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1 unit

The Investigatory Process and Matter

chapter 1 The Investigatory Process


Worktext Pages: 3–41
Suggested Time Allotment: 20 hours

Big Ideas
Scientific facts and technological breakthroughs are products of comprehensive and
even exhaustive research or investigatory process. Even the most crucial problems in the
society such as on health, agriculture, and environment were given effective solutions
through similar processes and methods. Among other factors, the success of an investigatory
process depends on the experimental design made.

Essential Questions
• What is an investigatory process?
• How can the investigatory process be applied in real-life situations?
• What is a fair test?
• How can the design of an investigation be developed to show fair test?
• How are hypotheses, conclusions, and recommendations made?
• Why is it necessary to make an experimental design?
• How are data collected, classified, interpreted, and organized?

Chapter Overview
Over the years, significant scientific facts and technological breakthroughs have been
unfolded. Along with their wit and persistence, scientists have succeeded in unraveling
mysteries, from minute atoms to the distant celestial bodies, employing varied scientific
methods and state-of-the-art tools.
The scientific methods being used by scientists and researchers are complicated. In
fact, scientists spend years of study and hands-on experience just to master applying highly
technical procedures.
The scientific method is also called the investigatory process, which is the centerpiece
of this chapter. It can also be used in its simplest form unknowingly by ordinary people like
you in your daily activities. For instance, in choosing a brand of shampoo or toothpaste,
you already go through an investigatory process.

Desired Results
Content Standards
The learner demonstrates understanding of the scientific way of acquiring knowledge
and solving problems.

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Performance Standards
The learner conducts simple investigations using the inquiry approach.
Chapter Objectives and the K to 12 Curriculum Learning Competencies
Chapter Objectives Corresponding K to 12 Curriculum Learning
Competencies
At the end of this chapter, the learner is The learner . . .
expected to be able to: • describes what is meant by fair test.
• identify the components or steps of • recognizes that the design of an investigation should
an investigation; show fair testing.
• describe a fair test; • identifies the components of an investigation:
• recognize the design of an research problem, hypothesis, method for testing
investigation that shows fair testing; hypothesis (identifying independent/dependent
• conduct simple investigations variables), and conclusions based on evidence.
involving processes that use • conducts simple investigations using processes
materials available in the local involving mixtures common to the locality.
community; • chooses an interesting topic for investigation.
• select an interesting research - formulates a research problem.
problem for study; and - formulates a hypothesis.
• apply the investigatory process to - designs a procedure to test the hypothesis.
provide a solution to the research - collects, organizes, and interprets data.
problem. - makes conclusions based on the data,
accounting and rejecting the hypothesis.
- writes a brief summary of the report.
- shares and presents the results of the
investigations with other classmates or
schoolmates.

Technology and Resources


Science and Technology 7 Worktext, pages 3–41

Materials
• LCD (or overhead) projector with projection screen
• personal computer with Internet connection
• Big Ideas, Essential Questions, and important concepts written on manila paper or in a
PowerPoint presentation
• laboratory equipment
• experiment/activity materials

Learning Plan
In grouping students, you may decide on the number of groups depending on class
size or the availability of laboratory materials. However, it would be best if groupings
are changed in every activity to ensure diversified interaction among students. In creating
groups, consider the different intelligence levels and interests of students, that is, no group
should consist purely of fast or slow learners.

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Chapter Introduction
1. Ask: How do you understand scientific, investigate, investigatory, process, or method?
Elicit ideas from the students. Write their answers or responses on the board. Rectify
misconceptions during the discussions. You may ask how they understand other
terms such as research, problem, variable, hypothesis, experiment, data, qualitative,
quantitative, and conclusion, to unlock difficulties.
2. You may provide a nongraded pretest, the result of which will aid in determining the
extent of students’ prior knowledge on the topics at hand or the lack of it. Use the data
as springboard or benchmark of the topic discussions.
3. Pose the Essential Questions on the board or through a PowerPoint presentation. Ask
some volunteers to read and answer each question. Encourage them to justify their
answers. Accept tentatively their ideas, whether they are right or wrong. Rectify them
along the discussions.
4. Tell the students that at the end of the chapter, they are expected to work on the
Performance Task found on page 41. If possible, show them a sample product or
output, to give them advance ideas on how they should go about it. This will also
stimulate their interest in the topic discussions since the success of their products or
outputs depends on their understanding of the topics or concepts.
5. Call on a student to read the chapter introduction on page 3. Ask another student to
read the chapter objectives on the succeeding page. Discuss them briefly.

Learning Experiences/Lesson Development


Components of the Investigatory Process
1. Discuss the topics on Components of the Investigatory Process on pages 4 to 8.
2. Have the students answer the questions in Follow-Up on page 8. You may have it as
a seatwork or an assignment.
3. In groups, have the students work on Activity 1.1 on pages 8 and 9. Lead the students
in understanding that potato sticks soaked in higher salt concentration will shrink
more because salts can cause the potato cells to lose water, thus, the potato sticks will
become softer and smaller or thinner in size.
4. Regroup the class. Have each group perform Activity 1.2 on pages 9 and 10. Lead
the students in appreciating the importance of accurate measurement as compared
to estimation. Lead them also in understanding adulteration, that is, the procedure
of diluting pure liquids like vinegar, soy sauce, and shampoo with water. Tell them
that this practice lowers the quality of the liquid products and that selling adulterated
or diluted products has to be stopped. Lead the students, as well, in appreciating the
importance of completely shaking mixtures like antibiotics in emulsion or suspension
form before intaking them.
Experiencing the Investigatory Process
5. Discuss the topics on Experiencing the Investigatory Process on pages 10 to 30.
Choosing a Research Problem
6. Discuss the topics on Choosing a Research Problem on pages 10 to 12.
7. As a seatwork, have the students answer numbers 1 to 5 of the Follow-Up on page 12.
Have them answer numbers 6 to 10 as an assignment.
8. In groups, have the students perform Activity 1.3 on pages 12 and 13. Let them analyze
and explain the viability of the research topics or problems presented in the table.

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Sample explanations:
a. It depends on the kind or nature of the algae. It has to be identified first.
b. It is viable. The independent variable (fish scales) can be identified. The
dependent variable (adsorbent property) is also identifiable. The presence of
control and experimental setups can be perceived from the title. Supervision of
a biochemist is needed, though.
c. It is viable. Supervision of a chemist in handling solvents is needed, though.
d. The topic is broad.
e. It can be researched but needs the supervision of a veterinarian especially in
the handling and care of experimental mice. Banana leaves are abundant but
researchers will have to consider whether young or mature leaves will be used.
f. The topic is broad; too risky for seventh graders to perform.
9. In groups, have the students work on Activity 1.4 on pages 13 and 14. Lead the
students in realizing that research problems can be formulated given the sources and
guidelines in selecting research problems.
Formulating the Hypothesis
10. Discuss the topics on Formulating the Hypothesis on pages 14 and 15.
11. Have the students answer the questions in Follow-Up on page 15. You may conduct
a cooperative learning activity called Jigsaw by following the steps below.
a. Divide the class into three groups.
b. Have each group meet and arrange their chairs in a circle. Let each group choose
their leader.
c. Prepare three small pieces of paper numbered 1 to 3 that corresponds to a
Follow-Up question.
d. Have each group leader pick a number.
e. Give each group 10 minutes to discuss their answers to the questions.
f. After 10 minutes, have the whole class arrange the chairs in one big circle. Have
each group member sit side by side.
g. Have the group that picked question number 1 share their answers to the rest of
the class. Encourage each group member to participate by sharing supporting
inputs.
h. Encourage other groups to ask questions.
i. Then, the group that picked question number 2 will share their inputs. Continue
the process until all groups have done sharing their inputs.
   Note that from three separate groups doing discussions of varied topics,
the class formed into one big group sharing inputs from three topics. As being
called Jigsaw, this activity is similar to three pieces of a jigsaw puzzle being
interconnected to form the desired figure.
12. On their own, have each student work on Activity 1.5 on page 15. Lead the students
in realizing that understanding the null form, alternate form, and if-then statement,
will enable them to easily formulate hypotheses.
Planning the Experimental Design
13. Discuss the topic on Planning the Experimental Design on pages 16 to 17.
14. Have the students answer the questions in Follow-Up on page 17 as a seatwork.

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15. In groups, have the students perform Activity 1.6 on pages 18 and 19. Guide each group
in coming up with a viable research problem or topic. Provide or prepare templates
or samples of experimental designs. As the students are neophyte experimenters,
recommend to them the use of single-factor experiment, that is, using only one
independent variable.
16. Integrate values by asking: Why do you need to plan before embarking on an activity?
Ask some volunteers to answer the question. You may add related questions to draw
out from the students their ability to reason.
17. Give a formative test to check the students’ level of comprehension of the topics
discussed.
Collecting and Organizing Data in Graphs
18. Discuss the topic on Collecting and Organizing Data in Graphs on pages 19 to 21.
19. Use the data presented on the table on page 19 as basis in plotting a line and a
bar graph. Use Figures 1.1 and 1.2 on page 20 to present a line and a bar graph,
respectively, showing the average number of germinated rice seeds and varying salt
concentrations.
20. As an additional activity, you may ask the students to record the temperature, on
hourly basis (Say, from 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.), of the following day. Have them plot
the data gathered using a line and a bar graph.
21. As an assignment, have the students answer the questions in Follow-Up on page 21.
22. Have each student work on Activity 1.7 on pages 21 and 22. Lead the students in
understanding that a line graph is more suitable for representing data pairs that are
quantitative while a bar graph is more suitable for representing data pairs that are
qualitative and quantitative.
Classifying Data
23. Discuss the topics on Classifying Data on pages 22 to 25.
24. Use Table 1.1 on page 24 to show a sample of statistical tools for analyzing data.
Interpreting Qualitative and Quantitative Data
25. Discuss the topic on Interpreting Qualitative and Quantitative Data on page 25.
26. As a seatwork, have the students answer the questions in Follow-Up on pages 25 and
26.
27. On their own, have the students work on Activity 1.8 on pages 26 to 28.
Making Conclusions and Recommendations
28. Discuss the topic on Making Conclusions and Recommendations on pages 28 and 29.
29. Integrate values by conducting an activity called “What Do You Think?”. Follow the
steps below.
a. Divide the class into three groups.
b Have each group converge by arranging their chairs into a circular form.
c. Once seated, have each group select a moderator.
d. Present the following questions as subjects of their discussions.
1. Is it fair to judge others even without knowing them personally?
2. If you were a judge, what will make you decide whether an accused is
guilty or not?
3. Will you believe some negative issues despite knowing that those are
merely rumors or hearsay?

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e. Have each group’s moderator pick a number (1, 2, or 3) written on a small piece
of paper. Each number corresponds to a subject of discussion.
f. Have the moderator of each group read their subject of discussion. Then, have
them start their discussion. Allow them 10 to 15 minutes to do the activity.
g. Based on the group’s discussion, have each group’s moderator share their
group’s collective opinion before the class.
Note: Take this opportunity to draw out from the students their ability to analyze
given situations in order to arrive at educated opinions. Encourage them to
justify their opinions as well. If needed, let them cite personal experiences.
Writing the Investigatory Report
30. Discuss the topic on Writing the Investigatory Report on pages 29 and 30. If possible,
show samples of investigatory report to guide the students in coming up with their
own investigatory report.
31. In groups, have the students work on Activity 1.9 on pages 30 and 31. Let them give
an oral presentation before the class following the format shown on page 30.
32. As an assignment, have the students answer the questions in Follow-Up on page 30.
Generalization and Assessment
1. Review the students’ activities by stating an activity title or objective and ask the
students how they went about the activities or how they arrived at their conclusions.
2. Have each student make a summary of the lessons learned in the chapter. Their
summary should revolve around the concepts stated in the Big Ideas. You may limit
their summary to at least 100 words.
3. Present the Essential Questions once more. Ask some volunteers to answer each
essential question. Encourage them to justify their answers. As soon as a volunteer
finishes his or her response, ask the rest of the class if they agree or not. They may
give contrasting or additional ideas or opinions.
Note: Take this opportunity to compare and contrast the students’ tentative ideas
about the chapter topics or concepts against the ideas they came about after the topic
discussions of the chapter.
4. Have the students answer the Chapter Test on pages 37 to 41 as a form of summative
test. You may include some of the essential questions on the essay part.
5. Use these assessment tools in determining the students’ level or extent of
comprehension. Decide whether or not to reteach some lessons.
Chapter Wrap-Up
1. Have the students write a paper on the important lessons or concepts they learned
in the chapter. Encourage them to explain how these lessons or concepts affect or
change their dispositions in life.
2. Briefly discuss each statement in Summing It Up on pages 32 to 34.
3. Call on some students to define or describe the words in Key Terms on page 34.
4. As a seatwork, have the students answer Enrichment and Environmental Awareness
on page 35.
5. As an assignment, have the students answer Technology Outlook and Values
Integration on page 36.

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Culmination/Transfer
1. Orient the students on how they should go about the Performance Task on
page 41. The following research problems may guide the students in doing their
science investigation.
a. Which fruit (pear, banana, or apple) will not show surface discoloration when
applied with selected fruit juices believed to possess antioxidant properties?
b. How long will it take the control and experimental fruits to show discoloration?
c. Do selected fruit juices demonstrate antioxidant properties on pears, bananas,
and apples?
d. How should the fruit juices be applied to the experimental fruits?
e. How much fruit juices should be applied to the experimental fruits?
f. Should the size and mass of the experimental and control fruits be the same as
well as the amount of fruit juice that will be applied to each experimental fruits?
g. Will there be a significant difference in the discoloration time of the control and
experimental fruits?
h. Can the vitamin C content of the fruit juices be associated with their antioxidant
properties?
Suggested Procedure:
   Each group will test the antioxidant property of the fruit juice assigned to them
on the flesh of pear, banana, and apple (experimental units). The amount of juice to
be applied should be constant, say 10 mL per 1 cm3 of pear, banana, and apple. The
dimension or size of the three experimental units should be the same but the number
of experimental unit per control and experimental setups could be a minimum of five
and a maximum of ten (or more). Results per group may be combined then each group
will proceed to writing the science investigatory report. Do not forget to take pictures
of the 1 cm3 flesh of pear, banana, and apple in both control and experimental setups.
Students should patiently and keenly observe and record the change in color of the
flesh of fruits. Record the time the 1 cm3 flesh of fruits completely demonstrated
discoloration.
The table below is a suggested guide for each group.

Fruits to be Tested
Group Names Pear Banana Apple
Control Experiment Control Experiment Control Experiment
Group Tomato
Group Pomelo
Group Green
Grape
Group Calamansi
Group Lemon
Group Orange
Group Pineapple

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2. Present the scoring rubrics and explain how their outputs would be assessed.
Rubric for Assessment of Group Activity
Criteria Good Adequate Needs Improvement
(5) (3) (1)
Teamwork/ Each member of the More than 75% of the 50% or less of the
Participation group stays focused group members stay group members stay
and performs the focused and perform the focused and perform
assigned task assigned task the assigned task
Time Management The group finishes the The group finishes more The group finishes 50%
assigned task on time than 75% of the assigned or less of the assigned
task on time task on time
Responsibility and The group follows The group depends The group depends on
Dependability through the assigned sometimes on the the teacher or on other
task and does not teacher or on other groups in doing the
depend on the teacher groups in doing the assigned task all the
or on other groups in assigned task time
doing the work
Resourcefulness The group uses their The group barely uses The group never uses
initiative in coming their initiative in coming their initiative in coming
up with an output; up with an output; up with an output;
expenses are minimal expenses are quite huge expenses are extremely
huge

Rubric for Assessment of Written Report


Criteria Good Adequate Needs Improvement
(5) (3) (1)
Introduction Introduction is well Introduction is fairly Introduction is not
developed developed developed
Organization Information follows Information follows logical Information is
logical sequencing sequencing most of the disorganized
throughout the report way through
Content Data gathered Data gathered is Data gathered is
is sufficient and somewhat sufficient and insufficient and vague
comprehensive comprehensive
Spelling, There are no errors in There are one to three There are more than
Grammar, spelling, grammar, and errors in spelling, grammar, five errors in spelling,
and Sentence sentence construction and sentence construction grammar,
Construction and sentence
construction
Bibliography All resources are cited Some resources are cited Resources are not
cited

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Answer Key
Follow-Up
Page 8
1. The components of the investigatory process include the research problem, the
hypothesis, the experimental design, data organization, data interpretation, the
conclusion, the recommendation, and the summary.
2. A fair test is an experimental condition wherein only one variable is changed at a time
while all other variables remain the same. Hence, an investigation fails to show fair
testing if more than one variable is changed at a given time.
3. An independent variable is the factor that is applied to the experimental unit that can
be changed by the experimenter while a dependent variable is the outcome or the
effect on the experimental units brought about by the independent variable.
4. Yes. Several independent variables can be tested on an experimental unit all at the
same time. In fact, more independent variables applied to an experimental unit will
result or lead to more accurate and solid conclusions that are necessary in giving
credible recommendations. Since other factors such as temperature gradually change
from one time to another, it is recommended that application of independent variables
should be done all at the same time.
5. Since quantitative data is measurable, then, it is more meaningful and objective as
compared to qualitative data. Quantitative data will also yield more accurate and
reliable results or conclusions.
Page 12
1. The two primary sources of ideas for a research topic or problem are the environment
and human resources.
2. Theses and dissertations are considered to be the most reliable secondary sources
of information. The rich detail of information on certain topics or problems and the
recommendations they provide can be used as reference point in starting a related
research or investigation.
3. Websites specifically dealing with science investigatory projects are great sources of
information on the Internet.
4. In investigating the antimicrobial property of malunggay leaves against certain fungi
and bacteria, safety measures such as proper handling of laboratory equipment and
harmful bacteria experimental units must be carefully undertaken.
5. Below are some important points to consider in identifying the viability of a research
topic or problem.
a. Your interest and knowledge of the topic
b. Availability of sources of information
c. Extent or depth of the topic
d. Availability of laboratory materials
e. Place where the investigation will be conducted
6. O-SMART-CR stands for organized, specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time
bound, concise, and relevant.
7. A good research problem consists of the necessary elements such as the availability
of or accessibility to sources of information, its viability or the availability of means
and resources, and the proper statement of the research problem following the
O-SMART-CR criteria.
8. The main problem is usually stated in declarative form while the subproblems are
stated in interrogative forms.

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9. A research problem should be attainable, realistic, and time bound, otherwise arriving
at needed conclusions and recommendations is next to impossible. Being attainable
means the likelihood of arriving at or producing the desired results; realistic denotes
practicability as evidenced by the presence of necessary means and resources; and
time bound implies the calculability of the time or duration of the investigation.
10. Research topic:
   Fish Scales from Tilapia and Milkfish: Their Potential as Adsorbents for Heavy
Metals
Possible interrogative statement:
   Do fish scales from tilapia and milkfish contain adsorbent properties for heavy
metals?
Possible declarative statement:
   Fish scales from tilapia and milkfish have adsorbent properties for heavy metals.
Page 15
1. Yes. A scientific investigation can be conducted even without a preconceived
hypothesis. This is called discovery-based science.
2. The if-then statement is easier to follow. It states the cause-and-effect relationship.
Both null and alternate forms involve statistical analysis that may cause confusion
especially for neophyte experimenters.
3. Yes.
Possible hypothesis in three formats:
Null form: Placing plants either under sunlight or in dark places will not yield
significant effects on plants’ food production.
Alternate form: Placing plants either under sunlight or in dark places will yield
significant effects on plants’ food production.
If-then statement: If plants are exposed to sunlight, then, they produce more food
through photosynthesis.
Page 17
1. The two general categories of scientific experiment are the single-factor and the
multifactor experiments. In a single-factor experiment, only one factor is changed at
one time while the rest of the factors remain the same. In a multifactor experiment,
several factors are changed at one time.
2. The variations of a single-factor experiment include the single group design, control
group design, and parallel group design.
3. Fair testing can be demonstrated in a single-factor experiment since only one factor
or variable is changed while other factors or variables remain the same all throughout
the experiment.
Page 21
1. By using graphs, raw or unorganized data can be transformed into a presentable,
understandable, interesting, and organized format.
2. A line graph is used to show the relationship between the independent and dependent
variables, as represented by their respective numerical data, and in determining
their variations as shown by the direction of the line on the graph. A bar graph also
functions similarly except that it illustrates the change in magnitude of the variables
by using either horizontal or vertical bars of varying heights or lengths.

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Page 25
1. The four levels of measurement are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
Examples:
Nominal level—results of survey such as students’ favorite sports
Ordinal level—ranking of test scores or grades of students
Interval level—measurement scale of a thermometer with Celsius or Fahrenheit unit
Ratio level—speed of a traveling school bus
2. The ratio level is the most versatile to use in interpreting data since it involves the
nominal, ordinal, and interval levels as well as a true or actual zero value. It can also
compare and contrast data and arrange them in increasing and decreasing order.
3. Measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion are necessary in interpreting
and analyzing data to lessen the complexity of a series of quantitative data gathered.
In using these statistical tools, a volume of data or variables (e.g., test scores) will
be trimmed down into a single data or fewer numbers, thus, making presentation and
comprehension of data a lot easier.
Page 30
1. Both conclusions and recommendations should be stated in declarative form.
2. Conclusions are based on the findings or outcomes of the investigation or research.
Recommendations are based on the conclusions arrived at.
3. Parts of an investigatory report with corresponding descriptions:
Title page—displays the title of the investigatory project and the experimenter’s basic
personal information
Abstract—presents the summary of the research
Acknowledgment—recognizes people’s and agencies’ contribution to the project
Table of contents—shows the different parts of the investigatory project with
corresponding page numbers
Introduction—presents the research problem and hypothesis; also presents other
parts of the study, as follows:
a. Background—informs the reader about the purpose of the study or investigation;
also includes the statement of the main problem and subproblems
b. Significance of the study—explains the importance of the study
c. Scope and limitation—states the coverage and extent of the study or investigation
d. Review of related literature—gives sufficient background information on the
scientific basis and social significance of the study
Methodology—provides the details of the steps or procedure as well as the statistical
analysis used, if any; also includes the materials used
Results and discussion—includes findings in the form of tables, pictures, graphs, and
statements that explain the results
Conclusion—includes statements that answer the research problems/questions;
synonymous with generalization
Recommendation—includes suggestions in terms of application of the study or
revision of the procedure, materials, equipment, and experimental units, to further
improve the investigation
Bibliography—lists the references and reading materials used in the study or
investigation

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4. Being the summary of a science investigatory report, an abstract should include the
following:
Motivation/Rationale/Reason—must answer questions such as “Why do you care
about the problem?”
Procedure—must answer questions such as “How did you get the results?”
Findings— must answer questions such as “What did you discover?”
Conclusions—must answer questions such as “How did the findings bridge the gap or
solve the problem?”
Recommendations—must answer questions such as “How would the results be
applied?”
5. Yes, because all of the important aspects or components of a science investigatory
project are compressed or encapsulated in the abstract.

Activity 1.1
Guide Questions
Answers may vary.
1. No apparent changes can be observed on the sliced potato sticks in bottle A. The
shrinkage of sliced potato sticks in bottle C (with higher salt concentration) is
more evident as compared to the sliced potato sticks in bottle B (with lower salt
concentration). The change in texture, appearance, and turgidity of the sliced potato
sticks in bottle C is also more evident compared to those in bottle B.
2. The varying salt concentration served as the independent variable in the experiment
while the sliced potato sticks served as the dependent variable.
3. Only one independent variable was used—the varying salt concentration.
4. The condition or factor that was changed in the activity was the level of salinity or
salt concentration.
5. The salt molecules affected the overall condition of the sliced potato sticks in the salt
solution.
6. The shrinkage, texture, appearance, and turgidity were the conditions of the sliced
potato sticks affected by the independent variable.
7. The amount of water in all three bottles, the size of the sliced potato sticks, and the
soaking period were held constant.
8. Yes. The activity showed fair testing since only one variable or factor—the level of
salt concentration—was changed.
9. Other possible title: The Effects of Varying Level of Salt Concentration on Sliced
Potato Sticks
Conclusion
Answer may vary.
Based on the data yielded from the experiment, it is therefore concluded that the
varying level of salt concentration can affect the overall condition of the sliced potato
sticks.
Application
Answer may vary.
Commercially sold food products that make use of salt, sugar, or vinegar as
preservatives include salted beans, dried fish, fruit jams, and atsara.

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Activity 1.2
Guide Questions
Answers may vary.
1. To accurately measure the mass of an object, the use of a platform balance or a mass
scale is recommended. In measuring the volume of an object, the length, width, and
height of an object must be measured first before computing its volume by using the
formula, V = l × w × h. Once the mass and volume of an object has been obtained, its
m
density can now be computed using the formula, d = V . Hence, actual measurement
is more accurate than estimation. Although the mass, length, width, and height of an
object can be easily estimated, its volume and density cannot.
2. Adulteration is the practice of altering the quality of liquid products by adding
substances such as water to increase the quantity but lessen the quality of the products.
Some manufacturers of vinegar, for instance, have been using this practice basically
to increase profit at the expense of the consumers; thus, this unfair practice must be
stopped.
3. Stirring is a very important process. Completely stirring a solution or mixture will
allow the substances to totally dissolve for best results.
4. Commercially available mixtures that require shaking before having taken in include
medicines in syrup or suspension form. Shaking will allow the chemical components
to be equally distributed to achieve the desired results.
5. Activity B.1 shows an unfair testing because more than one variable have been
changed at a time. Variables such as strips of litmus paper and pH paper may react in
different ways to substances such as water and vinegar, thus, yielding confusing or
misleading results.
Conclusion
Possible answer: After conducting the series of activities, the following conclusions
were drawn:
1. that, given a series of testing situations, fair and unfair testing can be distinguished by
the number of variables that were changed at a time;
2. that, changing several variables at a time will not show fair testing and will lead to
confusing or misleading results; and
3. that, deliberately changing more than one variable at a time will lead to unfair testing.
Application
Possible answer: The values of honesty in manufacturing products involving mixtures,
obedience to instructions especially on the proper use of products, diligence in undertaking
the required processes and in obtaining the needed data, patience in waiting for the desired
results and in anticipating the possibility of repeating some processes, and accuracy in
measuring objects are some of the significant values learned from the activities and lessons
on investigatory process.
Activity 1.3
Guide Question
Possible answer: Topics a, d, and f would be difficult to use as research problems
because these topics are very broad, that is, needed factors or variables are not specifically
identified. In topic a, the specific kind or nature of algae must be identified first. In topic
d, there are a lot of ways to prevent fish kills in fishponds; a particular approach must be
identified first. In topic f, particular drugs that could cure HIV must be singled out first.

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Conclusion
Answer may vary. Possible answer: After performing the activity, it can be
concluded that in determining the viability of a research topic or problem, the dependent
and independent variables must be specifically identified first. Aspects such as access to
reliable sources of information and the availability of means and resources must be taken
into account among others.
Application
Answer may vary. Possible answer: Relevance of the study must also be considered
in choosing a research topic or problem. After all, why spend time, effort, and resources
when a particular research is irrelevant or will not yield useful results. Relevance of the
study could be best incorporated in the motivational part of the abstract.

Activity 1.4
Guide Question
Answer may vary. Possible answer: Factors in identifying the possible sources of
the research problem include unanswered questions and unsolved problems, experts in
particular fields, and private and government agencies.
Conclusion
Answer may vary. Possible answer: After conducting the activity, the following
conclusions were drawn:
1. that, people, places, and things are good sources of information;
2. that, with the help of the given guidelines, a viable research problem can be carefully
selected; and
3. that, after having identified the source of information, a doable research problem can
be formulated.
Application
Possible research topics or problems:
• What are the effects of the polluted Manila Bay on the skin of people who regularly take
a bath in it?
• Can the polluted Manila Bay cause skin diseases to people who regularly take a bath in
it?
Activity 1.5
Guide Questions
1. Answer may vary. Possible answer: The null form of a hypothesis takes on a negative
statement while the alternate form takes on a positive statement. On the other hand,
the if-then statement tells the relationship between the cause or the condition being
applied and the effect or the outcome.
2. Both null and alternate forms of hypotheses are commonly used in research that
requires statistical analysis.
Conclusion
Answer may vary. Possible answer: After performing the activity, it is therefore
concluded that given the viable research problem, hypotheses in three formats can be easily
formulated.

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Application
Possible hypotheses in three formats:
Null form: Different kinds of bread, when moistened with water and left on a plate at room
temperature for one week, will not yield different extent of growth of black molds.
Alternate form: Different kinds of bread, when moistened in water and left on a plate at
room temperature for one week, will yield different extent of growth of black molds.
If-then statement: If different kinds of bread are moistened in water and left on a plate at
room temperature for one week, then, the extent of growth of black molds will vary.
Activity 1.6
Guide Questions
1. Answer may vary. Possible answer: Among the parts of the experimental design,
the procedure may be the most difficult to follow because it is where the detailed
steps in going about the research is carefully laid out. Failing to follow the procedure
correctly will largely affect the gathering of the necessary data to achieve desired
results.
2. Answers may vary. Students will be the ones to decide which experimental design to
choose.
Conclusion
Possible answer: After conducting the activity, it is concluded that identifying
beforehand the desired research topic and familiarizing with the parts of an experimental
design will hasten the preparation of an experimental design for a science investigation.
Application
1. Possible answer: A blueprint is the master plan for the construction of houses,
buildings, and other structures. Like an experimental design, a blueprint serves as a
guide on how to go about the project.
2. The statement “If you fail to plan then you plan to fail” tells the importance of coming
up with a doable plan if one aims to succeed in life. For instance, if one dreams of
becoming a doctor in the future but fails to lay down his/her plans on how to achieve
his/her goal, such as studying well or saving a portion of his/her allowances, then, he/
she is doomed to fail.
Activity 1.7
Guide Questions
1. In the first line graph, the independent variable is the temperature while the dependent
variable is the volume of gas. In the second line graph, the independent variable is
the pressure while the dependent variable is the volume of gas. In the bar graph, the
independent variables are the after-school activities while the dependent variable is
the result of the survey represented by the frequency counts.
2. In a line graph, the values of the independent and dependent variables are directly
related, that is, when the value of the independent variable increases, the value of the
dependent variable also increases. Such relationship is shown by the upward direction
of the line to the right of the graph. On the contrary, the values of the independent and
dependent variables are inversely related, that is, when the value of the independent
variable increases, the value of the dependent variable decreases. Such relationship
is shown by the downward direction of the line to the right of the graph toward the
x-axis. On the other hand, the rectangular bars with varying lengths or heights in a bar
graph shows the magnitude or expanse of the variables, that is, the longer the bar, the
higher the magnitude of the variables, and vice versa.

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3. The frequency count of my classmates’ involvement in given after-school activities
is represented by the varying heights of the rectangular bars in the bar graph, that is,
the higher the bar, the higher the number of my classmates involved in a given after-
school activity, and vice versa.
Conclusion
Answer may vary. Organizing quantitative data gathered by constructing a line or bar
graph will facilitate easier identification and interpretation of the relationship between the
independent and dependent variables.
Application
Answer may vary. It depends on whether or not a student follows a system in
accomplishing household chores. However, having a system in place always has the
advantage in accomplishing any task. It makes the tasks done in lesser amount of time and
effort.
Activity 1.8
Level of measurement depicted in each picture:
1. children and adult—nominal
2. birthday cake—interval
3. height and mass—ratio
4. shoe size—ordinal
5. root crops consisting of carrots, radishes, and sweet yams—nominal
6. male and female sea horses—nominal
7. time—ratio
8. volume of liquids—ratio
9. size of graduation toga—ordinal
10. air pressure in the syringe and temperature in °C of liquid in the beaker—ratio
Guide Question
Answer may vary. Possible answer: Ratio level is the most appropriate level of
measurement for each picture because they involve quantities such as height, weight,
volume, mass, pressure, temperature, and time. Besides, ratio level also has properties of
the nominal, ordinal, and interval levels as well as a true or actual zero value.
Conclusion
Answer may vary. Possible answer: After performing the activity, it is concluded
that describing data according to levels of measurement is important in analyzing and
interpreting data correctly.
Application
Answer may vary. Students will write two to three paragraphs about themselves,
their likes and dislikes, as well as their goals in life. Then they will identify their levels of
measurement.
Activity 1.9
Guide Questions
1. Answers may vary. Different investigatory projects have varying aspects that need
improvement.
2. Answers may vary. It depends on how the groups made and presented their respective
investigatory projects.

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Conclusion
Possible answer: After conducting the activity, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. that, a good investigatory project can be done by carefully following the given
instructions and familiarizing with its parts or components;
2. that, a well-designed investigatory report will lead to a good oral presentation;
3. that, paying attention to the presenter will make one capable of giving valid reactions,
comments, and suggestions; and
4. that, accepting constructive critiques and being open to changes are good attitudes.
Application
Answer may vary. It is up to the students to decide on what particular product to make
or investigatory project to design.

Enrichment
1. Independent variable: amount of gasoline
Dependent variable: rate of dissolution of polystyrene
2. Independent variable: kinds of music
Dependent variable: amount of milk produced
3. Independent variable: kinds of adsorbent
Dependent variable: amount of impurities adsorbed
4. Independent variable: kinds of antimosquito coil
Dependent variable: number of mosquitos repelled
5. Independent variable: kinds of antibacterial agent
Dependent variable: number of colony of bacteria that remains in the petri dish or no
bacterial infection noted

Environmental Awareness
Answers may vary. Students will be asked to reflect about the lessons they learned in
the chapter.

Technology Outlook
Answers may vary. If a computer has an Internet connection, then, there are lots
of opportunities or possibilities in carrying out an investigatory project. One can access
reliable sources of information on different websites; an investigatory project could be
made comprehensive and credible by obtaining data on different websites and by citing
web resources; and one can even share his findings and outputs on certain science topics or
problems by using available and even free social media networks. On the other hand, even
if a computer has no Internet connection, it could still be of great help for the preparation
of a presentable investigatory project with the aid of computer applications such as word
processors, spreadsheets, and PowerPoint.

Values Integration
Answers may vary. Students will be asked to research on the personal and professional
attributes of given Filipino scientists and identify which of those attributes are worth
emulating.

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Chapter Test
A. 1. b 9. c
2. d 10. a, b, c, d
3. b and d 11. d
4. a 12. c
5. d 13. b
6. b 14. d
7. b 15. b
8. d
B. 1. Possible titles of Jose’s investigation:
a. The Antifungal Activity of Akapulko Leaves
b. Determining the Effectiveness of Akapulko Leaves Against Athlete’s Foot
c. Fungicidal Activity of Akapulko Leaf Extracts
d. Determination of the Inhibitory Activity of Akapulko Leaves to Athlete’s Foot
2. Main Problem: Can akapulko leaf extract prevent athlete’s foot infection?
Subproblems:
a. Given the following combination of akapulko-solvent extracts, what are
their respective zones of inhibition?
1. akapulko-coconut oil extract
2. akapulko-ethyl alcohol extract
3. akapulko-acetone extract
4. akapulko-water extract
b. Which combination showed the highest diameter of zone inhibition?
c. Which is more effective in inhibiting the growth of the athlete’s foot fungi,
the control setup or the experimental setup?
3. Possible hypotheses:
a. Akapulko leaves can inhibit the growth of athlete’s foot-causing fungus.
b. The combination of akapulko-solvent extracts can better inhibit the growth of
athlete’s foot-causing fungus than the control setup.
c. There is no significant difference in the zone of inhibition between experimental
and control setups.
4. A bar graph is preferred because the independent variable is a qualitative
description and the dependent variable is average diameter of halo zone.

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