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WATER

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 AR. JOHN OMBINA,uap,rmp,reb


WATER
SOURCE /
SUPPLY
ESSENTIAL PARTS OF
WATER DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
( DEFINITION OF TERMS )

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


ESSENTIAL PARTS
O F W AT E R D I S T R I B U T I O N S Y S T E M
AIRGAP, WATER DISTRIBUTION
AN UNOBSTRUCTRED VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN
THE LOWEST OPENING OF ANY PIPE/FAUCET/BIBB
CONVEYING POTABLE WATER TO THE FLOOR-LEVEL
RIM OF ANY TANK OR FIXTURE
BLOW-OFF
A CONTROLLED OUTLET FOR A PIPELINE TO
DISCHARGE LIQUID OR DETRITUS.

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


ESSENTIAL PARTS
O F W AT E R D I S T R I B U T I O N S Y S T E M
BRANCH
ANY PART OF THE PIPING SYSTEM OTHE THAN A
MAIN, RISER OR STACK.
BUILDING SUPPLY (WATER SERVICE CONNECTION)
THE PIPE CARRYING POTABLE WATER FROM THE
WATER MAIN/SOURCE TO A BUILDING OR OTHER
POINT OF USE OR DISTRIBUTION ON THE LOT.

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


ESSENTIAL PARTS
O F W AT E R D I S T R I B U T I O N S Y S T E M
CROSS CONNECTION
ANY CONNECTION OR ARRANGEMENT
B E T W E E N A P OTA B L E WAT E R S U P P LY S Y S T E M
AND ANY PLUMBING FIXTURE OR ANY
TA N K , R E C E P TAC L E , E Q U I P M E N T O R D E V I C E ,
T H R O U G H W H I C H E N A B L E S N O N - P OTA B L E ,
U S E D, U N C L E A N , P O L L U T E D, C O N TA M I N AT E D
WAT E R O R OT H E R S U B S TA N C E S TO E N T E R
I N TO A N Y PA R T O F S U C H P OTA B L E WAT E R
SYSTEM UNDER ANY CONDITION

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


ESSENTIAL PARTS
O F W AT E R D I S T R I B U T I O N S Y S T E M
DEAD-END
EXTENDED PORTION OF A PIPE THAT IS CLOSED AT
ONE END TO WHICH NO CONNECTIONS ARE MADE
ON THE EXTENDED PORTION, THUS PERMITTING
THE STAGNATION OF LIQUID OR AIR THEREIN
DEVELOPED LENGTH
LENGTH OF A PIPE ALONG ITS CENTERLINE AND
FITTINGS

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


ESSENTIAL PARTS
O F W AT E R D I S T R I B U T I O N S Y S T E M
FIXTURE BRANCH
THE WATER SUPPLY PIPE BETWEEN THE FIXTURE
SUPPLY PIPE AND THE WATER DISTRIBUTING PIPE
FIXTURE SUPPLY
A WATER SUPPLY PIPE CONNECTING THE FIXTURE
WITH THE FIXTURE BRANCH

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


ESSENTIAL PARTS
O F W AT E R D I S T R I B U T I O N S Y S T E M
RISER
A WATER SUPPLY PIPE, WHICH EXTENDS
VERTICALLY TO ONE FULL STORY OR MORE TO
CONVEY WATER INTO PIPE BRANCHES OR
PLUMBING FIXTURES
VALVE
A DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING THE PASSAGE OF
FLUID OR AIR THROUGH A PIPE

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


ESSENTIAL PARTS
O F W AT E R D I S T R I B U T I O N S Y S T E M
WATER DISTRIBUTING PIPE
A PIPE WHICH CONVEYS POTABLE WATER FROM
THE BUILDING SUPPLY PIPE TO THE PLUMBING
FIXTURES AND OTHER WATER OUTLETS.
WATER MAIN
IS THE WATER-SUPPLY PIPE FOR PUBLIC OR
COMMUNITY USE

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


ESSENTIAL PARTS
O F W AT E R D I S T R I B U T I O N S Y S T E M
WATER METER
DEVICE USED TO MEASURE IN LITERS OR
GALLONS THE AMOUNT OF WATER THAT
PASSES THROUGHT THE WATER SERVICE
TANKS/CISTERNS
A PIPE WHICH CONVEYS POTABLE WATER FROM
THE BUILDING SUPPLY PIPE TO THE PLUMBING
FIXTURES AND OTHER WATER OUTLETS.

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


WATER DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM CRITERIA
ADEQUATE SUPPLY OF WATER AND PRESSURE
PROVIDE SUFFICIENT VALVES AND BLOW OFF’S
AVOID UNPROTECTED OPEN RESERVOIR
AVOID CROSS CONNECTIONS
SYSTEM SHOULD BE TIGHT AGAINST LEAKAGE
WATER MAIN SHOULD BE ABOVE THE ELEVATION OF
CONCRETE SANITARY SEWERS
AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
WATER
DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


WATER DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
IN TERMS OF USAGE/CONSUMPTION;
 COLD WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
 HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


WATER DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
IN TERMS OF WATER CONVEYANCE;
 DIRECT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
 INDIRECT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


D I R EC T
DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
 DIRECT UPFEED SYSTEM
WATER SUPPLY FROM WATER
MAIN IS PROVIDED BY THE
WATER DISTRICTS WITH
ADEQUATE WATER PRESSURE
ENTERING THE SERVICE PIPE
I N D I R EC T
DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
 INDIRECT UPFEED SYSTEM
(PNEUMATIC AIR PRESSURE
SYSTEM)
WHEN THE WATER PRESSURE
OF THE WATER SUPPLY FROM
THE WATER MAIN IS NOT
ADEQUATE
COMPRESSED AIR IS USED TO
RAISE AND PUSH WATER INTO
THE SYSTEM
I N D I R EC T
DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
 OVERHEAD SYSTEM
(UPFEED-DOWNFEED)
WHEN THE WATER PRESSURE
OF THE WATER SUPPLY FROM
THE WATER MAIN IS NOT
ADEQUATE
WATER IS PUMPED INTO A
LARGE TANK ON TOP OF THE
BUILDING AND IS DISTRIBUTED
TO THE FIXTURES BY MEANS OF
GRAVITY
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
DISTRIBUTION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
- ELIMINATES EXTRA COST OF PUMPS & - WATER SUPPLY WITHIN THE
DIRECT UPFEED
TANKS BUILDING IS AFFECTED DURING
SYSTEM
PEAK HOUR LOADS
- ECONOMICAL - WATER SUPPLY IS AFFECTED
AIR PRESSURE (1) SMALLER PIPE DIAMETER BY LOSS OF PRESSURE INSIDE
SYSTEM (2) LESS INITIAL AND MAINTENANCE COST THE TANK IN CASE OF POWER
(PNEUMATIC) - AIR PRESSUE CAN SERVE ZONE INTERVAL INTERRUPTION.
OF 10 STORIES - UNPLEASANT NOISE.
- WATER IS NOT AFFECTED BY PEAK HOUR - WATER IS SUBJECT TO
LOADS CONTAMINATION
OVERHEAD - NOT AFFECTED BY POWER - HIGH MAINTENANCE COST
SYSTEM (UPFEED- INTERRUPTIONS - OCCUPIES VALUABLE SPACE
DOWNFEED) - TIME NEEDED TO REPLACE BROKEN - REQUIRES STRONGER
PARTS DOES NOT AFFECT WATER SUPPLY FOUNDATION FOR ADDITIONAL
LOAD OF TANK/WATER
CONTROLS &
VALVES

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


FUNCTIONS OF VALVE
START OR SHUT DOWN A SYSTEM
REGULATE WATER PRESSURE
PREVENT BACKFLOW
CONTROL THE DIRECTION OF WATER

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


TYPES OF VALVES
GATE VALVE
GLOBE VALVE
CHECK VALVE
ANGLE VALVE
FOOT VALVE
SAFETY VALVE
AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
GATE VALVE
 USED MAINLY TO
COMPLETELY CLOSE OR
COMPLETELY OPEN THE
WATER LINE.
 BEST SUITED TO THE MAIN
SUPPLY AND PUMP LINES
 TWO TYPES; (1) TAPERED
DISC OR WEDGE SHAPE,
(2) DOUBLE DISC VALVE
GLOB E VALVE
 CONTROLS THE FLOW OF WATER
WITH MOVABLE SPINDLE
 CAN REDUCE WATER PRESSURE
 THREE TYPES;
(1) PLUG TYPE DISC - (THROTTLING)
(2) CONVENTIONAL - (SHUTTING)
(3) COMPOSITION – FOR
STEAM/HOTWATER
GLOB E VALVE
 CONTROLS THE FLOW OF WATER
WITH MOVABLE SPINDLE
 CAN REDUCE WATER PRESSURE
 THREE TYPES;
(1) PLUG TYPE DISC - (THROTTLING)
(2) CONVENTIONAL - (SHUTTING)
(3) COMPOSITION – FOR
STEAM/HOTWATER
CHECK VALVE
 MAIN FUNCTION IS TO PREVENT
REVERSAL OF FLOW IN THE
PIPELINE.
 FOUR TYPES
(1)SWING CHECK VALVE
(2)LIFT CHECK VALVE
(3)VERTICAL CHECK VALVE
(4)HORIZONTAL CHECK VALVE
ANGLE VALVE
 OPERATES SAME AS GLOBE
VALVE.
 USED TO MAKE A 90DEGREES
TURN IN A LINE
 REDUCES NUMBER OF JOINTS
 COMES IN TWO WAY AND
THREE WAY TYPES
FOOT VALVE
 USED TO PREVENT LOSS OF
PRIMING OF THE PUMPS
 LOCATED AT THE LOWER END
OF THE PUMPS
 A.K.A. RETENTION VALVE
SAFETY VALVE
 USED ON WATER SYSTEMS,
HEATING SYSTEMS,
COMPRESSED AIR LINE &
OTHER PIPE LINES WITH
EXCESSIVE PRESSURE
 A.K.A PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
TYPE OF
FAUCETS/BIBBS
COMPRESSION COCK
KEY COCK
BALL FAUCET

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


CO M P R E S S I O N
CO C K
 A COCK WITH A RUBBER TUBE
WHICH COLLAPSES WHEN
PRESSED BY THE END OF A
SCREW-PLUG WOUND BY THE
KEY, THUS PREVENTING THE
FLOW OF THE LIQUID.
KEY COCK
 OPERATES WITH A ROUND
TAPERING PLUG GROUND TO
FIT A METAL SHEET.
BALL FAUCET
 CONSTRUCTED WITH A
BALL CONNECTED TO THE
HANDLE
PUMPS
AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
BASIC TYPE OF
PUMPS
PISTON PUMPS
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


PISTON PUMPS
 Water is sucked into a
sealed vacuum by use of a
piston

 Single Action Piston Pump


 Double Action Piston Pump
 Duplex or Twin Piston Pump
CENTRIFUGAL
PUMPS
 Water is drawn into the
pump & discharged with a
centrifugal force
TYPES / CLASSIFICATIONS
OF PUMPS
RECIPROCATING PUMPS
JET PUMPS
ROTARY PUMPS
SUMP PUMPS
TURBINE PUMPS

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


R EC I P R O C AT I N G
PUMPS
 Operates with controlled
speed
 Discharge is pulsating and
changes only when the
speed of the pump is
changed
 Sometimes an air chamber
is introduced to regulate the
pulsation
JET PUMPS
 Typically used for drawing
water up from a well

 Deep well Jet Pumps


 Shallow well Jet Pumps
 Convertible Jet Pumps
 Miniature Jet Pumps
ROTARY PUMPS
 More efficient for viscous
fluids
 Uses pump driver
 Can discharge from 900 to
1200 GPM
SUMP PUMPS
 used in applications where
excess water must be
pumped away from a
particular area

 Submersible pumps
 Pedestal pumps
SUMP PUMPS
 used in applications where
excess water must be
pumped away from a
particular area

 Submersible pumps
 Pedestal pumps
TURBINE PUMPS
 Used for large applications
because of their multiple
impellers
 Can discharge up to 2000
GPM
TANKS &
CISTERNS

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


TYPE OF TANKS FOR
DOMESTIC USE
OVERHEAD TANKS
CISTERNS
PRESSURE TANKS
HOT WATER TANKS

AR213 | UTILITIES 1 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


O V E R H E A D TA N K S
 Does not have any pressure
concerns but relies on
gravity to supply water to
fixtures below
 Usually made of galvanized
steel, stainless steel, or
reinforced concrete, it can
come in various shapes and
sizes
CISTERN
 A receptacle similarly built
as septic tank but intended
for bulk storage of water.
 Usually built of reinforced
concrete underground and
connected with a pump
P R E S S U R E TA N K S
 A CONTAINER DESIGNED TO
HOLD GASES OR LIQUIDS
OVER A DESIRED PRESSURE
GREATER THAN
ATMOSPHERIC.
H OT W AT E R
TA N K S
 USED FOR STORING HOT
WATER FOR SPACE
HEATING OR DOMESTIC
USE.
 COULD BE ELECTRIC OR
SOLAR HEATING SOURCES
H OT W AT E R
TA N K S
 USED FOR STORING HOT
WATER FOR SPACE
HEATING OR DOMESTIC
USE.
 COULD FUNCTION FROM A
GAS, ELECTRIC OR SOLAR
HEATING SOURCES