Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT (2019)

DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKS


VARANASI – 221004, UTTAR PRADESH

SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO:

HEMANT VISHWAKARMA
TECHNICAL TRAINING
B.TECH (3rd year) CENTRE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DLW, VARANASI
BABU BANARASI DAS
UNIVERSITY
FAIZABAD ROAD, LUCKNOW
ACKNOWLEGMENT

Summer training has an important role in exposing the real life situation
in an industry. It was a great experience for me to work on training at
Diesel Locomotive Works through which I could learn to work in a
professional environment.

I would sincerely like to thank the employees and the officers of DLW,
Varanasi for their help and support during the vocational training.
Despite their bus schedules, they look time out for us and explained to
us the various aspects of the working of the plant from the production
shops.

I would sincerely like to thank Vocational Training In charge of Technical


Training Centre (TTC) and SSEs and JEs of Engine Erection
Shop(EES), Heavy Machine Shop(HMS), Heavy Welding Shop(HWS)
and Sheet Metal Shop(SMS) who was instrumental arranging the
vocational training at DLW, Varanasi, and without whose help and
guidance the training could not have materialize.

I express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Ram Janm Chaubey


(Principal of TTC) for given me such a great opportunity.
ABSTRACT

The objectives of the practical training are to learn something about


industries practically and to be familiar with the working style of a
technical person to adjust simply according to the industries
environment.

It is rightly said practical life is far away from theoretical one. We learn in
the class room can give the practical exposure real life experience no
doubt they help in improving the personality of the student, but the
practical exposure in the field will help the student in long run of life and
will be able to implement the theoretical knowledge.

As a part of academic syllabus of four year degree course in Mechanical


Engineering, every student is required to undergo a practical training.

I am the student of third year mechanical engineering and this report is


written on the basis of practical knowledge acquired by me during the
period of training taken at Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi.
TABLE OF CONTENT

A. INTRODUCTION
B. HISTORY OF DIESEL LOCOMOTVE WORKS
C. PRODUCT OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORK
D. DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKS (DLW)
E. LINE DIAGRAM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE
F. DIESEL ENGINE
G. THE MAIN PARTS OF DIESEL ENGINE
H. MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION
I. WORKSHOPS

1. ENGINE ERECTION SHOP(EES)


1.1. STATIONS OF ENGINE ERECTION SHOP(EES)
1.2. WASHING
1.3. DEBARRING
1.4. PAINTING
1.5. PISTON ASSEMBLY
2. HEAVY MACHINE SHOP(HMS)
2.1. OPERTATIONS
2.2. TOOLS USE
2.3. EX-CELLO ANGULAR BORING MACHINE
2.4. H.M.T. ANGULAR BORING MACHING
2.5. MAIN PART OF CYLINDER BLOCK (B.G.& M.G.)
2.6. HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE
2.7. ANGULAR BORING MACHINE
3. HEAVY WELDING SHOP (HWS)
3.1. INTRODUCTION
3.2. SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
3.3. MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING
3.4. MIG WELDING
3.5. SEQUENCE OF FAABRICATION OF ENGINE BLOCK
4. SHEET METAL SHOP (SMS)
4.1. INTRODUCTION
4.2. CNC BENDING MACHINE
4.3. CNC PUMCHING MACHINE
4.4. CONVENTIONAL BENDING MACHINE
4.5. SHEET METAL HAND TOOL
4.6. MATERIAL USED

COCLUSION
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION:
Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) is production unit under the ministry of
railways. This was setup in collaboration with American locomotive company
(ALCO) USA in 1961 and the first locomotive was rolled out in 1964. This unit
produces diesel electronic locomotives and DG sets for Indian railways and
other customers in India and Abroad.

Subsequently a contract for transfer of technology of 4000 HP Microprocessor


Controlled AC/AC Freight (GT 46 MAC) / passenger (GT 46 PAC) locomotives
and family of 710 engines has been signed with electro motive division of
general motor of USA for manufacture in DLW. the production of these
locomotives has now started and thus DLW is the only manufacturers of
Diesel Electric Locomotives with both ALCO and General motor technologies
in the world.

HISTORY OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKS:


The Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) in Varanasi, India, is a production unit
owned by Indian Railways, that manufactures diesel-electric locomotives and
its spare parts. It is the largest diesel-electric locomotive Manufacture in India.
Locally it is abbreviated as D.L.W. It is located in the Manduadih area on the
outskirts of the metropolitan city of Varanasi.
Diesel Locomotive Works is an ISO 9002 certified manufacturer of diesel
electric locomotive and is one of the biggest industrial complexes in eastern
part of the country. Diesel Locomotive Works was set up in 1961 with technical
collaboration from M/s. ALCO/USA with a modest beginning of manufacturing
4 locos 1964, today DLW is the largest Diesel Locomotive manufacturer in the
world, and the largest in Asia. In order to capture export market & widen its
product range. Indian railway entered in to a contract for Transfer of
Technology (TOT) with M/s. General Motors, USA for manufacture of 4000 HP
state of the art locos at DLW. After assimilation of this technology, DLW will
become the only factory in the world capable of producing ALCO as well as
General Motors designs of locomotives.
DLW is only manufacture of diesel –electric locomotive with both ALCO and
GENERAL MOTORS Technologies in the world. DLW exports locos to
SRILANKA MALAYSIA, BANGLADESH, TANZANIA, VIETANNAM.
PRODUCT OF DLW:

DLW is an integrated plant and its manufacturing facilities are flexible in


nature. these can be utilized for manufacture of different design of
locomotives of various gauges suiting customer requirements and other
products. the product range available is as under. :

o WDG4 4000 HP AC/AC Freight traffic Locomotive


o WDP4 4000 HPAC/AC Broad Gauge High Speed
Locomotive
o WDG3D 3400 HP AC/AC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Micro-
Processor Controlled Locomotive.
o WDM3C 3300 HP AC/DC Broad Board Gauge Mixed Traffic
Locomotive.
o WDM3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic
Locomotive.
o WDP3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge High Speed
Passenger Locomotive.
o WDG3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Freight Locomotive.
o WDM2 2600 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic
Locomotive.
o WDP1 2300 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Intercity Express
Locomotive.
o WDM7 2150 HP DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic
Locomotive.
o WDM6 1350 HP DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic
Locomotive.
o WDS6 1350 HP AC/DC & DC/DC Broad Gauge Shunting
Locomotive.
o YDM4 1350 HP AC/DC & DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed traffic
Locomotive.
o EXPORT LOCO 2300 HP AC/DC Meter Gauge/Cape gauge
Mixed Traffic Locomotive.
o Diesel Generating Sets 800 KW to 2500 KW
o Spare Parts fot engines, locomotives and generating sets

DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORK (DLW) :

The modern diesel locomotive is a self contained version of the electric


locomotive. Like the electric locomotive, it has electric drive, in the form of
traction motors driving the axles and controlled with electronic controls. It also
has many of the same auxiliary systems for cooling, lighting, heating, braking
and hotel power (if required) for the train. It can operate over the same routes
(usually) and can be operated by the same drivers. It differs principally in that
it carries its own generating station around with it, instead of being connected
to a remote generating station through overhead wires or a third rail. The
generating station consists of a large diesel engine coupled to an alternator
producing the necessary electricity. A fuel tank is also essential. It is
interesting to note that the modern diesel locomotive produces about 35% of
the power of a electric locomotive of similar weight.

LINE DIAGRAM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE

Figure 2: Schematic of diesel electric locomotive showing the main parts of a standard US design.
Diagram: Author.
DIESEL ENGINE:

This is the main power source for the locomotive. It comprises a large cylinder
block, with the cylinders arranged in a straight line or in a V. The engine
rotates the drive shaft at up to 1,000 rpm and this drives the various items
needed to power the locomotive. As the transmission is normally electric, the
engine is used as the power source for the alternator that produces the
electrical energy to drive the locomotive.

MAIN ALTERNATOR:

Main alternator which provides the power to move the train. The alternator
generates AC electricity which is used to provide power for the traction motors
mounted on the trucks (bogies). In older locomotives, the alternator was a DC
machine, called a generator. It produced direct current which was used to
provide power for DC traction motors. Many of these machines are still in
regular use. The next development was the replacement of the generator by
the alternator but still using DC traction motors. The AC output is rectified to
give the DC required for the motors. For more details on AC and DC traction,
see the Electronic Power Page on this site.

AUXILIARY ALTERNATOR:

Locomotives used to operate passenger trains are equipped with an auxiliary


alternator. This provides AC power for lighting, heating, air conditioning,
dining facilities etc. on the train. The output is transmitted along the train
through an auxiliary power line. In the US, it is known as "head end power" or
"hotel power". In the UK, air conditioned passenger coaches get what is called
electric train supply (ETS) from the auxiliary alternator.
MOTOR BLOWER:

The diesel engine also drives a motor blower. As its name suggests, the motor
blower provides air which is blown over the traction motors to keep them cool
during periods of heavy work. The blower is mounted inside the locomotive
body but the motors are on the trucks, so the blower output is connected to
each of the motors through flexible ducting. The blower output also cools the
alternators. Some designs have separate blowers for the group of motors on
each truck and others for the alternators. Whatever the arrangement, a
modern locomotive has a complex air management system which monitors the
temperature of the various rotating machines in the locomotive and adjusts the
flow of air accordingly.

AIR INTAKES:

The air for cooling the locomotive's motors is drawn in from outside the
locomotive. It has to be filtered to remove dust and other impurities and its
flow regulated by temperature, both inside and outside the locomotive. The air
management system has to take account of the wide range of temperatures
from the possible +40°C of summer to the possible -40°C of winter.

RECTIFIERS/INVERTORS:

The output from the main alternator is AC but it can be used in a locomotive
with either DC or AC traction motors. DC motors were the traditional type
used for many years but, in the last 10 years, AC motors have become
standard for new locomotives. They are cheaper to build and cost less to
maintain and, with electronic management can be very finely controlled. To
see more on the difference between DC and AC traction technology try
the Electronic Power Page on this site.

To convert the AC output from the main alternator to DC, rectifiers are
required. If the motors are DC, the output from the rectifiers is used directly. If
the motors are AC, the DC output from the rectifiers is converted to 3-phase
AC for the traction motors.

In the US, there are some variations in how the inverters are configured. GM
EMD relies on one inverter per truck, while GE uses one inverter per axle -
both systems have their merits. EMD's system links the axles within each truck
in parallel, ensuring wheel slip control is maximized among the axles equally.
Parallel control also means even wheel wear even between axles. However, if
one inverter (i.e. one truck) fails then the unit is only able to produce 50 per
cent of its tractive effort. One inverter per axle is more complicated, but the GE
view is that individual axle control can provide the best tractive effort. If an
inverter fails, the tractive effort for that axle is lost, but full tractive effort is still
available through the other five inverters. By controlling each axle individually,
keeping wheel diameters closely matched for optimum performance is no
longer necessary. This paragraph sourced from e-mail by unknown
correspondent 3 November 1997.

ELECTRONICS CONTROL:

Almost every part of the modern locomotive's equipment has some form of
electronic control. These are usually collected in a control cubicle near the cab
for easy access. The controls will usually include a maintenance management
system of some sort which can be used to download data to a portable or
hand-held computer.

CONTROL STAND:

This is the principal man-machine interface, known as a control desk in the UK


or control stand in the US. The common US type of stand is positioned at an
angle on the left side of the driving position and, it is said, is much preferred by
drivers to the modern desk type of control layout usual in Europe and now
being offered on some locomotives in the US.
CAB:

The standard configuration of US-designed locomotives is to have a cab at


one end of the locomotive only. Since most the US structure gauge is large
enough to allow the locomotive to have a walkway on either side, there is
enough visibility for the locomotive to be worked in reverse. However, it is
normal for the locomotive to operate with the cab forwards. In the UK and
many European countries, locomotives are full width to the structure gauge
and cabs are therefore provided at both ends.

BATTERIES:

Just like an automobile, the diesel engine needs a battery to start it and to
provide electrical power for lights and controls when the engine is switched off
and the alternator is not running.
TRACTION MOTOR:

Since the diesel-electric locomotive uses electric transmission, traction motors


are provided on the axles to give the final drive. These motors were
traditionally DC but the development of modern power and control electronics
has led to the introduction of 3-phase AC motors. For a description of how this
technology works, go to the Electronic Power Page on this site. There are
between four and six motors on most diesel-electric locomotives. A modern
AC motor with air blowing can provide up to 1,000 hp.

PINION/GEAR:

The traction motor drives the axle through a reduction gear of a range between
3 to 1 (freight) and 4 to 1 (passenger).

FUEL TANK

A diesel locomotive has to carry its own fuel around with it and there has to be
enough for a reasonable length of trip. The fuel tank is normally under the
loco frame and will have a capacity of say 1,000 imperial gallons (UK Class
59, 3,000 hp) or 5,000 US gallons in a General Electric AC4400CW 4,400 hp
locomotive. The new AC6000s have 5,500 gallon tanks. In addition to fuel,
the locomotive will carry around, typically about 300 US gallons of cooling
water and 250 gallons of lubricating oil for the diesel engine.

AIR RESERVOIRS

Air reservoirs containing compressed air at high pressure are required for the
train braking and some other systems on the locomotive. These are often
mounted next to the fuel tank under the floor of the locomotive. The air
compressor is required to provide a constant supply of compressed air for the
locomotive and train brakes. In the US, it is standard practice to drive the
compressor off the diesel engine drive shaft. In the UK, the compressor is
usually electrically driven and can therefore be mounted anywhere. The Class
60 compressor is under the frame, whereas the Class 37 has the compressors
in the nose.

DRIVE SHAFT

The main output from the diesel engine is transmitted by the drive shaft to the
alternators at one end and the radiator fans and compressor at the other end.

GEAR BOX :

The radiator and its cooling fan is often located in the roof of the locomotive.
Drive to the fan is therefore through a gearbox to change the direction of the
drive upwards.

RADIATOR AND RADIATOR FAN:

The radiator works the same way as in an automobile. Water is distributed


around the engine block to keep the temperature within the most efficient
range for the engine. The water is cooled by passing it through a radiator
blown by a fan driven by the diesel engine. See Cooling for more information.

TURBO CHARGING:

The amount of power obtained from a cylinder in a diesel engine depends on


how much fuel can be burnt in it. The amount of fuel which can be burnt
depends on the amount of air available in the cylinder. So, if you can get more
air into the cylinder, more fuel will be burnt and you will get more power out of
your ignition. Turbo charging is used to increase the amount of air pushed into
each cylinder. The turbocharger is driven by exhaust gas from the engine.
This gas drives a fan which, in turn, drives a small compressor which pushes
the additional air into the cylinder. Turbo charging gives a 50% increase in
engine power.

The main advantage of the turbocharger is that it gives more power with no
increase in fuel costs because it uses exhaust gas as drive power. It does
need additional maintenance, however, so there are some type of lower power
locomotives which are built without it.

16 CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE:


It is an internal-combustion engine in which heat caused by air compression
ignites the fuel. At the instant fuel is injected into a diesel engine’s combustion
chambers, the air inside is hot enough to ignite the fuel on contact. Diesel
engines, therefore, do not need spark plugs, which are required to ignite the
air-fuel mixture in gasoline engines. The Diesel engine has 16 cylinders.
Pistons inside the cylinders are connected by rods to a crankshaft. As the
pistons move up and down in their cylinders, they cause the crankshaft to
rotate. The crankshaft’s rotational force is carried by a transmission to a drive
shaft, which turns axles, causing mechanical output. Eight 8V and four 2V
Batteries are used in series to run a more powerful starter motor, which turns
the crankshaft to initiate ignition in a diesel engine for the first time

.
SAND BOX:

Locomotives always carry sand to assist adhesion in bad rail conditions. Sand
is not often provided on multiple unit trains because the adhesion
requirements are lower and there are normally more driven axles.

MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION:

A diesel-mechanical locomotive is the simplest type of diesel locomotive. It


has a direct mechanical link between the diesel engine and the wheels instead
of electric transmission. The diesel engine is usually in the 350-500 hp range
and the transmission is similar to that of an automobile with a four speed
gearbox. Other parts are similar to the diesel-electric locomotive but there are
some variations and often the wheels are coupled.

.
WORKSHOPS:

These are the workshops in DLW plant.

i. HWS ii. HMS


iii. LMS iv. ROTOR
v. HTS vi. SAS
vii. EES viii. ET
ix. LFS x. SMS
xi. TMS xii. PS
xiii. LTS x iv.LPS
xv. TR xvi.TAS
xvii. MA-I xviii. MA-II
xii. MA-II xx. MA-II
xxi. MSS xxii. MRS
xxiii .CMT LAB xxiv. ELECT.LAB

These all work in coordination in the overall fabrication of engine and then
finally locomotive.

ALLOTED WORKSHOP:
I was allotted the following workshop to perform my vocational training.
1. EES. ( Engine Erectiom Shop)
2. HMS (Heavy Machine Shop)
3. HWS (heavy Welding Shop)
4. SMS (Sheet Metal Shop)
The following slides deals with what I have learnt during My training in these
workshop.
1.ENGINE ERECTION SHOP (EES)

Assembly of engine is carried out on four stations in this shop. Pre-inspected


components link Crank Shaft , OST shaft, Oil Pan, Cam shaft, Power
assembly, Turbo supercharger, Exhaust manifold etc. are mounted on
crankcase and oil pan. All bolts and nuts are tightened at predefined torque
value. During assembly, all the important parameters i.e. various clearances
gear backlashes, Exhaust valve setting, Injector timing and Injector rack
setting etc are being maintained as per design specification.

This shop mainly deals with the fabrications of the engine block and the
base(B.G. & M.G.) Turbo support. There are mainly components which are
assembled. Some of them are listed below:
Assembly of the major components of the Locomotive engine
1. Lube oil container (base)
2. Crankshaft and Crankcase
3. Governor and Double Fuel filter
4. Strainer
5. Double water circulator
6. Flywheel
7. OST shaft
8. Rocker arm
9. Alternator
10. Turbo Supercharger

1.1 STATIONS OF THE ENGINE ERECTION SHOP

There are seven sections in this shop from 01 to 07 action have two or three
section as given below:
 Station No. 1 to 4 in section 01
 Station No. 5,6,6A and 6B are in section 02 to 03
 Station No. 7 to 12 are section 04 to 07
 Station No. 1 to 4 – Washing, debarring, and painting.
 Station No.5 – Cam Shaft bush fitting cylinder head stud driving linear
sleeve and linear pressing and water testing
 Station No.6A – Piston assembly
 Station No.6B – Crank Shaft assembly
 Station No.6 – Piston assembly head, exhaust manifold, water
connection, air elbows, nozzle and water header pipe fitting
 Station No. 7 to 9 – Lowering engine block, oil catcher, generator, lube
pump and water pump fitting oil
 Station No. 10 – Cam shaft, gears, control shaft, turbo super cooler, oil
seal, turbo super charger application
 Station No.11 & 12 – Fuel pump support, valve leaver, governor
application, piping, fuel oil header, valve gear header, tubes, high
pressure pipe, lube oil strainer, spray nozzle and governor pipes
application etc.

1.2 WASHING

In this section M.G. and B.G. blocks are washing after the welding
process is completed.

1.3 DEBARRING

It is to ensured that he complete welding is free of any spatter welding defects


and sharp corrosion of important welded joint have been ground then the
cylinder block is marked and handled over the machining operation to HMS

1.4 PAINTING

After the washing of M.G. & B.G. blocks are painting on painting shop.
After the assembling of all components on engine and testing of engine the
painting process is over on painting shop.

1.5 PISTON ASSEMBLY

Piston assembly head, exhaust manifold, air elbows, nozzle and water
header pipe fitting. Cam shaft, gears, control shaft assembly, gear
application, valve lever.
Lowering engine block, oil catcher, generator, lube pump, water pump
fitting oil fuel pump support, valve lever, governor. Piping(fuel pump
support) fuel of oil header, valve gear header.

Fig. Piston Cylinder


2. HEAVY MACHINE SHOP (HMS)
This shop carries out the machining of Cylinder. BLOCK (M.G. & B.G.)
main base, saddler Main bearing caps, Splines, Turbo Super Charger,
Lube Oil, Fuel Oil & Water header) com bearing housing.

OPERATION:

Planning, Milling, Drilling, Tapping, Boring Honing, Serration milling etc.


Types of Machine provided in the shop are :
Double Housing planned machine (32”, 24’, & 16’).
Radial drilling machine.
Radial drilling machine Traveling type.
Boring Machine
Angular Boring Machine (Ex-cello)
Tracer Planner machine.
Hill Acme knocking structural milling machine.

TOOLS USE :

1. O.K. Tool (Rough & Finish)


2. C.C. Milling cutter (4”, 9”, & 10”)
3. Boring Tipped Tool (Rough & Finish)
4. Honing Stone (For hand honing)
1. Drill, Reamer, Top (Various Seizer)
2. Serration Cutter.
MEASURING INSTRUMENT

1. Dial Bar gauge


2. Micron meter (outside and depth)
3. Vernier Height gauge.
4. Vernier calipers
5. Mandrill or optical shad rill machine

EX-CELLO ANGULAR BORING MACHINE :

Motor R.P.M. in constant, Spindle, speed is control by clutch system.

H.M.T. ANGULAR BORING MACHINE :

Spindle speed is directly controlled through motor. (Coated carbide is


used in H.M.T. angular Boring machine)
Cylinder. Block made of fabricated class II material except main bearing
cop as it made class IV material.
The machining of cylinder Block is complicated and challenging job. It
required great skill and knowledge. After duly fabricated, stress relieved
and shot blasted the block is subjected to layout to ensure availability of
adequate machining allowance, where necessary and to provide guide
liner for subsequent machining the weight of the block is 6.02 Tons
approx. (Fabricated Material)
After completion of all operations as per drawings the black subjected to
inspection in addition to stage inspection dimension live radial distance
between center of Crank bore and com bore, distance between center of
com bore and liner seat etc. are checked at this stage the weight of the
black is 05.02 tons approx. 01 ton of material removed by the machining
and than blank is block send for assembly.
Main parts of the Cylinder Block (B.G.)

(I) Foundation Rail (R.S. AND L.S.)


(II) Saddle ( 9 Nos)
(III) Spline
(IV) Inner well (R.S. and L.S.)
(V) Other well (R.S. and L.S.)
(VI) Top deck (Middle)
(VII) Top deck (R.S. and L.S.)
(VIII) Side sheet (R.S. and L.S.)
(IX) Com bearing (16 Nos)
(X) Cop (9 Nos.)
(XI) Rib (16 Nos.)
(XII) Bottom Deck. Or Middle deck
(XIII) Fuel self comport.

Main parts of the Cylinder Block (M.G.)

1. Foundation Rail (R.S. and L.S.)


2. Saddle – 7 Nos. (One Center)
3. Top deck
4. Middle deck.
5. Side sheet (R.S. and L.S.)
6. Cam. Bearing 6 Nos.
7. Cap – 7 Nos.
8. Ribs – 10 Nos.
9. Fuel self comport.
10. Inner wall (R.S. and L.S.)
HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE:

A horizontal boring machine or horizontal boring mill is a machine


tool which bores holes in a horizontal direction. There are three main
types table, planer and floor.[1] The table type is the most common and,
as it is the most versatile, it is also known as the universal type.
A horizontal boring machine has its work spindle parallel to the ground
and work table. Typically there are three linear axes in which the tool
head and part move. Convention dictates that the main axis that drives
the part towards the work spindle is the Z axis, with a cross-traversing X
axis and a vertically traversing Y axis. The work spindle is referred to as
the C axis and, if a rotary table is incorporated, its centre line is the B
axis.
Horizontal boring machines are often heavy-duty industrial machines
used for roughing out large components, but there are high-precision
models too. Modern machines use advanced computer numerical
control (CNC) systems and techniques. Charles DeVliege entered the
Machine Tool Hall of Fame for his work upon a highly precise model,
which he called a JIGMIL. The accuracy of this machine convinced
the United States Air Force to accept John Parson's idea for numerically
controlled machine tool.

MW : (No): 2155 & Mw No. : - 2154


Cam and Crank.
Boring of cylinder block crank and cam.
Method:

Load the block on fixture. For checking weather there is any gap Or not
put the filler of size 0.001” to 0.0015” inside location pad. If there is No
gap then start work otherwise tight The fixture and recheck till no gap
situation.

Boring of Cam Bore:


(LS & RS):-
This is done in three steps:

Rough Bore: -

Do this in one pass R.P.M.: 35 Feed: 6 mm/min.

Semi Finish Boring:

Do this in one pass R.P.M.: 35 Feed: 6 mm/min.

Finish Boring :

Pass No. Bore No. RPM Feed


1 1,4,7,10
2 2,5,8 224 25 mm/min
3 3,6,9

Boring of Crank Bore:


This is also in three steep.
Rough Boring: Do this in three pass.

Pass No. Bore No. RPM Feed


1 1,4,7 14 15 mm/min
2 2,5,8
3 3,6,9

Finish Boring:
Do in one pass
R. P. M.: 140 Feed: 25 mm/min
Tool:

Two tools are used for boring both tools are fixed in slot of boring bar.
Due to spindle rotation boring is done. Tool movement and machine
action is governed by G Code and M Code respectively. Absolute mode
and incremental modes are used for tool movement. Single point cutting
tool (two) is first fitted in devise block then in boring bar.

Cutting Oil:
Boring finishing operation cutting oil is used for smooth operation

Fixture: J/F No. : FB (E) 15/2

Different –
Different tools are used in different step of Boring! Crank:-
Rough Boring : 8.880”
Semi Finish Boring : 8-997”
Finish Boring : 9.035”

Cam:
Rough Boring : 4.700”
Semi finish boring: 4.720”
Finish Boring: 4.750”
Maximum removal of metal takes place in rough for making thrust
(cutting)
Tool size: 10”
RPM: 14
Feed: 22.86 mm/min
Tool material used in rough and semi finish boring is high speed steel
and in finish boring amended carbide.

Angular Boring Machine:-

Angular boring "V" boring is done of special purpose machine which is a


special purpose machine, which has two high precision angular boring
bars on which different boring inserts are mounted
.
Angular boring "V" boring is done of special purpose machine which is a
special purpose machine, which has two high precision angular boring
bars on which different boring inserts are mounted. The cutting inserts on
boring bars to achieve evenly distributed cutting load during boring operation.
This contributes to accuracy while machining. Boring bars are mounted on
high precision bearings which provide control on size during angular boring. The
machine is capable of boring and drilling to different sizes.

MW.No. : 1263
Angular Boring
Boring of Top deck bore and middle deck bore:-

Method:

Load the block on fixture. For checking weather there is any gap or not
put the filler of the size 0.001” to 0.0015” inside location pad. If there is
no gap then start work otherwise tight the fixture and recheck till no gap
situated.
Boring of Top deck Bore:
Tool:

There are 18 tools are used. I tool in each side. Each are adjusted
automatically for rough cut and finish cut. During rough cut, finish tool
remains idle and during finish cut, rough tool remains idle. 7 tools are
fixed in each side in boring bar and two are replaced according to
demand of boring.

Different tools which are used are as follows:


1. MID Counter insert No.- TPUN-160308
2. Rough-mm-190612(weight)190616(yellow)
3. Linear seat rough TNMG 220412
4. T/D Chamber P.G. 002( only for 1263m/c)
5. Micro boring tool OOC No. 10A2LB
6. Counter insert wide no. – PNUN-160402
7. T.I.D. counter No. (rough)-1263(NC)TN-28(TNUN 220412)
8. 2187 M/C- MIS Counter No. TNMM-160406
3. HEAVY WELDING SHOP

This shop mainly deals with the fabrication of the engine block and base
(B.G. & M.G.) Turbo support. After cooler housing items. The engine
block is the principal, structural member of the diesel engine. It is
composite weld melt with heavy plates thickness varying from 16 mm to
75 mm and steel forgives conforming to specification is 2062. The spine
being the most highly stressed item as we can say spine of the cylinder
block is made out of one piece bitted 5‖x 7‖ thickness confirming to is
1895. The billet foundation plate and cylinder walls are built around the
steel forging saddles to form the air chambers which ensure the
maximum rigidity for successful fabrication of cylinder block special
attention is paid to the following aspects cylinder block special attention
is paid to the following aspects.
1. Inspection standard
2. Proper materials
3. Proper electrodes and flux
4. Proper welding technique
5. Welfare of staff SEQUENE OF FABRICATION

3.1 INTRODUCTION OF HEAVY WELDING SHOP IN DLW

In the DLW there are three types of welding used in HWS. The welding quality
of DLW is very high quality. After the machining process we can’t say
that this piece is not single piece.
1. Submerged arc welding
2. Manual metal arc welding
3. MIG welding
3.2 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING:
Submerged-arc welding (SAW) involves the formation of an arc between
a continuously fed electrode and the workpiece . A blanket of powdered
flux, which generates a protective gas shield and a slag (and may also
be used to add alloying elements to the weld pool), protects the weld
zone.

A shielding gas is not required. The arc is submerged beneath the flux
blankets not normally visible during welding.

SAW is normally operated in the automatic or mechanized mode,


however, semi-automatic (hand-held) SAW guns with pressurized or
gravity flux feed delivery are available. The process is normally limited to
the flat or horizontal-fillet welding positions (although horizontal groove
position welds have been done with a special arrangement to support
the flux). Deposition rates approaching 45 kg/h (100 lb/h) have been
reported — this compares to ~5 kg/h (10 lb/h) (max) for shielded metal
arc welding. Although currents ranging from 300 to 2000 A are
commonly utilized, currents of up to 5000 A have also been used
(multiple arcs).
Single or multiple (2 to 5) electrode wire variations of the process exist.
SAW strip-cladding utilizes a flat strip electrode (e.g. 60 mm wide x
0.5 mm thick). DC or AC power can be used, and combinations of DC
and AC are common on multiple electrode systems. Constant
voltage welding power supplies are most commonly used; however,
constant current systems in combination with a voltage sensing wire-
feeder are available.
3.2 MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING:
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), also known as manual metal arc
welding (MMA or MMAW), flux shielded arc welding[1] or informally
as stick welding, is a manual arc welding process that uses a
consumable electrode covered with a flux to lay the weld.
An electric current, in the form of either alternating current or direct
current from a welding power supply, is used to form an electric
arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined. The workpiece
and the electrode melts forming a pool of molten metal (weld pool) that
cools to form a joint. As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode
disintegrates, giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and
providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area from
atmospheric contamination.
Because of the versatility of the process and the simplicity of its
equipment and operation, shielded metal arc welding is one of the
world's first and most popular welding processes. It dominates other
welding processes in the maintenance and repair industry, and
though flux-cored arc welding is growing in popularity, SMAW continues
to be used extensively in the construction of heavy steel structures and
in industrial fabrication. but , nickel and copper alloys can also be welded
with this method.
3.3 MIG WELDING:
MIG welding is an arc welding process in which a continuous solid wire
electrode is fed through a welding gun and into the weld pool, joining the
two base materials together. A shielding gas is also sent through the
welding gun and protects the weld pool from contamination. In fact, MIG
stands for metal inert gas. The technical name for it is gas metal arc
welding (or GMAW), and the slang name for it is wire welding.
The MIG process enables the home-hobbyist, artist, farmer/rancher,
motorsports enthusiast or DIY welder to make most types of fabrication
and maintenance/repair welds on material from 24-gauge up to 1/2-inch
thick. In addition to flexibility, many people turn to MIG welding because
they've heard that it's an easy process to learn. Some claim it's no harder
to use than a glue gun. While it's not quite that simple, it is true that most
people can become competent MIG welders by following some basic
advice.

3.4 SEQUENE OF FABRICATION OF ENGINE BLOCK:

1. Set up of saddles foundation plates and spine on special fixture and


weld saddles spine founded on rails.
2. Set up welding of out side cylinder wall.
3. Set up of middle dock (Tack welded) with respect to target.
4. Remove can bearing shim from saddle face.
5. Intermediate machining operation remark in middle deck and chamber
at top of spline.
6. Set up of inside wall and deck welded with spline.
7. Lay out of plane height.
8. Intermediate machining operation Machine height of outside wall and
inside wall with respect to marking and camber.
9. Set up of top deck (Both side) and lifter block (G.E. side only) for
filament of eye bolt and tack weld.
10.All inside (8x2 Beal welds) welding in done by sub are method.
11.Back gauging of saddle to foundation rail joint.
12. Lay out for bearing.
13. Setup for cam bearing with respect to pay out Si No.12.
14.Welding of the cam bearing and saddle with foundation rail bottom
side (back gauge portion)
15. Set up of cam bearing rids and weld.
16. Say out for 8‖ machining.
17. Intermediate machining operation.
18. Flame cut counter of foundation plate to give relief clearance to free
movement of counter with respect to crank shaft.
19. Set up of the side sheets and sub arc weld of side sheets and top
deck.
20. Set up of full control compartment sheet and weld.
21. Intermediate machining operation mills both and to lay out for end
plates considering total length and machining allowance.
22. Hydrostatic test of water compartment.
23. Set up of top end plates and weld.
24. Set up of top deck center and weld.
25. Stress relieving weld melt.
26. Kerosene oil test for control shaft compartment.
27. Shot plaster.
28. Final debarring.
Note: Saddle outside and inside walls foundation rail are x ray joints.
4. SHEET METAL SHOP (SMS)

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In this shop flat sheets are cut, bent and converted into desired shape
and size and are used in the construction of rail engine. Usually mild
steel plate are used. Generally the thickness of plates used in the
construction of rail engine are lies between 6 mm to 30 mm.

In the conversation of flat plate into desired shape and size many
machines are used.
Some machines are as follows :

4.2 CNC BENDING MACHINE

It is also known as CNC press brake machine. It is computerized


machine. It works on hydraulic pressure. The bed length of this machine
is 3 meter, capable to bend plate up to 6 mm.
Power generated by this machine is 200 tonnes.
If plate is on x mm die will be of 8X mm.

4.3 CNC PUNCHING MACHINE

The machine carried 44 tools. And capable to punch in 2 mm o 3 mm


plate. This machine can’t be operated in open atmosphere because raise
in heat takes place during punching. Hence it can be operated only in air
conditioning room. Only mild steel plate are used for punching.
Computer numerically controlled (CNC) punching is a sheet metal
manufacturing process that is carried out by CNC punch presses. These
machines can be either a single head and tool rail (Trumpf) design or
multi-tool turret design. The CNC punching machine is basically
programmed to move a sheet of metal in an x and y direction so as to
accurately position the sheet under the machine’s punching ram ready to
punch a hole or form.

4.4 CONVENTIONAL BENDING MACHINE

A bending machine is a forming machine tool (DIN 8586). Its purpose is


to assemble a bend on a work piece. A bends is manufactured by using
a bending tool during a linear or rotating move. The detailed
classification can be done with the help of the kinematic.

It is also known as heavy bending machine, operated usually, has bed


length of 5 meter. This machine can be generate power of 650 tonnes.
Thickness of plates operated on this machine of 50 mm.
4.5 SHEET METAL HAND TOOL

1 Measuring tools
a. Steel rule
b. Folding rule
c. circumference
d. Vernier caliper
e. Micrometer
f. Thickness Gauge
g. sheet metal gauge

2.Straight edge
I. Scriber
II. Divider trammel
III. Punches
IV. Chisel
V. Hammers
VI. Snips or shears
VII. Piers
VIII. Stakes
IX. Groovers
X. Soldering iron

4.6 MATERIAL USED

A. STAINLESS STEEL
 It is an alloy of an steel with chromium (min.10-12%), nickel
and some other materials.
 Good corrosive resistance
 Good weldability
 Cost is very high
 Tougher than GI sheets

B. GALVENISED IRON
 It is an Zn coated iron
 Popularly known as GI sheets
 Zn coating : resist rusting, permit to be soldered at greater
ease,
C. ALUMINIUM
D. BLACK IRON
CONCLUSION

Working on this project was a pleasure for me as I learned lot of things which
was unknown to me before doing this project. I worked in Engine Erection
Shop(EES), Heavy Machine Shop(HMS), Heavy welding Shop(HWS) and
Sheet Metal Shop(SMS) my job description includes regular updating status to
know about all related to Production Unit, Diesel Generating sets and their
spares for Indian Railways and Non-Railways customer.

I tried to give my best effort on this project but it could be better if I would have
theoretical knowledge about workshops before taking this project. As this topic
was new to me and due to time constraint I was not able to though each and
every procedure.

The mechanical maintenance department is responsible for the running of


DLW. It ensures that all the machinery and equipment are running at their top
performance level without being affected by failure and breakdown. Working
with the engineers of mechanical maintenance department I have gained such
an amount of knowledge which would not have been possible n a classroom in
a similar period time.

Also the practical experience I have gained in DLW, VARANASI gave me


knowledge of to what extent my theoretical knowledge forms the base of
practical knowledge required on the field. Although the theoretical knowledge
form the base of practical knowledge required on the field. The field job also
require some different set of skills which I learnt about during my training.

My skills in mechanical engineering has definitely been taken to a higher level


than it was when I first joined the training program of 4 week back and I truly
consider myself highly fortunate to get this opportunity.
REFERENCES:

 www.wikipedia.in/dlw
 www.powershow.comview706e8
 www.google.com/dlw
 www.slideshare.in/summerreport
 www.scribd.in/dlw
 www.IndianRailways.com/introducton546