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John Deere Training

Course Workbook

Hydraulic Systems I – Module I


CSP-17-TW1QNP02
November 2011

Deere & Company Global Training Organization

Unpublished work © (2011) Deere & Company.


All Worldwide Rights Reserved.

THIS MATERIAL IS THE PROPERTY OF DEERE & COMPANY. ALL USE, ALTERATIONS, DISCLOSURE, DISSEMINATION
AND/OR REPRODUCTION NOT SPECIFICALLY AUTHORIZED BY DEERE & COMPANY IS PROHIBITED.
Table of Contents
Hydraulic Systems I – Module I

Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................................... 1


What is “Hydraulics”? ............................................................................................................................................ 2
Hydraulic Fluid Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 5
Introduction to Schematics .................................................................................................................................... 7

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 1


1
Lesson

What is “Hydraulics”?
Hydraulic Systems I – Module I

8 Principles of Hydraulics

Liquids have no shape of their own

Liquids are practically incompressible

Liquids transmit applied pressure in all directions, and


act with equal force at right angles to all surfaces

Liquids under pressure follow the path of least


resistance

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 2


Resistance to flow creates pressure

Flow across an orifice results in a pressure drop that


is directly proportionate to the flow and inversely
proportionate to the area of the orifice opening.

Hydraulic systems can provide great increases in


work force.

Energy put into a hydraulic system in the form of flow


under pressure will result in either work or heat.

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 3


Lesson 1 Review Questions
After you have completed the lesson, answer the following questions:

1. Flow across an orifice results in a ________________ that is directly proportionate to the flow and
inversely proportionate to the area of the orifice opening.
A. Pressure Drop
B. Pressure Increase
C. No Change in Pressure
D. Pressure Spike

2. Liquids under pressure follow the path of least resistance.


A. True
B. False

3. What causes pressure to build within a hydraulic system?


A. Resistance to flow
B. Pump speed
C. Hydraulic pump
D. Displacement of the hydraulic pump

NOTES:

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November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 4


Lesson

2
Hydraulic Fluid Requirements
Hydraulic Systems I – Module I

Use the sample oil information for a 5105M on the next page to answer the questions below:

1. What hydraulic oil should NOT be used in a 5105M used to move snow where temperature normally drop
below -13 F (-25 C)?
A. John Deere HY-GARD™
B. John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARD™
C. Oil meeting JDM-J20D standards

2. What hydraulic oil should NOT be used to move round bales in where temperatures normally exceed
95 F (35 C)?
A. John Deere HY-GARD™
B. John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARD™
C. John Deere BIO-HY-GARD™
D. Oil meeting JDM-J20C standards

3. How many days should BIO-HY-GARD™ take to break down by at least 80%?
A. 7 days
B. 14 days
C. 21 days
D. 28 days

4. Which of the following statements about viscosity are true?


A. All petroleum oils tend to become thin as temperature goes up, and to thicken as the temperature goes
down.
B. If viscosity is too low the possibility of leakage past seals and joints is increased.
C. Viscosity has an influence on a fluid's ability to lubricate moving parts
D. All of the above

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 5


Transmission and Hydraulic Oil

TS1660-UN: Transmission and Hydraulic Oil

Use oil viscosity based on the expected air temperature range during the period between oil changes.

The following oils are preferred:


John Deere HY-GARD™
John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARD™

Other oils may be used if they meet one of the following:


John Deere Standard JDM J20C
John Deere Standard JDM J20D

Use John Deere BIO-HY-GARD™ oil when a biodegradable fluid is required. [BIO-HY-GARD meets or exceeds
the minimum biodegradability of 80% within 21 days according to CEC-L-33-T-82 test method. BIO-HY-GARD
should not be mixed with mineral oils, because this reduces the biodegradability and makes proper oil recycling
impossible.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HY-GARD is a trademark of Deere & Company
BIO-HY-GARD is a trademark of Deere & Company DX,ANTI-19-20031107

5105M – omre282303

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 6


Lesson

3
Introduction to Schematics
Hydraulic Systems I – Module I

Lesson 3 Review Questions


After you have completed the lesson, answer the following questions:

1. What type of valve is indicated by the symbol shown?


A. Pressure relief valve
B. Flow control valve
C. Pressure reducing valve
D. Directional control valve

2. What does the symbol shown represent?


A. An electric motor
B. A fixed displacement motor
C. A variable displacement, pressure compensated pump
D. A non-positive displacement pump

3. What type of valve is indicated by the symbol shown?


A. 4 position – 3 way – open centered valve
B. 4 position – 4 way – closed center valve
C. 3 position – 4 way – open center valve
D. 3 position – 4 way – closed center valve

4. Pilot oil (control oil) is represented by a __________ line.


A. Dashed
B. Double
C. Solid
D. Center

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 7


Lesson

4
Applying basic principles
Hydraulic Systems I – Module I

Pascal’s Law Activity 1

Observe the system operating in “Neutral”. Answer the questions below:

1. What is the pressure when the system is in neutral?

____________________________

2. The pump in this system is putting out a constant oil flow. Where is the oil from the pump flowing
currently?
A. Into the bottom of the cylinder
B. Through the open centered control valve to the reservoir
C. Through the relief valve
D. Onto the ground

Click & hold the on the simulator to raise the load and observe what happens. Answer the questions
bellow:

3. When you move the directional control valve using the button, where does the oil from the pump flow?
A. Into the bottom of the cylinder
B. Through the open centered control valve to the reservoir
C. Through the relief valve to the reservoir
D. Onto the ground

4. What is the pressure when you are holding the button down?

____________________________

5. Does the cylinder move?


A. Yes
B. No

Continued on next page

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 8


Click the button on the simulator to increase the relief valve setting on the system. Now try raising the load
again and answer the questions below.

6. When you move the directional control valve using the button, where does the oil from the pump flow?
A. Into the bottom of the cylinder
B. Through the open centered control valve to the reservoir
C. Through the relief valve to the reservoir
D. Onto the ground

7. What is the pressure when you are holding the button down?

____________________________

8. What happens when the cylinder reaches the end of its travel?
A. Nothing changes
B. The pressure rises until the relief valve opens
C. The pressure forces the directional control valve to return to neutral
D. The pump stops turning

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 9


Pascal’s Law Activity 2

Click & hold the on the simulator to raise the load and observe what happens. Answer the questions
bellow:

1. When you move the directional control valve using the button, where does the oil from the pump flow?
A. Into the bottom of the cylinder
B. Through the open centered control valve to the reservoir
C. Through the relief valve to the reservoir
D. Onto the ground

2. What is the pressure when you are holding the button down?

____________________________

3. Does the cylinder move?


A. Yes
B. No

Click the button on the simulator to install a larger diameter cylinder. Now try raising the load again and
answer the questions below.

4. When you move the directional control valve using the button, where does the oil from the pump flow?
A. Into the bottom of the cylinder
B. Through the open centered control valve to the reservoir
C. Through the relief valve to the reservoir
D. Onto the ground

5. What is the pressure when you are holding the button down?

____________________________

6. Why does the load now raise without increasing the system pressure?
A. The load got lighter
B. The larger diameter cylinder has a larger area so it develops more force than the smaller cylinder
C. The pressure did increase

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 10


Causes of pressure Activity

1. Which Gauge will have the highest Pressure?


A. Gauge A
B. Gauge B
C. Gauge C

2. What will happen to the pressure at Gauge A when the needle valve is closed down, and when it is
opened up?
A. Closed down = decrease pressure / opened up = increased pressure
B. Closed down = increased pressure / opened up = decreased pressure
C. Pressure at A is unchanged with the adjustment of the needle valve

3. What will happen to the pressure at Gauge A when the motor load increases?
A. Decreased pressure
B. Increased pressure
C. Un-changed pressure

4. What component in the circuit will cause the pressure at gauge A to NOT be the same as what it is at
gauge B when oil is flowing?
A. The pump
B. The relief valve
C. The hose between gauge A and gauge B

5. If the needle valve is completely closed, what will we see on gauges A, B, and C?
A. Gauge A will have the highest pressure of the three gauges
B. Gauge C will have the highest pressure of the three gauges
C. All three gauges will have the same pressure

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 11


Flow Control Activity

Click the on the simulator to start the motor and observe what happens. Answer the questions
bellow:

1. When you move the directional control valve using the button, where does the oil from the pump flow?
A. Into the motor
B. Through the open centered control valve to the reservoir
C. Through the relief valve to the reservoir
D. Both A & C

2. What is the pressure when the motor is operating?

____________________________

Click the buttons on the simulator to adjust the flow control valve.

3. What happens to the motor speed as the flow control valve is opened?
A. Increases
B. Decreases
C. Stays the same
4. What happens to the pressure reading on the gauge as the flow control valve is opened?
A. Increases
B. Decreases
C. Stays the same

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 12


Series & Parallel Activity

Click the on the simulator to raise the cylinders and observe what happens. Answer the questions
bellow:

1. How are the cylinders currently connected to each other?


A. Series
B. Parallel

2. Which cylinder moves first?


A. The one with the lighter load
B. The one with the heavier load
C. Both move together at the same speed

Go to the second simulator. Operate the cylinders again and observe the operation. Answer the questions below:

3. How are the cylinders currently connected to each other?


A. Series
B. Parallel

4. Which cylinder moves first?


A. The one with the lighter load
B. The one with the heavier load
C. Both move together at the same speed

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 13


Lesson

5
Fixed Displacement Pumps
Hydraulic Systems I – Module I

Activity 1

Operate the simulated system paying attention to where the oil flow is going at all times. Draw arrows to indicate
where the oil is flowing in each picture below.

Neutral (no buttons pressed):

Holding down:

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 14


Holding down:

Activity 2
Operate the system and record the pressure & flow as it moves through each scenario below.

Pressure Flow
Neutral
Cylinder extending (moving)

Cylinder stalled & holding


Cylinder Retracting (moving)

Cylinder stalled & holding

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 15


Lesson 5 Review Questions
After you have completed the lesson, answer the following questions:

1. Describe the flow of a hydraulic system which uses a fixed displacement pump. Assume that the pump
RPM is continuously 1000 RPM.
A. Flow rate changes in direct relationship to increases in pressure
B. Flow rate does not change, even when cylinders are extended and retracted with differing loads
C. Flow rate changes as cylinders are extended and retracted
D. Flow rate changes only when the relief valve is opened

2. What component must be used on any system with a fixed displacement pump?
A. Relief Valve
B. Cylinder
C. Spool Valve
D. Pilot Valve

3. What will happen on a simple hydraulic system when all flow is stopped, causing the relief valve to
operate continuously?
A. The oil may become too hot
B. Something will be damaged; the pump drive shaft, a hose, or even a housing
C. No problems will happen
D. The relief valve must be adjusted

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 16


Lesson

6
Variable Displacement Pumps
Hydraulic Systems I – Module I

Lesson 6 Review Questions


After you have completed the lesson, answer the following questions:

1. What do we call the condition of the system when no functions are being used?
A. Standby
B. Stall
C. Relief
D. Sleeping

2. A load sensing system with a variable displacement pump will have a high standby pressure (close to the
stall pressure).
A. True
B. False

3. A non load sensing system with a variable displacement pump will have a high standby pressure (close
to the stall pressure).
A. True
B. False

November 2011 Hydraulic Systems I – Module I 17