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Jul 09, 2019

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic Guide Calculus

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Extension 1 mathematics calculus topic guide

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1 просмотров10 страницMathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic Guide Calculus

Extension 1 mathematics calculus topic guide

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

The Mathematics syllabuses are the documents used to inform the scope of content that will

be assessed in the HSC examinations.

Topic Guides provide support for the Mathematics Stage 6 courses. They contain information

organised under the following headings: Prior learning; Terminology; Use of technology;

Background information; General comments; Future study; Considerations and teaching

strategies; Suggested applications and exemplar questions.

Topic Guides illustrate ways to explore syllabus-related content and consequently do not

define the scope of problems or learning experiences that students may encounter through

their study of a topic. The terminology list contains terms that may be used in the teaching and

learning of the topic. The list is not exhaustive and is provided simply to aid discussion.

Please provide any feedback to the Mathematics and Numeracy Curriculum Inspector.

Revision date NA

Contents

Contents ................................................................................................................................ 2

Terminology .......................................................................................................................... 3

Subtopics .............................................................................................................................. 5

ME-C1: Rates of Change .................................................................................................................... 6

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic guide: Calculus, updated December 2018 Page 2 of 10

Topic focus

The topic Calculus involves the study of how things change and provides a framework for

developing quantitative models of change and deducing their consequences. It involves the

development of the connections between rates of change and related rates of change, the

derivatives of functions and the manipulative skills necessary for the effective use of

differential calculus.

related rates of change and developing the capacity to operate with and model situations

involving change, using algebraic and graphical techniques to describe and solve problems

and to predict outcomes with relevance to, for example the physical, natural and medical

sciences, commerce and the construction industry.

Prior learning

The material in this topic builds on content from the Number and Algebra strand of the

Mathematics K–10 syllabus, including the Stage 5.3 substrands of Ratios and Rates, Algebraic

Techniques, Surds and Indices, Equations, Linear Relationships and Non-Linear

Relationships.

Additionally, content in this topic links to and builds upon material from the Mathematics

Advanced syllabus, including the year 11 topics of Functions, Calculus and Exponentials and

Logarithms.

Terminology

acceleration ecosystem particle

carrying capacity exponential model population

chain rule exponential growth/decay population growth

composition of functions growth population growth constant

constant rate half-life population model

decay initial conditions position

depreciation initial value radioactive decay

differential equation limit rate of change

displacement modified exponential model related rate of change

distance Newton’s Law of Cooling velocity

Use of technology

Graphing calculators or graphing technologies are a suitable means of exploring many of the

concepts studied in this topic and their use is encouraged in teaching and learning.

In particular, graphing software is useful for modelling exponential growth and decay.

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic guide: Calculus, updated December 2018 Page 3 of 10

Background information

The development of calculus has significantly contributed to our understanding of motion and

dynamic change in the world around us. Following the work of Isaac Newton (1642–1727),

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) and many other mathematicians in developing the

foundations of calculus, there was a move in the 19th century to reform the way in which

calculus was taught. Of particular note was the work of Reverend William Ritchie (1790–1837)

as he endeavoured to make calculus more broadly accessible by using a more practical

presentation of calculus concepts. In 1836, his work Principles of Differential and Integral

Calculus was published and illustrated the use of related rates problems of similar nature to

those we use today. It is clear to see from the organisation of his work that he viewed practical

representations such as related rates problems to be essential and fundamental to the

presentation of calculus and covered this material prior to applications such as tangents,

normals, extrema etc.

Exploration of the calculus reform movements of the 19th century, such as the work of Ritchie,

Angustus De Morgan (1806–1871) and James Connell (1804–1846) may be of interest to

students. It is an engaging piece of history which showcases how the development of a field of

study and mathematical advances can be challenged through alternate approaches to make

the mathematics more accessible.

General comments

This topic extends students’ knowledge of differential calculus through the study of rates of

change, exponential growth and decay and related rates of change, which are important in

many practical applications and essential for many more advanced aspects of mathematics.

Students are required to develop a strong conceptual understanding of rates of change and

their use for describing the behaviour of variables in the physical world.

The study of the motion of a particle along the 𝑥-axis is the study of an abstract situation, but it

allows students to develop mathematical knowledge, skills and understanding that may be

applied later in more complex contexts, describing the behaviour of real objects in real time.

Cross-curricular links are encouraged in relation to this topic area, with the obvious links to

science subjects, but also to environmental studies and to commerce and finance.

understanding the behaviour of the system. Students will not be expected to derive the

𝑑𝑁

solution to the differential equation 𝑑𝑡

= 𝑘𝑁, but they should know that the function 𝑁 = 𝐴𝑒 𝑘𝑡 ,

with 𝐴 = 𝑁(0), satisfies this differential equation.

Future study

Students need to ensure that they can efficiently describe and interpret situations involving

rates of change with respect to time, growth and decay and related rates of change to solve

problems and facilitate work in later topics.

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic guide: Calculus, updated December 2018 Page 4 of 10

Subtopics

ME-C1: Rates of Change

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic guide: Calculus, updated December 2018 Page 5 of 10

ME-C1: Rates of Change

Subtopic focus

The principal focus of this subtopic is for students to solve problems involving the chain rule

and differentiation of the exponential function, and understand how these concepts can be

applied to the physical and natural sciences.

Students develop the ability to study motion problems in an abstract situation, which may in

later studies be applied to large and small mechanical systems, from aeroplanes and satellites

to miniature robotics. Students also study the mathematics of exponential growth and decay,

two fundamental processes in the natural environment.

Review of the following may be needed to meet the needs of students:

˗ Gradient of a function and difference quotients in practical contexts; derivatives and

their graphs – This relates to content covered in Mathematics Advanced topic MA-C1

(C1.2, 1.3, 1.4).

𝑑𝑄

The rate of change of some physical quantity 𝑄 is defined as . This can be justified by

𝑑𝑡

𝑄(𝑠)−𝑄(𝑡) 𝑑𝑃

considering lim 𝑠−𝑡 . The rate of change of the population 𝑃 of a town defined as 𝑑𝑡

or

𝑠→𝑡

𝑑𝑉

the rate of change of the volume of water in a container defined as could be used as

𝑑𝑡

examples.

In answering questions on rates of change, students should be encouraged to draw

𝑑𝑄

sketches of 𝑄 and 𝑑𝑡 as functions of 𝑡 wherever possible.

Examples should be kept as mathematically simple as possible, with the emphasis on

understanding the behaviour of the system.

Velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement with respect to time, and

acceleration as the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.

The notations 𝑥̇ and 𝑥̈ should be introduced and used.

Examples should concentrate on simple applications, including physical descriptions of the

motion of a particle given its distance from an origin, its velocity or its acceleration as a

function of time.

The significance of ‘negative’ displacements, velocities and accelerations should be

clearly understood, including the four cases:

(i) 𝑣 > 0, 𝑎 > 0

(ii) 𝑣 > 0, 𝑎 < 0

(iii) 𝑣 < 0, 𝑎 < 0

(iv) 𝑣 < 0, 𝑎 > 0.

To avoid ambiguity, if a question requires the greatest magnitude of displacement, of

velocity, or of acceleration, then the term ‘greatest magnitude’ should be used. For

example, 2 > −4, but the magnitude of a velocity of – 4 is greater than the magnitude of a

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic guide: Calculus, updated December 2018 Page 6 of 10

velocity of 2.

A particle is moving along the 𝑥 axis. Its velocity 𝑣 at position 𝑥 is given by

𝑣 = √10𝑡 − 𝑡 2 . Find the acceleration of the particle when 𝑡 = 4.

A cooler, which is initially full, is drained so that at time 𝑡 seconds the volume of water 𝑉 ,

𝑡 2

in litres, is given by 𝑉 = 25 (1 − ) for 0 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ 60.

60

(b) After how many seconds was the cooler one-quarter full?

(c) At what rate was the water draining out when the cooler was one-quarter full?

Students could initially sketch the curve 𝑦 = 𝐴𝑒 𝑘𝑡 for various values of 𝐴 and 𝑘, both

positive and negative.

Let 𝑁 be the number of individuals in a population. Note that 𝑁(𝑡) is a function of time.

Assume that the birth and death rates at any one time are proportional to 𝑁, so that the

𝑑𝑁

rate of change of population is given by 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑘𝑁.

In a particular context, 𝑘 is assumed to be constant and is called the ‘growth rate’. The

value of 𝑘 may be different for different species or locations. Whilst the value of 𝑘 is often

𝑑𝑁

given as a percentage, in 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑘𝑁, 𝑘 should be expressed as a decimal or fraction.

If 𝑘 > 0, the birth rate is larger than the death rate, while if 𝑘 < 0 the birth rate is smaller

than the death rate. If for a particular species the birth and death rates are equal, then

𝑘 = 0, 𝑁 is constant and the population is static.

𝑑𝑁

Derivation of the solution of 𝑑𝑡

= 𝑘𝑁 is not required.

The idea of an ‘initial population’, 𝑁(0) should be introduced and that 𝐴 = 𝑁(0) is the

initial value of 𝑁.

In exponential decay, the time taken for the initial quantity to halve is called the ‘half-life’.

ln 2

When the population has reached twice its size, 2𝐴 = 𝐴𝑒 𝑘𝑡 , leading to 𝑡 = . This is

𝑘

called the ‘doubling-time’. The population will double again, to 4𝐴, when another doubling-

time has passed, and so on. This can be used to sketch the function.

The same equation, 𝑓(𝑡) = 𝐴𝑒 𝑘𝑡 , describes both exponential growth and exponential

decay. The value of 𝑘 will be positive for growth and negative for decay. Some students

may prefer to use 𝑓(𝑡) = 𝐴𝑒 −𝑘𝑡 for decay, in which case 𝑘 is positive.

Students should understand the limitations of the exponential growth model in real-world

situations.

𝑑𝑁

When considering 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑘(𝑁 − 𝑃) and 𝑁(𝑡) = 𝑃 + 𝐴𝑒 𝑘𝑡 , note that when 𝑃 > 0, 𝑘 < 0, and

𝐴 < 0, the initial value of 𝑁 (which is 𝑃 + 𝐴) will be less than 𝑃. The graph of 𝑁

approaches the limiting value of 𝑃 from below.

The question arises as to why some populations 𝑁(𝑡) would grow according to the rule

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic guide: Calculus, updated December 2018 Page 7 of 10

𝑑𝑁 𝑑𝑁

𝑑𝑡

= 𝑘𝑁 and others according to the rule 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑘(𝑁 − 𝑃). The role of the environment

could be considered. In the latter case, 𝑃 might represent a natural ‘carrying capacity’ for

the ecosystem, and as 𝑁 approaches 𝑃 B, the lack of space and food limits the growth of

the population and the rate of change becomes smaller.

While the concept of exponential growth is often applied above to populations, it could

equally well be applied to depletion of natural resources, industrial production, inflation etc.

It should be noted that ‘Newton’s law of cooling’ also applies to bodies that are placed in

surroundings that are warmer than the initial temperature of the body, so that the body

becomes warmer.

Examples from science (radioactive decay, carbon dating, rates of chemical reactions,

absorption of light in water, biodegradability, loss of moisture from food, depletion of

resources), finance (such as situations examples involving continuous compounding,

where the instantaneous rate of increase due to compounding at rate 𝑟 is proportional to

𝑑𝑃

the principal 𝑃 held at time 𝑡, that is 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑟𝑃) and other practical situations should be

given.

The growth rate of a population of bacteria is 10% of the population. At 𝑡 = 0, the

population is 1.0 × 106 . Sketch the graph of population against time and determine the

population after 3.5 hours, correct to four significant figures.

Note: The term ‘growth rate per hour’ is a widely used method of indicating that the time

is to be measured in hours. The value of 𝑘 is not a measure of an average rate of

increase over a period of one hour; rather, it indicates the instantaneous rate of increase

of the population.

On an island, the population in 1960 was 1732, and in 1970 it was 1260. Find the annual

growth rate to the nearest percent, assuming it is proportional to the population. In how

many years will the population be half of what it was in 1960?

Professor Smith has a colony of bacteria. Initially there are 1000 bacteria. The number of

bacteria, 𝑁(𝑡), after 𝑡 minutes is given by 𝑁(𝑡) = 1000𝑒 𝑘𝑡 .

(a) After 20 minutes there are 2000 bacteria. Show that 𝑘 = 0.0347 correct to four

decimal places.

(b) How many bacteria are there when 𝑡 = 120?

(c) What is the rate of change of the number of bacteria per minute, when 𝑡 = 120?

(d) How long does it take for the number of bacteria to increase from 1000 to 100 00?

One model for the number of mobile phones in use worldwide is the exponential growth

model, 𝑁 = 𝐴𝑒 𝑘𝑡 , where 𝑁 is the estimate for the number of mobile phones in use (in

millions), and 𝑡 is the time in years after 1 January 2008.

(a) It was estimated that at the start of 2009, when 𝑡 = 1, there were1600 million mobile

phones in use, while at the start of 2010, when 𝑡 = 2, there will be 2600 million. Find 𝐴

and 𝑘 .

(b) According to the model, during which month and year will the number of mobile

phones in use first exceed 4000 million?

A salad, which is initially at a temperature of 25o C, is placed in a refrigerator that has a

constant temperature of 3o C. The cooling rate of the salad is proportional to the difference

between the temperature of the refrigerator and the temperature, 𝑇, of the salad. That is, 𝑇

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic guide: Calculus, updated December 2018 Page 8 of 10

𝑑𝑇

satisfies the equation 𝑑𝑡 = −𝑘(𝑇 − 3), 𝑘 > 0 where 𝑡 is the number of minutes after the

salad is placed in the refrigerator.

(a) Show that 𝑇 = 3 + 𝐴𝑒 −𝑘𝑡 satisfies this equation.

(b) The temperature of the salad is 11°C after 10 minutes. Find the temperature of the

salad after 15 minutes.

A suitable starting point is the revision of the chain rule, using a variety of pronumerals for

the variables.

If a diagram is constructed as part of solving a problem, care needs to be taken to

correctly identify (and label accordingly) fixed and varying quantities.

A ferry wharf consists of a floating pontoon linked to a jetty by a four-metre long walkway.

Let ℎ metres be the difference in height between the top of the pontoon and the top of the

jetty and let 𝑥 metres be the horizontal distance between the pontoon and the jetty.

(b) When the top of the pontoon is one metre lower than the top of the jetty, the tide is

rising at a rate of 0.3 metres per hour. At what rate is the pontoon moving away from

the jetty?

A spherical balloon is being deflated so that the radius decreases at a constant rate of

10 mm per second. Calculate the rate of change of volume when the radius of the balloon

is 100 mm.

A spherical bubble is expanding so that its volume increases at the constant rate of

70 mm3 per second. What is the rate of increase of its surface area when the radius is

10 mm?

A hot air balloon is at a constant height of 160 metres above the ground, and moving

parallel to the ground at a speed of 20 metres per minute. Find the rate at which the

balloon is moving away from an observer on the ground at the time when the distance

from the observer to the balloon is 400 metres.

Note that the equation to set up is 𝑟 2 = 1602 + 𝑥 2 , where 𝑟 is the straight-line distance and

𝑥 is the horizontal distance of the observer to the balloon. Then, it may be easier to use the

𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝑥

chain rule to get 2𝑟 = 2𝑥 rather than make 𝑟 the subject and differentiate

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

1

𝑑𝑟 1 𝑑𝑥

𝑟 = √1602 + 𝑥 2 to get 𝑑𝑡 = (1602 + 𝑥 2 )−2 2𝑥 .

2 𝑑𝑡

The diagram shows two identical circular cones with a common vertical axis. Each cone

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic guide: Calculus, updated December 2018 Page 9 of 10

has height ℎ cm and semi-vertical angle 45°.

The lower cone is completely filled with water. The upper cone is lowered vertically into

𝑑𝑙

the water as shown in the diagram. The rate at which it is lowered is given by = 10,

𝑑𝑡

where 𝑙 cm is the distance the upper cone has descended into the water after 𝑡 seconds.

As the upper cone is lowered, water spills from the lower cone. The volume of water

remaining in the lower cone at time 𝑡 is 𝑉 cm3 .

𝜋

(a) Show that 𝑉 = (ℎ3 − 𝑙 3 ).

3

(b) Find the rate at which 𝑉 is changing with respect to time when 𝑙 = 2.

(c) Find the rate at which 𝑉 is changing with respect to time when the lower cone has lost

1

of its water. Give your answer in terms of ℎ.

8

Mathematics Extension 1 Year 11 Topic guide: Calculus, updated December 2018 Page 10 of 10

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