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External works

The term ‘external works’ describes services provided or works carried on the external or
environment of a building project to provide conveniences to the occupiers of the building
and its environment at large . BRE (Building Research Establishment) describes external
works as: All items outside the building footprint but inside the site boundary, encompassing
wastewater and surface water drains, supply of utilities (e.g. gas, electricity and cabled
services), footpaths, and access for vehicles including car parks and hard standings to be
found in the vicinity of buildings.

Categories of External Works

Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors’ (RICS) New Rules of Measurement Part 3 (NRM3)
offers guidance on external works which it categorises as:

1. Site preparation works.

2. Roads, paths, pavings and surfacings.
3. Soft landscaping, planting and irrigation systems.
4. Fencing, railings and walls.
5. External fixtures.
6. External drainage.
7. External services.
8. Minor building works and ancillary buildings.

1. Site Preparation Works

Before construction works begin, the site clearance and preparatory ground works are
necessary. These may include:

a. Removal of any vegetation including roots.

b. Levelling of the site to a roughly even gradient or modelling the site to create a
desired form.
c. Setting out and trench lines laid out according to the building footprint.
d. Establishing site offices, welfare facilities, storage, access routes, and so on.

2. Roads, Paths, Pavings, and Surfacings

It is common for the external areas around buildings to require hard standing areas and
surfacing features for use by workers, pedestrians and vehicles. These may include:

a. Pavings, kerbs, and edging.

b. Asphalt or block surfacing to driveways, footpaths, car parks and roads.
c. Timber decking, handrails and balustrades.
d. Patios, platforms and so on, typically constructed from concrete or concrete paving

3. Soft Landscaping, Planting and Irrigation Systems

Softscape or soft landscape includes all types of plant life, from flowers and trees to shrubs
and groundcover. It naturally changes and evolves over time, driven by the climate, time of
year and other conditions. Careful consideration should be given to the amount of
maintenance that these elements will require to stay in good order.

Irrigation systems for gardens and external areas can be used to automate the process of
watering. The most common forms are drip irrigation systems that precisely releases water to
the roots of plants, and a micro spray system that deliver a fine spray of water over a defined
area. The benefit of installing such systems is their efficiency, delivering a water-use
reduction of up to 90% compared to a traditional garden hose.

4. Fencing, Railings and Walls

These can be used to stop or cut down any unwanted pedestrian or vehicular access, to
provide privacy, to give delineation between areas and so on. They can be low level such as
wooden palisade fencing, or high level such as security fencing with concrete or metal posts
and wire mesh. Wrought iron fencing can be finished with spikes or pointed designs, and
features such as razor wire and anti-climb paints used to reduce scalability.

There may be a requirement for retaining walls to prevent ground slippage or heave.

5. External Fixtures

These are fixtures that may be installed for functional or aesthetic purposes outside the
building. The most common examples include:

a. Bollards

Used as an alternative to fencing to restrict vehicular access and as segregation between

pedestrians roads.

b. Street furniture

This includes benches, bins, cycle stands, tree guards, lighting, signage, and so on. Within a
town or city environment the layout and manufacture of these features may be used to create
a period theme; for example, cast iron benches in a Victorian theme. Stainless steel or wood
may be used in more contemporary or natural designs or to aid durability.

c. Shelters

These may be required to enhance external environments. Bespoke shelters are often supplied
by manufacturers for a range of purposes, from smoking shelters for office buildings, to cycle
shelters, bus shelters, sports shelters and so on.
6. External Drainage

a. Foul drainage

Above-ground pipework is referred to as sanitary pipework, whilst underground pipework is

referred to as foul drainage and sewers. Both carry the used water from toilets, sinks, basins,
baths, showers, bidets, dishwashers and washing machines.

b. Surface water drainage

This carries water from rain, condensation and melted snow/ice from structures. The above-
ground guttering and rainwater pipes are referred to collectively as roof drainage. The
underground pipework is referred to as surface water drains and surface water sewers.

c. Sustainable urban drainage systems

Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are systems designed to efficiently manage the
drainage of surface water in the urban environment. They provide an alternative to, or
addition to, traditional drainage systems where surface water is drained directly and quickly
into underground piped drainage. SUDS may include; filter strips and drains, swales,
permeable surfaces, basins and ponds, underground storage, wetlands and so on.

7. External Services

External services might include:

a. Water mains supply.

b. Electricity mains supply and distribution.
c. External transformation devices (wind turbines, solar panels, satellite dishes).
d. Gas mains supply.
e. Telecommunications and other communication system connections.
f. Fuel storage and piped distribution systems.
g. External security systems.
h. Site/street lighting systems.
i. Irrigation systems.
j. Local/district heating installations.

Ensuring that utilities are supplied to developments is vitally important, not just for the
completed development, but also for the construction process itself. Developers will need to
ensure that existing site information is obtained, and surveys carried out to determine the
position, extent and capacity of existing services. They will need to agree with the provider,
the design of any new infrastructure that is required, who will provide it, who will adopt it,
and any charges, as well as the appropriate testing, inspection, certification, connection (or
disconnection), installation of meters and so on.

The costs associated with utilities can be significant, both in terms of the initial capital cost of
installation (particularly if there is no existing supply or if the existing supply is inadequate)
and ongoing bills during operation. It is important therefore to ensure that the best deal is
being obtained from providers and that alternative quotes are obtained if possible.
During mobilisation for construction, the contractor will need to arrange for the necessary
water, power and telecommunications services to enable the site to function.

8. Minor Building Works and Ancillary Buildings

There may be a requirement for buildings to serve the site during the course of the
construction works, these are generally removed upon completion, such as storage facilities,
sanitary conveniences, washing facilities, changing rooms and lockers, canteens, site offices
and so on.

Minor building works might also include works such as underpinning existing buildings and

Function of External Works.

a. Preservation of the environment
b. Solid and liquid waste management
c. Contributing to air purification
d. Provision of an aesthetically pleasing environment
e. Provision of good landscape environment that positively influence the psychology and
mood of people.
f. Providing an outdoor recreation.
g. Encouraging social interaction.
h. To ensure proper circulation for both pedestrian and vehicular movements around the

i. To drain surface water efficiently

j. To provide security to buildings

Fencing is used to form boundaries between lands of different occupiers.

Functions of fencing
Fences and hedges are used in building to provide:
a. Security
b. Excluding the view of the building surrounding from outside
c. It limits the accessibility to the building to the specified or accepted entrance
d. Fences are used to form boundary land of different occupiers

Factors That Influence the Choice of Fence

a. Appearance
b. Durability
c. Maintenance and initial cost
d. Effectiveness

Types of Fence
a. Palisade fence
b. Chain link fence
c. Closed boarded fence
d. Post & rail fencing

a. Palisade Fence
This consists of concrete and posts supporting two or three arris (pre-treated sawn timber) or
triangular rails, according to the height of the fence, and vertical pales or palisades.

b. Chain Link Fence

These are widely used as they are economical and form a very effective boundary, although
their appearance is not very attractive. The chain link consists of a diamond-shaped mesh
with average mesh size of 50 mm and average 3 mm diameter finished with a galvanized or
plastics coating or using aluminium wire. The chain link is tied with wire to mild steel line
wires of 2.5 to 4.75 mm diameter. Posts may be reinforced concrete, steel or wood. The line
wires are pulled tight with straining fittings at straining posts and intermediate posts are
provided at intervals not exceeding 3 m. The sizes of the posts vary with the height of the

c. Close-Boarded Fence
These are both attractive and effective but have an initial high cost. The posts may be of
concrete or timber or steel. They should be 600 to 750 mm in the ground. The timber used
should have weathered tops and mortices to receive rails. They are normally spaced at 3 m
interval. The rails are usually triangular in section. The boarding usually consists of vertical
pales about 100 mm wide. The pales are nailed to the rails with 50 mm galvanized nails. A
horizontal gravel board is often fixed below the pales to prevent their bottoms from being in
contact with the ground with the liability to decay.

d. Wooden Post and Rail Fence

This type of fence consists of posts with pointed bottoms for the purpose of driving. The rails
are often rectangular in section. This type of fence have reasonable durability and is also
attractive and of moderate cost. However, they do not provide effective division as people,
animals and objects can pass through it.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) defines a road as "a
line of communication using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public
traffic, primarily for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels, "which
includes" bridges, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions, crossings, interchanges, and toll
roads, but not cycle paths.

Road Construction
Road construction requires the creation of an engineered continuous right-of-way or roadbed,
overcoming geographic obstacles and having grades low enough to permit vehicle or foot
travel and may be required to meet standards set by law or official guidelines. The process is
often begun with the removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting, construction of
embankments, bridges and tunnels, and removal of vegetation (this may involve
deforestation) and followed by the laying of pavement material.
Storm drainage and environmental considerations are a major concern therefore erosion and
sediment controls are constructed to prevent detrimental effects. Drainage lines are laid with
sealed joints in the road easement with runoff coefficients and characteristics adequate for the
land zoning and storm water system.
However, sizes of road are determined by the purpose for which the road is been built.
Examples includes

a. Normal Estate Road: it is characterized by a width of about 5m and can be increased

to 6m where a large volume of traffic is to be carried.
b. Large Housing Estate: it is characterized by a width of about 6m and can be increased
to 7m where a large volume of traffic is to be carried.
c. Private Drives and Access to Garage: it is characterized by a width 2.5m- 3.0m wide.

Longitudinal gradient must be kept within reasonable limits such as 1 in 20 and 1 in 250. If
the gradient is too flat it will be difficult to remove the surface water, and if it is too stiff it
becomes difficult to negotiate in snowing and frosting weather. Vertical curves must be
designed to provide a suitable parabolic curve linking the two gradients, with the levels
normally determined at 6.0m intervals. Roads can be constructed with a chamber or a cross

The road construction method can be broadly sub divided into two main groups:
a. Rigid road: constructed of concrete road slab
b. Flexible road: consisting of stone base with a surfacing of tar or bitumen coated

Factors affecting road construction

a. Types of sub grade
b. Liability to subsidence (settlement of the soil)
c. Initial cost
d. Maintenance cost
e. Appearance
f. Resistance to wear
g. Non-skid qualities

It is a line of stone or concrete forming an edge between a pavement and a roadway, so that
the pavement is some millimetre above the level of the road
The most common form of kerbs is in pre-cast to B5 3406 and may incorporate Portland,
blast furnace or high aluminium silicate and a natural stone or slag (aggregate) and it may be
Manufacturing process includes:
a. Cast vibrate
b. Hydraulically pressed (HP)
However hydraulically pressed produces the strongest kerbs. Precast- concrete kerbs are
900mm along and in four (4) standard sections.
a. Bullnosed (with 15-19mm radius edge)
b. Splayed (75mm deep by 75mm wide)
c. Half battered (100mm deep)
d. Half section (half battered) (HB)

Functions of kerbs
a. Resist lateral thrust to carriageways
b. To define carriage limit
c. To direct the flow of surface water
d. To support and protect foot path and verges
Footpath (Pathways)
Footpath and path area can be constructed with variety of materials and the choice will be
determine largely by such factors as:
a. Initial cost
b. Maintenance cost
c. Appearance
d. Wearing properties
e. Non-skid properties

Materials used for footpath construction include the following

a. Precast concrete paving slab
Advantage: Non-skid; Good appearance; Hard bearing
Disadvantage: Expensive in initial cost and mantle cost; Can soon been dangerous with slight
settlement; Easily damaged by vehicles mounting kerbs.

b. In-situ concrete
Advantage: Reasonably cheap; Can be coloured; Reasonably hard bearing if concrete of good
quality is used; Reasonably non-skid.

c. Bituminous Macadam or Tar Macadam

Advantage: Reasonably priced; Hardwearing; Non-slip; Flexible; Fairly easily maintained;
Reasonable appearance
Disadvantage: Periodic surface dressing required; Need path edging at back of path
d. Asphalt
Advantage: Good appearance; Hardwearing; Reasonably Non-slip; Fairly easily maintained
Disadvantage: Fairly expensive; Path edging at back of path.

The width of a footpath may vary from 1.35m – 1.8m in housing estate and may increase to
as much as 6.0m in shipping centres.

Septic Tank or Sewage Treatment Plant

A small sewage treatment plant consists of septic tank and filter bed. The foul water is first
drained to the septic tank usually large enough for 48hrs flow in which the solid organic
matters are broken down by the action of anaerobic bacteria and in which the solid organic
matters settle to the bed of the tank hard water forms on the surface of the liquid as scum in
the septic tank as a subsequence of the bacterial action. This scum is an effective seal
between the liquid and the air in the tank.
In operation a septic tank is like a cesspool, as in both, solid matters settle to the bed of the
chamber. The term septic tank and cesspools are often interchanged. The liquid from the
septic tank drains to the filter bed designed to expose the liquid to as large an area of air as
possible, where the action of anaerobic bacteria breakdown the residual organic compound by
oxidation. The resulting purified liquid is then discharged to a river or stream or to soak away
or nearby land. For efficient operation this septic tank plant needs regular attention.

Necessary care in use

a. The sludge should be collected from the bed of the septic tank in about a six monthly
and carted away or used as fertilizer.
b. The filter medium of the filter bed should be washed every year. The treatment plant
may be built of either bricks in concrete bed or of precast concrete.

Functions of septic tank

a. Settlement of solid
b. Floatation of grease
c. Storage of sludge
d. Decomposition of effluence
e. Discharge of methane and other gases
f. Anaerobic decomposition of accumulated organic matters.

Inspection Chamber (IC) and Manhole

The IC is purposely made for inspecting, testing and clearing of blockage in the underground
It is a fabric-lined pit for drain function and change of direction or gradient in a drain line. It
is built where blockage in drain line can be opened.
The IC provides access to inspect the flow in the drain line and if necessary, it could serve as
a means of testing drain lines. The traditional clay drainpipes were liable to blockage due to
misalignment of many joints or fractures of the pipes, and their rigid cement joint, and there
was therefore advantage in constructing IC at fairly frequent intervals. Today the use of pvc
pipes reduces that problem associated with the traditional clay pipes.
An IC is a small shallow clause sufficient to clear blockage from above the ground; while a
manhole is a deeper chamber, large enough for man to go into clear blockage.
Inspection Chamber

sssConstruction process of Inspection chamber

An inspection chamber is formed on 150mm concrete base on which brick walls can be laid.
A half round channel or “invert” laid on the bed takes the discharge from the branches drain.
The wall of the chamber are made of dense engineering bricks; if less dense bricks are used,
then the chamber is rendered to facilitate cleaning, and sometimes rendered outside to prevent
the infiltration of ground water. The IC is completed with cast iron cover or reinforced
concrete slab cover.
The word ‘invert’ is used to describe the lowest level of the inside of a channel in an I.C or
the lowest point of the inside of drainpipe. The measurement to the invert of a drain is used to
determine the gradient of the drain.

Types of drainages
a. Separate system
b. Combined system

Subsoil drainage include: grid system, fan system, mot system. Etc.

Drains can be classified using the materials from which they have been made into the
a. Block work drain
b. Concrete drain
c. Rubble drain

Members of the Building Team & Their Functions

a. Client
b. Architect
c. Quantity Surveyor
d. Consulting Engineers
e. Contractor
f. Clerk of Works
g. General Foreman
h. Sub-contractor
i. Suppliers

a. Client
The employer or the client is one of the parties to any contract, the client is also referred to as
the building owner. The client/employer may be the government, an agent of the government,
a corporate body, an institution, a group of persons or an individual. He is the one who
commissions the construction project and bears responsibility for the cost of the work. In
order to ensure that his interests are safe-guarded. The employer will offer ready assistance to
various consultant who would act on his behalf from inception to the completion of the

b. Architect
Traditionally the architect is usually regarded as the leader of the building team since, he is
the one that normally receives the commission to design and supervise the whole of the work
of his client. However, since the whole concept of designing and constructing building
project is an enormous task, the architect would often require the assistance of several other
members of the building team to be able to perform his role.

Functions of the Architect include the following:

1. Interpretation of the client’s brief as well as helping the client to evolve the brief
2. Preparation of the preliminary and detailed design
3. Supervision of works during construction, including ensuring that the work is carried
out in accordance with the contract document.
4. Arranging the contract, preparation of tender document and obtaining quotation or
tenders from the contractors
5. Liaising with the statutory and planning bodies, other consultants and obtaining
planning permission
6. Coordinating the activities of everyone involved in the project.

In building contracts, the architect wields considerable power and responsibilities,

example of such powers and/or responsibilities are:

7. Certifying payments to the contractor.

8. Issuing variation orders and other instructions when necessary
9. Directing how professional sums are to be spent
10. Nomination of sub-contractors and suppliers

However, it is important to note that the architect is not only a professional adviser to the
client but also an agent of the client, thus much of the success or failure of a project will
largely depend on the way the architect carries out his functions.

c. Consulting Engineers
This includes structural and services engineers who are normally commissioned by the client
through the architect to carry out the design, preparation of the relevant tender documents,
obtaining quotations or tenders and supervision during construction of certain specialized
areas of building projects. For example, structural works, mechanical and engineering
installations such as lifts, air conditioning installations etc, and electrical engineering
The architect’s knowledge and experience in this area of the works are usually insufficient to
cover this function especially on large and complex building projects hence they require the
assistance of such consultants.

d. Quantity Surveyor
The quantity surveyor is a member of the building team who by the nature and background of
his professional training performs the following functions.
The quantity surveyor is concerned with the cost and measurement aspects of building
He advises the architect on the cost implications of design decisions, prepares cost estimates
and other tender particulars. He values the work done, sometimes for phases of the project as
maybe required, assesses the effect of variations and finally prepares the final account with
which the architect certifies final payment.
1. Preparation of bill of quantities
2. Preparation of cost estimates
3. Cost planning
4. Preparation for tender documents
5. Advises on suitable tendering procedures and contract arrangements
6. Examination of tender documents
7. Valuation of work in progress
8. Provides advice on financial implications
9. Preparation of final accounts
10. Preparation of cost analysis of a completed project
11. Cost control

e. Others Consultants
These includes the landscape architect, interior designer and decorators, acoustic consultants
etc. Their services may be engaged in a building project to advise the architect, design and
undertake other responsibilities in their areas of specialization from inception to completion.

f. Clerk of Works
The clerk of works is appointed by the building owner or the architect. He acts as an
inspector for the employer under the direction of the architect. He is therefore an agent of the
client. The clerk of works is usually a craft operative with a wide experience and knowledge
of building works whom the architect delegates some of his supervisory responsibilities to.

Functions of the Clerk of Works

The functions of the clerk of works include the following
a. Inspection and supervision of the work on site to ensure that they comply with the
contract document and the architect.
b. Recording and agreeing details of the works below ground.
c. Signing of labour and material sheets for day works and fluctuation purpose. He
checks to see that the amount of labour and number of hours shown on the labour
sheet and the quantity of materials indicated on the material sheet are correct,
d. Carryout other task or responsibility as the architect may require.

Main Contractor
The main contractor is the other party in a building contract who undertakes to carryout and
complete the works in accordance with the contract document within an agreed period. In
addition, the contractor is responsible for and should co-ordinate all operations on the site,
including those of the sub-contractors.
The contractor is expected to comply with all statutory requirements of building regulations;
he is also required to take measures against fire, natural disasters and possible injuries to lives
and property.
Any person or persons acting, as a main contractor should possess the necessary facilities,
resources and expertise required to carryout construction work.

Sub - Contractors
Sub-contractors are employed in building contract projects to undertake specialist works for
the following reasons:
1. Where it is felt that a cheaper and higher standard of workmanship could be achieved
2. Where the main contractor is not sufficiently capable of carrying out such specialist
Works, examples which include
a. Piling work,
b. Mechanical installations,
c. Plumbing installation,
d. Electrical installation, and
e. Erection of structural steel works.

Sub-contractors are usually of two types

1. Nominated sub-contractors
2. Domestic sub-contractors
Nominated sub-contractors are appointed directly by the client or the architect.
Domestic sub-contractors are employed by the main contractor on his own initiatives.
Usually a sub-contract will be entered between the main contractor and the nominated sub-

Suppliers in any building project are those firms, manufacturers, persons who provide and
deliver building materials and components to the site but are not responsible for fixing or
incorporating them into the project.
A contract is an agreement entered by two or more parties, whereby one of the parties
undertakes to do something in return for something to be undertaken by the other.

Types of Building and Civil Engineering Contracts

There are a variety of employer/ contractor relationships and the choice will be influenced
considerably by the circumstances.

Types of building contracts:

1. Cost plus percentage contracts are those in which the contractor is paid the actual
costs of the work plus an agreed percentage of the actual or allowable cost to cover
overheads and profits.
2. Cost plus fixed fee contracts are those in which the sum paid to the contractor will be
the actual cost, incurred in carrying out the work plus fixed lump sum, which has been
previously agreed upon and does not fluctuate with the final cost of the work.
3. Cost plus fluctuating fee contracts are those in which the contractor is paid the actual
cost of the work plus fee, the amount of the fee being determined by reference to the
allowable cost by some form of sliding scale as a result of fluctuation and variation.
4. Direct Labour is such that the client deals directly with labour himself, he buys the
materials and pays the wages of the labour.
5. Piece Work is that which the contractor gets paid for units built.
6. Target Cost is when a limit or ceil is put to the cost of construction.
7. Turnkey is the contract type where the client sits back and while the contractor
carries out his duties and gets paid upon completion of the project.
8. Design and Build constitute a specialized form of contractual relationship in which
responsibility for design as well as construction is entrusted to the contractor.

Variation and Fluctuation

Variation in cost of construction is induced by the client as a result of alterations in the design
while fluctuation is as a result of external factors like increase in price of items.

Tendering is the process of finding, agreeing terms and acquiring goods, services or works
from an external source via competitive bidding process. It is done to determine who is best
for the job vis-à-vis time of delivery, quality and experience. Tendering comes up after the
completion of drawings.


It is commonly believed that tenders can be obtained by three basic methods viz: open,
selective, and negotiated. However, it is necessary to consider the method by which such
tender is obtained. Such methods had increased in various directions these days as variations
within the above types so much so that they can be accurately identified as special method of
Therefore the following are common practice:

a. Open Tendering
This type of tender is thrown open to all and sundry. The advertisement in the daily
newspapers, radio and television inviting all interested contractors to come forward and
collect tender document, previously described, for the purpose of submitting quotations for a
particular contract. Often, such advertisement can state the category of contractors expected
to collect such tender documents.

1. It gives opportunity for all and sundry to take part,
2. It gives widest range of selection,
3. It eliminates the possibility of ring formation or collusion,
4. It makes public accountability possible,
5. It creates opportunity for unknown contractors to become known, especially when he
is successful.
6. It allows keen competition which may produce cheaper tender figure,
7. It is an opportunity to get genuine tenderers who are interested in the project.

1. It involves excessive paperwork, as so many contractors will tender. The cost of these
lithographic papers will add enormously to the client’s cost of the tender. Though
deposit is received from each tenderer, this only defrays part of the cost and not all. If
deposits are refunded, the situation becomes worse,
2. It wastes a lot of estimator’s time: since only one tenderer will be chosen. He will
have to be paid and this forms part of the contractor’s overhead charges and will be
passed onto other tenders thus making their overhead charges higher,
3. It takes longer time to conclude award procedure as so many tenders have got to be
4. There is possibility of many contractors tendering which constitutes a waste of time in
scrutinizing tenders.

b. Selective Tendering:
When project is too important to a client, he is most likely to prefer this type of tender. This
is because it will assure him of good performance, which this type offers. The code of
procedure published by the National Joint Consultative Committee for Building gives a guide
as to the number of contractors to be invited for tendering and it is graduated based on the
contract sum of the project.
1. There is certainty of performance and good workmanship since known contractors of
good performance are invited to tender.
2. Selection period will be short in comparison with open tender because limited number
of documents will have to be examined
3. Cost of tender documents is greatly reduced since few contractors are invited
4. The contractors will be able to put in adequate profit and submit realistic tender.
1. There is the possibility of ring formation. This is so because they are few and most
likely to know each other. They may decide to give the contract to agreed contractors
among themselves and rotate it whenever such type comes up.
2. The tender sum is most likely to be higher than open tender type. This is so because
they are high calibre contractors with high overheads and high profit margins and
knowing that they are selected, they will take advantage of it.
3. It is like a closed shop, since it is not open to all and only privileged few are invited.
4. Some uninterested contractors may tender in order to keep their names on the list as
such, there is no guarantee of genuine tender.

c. Negotiated Tendering
This type can take various forms depending on the convenience and wishes of the client as
mentioned in the following:
1. It reduces time spent on tendering procedure and thus saves consultants time in terms
of overhead cost,
2. Work can commence early on site coupled with the possibility of completion on
schedule, which will give early returns on the investment to the client,
3. There is possibility of best quality work,
4. There is saving on paperwork and cost of lithography,

1. This type of tender will produce high contract sum, no matter how clever the quantity
surveyors is, because it is negotiated with one contractor, when even the contract sum
is low at the onset, except the contractor abandons the site or poor workmanship
prevails, the final figure is bound to be high,
2. There is possibility of lesser public accountability as there may be little or no
justifiable evidence to support the agreed sum,
3. The contractor can take advantage of the client cost-wise as he is well known to him.
So also, the completion time in the same vein.
d. Nominated Tendering
This type of tendering involves someone recommending a particular contractor to the

e. Repetitive/Serial Tendering
This type is used in repetitive works of construction like housing estate projects. A
client naturally picks a contractor based on good record of past work(s) he has done
for the client.
1. Acquisition of skills
2. Standardization of the project parts

1. Change of workers could cause damages and do away with all advantages

In summary:

i. Open Tendering - any qualified contractor can bid for jobs

ii. Selective Tendering – a preferred list of tenderers are picked to bid for the job.
iii. Negotiated Tendering – the client negotiates with only one contractor.
iv. Nominated Tendering – someone recommends a particular contractor to the

v . Repetitive/Serial Tendering – used in repetitive work, as a client naturally picks a

contractor based on good record of past work(s) he has done for the client.

Site Layout and Organization

The construction of a building can be considered as the product being produced with a
temporary factory, the building site being the ‘factory’ in which the building contractor will
make the product. To enable this activity to take place, the builder requires men,
materials/money and machines, all of which have to be carefully controlled so that the men
have the right machines in the most advantageous position, the materials stored so that they
are readily available and not interfering with the general site circulation, and adequate storage
space and site accommodation.
Before any initial planning of the site layout can take place, certain preliminary works must
be carried out, preferably at the pre-tender stage. The decision to tender will usually be taken
by the managing director or for small works by the senior estimator up to a contract value
laid down by the managing director. With given design and specifications, the best
opportunity for the contractor to prepare a competitive and economic tender is the
programming and planning of the construction activities. A thorough study of the bill of
quantities will give an indication of the amount and quality of the materials required and of
the various labour resources needed to execute the contract.

Planning Site Layouts

The following should be considered
 Site activities
2. Efficiency
3. Movement
4. Control
5. Accommodation for staff and storage of materials.
Site Activities
The time needed for carrying out the principal activities can be estimated from the data
obtained previously for preparing the materials and labour. With repetitive activities
estimates will be required to determine the most economical balance of units which will
allow simultaneous construction processes; this in turn will help to establish staff numbers,
work area and materials storage requirements.

To achieve maximum efficiency, the site layout must aim at maintaining the desired output of
the planned activities throughout the working day. This will depend largely upon the
following factors.

1. Avoidance, as far as practicable, of double handling materials

2. Proper store-keeping arrangement to ensure that the materials are of the correct type,
in the correct quantity and are available when required.
3. Walking distances are kept to a minimum to reduce the non-productive time spent in
covering the distances between working, rest and storage area without interrupting the
general circulation pattern
4. Avoidance of loss by the elements by providing time loss and cost of replacing
damaged materials.
5. Avoidance of loss by theft and vandalism through the provision of security and by
making the task difficult for the would-be thief or vandal by having adequate
hoarding and fences.

Apart form the circulation problems mentioned above the biggest problem is one of access.
Vehicles delivering materials to the site should be able to do so without difficulty or delay.

This control should form the hub of the activities which logically develops into areas or zones
of control radiating from this hub or centre.

this must be considered for individual sites, but certain factors will be common to all sites.
Accommodation for staff is covered by the construction (Health and
Welfare) Regulations 1966. This document sets types of accommodation which must be
legally be provided for the number of persons employed on the site for the anticipated
duration of the contract.

Fire Prevention and Protection

Fire constitutes a great hazard both in the industry and at home. It has caused loss of huge
sums of money and numerous irreparable damages to human both physically and mentally. It
is therefore extremely important that we take all necessary measures to prevent fire

How fire occurs

Fire or combustion is a process of burning. It is the interaction of a combustible substance in
oxygen at the appropriate temperature, resulting in the production of a flame. Simply put, fire
can be viewed as a reaction involving three elements. The elements are:
a. Fuel- (combustible materials)
b. Air- (oxygen)
c. Heat- (igniter)
The three elements must be present in the proper concentrations before fire can occur. This
condition for fire to occur is usually represented by a triangle popularly called the fire

Combustible substance or fuel: A combustible (fuel) is any material that burns, solid fuel:
e.g. wood, coal, paper, textiles, rubber etc.

Liquid fuel: e.g. petrol, kerosene, diesel oil, cooking oil, paints, spirits etc.

Gaseous fuel: cooking gas (LPG) Methane Acetylene, Hydrogen, Butane etc.

Oxygen: oxygen is contained in atmospheric air in a proportion of about 21%. If this

percentage falls below 16, the fire will start when other elements are present.

Heat (igniter): heat is needed to raise the temperature of the fuel to its ignition temperature
before it can burn. Since it is the vapour of the fuel that burns, heat is needed to produce the
fuel vapour. This is why combustibles which are already gaseous or that vaporize at low
temperatures (e.g. petrol) easily cause fire outbreaks.

Methods of fire extinction

All fire-fighting methods utilize one or more of the principles of extinguishing fire. Fire
Mitigation are based on three principles namely:
a. Cooling
b. Smothering
c. Starvation

a. Cooling:
This is the removal of heat from the fire so that its temperature falls below the ignition
temperature of the fuel concerned. This can be achieved by applying an agent, which absorbs
heat. Water is the most effective absorber of heat that is used in firefighting.

b. Smothering:
This is the removal or limiting of the supply of oxygen to the fire. This can be achieved by:
1. Covering the burning area with fire blanket or metal lid e g Burning fry pan
2. Throwing chemical powder, sand or dirt on the fire
3. Covering fire with foam

c. Starvation
This is the removal/reduction of the fuel or the combustible materials that the fire can spread

Fire prevention and protection

Fire outbreaks can prevented by:
1. The absence one of the elements required for fire formation.
2. Absence of the appropriate amount of the three elements required for fire formation.
Sources of heat
1. External flames: - Matches, Lighters, Cigarettes, Electrical or Gas rings, Lanterns,
Burners etc.
2. Sparks: - static electricity, electrical sparks, mechanical sparks, friction, combustion
sparks from engines’ exhausts etc.
3. Hot Materials: - Hot metals, embers, exhaust pipes, red-hot electrical filaments etc.

Fire Preventive Measures

Fire preventive measures include the following:
1. Sources of ignition should not be near fuels or in an atmosphere that might be
2. NO SMOKING signs should be displayed and enforced in work places where there is
danger of fire outbreak
3. Fuel leaks should not be allowed to fall on hot surfaces
4. Vehicles with leaking tanks or leakage along any line should not be operated. They
should be repaired before use.
5. Make certain that all workers using or handling flammables are aware of their
properties and hazards.
6. Ensure that heat indicators in equipment are exposed
7. Make sure no electrical wires in equipment are exposed
8. Warning signals on vehicle panels should be observed frequently and complied with
9. All job procedures must be strictly complied with
10. Permits must be obtained before executing work in a dangerous/ restricted areas
11. Every vehicle should have a fire extinguisher
12. Every vehicle going into an area containing flammable atmosphere should be
equipped with spark arrestor.

Fire extinguisher and fire fighting

Every operator is expected to know how to operate the portable fire extinguisher in his
This is important because when fire is attacked at its earliest stage, it will be prevented from
spreading and causing more damage. This is especially true of fire involving petroleum

Classification of fires
Fires are divided into four categories in the present day classification which is based on the
fuel burning.
1. Class ‘A’: These are fires of ordinary combustible materials such as wood, paper,
textile and rubbish.
2. Class ‘B’: These are fires involving flammable liquids e.g. kerosene, (gasoline)
lubricating oil, chemical liquids etc. and liquefiable solids e.g. grease
3. Class ‘C’: These are fires involving gases e.g. methane, butane, propane, acetylene
hydrogen etc.
4. Class ‘D’: These fires occur in combustible metals such as magnesium, potassium,
lithium etc.

Fire Fighting Equipment

a. Water
b. Dry chemical powder
c. Foam
d. Carbon dioxide
e. Vaporizing liquid (Halons)

a. Water:
It is the most effective extinguishing for many types of fire due to its abundance and cooling
power. It is the best for class ‘A’: fires. The steam produced by the heat of the fire provides a
considerable amount of smothering action. Water extinguishers are usually painted RED.

b. Dry chemical powder

These are suitable for flammable liquids and all types of combustible materials, but are not
particularly effective on class ‘A’ fire which have become deep seated. Special powders are
produced for use on fires involving metals.
Dry chemical powder extinguishers are painted BLUE.

c. Foam
This is effective on liquid fires. It forms a blanket of small bubbles over the burning liquid. It
also acts as a cooling medium. Foam extinguishers are painted with (CREAM whitish
yellow) colour.

d. Carbon dioxide:
It is usually in liquid form in a steel cylinder. It acts by diluting oxygen content of the air at
and around the fire, so that the atmosphere will no longer support combustion. In other
words, it smothers. It has no cooling effect. It is applicable for electrical fires and class ‘B’
fires. Carbon dioxide extinguishers are painted BLACK.

e. Vaporizing liquid (Halons):

The halon acts to inhibit chemical reactions within the flame front. It rapidly knocks down
the flame. It can be used on any fire, but it has no cooling effect. Halon extinguishers are
GREEN in colour.

Whenever you notice fire:

1. Raise an alarm or shout FIRE! FIRE!! FIRE!!!.
2. Attempt to extinguish it using a fire extinguisher, but don’t endanger your life
3. Get outside to safe place.