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Culinary Art

The Concepts and


Theories in Kitchen
Kanjanasit Chinnapha
Chairperson, Dept. of Hospitality & Tourism Management
Martin de Tours, School of Management
Assumption University of Thailand
What is Culinary Art ?
It is an the art of cooking. The word “culinary” is
defined as something related to, or connected wi
th, cooking or kitchens. A culinarian is a person
working in the culinary arts. A culinarian working
in restaurants is commonly known as a cook or a
chef. Culinary artists are responsible for skillfully
preparing meals that are as pleasing to the palat
e as to the eye. Increasingly they are required to
have a knowledge of the science of food and an
understanding of diet and nutrition.
Part 1

Food Science
The knowledge of food science
The understanding knowledge of :

 Food Safety
 Food Microbiology
 Food Preservation

***All are linked together in some way or another


Food Safety

Food safety is a scientific discipline describing


handling, preparation, and storage of food in
ways that prevent foodborne illness
 Handling >> transportation of food
 Preparation >> methods & techniques to
transform raw ingredients into food
 Storage >> keeping and prevention of food
 Food borne illness >> caused by bacteria
Storage of food

Proper storage and refrigeration of food

Badly stored food in a refrigerator help in the prevention of food poisoning


Key Points Regarding Storage

 Check food specification and grading


 First-in…First-out rule
 Suitable container should be used
 Temperature and humidity
 Cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation
 Food storage condition
Food contamination

Food contamination refers to the presence in


food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms w
hich can cause consumer illness.

 Food poisoning bacteria


 Physical objects
 Chemical contaminants
 Cleaning agents
 Poisons in the food itself
Food borne illness / disease:
Food poisoning
This refers to any illness resulting from
the consumption of contaminated food.
Food borne illness usually arises from
improper handling, preparation, or food
storage. Good hygiene practices before,
during, and after food preparation can
reduce the chances of contracting an
illness.
What is a pathogen?

A pathogen or more commonly


known as germ,
germ is a biological agent
that causes disease to its host.
Most common bacterial foodborne
pathogens are:
 Salmonella ----------------- >
 Escherichia coli (e-coli)
HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
(HACCP) is a systematic preventive approach to
food safety and pharmaceutical safety that
addresses physical, chemical, and biological haza
rds as a means of prevention rather than finishe
d product inspection. HACCP is used in the food i
ndustry to identify potential food safety hazards, s
o that key actions, known as Critical Control
Points (CCPs) can be taken to reduce or eliminat
e the risk of the hazards being realized.
Food Preservation
Food preservation is the process of
treating and handling food to stop or greatly
slow down spoilage (loss of quality, edibility
or nutritive value) caused or accelerated by
micro-organisms. Some methods, however,
use good bacteria, yeasts or fungi to add
specific qualities and to preserve food (e.g.,
cheese, wine). Maintaining or creating
nutritional value, texture and flavour is
important in preserving its value as food.
Food Preservation
Common methods of applying these processes
include drying, freeze drying, freezing, vacuum-
packing, canning, preserving in syrup, sugar
crystallisation, food irradiation, and adding pres
ervatives or inert gases such as carbon dioxide
. Other methods that not only help to preserve
food, but also add flavour, include pickling, salti
ng, smoking, preserving in syrup or alcohol, su
gar crystallisation and curing.
Diet and Nutrition
In nutrition, diet is the sum of
food consumed by a person or
other organism. Proper nutrition
requires the proper ingestion
and equally important, the
absorption of vitamins,
minerals, and food energy in
the form of carbohydrates,
proteins, and fats.
Nutrients
There are six major classes of nutrients:

 carbohydrates,
 fats,
 dietary minerals,
 protein,
 vitamin,
 water
Dietary minerals
Dietary minerals are the chemical elements
required by living organisms, other than the four el
ements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen pr
esent in common organic molecules.
- Potassium - Chloride
- Sodium - Calcium
- Phosphorus - Magnesium
- Zinc - Iron
- Manganese - Iodine
The discovery of vitamins and their sources
Year of Vitamin Food source
discovery
1913 Vitamin A (Retinol) Cod liver oil
1910 Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Rice bran
1920 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Lemons
1920 Vitamin D (Calciferol) Cod liver oil
1920 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Eggs
1922 Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Wheat germ oil,
Cosmetics and liver
1926 Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) Liver
1929 Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Alfalfa
1931 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Liver
1931 Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Liver
1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Rice bran
1936 Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Liver
1941 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Liver
Diet Table
Food Type Carnivore Omnivore Vegan Vegetarian Halal Hindu Kosher Hunter-gatherer Raw vegan

Fruits and berries No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Greens No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Vegetables No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Starchy vegetables No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Grains No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

Poultry Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Fish (scaled) Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Seafood (non-fish) Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No

Beef Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No

Pork Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No

Eggs Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

Dairy No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

Nuts No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Carnivore
Carnivore is meat-eater.
Omnivore
Omnivore eats both plants and animals

Human Raven / Crow


Vegans
Vegans endeavor not to use or consume animal
products of any kind.

Various fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains;


some basic ingredients of a vegan diet.
Vegetarian

Vegetarianism is the practice of following a plant-based diet including fruits,


vegetables, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggs.
Halal
The term is used to designate food seen as
permissible according to Islamic law.

Explicitly forbidden substances: Pork, blood, carrion, alcohol.


Hindu dietary law
The great majority of Hindus
avoid beef. Most also avoid
the meat of water buffalo and
yak as being too cow-like as
well as pork, crabs, reptiles, a
mphibians, snails, insects and
worms. Goat or mutton is ofte
n the only acceptable meat bu
t many are completely
vegetarian.
Kosher
Kosher is the set of Jewish dietary laws.
Mammals that both chew their cud (ruminate)
and have cloven hooves can be kosher.

Cloven hooves animals The circle U indicates that this


product is certified as Kosher by
the Orthodox Union (OU)
Hunter–gatherer

A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary


subsistence method involves the direct
procurement of edible plants and animals from
the wild, foraging and hunting without significant
recourse to the domestication of either.
Raw veganism

Raw veganism is a diet which combines


veganism and raw foodism. It excludes
all food of animal origin, and all food cook
ed above 48 degrees Celsius. A raw veg
an diet includes raw vegetables and fruits
, nuts and nut pastes, grain and legume s
prouts, seeds, plant oils, sea vegetables,
herbs, and fresh juices.
Part 2

Equipment, Preparation, Methods


of Cookery and Organisational
Structure in Kitchen
Kitchen Knives
Boning knife

Chef knife

Clever

Filet knife

Paring knife
Kitchen Knives

Mincing knife

Santoku knife

Meat & Fish


Slicers
Kitchen Equipment
&
Culinary terms

Refer to the video-presentation


Principles of Heat Transference

All methods of cooking depend on one


or more of the following principles:

 Radiation
 Conduction
 Convection
Radiation

Heat passes from its source in


directly rays until it falls on an
object in its path such as grilling.
Conduction

Transferring of heat through a solid


object by conduct. Some materials
for example, metal used for pans,
transfer heat more quickly than
wood. Conduction is the principle
involved in the solid electric / gas
ranges.
Convection

The movement of heated particles of


gases or liquids. On heating, the particles
expand, become less dense and rise.
The colder particles sink to take their
place, causing convection currents which
distribute heat. This principle is used in
heating a gas oven and in the heating of
liquids.
Methods of
Cookery

1. Boiling 7. Baking
2. Poaching 8. Grilling
3. Steaming 9. Frying
4. Braising 10. Paper bag (En papillote)
11. Microwave
5. Stewing
Boiling

In cookery, boiling is the


method of cooking food in boilin
g water, or other water-based li
quid such as stock or milk.
Simmering is gentle boiling, whi
le in poaching the cooking liqui
d moves but scarcely bubbles.
Boiling point of water is typicall
y considered to be 100 °C or
212 °F.
Poaching

Poaching is the process of gently


simmering food in liquid, generally water,
milk, stock or wine. Poaching is
particularly suitable for fragile food, such
as eggs, poultry, fish and fruit, which might
easily fall apart or dry out.
Temperature should be
around 71-85°C
Steaming

Steaming is a method of cooking using steam.


Steaming is considered a healthy cooking techni
que and capable of cooking almost all kinds of f
ood. Steaming works by boiling water
continuously, causing it to evaporate into steam;
the steam then carries heat to the nearby food,
thus cooking the food. The food is separated
from the boiling water but has direct contact with
the steam, resulting in a moist texture to the
dishes.
Braising

Braising (from the French “braiser”), is a


combination cooking method using both moist
and dry heat; typically the food is first seared at
a high temperature and then finished in a covere
d pot with a variable amount of liquid, resulting in
a particular flavour.
Stewing
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients
that have been cooked in liquid and served in
the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can
include any combination of vegetables (such as
carrots, potatoes, beans, peppers and tomatoes
etc.), meat, poultry, sausages and seafood.
Roasting

Roastingis a cooking
method that uses dry he
at, whether an open flam
e, oven, or other heat
source. Roasting usually
causes caramelization or
Maillard browning of the
surface of the food, whic
h is considered a flavor e
nhancement
Baking
Baking is the technique of
prolonged cooking of food by dr
y heat acting by convection,
and not by radiation, normally i
n an oven, but also in hot ashes
, or on hot stones. It is primarily
used for the preparation of
bread, cakes, pastries and pies,
tarts, quiches, cookies and
crackers.
Grilling
Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry
heat applied to the surface of food, commonly
from above or below.
Frying
Frying is the cooking of food
in oil or fat, a technique that
originated in ancient Egypt ar
ound 2500 BC. Frying
techniques vary in the
amount of fat required.
 Sautéing and stir-frying
 Shallow frying
 Deep frying
Paper bag (En papillote)
En Papillote (French: "in parchment") is a method
of cooking in which the food is put into a folded po
uch or parcel and then baked. The parcel is typicall
y made from folded parchment paper, but other ma
terial such as a paper bag or aluminum foil may be
used. The parcel holds in moisture to steam the fo
od.
Microwave Cooking

A microwave oven, or a
microwave, is a kitchen
appliance that cooks or heats
food by dielectric heating.
This is accomplished by
using microwave radiation to
heat water and other polarize
d molecules within the food.
Organizational Structure
in kitchen
 Executive Chef / Head Chef
 Sous Chef / Second Chef
 Chef de Partie / Section Chef / Station Chef
 Relief Chef / Chef Tournant
 First Cook / Commis Chef
 Cook
 Cook Helper / Apprentice
 Steward / Kitchen Porter
Executive Chef

 Organising the duties and


responsibilities of kitchen staff
 Ordering of inventory – set
specification and grading
 Documentation and other paper
works
Organizational Structure
in kitchen

Organizational Structure in kitchen depends on:


 Types of food (ethnic cuisine)
cuisine
 Size of the operation

***Related to:
 How the establishment should be operated and
managed
 Variety of equipments and ingredients required
Key points to remember when
working in the kitchen

Cleanliness and hygiene – both personal


and environment >> e.g. handling of food
 Follow safety rules and procedures
 Rely on team work and communication
 Set up effective operational system to

match the establishment’s features


 Have good attitude and be friendly >> smile