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CHAPTER- 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Review of Literature

Various researchers have carried studies related to advertising effectiveness and viewer
responsiveness to advertisements. These studies were primarily focused on identifying
how consumer perception and attitude formed in relation to the advertising stimuli,
advertising effectiveness and in relation of consumer perception / attitude with consumer
purchase behaviour.

Kisholoy Roy Sprihi Kanodia, Arpita Sanyal and Dipraj Bhattacha (2013) explores that,
brands are nothing but customer perceptions and the amount of relevancy they enjoy in the
lives of their target audiences. Their study deals with Cadbury India’s customer
engagement campaign in the Kolkata market whereby it was observed that Cadbury India
appealed to the mishit (sweet) eating habits of the Bengali population over there in an
innovative manner. They weaved the concept of marriage (Mishti Weds Cadbury) around
the campaign, were found to involve celebrities from the Bengali film industry and
optimally leveraged the strengths of social media to propagate the campaign and thus
generate significant awareness, affinity and involvement among the target audiences of the
engagement program.

Sabita Mahapatra (2013) found that an understanding of the impact of emotional versus
rational appeals used in ad message on respondents with various demographic and
psychographics profile and across various product category and product life stage. The
impact of emotional and rational appeals in advertising from the perspective of preference
for different ad appeals led to different response and that both emotional and rational
appeal were not equally preferred across all product category and product life stage. To
effectively perform the communication activity that directs the flow of goods and services
from producer to the ultimate consumer or user, consumer psychology has to be well
understood. While one end of the continuum of consumer information processing
perspective deals with hedonic experimental model that views consumers driven purely by
emotion in pursuit of fun, fantasies and feelings the other end of consumer processing
model is based on pure reason cold, logical and rational.

Bilal Mustafa Khan and Saima Khan (2013) raveled that the effect of humorous
advertising on brand recognition by consumers. For this purpose, four brands were
selected, namely, Fevicol, Cadbury Chocolate, Karrbon Mobiles and Coca- Cola. For each

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brand, two television commercials were chosen, ensuring that one is humorous and the
other non-humorous. So, in all, eight television commercials were shown to audience and
their responses were suggested that humor is an essential ingredient of an advertisement
and has profound effect on building brand recognition. This could be conditional by
comparing the results of the same brand. Humorous advertisements were found to be more
effective than non-humorous advertisements. Thus, it can be secondary that humor should
be used in advertising as it leads to positive brand recognition.

Gregory M. Rose, Altaf Merchant, and Aysen Bakir (2012) revealed that the use and
effects of fantasy in food advertising targeting children. A content analysis documented
the prevalence of fantasy appeals, including fantasies that center on product ingredients,
animals, and adventures. Viewer’s responses to health food advertisements revealed
substantial variability in their understanding of advertising, inference of manipulative
intent, and use of persuasion knowledge. An experiment shows imagination was
associated with positive attitudes toward an advertisement when perceived manipulative
intent was low and negative evaluations when perceived manipulative intent was high.

Dharmesh motwani, khushbu agarwal (2012), were found that the customers' behavior
towards the Health Food Drinks category. Therefore, it is better to understand the market
scenario and the major players of this market i.e. what they are offering to their customers,
which can influence their television watching behavior.

Dale Kunkel (2012) explored children’s understanding of television commercials on host


selling (that feature the same primary characters as those in the adjacent program content).
He revealed that three dimensions of the processing of television advertising that could
affect by the practice of host selling are- assessing ability to discriminate commercial from
program content; ability to attribute persuasive intent to commercial and attitudinal
responses to commercial appeals. The results indicated that irrespective of age children’s
were significantly less likely to discriminate commercial from program content when the
host-selling format viewed, and the older children were more favorably influenced by the
same commercial content when it was seen in a host-selling presentation than in a normal
viewing situation.

Amin Asadollahi and Neda Tanha (2011) found that in their research on TV ads, shows a
significant relationship between consumption and advertised brands of health food drinks,
a variety of high-energy health foods advertise. The ads are skills that do not use them

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unless clearly noted that the response should be. Policymakers, consumers and those
involved with organizations related to children's services can be more powerful to have
kids. Beginning with a powerful strategy to enhance food safety information between
children and their families at the start and then focus on increasing children's consumer
skills.

M.V. Rama Prasad (2011) revealed that, branding is a relatively new concept in the
marketing environment. While it continues to gain a foothold in annual marketing plans, it
also endures some perplexed during the journey from the marketing department. a viable
marketing strategy in the changing media and cultural environment, and evaluate the role
and benefits of cause branding in brand building. For a brand to find success and growth in
today’s marketplace, it must become a relevant part of a customer’s life. Brands can do
this by proactively responding to trends, understanding customer concerns, and joining
with customers and employees. Companies need new marketing strategies to connect with
customers like never before. It is a proven strategy to differentiate a brand, build
relationships with core customers, and target consumer segments.

Mehta et al., (2010, 5) found that the television advertising, advertising schools, kids
clubs, internet, toys and products with the logo of a company (Story & French, 2004, 14)
And advertising techniques, such as the award families who rejected these ads They were
calling for a ban or restrictions on scope of work.

Venu Gopal Rao (2010) found that the television commercials occupy a major portion of
viewing time on most television channels. Millions of rupees endowed to make
commercials that will attract viewer attention. A study of this nature has not conducted in
India. The objective of this study is to analyze viewer’s affective responses to television
commercials. Four different types of television commercials categorized as rational,
emotional, animation and celebrity appeals selected. The factor structure however, need to
some extent alter to provide to the Indian conditions. The study has implications for
marketers, in a cluttered environment marketers being challenged on estimating the
behavioral dimensions, emanating from their advertisements i.e. advertising must create
strong purchase dispositions. Understanding viewer responses can, to a certain extent, help
marketers understand their target audience better and help create better commercials.

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Fathi All-Share and Marwan Al Salaimeh (2010) revealed that television advertisements
consider as the main media in current time , it is more important for producer to
demonstrate their product tell the consumer about their product and their features and to
differentiate between the other brand, and telling him when and where to buy it . So, TV
advertisements effect consumer behavior by pushing them to buy the Specific goods of the
product through frequent advertisement to change consumer Attitude toward health food
to increase the demand on it , then it will Increase the volume of it sales which lade to
more profit . But they notice that TV will increase the price of the goods, and most of the
consumer will prefer the goods appeared on TV advertisement. People acquiring new
patterns of purchasing goods ,and learn them how to select between different alternatives
and trying to change consumer attitudes on the targeted goods , by inducing to buy rather
than his preferences .so, the TV advertising is more important media for both producer and
consumer by facilitating their operations of selling or buying the food product

Bargh & Bownelli (2009) explored the priming effects of television food advertising on eating
behaviour of children. They found that children consumed 45% more when showing to food
advertising when they watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising for other product
and a snack while watching.

Ademola (2009) considered the effect of consumer’s mood on advertising effectiveness.


The result revealed that subjects in the persuade positive mood group have a more positive
attitude and grater intention to try advertised products when compared with subjects in the
induced negative mood group. This suggests that advertisers should present adverts in a
context that elicits happiness.

Malik Tariq Mahmood (spring 2009) revealed that children's viewing habits of Television
to find out the impacts of food-products advertising on children's health. Television is such
an important socialization agent that it is present in children's lives. Many advertisements
broadcast on television are the creations of brilliant minds that want to persuade them to
purchase the advertised health food drinks products.

McAlister and Cornwell (2009), Donohue, Henke and Donahue (1980), were explored in
their research that most of the children over the age of five can distinguish between
advertising and program content, but findings found mixed regarding their ability to
discriminate influential intent before the age of seven or eight. Some argue that even
preschoolers can identify convincing intent to their parent for buying for product.

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Deshpande et al.,( 2009) studied the attitude and purchase intensions of consumers in the
context of celebrity endorsement. Studies have been conducted regarding the
attractiveness of the product for the consumers and the liability attractiveness of the
celebrity for the consumers (kahle and homer, 1985). The taste preference for food and the
eating habits are developed at a very young age (Brich, 1999; and Drewnowski and hann,
1999) but the most important stage for choice or selection of food is during the college
life.

Gupta & Devi (2008) found that TV advertisement demonstrate the influence of food
advertising to prime automatic eating behaviour and thus influence far more than brand
preference alone on can food. They also extended their study to know the impact of TV
advertisements on buying pattern of children and youth. They found that the advertisement
played a vital role in introducing a new product in the family list and making better choice
during shopping. The children and youth utilized their pocket money received every
month for shopping. The youth is influenced by T.V advertisement and they preferred to
buy branded and standardized product which are more advertised on television.

Buijzen, Schuurman & Bomhof (2008) found the association between consumption of
branded products advertised on TV was moderated by income and by parental
communication styles.

Batada et al. (2008) found children could accurately match from memory, and without
prompting logos/characters with TV advertisements for health food drinks. Studies from
the developing world produced similar results and also reported that food advertisements
tended to be among children’s favourites.

Robinson (2008) found health food drink promotion was heavily concentrated on sugar,
with particular focus on chocolates, sweetened health food drinks.

Ho & Len (2008) and Lobstein et al. (2008) described marketing appeals to parents of
child-oriented products. These messages emphasize nutrition and growth, academic and
sporting success and family harmony.

Ouwersloot & Duncan (2008) observed that due to its dynamic nature as it can carry both
sound and moving visuals and has demonstration ability, imposition value, and ability to
generate excitement, one-on-one reach, ability to use humor, and ability to achieve impact
the television advertising has occupied centre-stage in the authority of marketing

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communication tools over the years. It was also reported that the new African TV market
has more than 400 TV channels and about 50 pay-television service providers, and
International TV is now significantly attracting media-buying investment.

Federal Trade Commission report (2007) on Children's Exposure to TV Advertising in


1977 and 2004 concluded that children were exposed to 9% less food ads in 2004 than in
1977. The Report says that today's children see more promotional ads for other
programming, but fewer paid ads and fewer minutes of advertising on television.

Dr. Kadambini Katke (2007) found that children are especially vulnerable to persuasive
messages. Advertisers of children's television used to appeal to the parents but now they
appeal directly to children -- who do not have the emotional or cognitive tools to evaluate
what is being sold to them. They are a showcase for "must have" items that parents
expected to buy, teaching our children to become consumers before they have even
reached the age of three. The study explored relation between television advertising and its
influence on child health and family spending, based on entertainment and spending
television hours to watch their preferred channel or program.

A research report of Ofcom (2007) revealed that Television viewing/advertising is one


among many influences on children’s food Choices. These other factors include social,
environmental and cultural factors, all of which interact in complex ways not yet well
understood. However, it was concluded that advertising had a Modest, direct effect on
children’s food choices and a larger but unquantifiable indirect effect on children’s food
preferences, consumption and behaviour.

Desrochers and Holt (2007), Page and Brewster (2007) concluded that the potential
vulnerability of children, especially young children, raises concerns about the types of
advertisements that target them to attract towards their product. The study also analyzed
the findings of previous studies that established the prevalence of advertisements for
sweetened cereal, candy, snacks, desserts, beverages, and fast food restaurants.

Page and Brewster (2007) found that rational appeals involve references to product
quality, taste, packaging, flavor, and news (or “new”) claims. Emotional appeals
frequently invoke fun and play, which persuades children that they can share in the fun
depicted in the advertisement by purchasing and using the product.

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Connor, (2006) found that Health Food Drink companies have also recognized the
potential benefits of fostering brand loyalty early on, in an attempt to create lifelong
consumers of their products. An advertiser targeting young a viewer not attempt to
promote individual products in their ads, and instead focuses on promoting brand
recognition and creating a link between the brand and pleasant feelings.

Adeolu B. Ayanwale et al. (2005) concluded that brand preferences does not exist in food
drink industry, however, advertising helps in projecting product quality and value prior to
the consumers. They consider the most effective of all media in advertising the product is
television, because it combines motion, sound, and special visual effects and offers wide
geographic coverage and flexibility when the message is presented. They also found that
advertisement should not be age oriented and selective and results showed that advertising
does not have impact on age groups.

Harrison & Marske, (2005), concluded that television viewing had a significant
detrimental effect on nutrition knowledge in relation to foods that are heavily marketed as
‘diet’ foods or complete food supplement by the marketers.

Erdogan (2005) has concluded that the advertising expenditure to promote a brand at the
national level, especially through television, advertisement it is very costly and usually
done by top companies of the country. To correctly utilize television medium and to
compete in today’s crowded media environment, celebrity endorsement is effective, as
many benefits are derived out of it. The use of celebrity in an advertisement is fruitful in
appealing to the target audience of health food drinks.

D P S Verma and Soma Sen Gupta (2004) found that, consumers might not be aware of
the quality and features of the products they buy. They are often unable to make a quality
comparison among various brands. Moreover, they often gather little information even
when the financial commitment involved is substantial. A popular belief is: ‘You get what
you pay for.’ Therefore, consumers tend to believe that high price is an indicator of better
quality

Vignali,(2001) revealed that the Health food drink marketers aim to create a standardized
product, but they recognize that the ability to adapt to local environments is also very
important: they ‘think global, act local’. This affects both the products they develop and

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the service environment in which these are delivered to the customers and projected to
their target buyers.

Dixit, (2000) found that the Indian market is not an easy to target the audience for the
television advertiser. The people (consumers) are segmented in terms of belief, ethnicity,
region, culture, language, dialects, norms and values. Other aspects such as economic
inequality separates it in a way, which has resulted in a large number of lower, upper and
middle class, with a relatively smaller class falling in the middle class segment (income
basis). This demonstrates a vast inconsistency in purchasing power and decision making
aspect, one which the advertiser keeps in mind. Indian advertisements have been playing
an important role on both recall and persuasion through brand differentiating messages.

Olivares et al. (1999) studied the basis of children’s’ purchase behaviour. Nearly three-
quarters of children examined said that they purchased food or drink products advertised
on television with offers of prizes or free gifts. The study further revealed that most of the
children interviewed were able to recall food advertisements that they liked.

Glanz et al., (1998) found that the lady of a house is seen as the influencer, decider and
buyer of food and grocery item, therefore an attractive segment to market.

Yavas & Abdul-Gader (1993) found children asked their parents to buy health food drink
they had seen advertised.

A study by Johar and Sirgy (1991) found that consumers who are highly involved with a
product, utilitarian information found to be more effective, and consumers who were not
involved with the product, value expressive advertisements found to be more persuasive.
The influence of likeability differed for different types of products. Viewers understanding
of an advertisement depends on the type of product and the information transmitted
through the advertisement.

Carruth, Goldberg & Skinner (1991) and Yavas & Abdul-Gader (1993) found that children
discussed food promotion with peers and families and asked their parents to buy health
food drink they had seen advertised.

Some authors argue that emotions are more effective (Edword 1990, Edword and Von
Hippel 1995) and argue that arguments are more effective (Golden and Johnson 1983,
Miller 1990). More recent research suggested that both emotions and arguments can be

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effective, but their effectiveness vary by context (Olson and Zanna 1993, Petty and
Wegener 1998).

Andrew Mitchell and Jery Olson (1981) found that many researchers have sought to
identify the characteristics of ad prone consumers and typically have measured advertising
process and attitude towards advertisings in terms of consumer’s observation behavior.

Lichtenstein and Burton (1989) found that consumers perceived objective price-quality
relationship with only a modest degree of accuracy and that the price quality perception
was more accurate for non-durable products than for durable products.

Schlinger (1979) developed a rating instrument, popularly called the VRP (Viewer
Response Profile) that looked at ad responses and classified them as entertaining, relevant,
alienating, empathetic, familiar, and confusing and brand reinforcing. All the above-
mentioned response profiles were built in an exploratory fashion, using principal
components analysis as the data reduction technique.

Galst & White (1976), Stoneman & Brody (1982) found that the more attentive a child
was watch television advertising, relative to television programmes, the greater the
number of attempts to influence parental shopping purchases at the supermarket.

Laboratory studies have covered a variety of advertising elements, including Emotional


clues (Holbrook and Batra 1987), Types arguments (Etgar and Goodwin 1982), Humor
(Sterthal and Craig 1973) and Music (Macllnis and Park 1991). These studies emphasize
experimental control and are almost exclusively lab based (Macllinis and Jawoski 1989).
Dependent variable includes attitude or reaction towards the ad, attitude and reaction
towards the brand, memory and purchase intentions.

Tellis and Gaeth (1990) identified three choice strategies that the consumer might use
under uncertainty when the price of the product was better known than its quality: ‘best-
value,’ ‘price-seeking,’ and ‘price-a version. ‘While the best value strategy involves
choosing the brand with the least cost in terms of price and the expected quality, price-
seeking is selecting the highest priced brand to maximize the expected quality, and price-
aversion refers to buying the lowest-priced brand to minimize the immediate cost. The
strategy that a consumer would use depends upon the information on quality, importance
of quality, and the price-quality correlation.

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