
indigenously and were analysed in Thermo temperature. Thermodilatometry, is the
Mechanical Analyzer (TMA). The measurement of experimental procedure which are particularly
thermo physical properties of MMC such as restricted to solids and in the simplest case, length
density, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) change with temperature can be measured to
plays an vital role in construction of components deduce the expansion coefficient. If the expansion
which are subjected to space field applications. of solid is hindered by application of a load, then
So, It is necessary to evaluate the new material’s a combination of expansion effects and modulus
thermal stability and CTE before the components changes are observed. This is termed
are subjected actual use. Normally, the CTE is Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) and modulus
experimental measured by TMA. These changes give rise to the main features on the
experimental procedure have been carried out in recorded curves. The modulus values and their
the temperature range of -1250C to 5500C. In transition information is most exactly provided by
order to facilitate the better thermal designs of Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA
components it is necessary to measure the thermal or DMA) [1]. length change measurement
properties of the materials. In this study, Ti-6A1- instrumentation is usually TMA equipment is
4V Titanimum alloy and Ti-6A1-4V alloy with usually designed to measure under zero load
different volume fractions of TiB2& TiC conditions and suitable for perfect solid materials.
composites were fabricated by Powder Thermal design establishment for a spacecraft is
metallurgy technique. The main purpose of this usually a two-step process. The first step is to
study is to reduce the co-efficient of thermal select a thermal design for the body, or basic
expansion by addition of reinforcement in the enclosures, of the spacecraft that will serve as a
titanium alloy composites. thermal ink for all internal components. The
second step is to select thermal designs for
Keywords : CTE, Metal Matrix Composites, various components located both within and
TiB2& TiC , Ti-6A1-4V Alloy, TMA. outside the spacecraft body [2].

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.51 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm

The demand of today’s and future II. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

spacecraft relies on the material that tend to
posses low co-efficient of thermal expansions. II.I Preparation of TiB2&TiC(reinforcement)
This study tend to bring us as the knowledge to
maintain low coefficient of thermal expansions in The fine particles of TiB2&TiC (sigma
the titanium alloy by the addition of the Aldrich , A Johnson matthey company German)
appropriate reinforcement used for aerospace was used for this study. The chemical
applications. composition for both TiB2&TiC specified in the
Table I and II.
The CTE of a composite is different from
that given by a simple rule of mixtures [3], Table I
because of the presence of reinforcement. The Chemical Composition of TiB2
expansion coefficient of reinforcement is less that Free
Material TiB2 TiO2 Fe Fe2O3
of the matrix which introduces a mechanical TiB2
constraint on the matrix. Composition
in 47 1.8% 1.5% 0.4% 0.2%
Titanium alloys is the material that Wt [%]
exhibits higher specific strength and stiffness Table II
which fits different structural applications for the
components demanding lightweight construction. Chemical Composition of TiC
The hybrid reinforcements has got the ability
improve specific strength and stiffness, and also Free
Material TiC TiO2 Fe Fe2O3
the wear resistance. TiC
When compared other reinforcing in 47 1.8% 1.5% 0.4% 0.2%
material the hybrid reinforcement (TiB2&TiC) is Wt [%]
expected to High specific strength and Young’s Planetary milling was used to pulverize the
modulus. The thermo mechanical and tribological Titanium boride and titanium carbide (palversitte
properties of titanium alloys can be improved by 6, Fritsch – Germany) [5]. The ball to powder
reinforcing then with hybrid composites. ratio are as follows ie 1:10 (Ball weight 1 gram
powder weight 10 grams), milling time of 2 hrs
A decrease in particle size (i.e., more and rotational speed of 300 rpm was carried out
surface area for oxides to form) also resulted in
reduced CTE [4]. The Thermal System Group, Experimentally, the powder is sealed inside
ISRO Satellite Centre has carried out the thermal the machine which contains tungsten balls of
characterization of the newly developed 10mm diameter.
Aluminum MMCs using Thermo Mechanical
Analyser (TMA) [4]. The ball milling experiment were
performed at room temperature. In order to mill
The CTE can be experimentally measured the powder the wet milling method was used. In
by TMA under the absolute methods. The ASTM order to prevent the sticking of powder onto the
E 831 has approved the CTE measurement by balls the organic compounds such as toluene is
TMA [4]. This experimental approach is simple, added. The milling experiment was interrupted at
fast, fairly accurate and cost effective. regular intervals of 5 minutes for cooling. The
particle size analysis was performed from the
The CTE experiments have been carried sample prepared from sonicator using zetasizer
out for the temperature range – 1250C to 5500C. (Malvern, Nano ZS90 – UK).
This study is concerned with thermo physical
aspects of MMCs with a view to explore MMCs The milled TiB2 &TiC powder were
for possible space. mixed with Double Distilled water and treated in
Ultrasonic sonicator (750 W, 20 kHz, Sonics –
USA) (FIG) for about 10 minutes to attain
individual particles from agglomeration.

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.51 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm

The samples of each batch was taken in a In order to measure the coefficient of
polystyrene cuvette and kept in the zetasizer to thermal expansions the cylindrical specimens are
obtain particle size. machined to the dimension of 6± 0.1 in diameter
and 7.5±0.1mm in length [4] using wire cutting
II.2 Mechanical Alloying of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium machine and were tested in thermo mechanical
α-β Alloy Powder analyzer [TMA].
Titanium powder which is 99% purity II. 5 Measurement of Coefficient of Thermal
(supplied by Kemphasol, Mumbai), Aluminum Expansion (CTE) :
fine powder (supplied by Lobachemi, Mumbai)
and Vanadium (Supplied by Aesar Alfa) are used Thermomechanical analyzer were
as materials for this study. experimentally used to measure the CTE under
the absolute conditions. The ASTM E 831 has
Titanium powder 90% weight, Aluminum approved the CTE measurement by TMA [20-21].
powder 6% weight (α-phase stabilizer and
Vanadium 4% weight (β-phase stabilizer) were This approach is simple, fast, fairly
mechanical alloyed to make Ti-6A1-4V alloy. accurate and cost effective. This study is
concerned with thermo physical aspects of MMCs
In order to obtain homogeneous alloy all with a view to explore MMCs for possible space
the powders were mixed in a high energy ball mill applications.
[Fritsch – Pulverisette-6) [7] – [9].
It is method that employs an approach of
II. 3 Ti-6Al-4V Alloy / TiB2 &TiC Composite measuring both the length and temperature
Powder by Ball Milling simultaneously. All the experimental process of
CTE measurements were carried out in the
The Ti-6Al-4V Alloy / TiB2 &TiC research grade Thermo Mechanical Analyser
Composite Powder were prepared by mechanical (TMA – Model Q400 V7.4 Build 93 – TA
alloying method using high energy ball mill Instruments, USA) . In this measure the vertical
(Fritsch – Pulverisette-6) to obtain homogeneous displacement as a function of the temperature. All
composite powder [10]-[12]. the experimental runs were carried out for the
II.4 Powder Metallurgy Technique : temperature range – 1250C to 5500C. The heating
rate selected for all measurements was 100C /min
In order to make the cylindrical specimen and was continuously monitored by the computer
of size 30mm diameter and length of 23 mm the based data acquisition system [20]. Dimensional
blended powder mixtures were cold compacted by change in µm/m verses the sample temperature
using suitable punch and die set assembly [9, (oC).
10,13] and 100 Ton hydraulic [14] pressing
machine at a designated pressure of 64.50bars In all cases, measurements were made
[15,16]. As the titanium is very active and easy to with a minimum of two samples, The
be polluted, no lubricant or binder was added into measurement on each sample was carried out for
the powder. In order to maintain the easy ejection at least twice. Instead of pre-conditioning the
of the cylindrical specimen the die wall were samples in a separate furnace, the first run was
lubricated with zinc stearate [10] dissolved in carried out inside the module which helped to
liquid propane. Then the green compacts obtained remove the process induced residual stresses and
after the compactions were sintered immediately the surface absorbed moisture. The second run
in high temperature furnace. The sintering is was carried out after cooling the sample to room
carried out in argon atmosphere upto 12500C.The temperature without disturbing the experimental
green compacts are set for the choking time of 3 set-up provided realistic values.
hrs followed by slow cooling of compacts to room In all cases, the measured values obtained
temperature by keeping in the furnace itself[17]- in the second run were better and reliable (20. The
[19]. After the sintering process of Ti-6Al-4V systematic errors can be reduced by good up
alloy and Ti-6Al-4V / TiB2 &TiC composites are keeping and careful calibration of the system.
carried out the composites are subjected to Repeat measurements confirm the precision of the
secondary processes like hot extrusion and measure mental data.

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.51 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm

The individual contributions of errors that CTE increases with increase in temperature,
were worked out and the total measurement error but, the increase is not perfectly linear. The
in CTE measurement by TMA is restricted to interaction between the matrix and reinforcement
2% by adopting a well-laid systematic will also influence resultant CTE of the
measurement approach. The heating rate selected composites. The result of the CTE measurements
was 100 C/min from -1250C to 5500C. Nitrogen is presented in Fig.2 as the function of the
was used as a purge gas at the flow rate of 50 temperature. From the fig 2 it is inferred that the
ml/min. A small static force (0.05 N) was applied CTE value increases with increase in temperature.
on the sample by the measuring probe.
But the increase is not perfectly linear and
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION this can be attributed to an increase in the
amplitude of vibration of the atoms of the
III.I. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion constituent of the new material with increase in
The metal – matrix composites (Ti-6Al-
4V alloy / Ti-6Al-4V TiB2&TiC) has been Due to the continuous programmed
fabricated and tested in Thermo Mechanical (Controlled) heating, the MMCs attain the plastic
Analyser (TMA) to measure CTE. state, where in the activity due to residual stresses
and change in void volume is predominant. If
This study revels the fabrication and the interface bonding is able to sustain the stresses,
measurement method of thermo physical the overall CTE will be governed by the
properties of MMCs. The coefficient of thermal competition between the high CTE of the matrix
expansion (CTE) measurements were carried out material and the low CTE of the reinforcement
on two samples of each materials, Ti-6A1-4V particulates. [4].
Titanium Alloy and Ti-6A1-4V Titanium Alloy
with different volume fractions of TiB2 &TiC It is expected that CTE of the MMCs will
(10%, 15% and 20% of TiB2 &TiC) composites be lower than the matrix material due to the
were used for investigation. CTE measurement of reinforcement. MMCs will have a range of CTE
Ti-6A1-4V Titanium Alloy and Ti-6A1-4V/ TiB2 values depending on the volume fraction and the
&TiC (TACTE1,10CTE1, 15CTE1, 20CTE1) bonding strength of the reinforcement interface.
were carried out in all four samples. Rather than When the temperature is changed, both the matrix
preconditioning the specimens in a separate material and the reinforcement are strained
heater, the first run did inside the module which elastically and the plastic flow is needed to
served to evacuate the methodology induced accommodate the increase in volume of MMCs
residual stresses, and the surface absorbed specimen. As a result the stresses are built up at
moisture. The second run completed, in the wake the matrix/reinforcement interface and the MMCs
of cooling the specimen to room temperature, value reflects the overall bonding strength of the
without changing the test set-up, gave sensible MMCs. Any degradation in the interface should
qualities. In all cases, the measured qualities got contribute to an increase in the final CTE data
in the second run were better, repeatable, measured. Fig.4 substantiates this and the
reproducible and dependable. variation in the CTE with temperature is similar
The TMA traces for the dimension
change and coefficient of thermal expansion From the Fig.3, it is inferred that when
(CTE) as a function of the temperature were the volume fraction of reinforcement is increasing
plotted. the CTE value of the MMC is decreasing. The
fluctuation in the trend indicates the misfit strains
From the Fig. 1, it is observed that for all introduction in the MMCs by the particulate
Ti-6A1-4V Alloy and Ti-6A1-4V/ TiB2 &TiC reinforcement and the reduction in the interface
Composites, the dimension change varies linearly area compared to a uniform geometry. Recently it
with increase in temperature( ie as the is has been demonstrated that the CTEs of the
temperature increases the dimensions of the alloys and composites are mainly changed by a
materials increases in all samples). The volume fraction of reinforcement [4]. The CTE of
coefficient of thermal expansion of all Ti-6A1-4V composites is generally less than the rule of
Alloy and Ti-6A1-4V/ TiB2 &TiC Composites, mixtures valued because the presence of ceramic
were measures are shown in Fig.2. It is observed

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.51 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm

particles (usually of low CTE) introduces a

constrained on the expansion of the important to
point out that interface can exert some influence
on the value of the CTE.

A decrease in particle size (i.e., more

surface area for oxides to form) also resulted in
the reduced CTE. It is observed that an interfacial
zone (not a reaction zone) which provided a
significant constraint on the CTE.

Fig 3 Comparison of CTE of Ti-6A1-4V Alloy &

Ti-6A1-4V/ TiB2&TiC composites at different

Fig.1 Comparison of dimension change of Ti-

6A1-4V Alloy & Ti-6A1-4V/ TiB2&TiC

Fig 4 Comparison of CTE of Ti-6A1-4V Alloy &

Ti-6A1-4V/ TiB2&TiC composites at different

From the above inferences of the graph it

is clear that the CTE value decreases with the
increase in the volume fraction of reinforcement.
For the good heat material to use for the
Fig.2 Comparison of CTE of Ti-6A1-4V Alloy & spacecrafts application it is the basic necessity
Ti-6A1-4V/ TiB2&TiC composites that the material must posses low coefficient of
thermal expansions. [20]-[21].


International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.51 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm

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