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Nutrition through the Lifespan Chapters 9 to14
Nutrition through
the Lifespan
Chapters 9 to14
Pregnancy Weight • Underweight • Low birthweight infant • Overweight and Obesity • Labor and
Pregnancy Weight
• Underweight
• Low birthweight infant
• Overweight and Obesity
• Labor and delivery difficulty
• Birth trauma
• Cesarean section
Nutrient Allowances • Choline • Vitamin D and calcium for the bones • Iron and
Nutrient Allowances
• Choline
• Vitamin D and calcium for the bones
• Iron and Vitamin C
• Zinc

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Nutrition prior to Pregnancy • Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight • Choose an
Nutrition prior to Pregnancy
• Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight
• Choose an adequate and balanced diet
• Be physically active
• Receive regular medical care
• Avoid harmful influences
Nutrient Allowances • Additional 340 kcal daily during the second trimester and an extra 450
Nutrient Allowances
• Additional 340 kcal daily during the second
trimester and an extra 450 kcal for the third.
• CHO: 135-175 grams/day
• For brain fuel
• To spare CHON
• CHON: 25 grams/day
• Folate and Vitamin B 12 (400-600 mcg/day)
• Prevents Neural Tube Defects
Common Nutrition-Related Concerns in Pregnancy • Food Cravings and Aversion • Nonfood cravings (Pica) •
Common Nutrition-Related
Concerns in Pregnancy
• Food Cravings and Aversion
• Nonfood cravings (Pica)
• Morning sickness
• Arise slowly
• Eat dry toast, crackers
• Chew gum or suck hard candies
• Small frequent feeding
• Heartburn
• Eat slowly
• Chew food thoroughly
• Avoid spicy, greasy, caffeinated, carbonated food and drinks
• Wait an hour after eating before lying down
• Wait 2 hours after eating before exercising
Common Nutrition-Related Concerns in Pregnancy • Constipation • Eat foods high in fiber • Be
Common Nutrition-Related
Concerns in Pregnancy
• Constipation
• Eat foods high in fiber
• Be active
• Increase fluids
• Respond promptly to urges
Lactation • Nutritional Requirements • Calories: Addition 1,000 kcal to aid in 850 ml milk
Lactation
• Nutritional Requirements
• Calories: Addition 1,000 kcal to aid in 850 ml milk
production
• Protein: extra 20 grams
• Calcium and Phosphorus: extra .5 mg
• Vitamin A: additional 2,000 IU
• Vitamin B1, Riboflavin, Vitamin C.
• Fluids
Benefits • For Mothers • Contracts the uterus • Delays the return of regular ovulation
Benefits
• For Mothers
• Contracts the uterus
• Delays the return of regular ovulation
• Conserves iron stores
• May protect against and ovarian cancer and reduce the
risk of diabetes

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Problems in Pregnancy • Preexisting Diabetes • can lead to Macrosomia with physical and mental
Problems in Pregnancy
• Preexisting Diabetes
• can lead to Macrosomia with physical and mental
abnormalities
• Gestational Diabetes
• Hypertension (BP > or = 140/90)
• Preeclampsia (hypertension, proteinuria, edema)
• May complicate to eclampsia (preeclampsia with
seizure)
• Substance use
Benefits • For infants • Provide appropriate composition and balance of nutrients with high bioavailability
Benefits
• For infants
• Provide appropriate composition and balance of
nutrients with high bioavailability
• Provides hormone that promote physiological
development
• Improves cognitive development
• Protects a variety of infections and illnesses
• May protect against some chronic diseases—such as
diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, asthma, and HTN
• Protects against food allergies
• Supports healthy weight
• Reduces risk for SIDS
Benefits • Other • Cost and time savings • Environmental savings
Benefits
• Other
• Cost and time savings
• Environmental savings
Factors Affecting Milk Secretion • Diet • Meat and vegetables soups increases production but over
Factors Affecting Milk Secretion
• Diet
• Meat and vegetables soups increases production but over
intake of water decreases it
• Nutritional State of Mothers
• Healthy mother is healthy milk and milk production
• Emotional and Physical States
• Stress and anxiety may decrease production
• Suckling
• Cessation of suckling for a long time decreases production
• Use of Contraceptive and Drugs
• Contraceptives decreases productions. Drugs and other
substances decreases the quality
Nutrition Focus • Higher fluid needs • Nutritional Requirement (NR): • At birth: 350-500 kcal
Nutrition Focus
• Higher fluid needs
• Nutritional Requirement (NR):
• At birth: 350-500 kcal
• 12 months: 800-1,200 kcal:
• 2nd to the 7 th month: 120 kcal/kg body weight
• 7 th to 12 th month: 100 kcal/kg body weight
• Feeding every 2.5-4 hours
Common Nutrition-Related Concerns • Iron deficiency anemia –decreasing iron reserves • Bottle mouth syndrome
Common Nutrition-Related
Concerns
• Iron deficiency anemia –decreasing iron reserves
• Bottle mouth syndrome –when babies are left with
bottles and tend to suck on them may cause dental
decay
• Diarrhea –immature immunity can lead to infections
• Vomiting –burping infants may prevent this
• Allergy –hypersensitivity reaction, introduce one food
at time
• Constipation –immature GI tract can lead to this
• Colic

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Neonate to 1 year • Breast milk or formula • Breast feeding • Bottle feeding
Neonate to 1 year
• Breast milk or formula
• Breast feeding
• Bottle feeding
• Mixed feeding
• Complemented –to complete an insufficient
single breastfeeding
• Supplemental –one a bottle is used to replace
one or more feedings
Feeding • Demand feeding • Burping every after feeding • Regurgitation • Solids starts at
Feeding
• Demand feeding
• Burping every after feeding
• Regurgitation
• Solids starts at 6 months (cereals, fruits,
vegetables, and strained meat
• Food are introduced one at a time (every 5 days)
• Eruption of teeth (7-9 months), chewing starts
Toddler • May start feeding themselves • By age 3 may eat adult table food
Toddler
• May start feeding themselves
• By age 3 may eat adult table food
• Meals should be short
• Food refusal
• NR: 1000-1,400 Kcal per day
• Iron, calcium, and Vit. C and A
Feeding • Make mealtime a pleasant time by avoiding tensions at the table and discussions
Feeding
• Make mealtime a pleasant time by avoiding
tensions at the table and discussions of bad
behavior
• Offer a variety of simple, attractive foods in small
portions, and avoid meals that combine foods into
one dish, such as a stew
• Do not use food as a reward or punish a child who
does not eat
• Schedule meals, sleep, and snack times that will
allow for optimum appetite and behavior
• Avoid the routine use of sweet desserts.
School-Age Child • NR: 1,600-2,200 Kcal/day • Protein-rich food especially during breakfast • Independence in
School-Age Child
• NR: 1,600-2,200
Kcal/day
• Protein-rich food
especially during
breakfast
• Independence in feeding
may lead to malnutrition
• Obesity may develop
Common Nutrition-Related Concerns • Independence and psychological status may increase risk of: • Obesity •
Common Nutrition-Related
Concerns
• Independence and psychological status may
increase risk of:
• Obesity
• Anorexia nervosa
• Bulimia

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Preschooler • Eats adult food • Requires snacks between meals • Should be guided and
Preschooler
• Eats adult food
• Requires snacks between meals
• Should be guided and taught to use utensils
Adolescent • The adolescent’s need for nutrients and calories increases, particularly during the growth spurt.
Adolescent
• The adolescent’s need for nutrients and calories
increases, particularly during the growth spurt.
• Protein, calcium, vitamin D, iron, and B vitamins
increases during adolescence.
• Calcium: 1,200 to 1,500 mg/day may help decrease
osteoporosis in later life.
• Peak bone mineralization:
• 12.5 years in girls
• 14.0 years in boys
Young Adults • Female: maintain adequate iron intake of about 18 mg as well as
Young Adults
• Female: maintain adequate iron intake of about 18
mg as well as folate to prevent IDA
• Calcium, vitamin D and sum exposure
(15min3x/week) to prevent osteoporosis
• Low fat/low cholesterol
• Obesity and Hypertension are common
Middle-Aged Adult • Limit cholesterol and caloric intake • 2-3 liters of fluids • Post
Middle-Aged Adult
• Limit cholesterol and caloric intake
• 2-3 liters of fluids
• Post menopausal women: calcium, vitamin D to
reduce osteoporosis also antioxidants (vitamin A,
C, E) to prevent heart disease
• Note: Decreased Metabolism!

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Older Adults • Fewer calories are needed • More fiber • Decreased saliva and gastric
Older Adults
• Fewer calories are needed
• More fiber
• Decreased saliva and gastric juice may affect
nutrition
• Psychological, Emotional and Physical factors may
change eating habits