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Module

1
Illumination Engineering
Basics
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
1
Introduction
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
• State the need for Illumination.
• Define good Illumination.
• State what comprises an electric utility?
• List standard voltage levels.
• State need for high voltages for transmission.

Course Overview
• Radiation and colour.
• Eye and vision.
• Different entities of illuminating systems.
• Light sources: daylight, incandescent, electric discharge, fluorescent, arc lamps and
lasers.
• Luminaries, wiring, switching and control circuits.
• Laws of illumination; illumination from point, line and surface sources.
• Photometry and spectrophotometry, photocells.
• Environment and glare.
• General illumination design.
• Interior lighting – industrial, residential, office departmental stores, indoor stadium,
theater and hospitals.
• Exterior lighting – flood, street, aviation and transport lighting, lighting for displays and
signaling – neon sign’s, LED – LCD displays beacons and lighting for surveillance.
• Utility services for large building/office complex and layout of different meters and
protection units.
• Different type of loads and their individual protection.
• Selection of cable/wire sizes; potential sources of fire hazards and precautions.
• Emergency supply-stand by and UPS.
• A specific design problem on this aspect.

Introduction
Light by definition connotes Electromagnetic radiation that has a wavelength in the range from
about 4,000 (violet) to about 7,700 (red) angstroms and may be perceived by the normal unaided
human eye. In fact in the prehistoric days, all human activities were coordinated with Sunrise
and Sunset. Today, in principle activities are carried out round the clock. All this is made
possible because of Artificial Lighting systems. The lighting systems comprise of a source
employing any physical phenomenon among Incandescence, Electrolumniescence or
Flourescence. Some control scheme and a Luminaire. In fact all this has lead to a class of
professionals called Lighting Engineers or Illumination Engineers. Unlike other group of
professionals they need to be adept at not only at exact sciences of Maths, Physics, Chemistry;
but be wary of Physiology and Psychology of users (like a medical professional); have good
aesthetic sense and economically utilize resources (like an architect video Fig. 1). Efficacy of
these systems is talked in terms of Illuminance per Watt of energy consumed. Efforts are on to
reduce energy conmsumption yet have efficient Illumination to enhance productivity. Need less

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to mention that all these sources employ electrical energy. Trend these days is to employ,
modern electronic controls together with energy efficient lamps. These aspects are borne in
mind, right from the planning stage of a building. As electrical energy is being used for the
purpose, it becomes important for Illuminating Engineer to come up with an integrated system
for the complete electrical system of a building.

Physiology
Medicine Psychology

Math Usefulness
Illumination
Chemistry to
Engineering
Physics Humanity

Economics
Architecture

Art
(Aesthetic point)

Fig. 1 Professions-sciences-usefulness relationship.

1. Necessity of Illumination

Humans depend on Light for all activities. Light is a natural phenomenon, very vital for
existence, which is taken for granted. In fact, Life involves day night cycles beginning with
sunrise and ending with sunset. Pre-historic man had activities limited only to day time. Artificial
light enables extended activity period employing in an planned optimized manner, minimizing
the resources.

Vision is the most important sense accounting for 80% information acquisition for humans.
Information may be acquired through sun/moon light (direct/ reflected) or by using artificial light
(closest to natural light). Before we go any further, it is worth looking at Teichmuller’s definition
for lighting. “We say the lighting is good, when our eyes can clearly and pleasantly perceive the
things around us”. Therefore Artificial light should be Functional and pleasant both
Physiologically and Psychologically. This is often achieved employing multiple sources. It must
be borne in mind that the sources should be economic and energy efficient. As all of us are
aware, all sources today employ electrical energy.

Electrical energy is supplied as a.c. (alternating current) or d.c. (direct current). Usually electric
power supply is a.c. in nature, either single phase or three phase. It must be borne that close
circuit is a must for current flow. As it is well known losses exist in all electrical circuits or lines.

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By definition Losses = i2 R, where i = line current in A,
R = line resistance in Ω longer the line higher the resistance and higher level.
Thus for a particular power level current decreases with increase in voltage i.e.
p = v x i (instantaneous power). Hence, losses are minimized by supplying at higher voltages.
Normal sources of electrical energy are either hydro or thermal (coal based or nuclear). Usually
power stations are located very far from load centers. Therefore, power is transmitted at high
voltages.

It may be mentioned that, standard levels of power transmission being 132, 220, 340, 400, 735,
765, 1000 kV ac. HVDC or High Voltage Direct Current transmission is also fast catching up as
an alternative.
Fig.2 shows a single line diagram of a typical Power System with all its components.

~
Generator11/ 400
X’mission line Distribution line V
33 kV 132/220/400 kV 66/33/11kV

Fig. 2 Typical Power System


We know that load is always unbalanced for a practical 3-phase system. Fig 3 shows the
waveform of a 400 V 50 Hz a.c supply. Here, 400 V, 3 phase, 50 Hz connotes that supply is
three phase a.c. at a frequency of 50 Hz with a line to line voltage of 400 V rms, which translates
to 564 V peak value.

V
564

2
1 ms
ms t

Fig. 3 Waveform of 400V, 50Hz a.c supply

In view of the fact that artificial Illumination employs electrical energy in a.c form, next, we
address each fundamentals of a.c generation.

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Fundamentals of a.c Generation

Single Phase AC Generation


Fig 4: shows Loop AB carried by a spindle rotated anti clockwise in a uniform magnetic field
due to poles NS. This explains the single phase a.c generation

In this Coil ends C1 and C2 are brought out through


(but insulated) Slip Rings
and connected to two carbon brushes E1 E2 across which E m f is developed when connected to
load ‘R’. When plane of coil is horizontal no E.m.f. is developed as sides A and B do not cut any
flux. If v be the peripheral velocity of each side in m/s AL – represents v in Fig. 5.
As rotating coil is rotated through an angle ‘θ’ from horizontal resolving AL , we have , AM –
Horizontal Component, AN – Perpendicular Component.
∵ MLA = 90o - MAL = MAO = θ
AM = AL sinθ = v sinθ
AN = AL cosθ = v cosθ
We know E.m.f generated in ‘A’ is only due to AM perpendicular to magnetic flux density
- ‘B’
- If ℓ be the length of the sides A and B
∴ e.m.f generated on one side =
Bℓv sinθ volts …………………..( 1 )

N
B ω

R
Fig. 4 Single Phase Generation

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L
L
N
A
θ

90°
θ
M A
o

θ
B 0

b
Fig. 5 Single Phase Generation

• Total e.m.f. generated = 2Bℓv sinθ ….( 2 )


if θ = 90°. Coil is vertical. E.m.f. generated is maximum.

Em = 2Bℓv ………………………………..( 3 ) or in other words

∴ e = Em sinθ ……………………………...( 4 )

Let b = breadth of loop


n = speed of rotation in r.p.s
then v = πbn m/s
∴ Em = 2πBbℓnv = 2πBAn = A = Loop area
If coil of ‘N’ turns replaces the loop

Em = 2πBAnN …………………………..( 5 )
e = Emsinθ = 2πBAnNsinθ …………... (6)

Generation of 3 phase E.m.f.


• Just as we saw how single phase ac is generated by rotating a coil through a magnetic
field. If three similar loops fixed to each other at 120° on a common spindle and rotated
as shown in Fig 6.
• Connected to slip rings – on the shaft
• R, Y, B on there coils – termed finish and R1, Y1, B1 are termed start when
• Rotated anti clock wise at uniform speed in magnetic field due to NS.
• For the position in figure (1) E.m.f. in RR1= 0
• When moved by 90° (2) – E.m.f. is RR1 ≈ max generated e.m.f. in YY1 and BB1 have
same amplitude as in RR1 but lag by 120° and 240° respectively. Generated voltages in
three coils are

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∴ eR = Em sinθ
eY = Em sin( θ – 120°) and
eB = Em sin( θ – 240°)

Y1 B1

N S

B Y

R1
Fig.6 Generation of three-phase e.m.f.s.

The waveform of the Generated emf is shown in Fig.8

R R1
N S

Slip-rings for
Finish
Phase RR1
Start

Fig. 7 Loop RR1 at instant of maximum e.m.f.

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E.M.F. in RR1 E.M.F. in YY1 E.M.F. in BB1
L

0
60° 120° 360°

Fig. 8 Three Phase ac waveforms.


Next we need to look at how three phase circuits are connected. As already well know

Three Phase Connections could be – Delta as shown in Fig 9.

Fig.9 Delta connection.

Where Line Voltages = Phase Voltages. Line Quantities are IR, IY, IB, VRY, VYB and VBR Phase
B

Quantities are IRY, IYB, IBR, VRY, VYB and VBR. Three phone connection could also be a star as
shown in Fig 10.
R

S Y
B

Fig. 10 Star Connection.


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Where Line currents = Phase currents. Phase quantities are IR, IY, IB, VRS, VYS and VRS Line
quantities are IR, IY, IB, VRY, VYB and VBR Further Loads may be balanced as shown in Fig. 11
What is a balanced load?
A Balanced Load is one where Impedance Nature is same in all three phases i.e. equal in both
magnitude and Phase and draw equal current in all the three phases.

R
R

B
S Y
B
Y

Fig. 11 Balanced Loads


Loads may also be unbalanced as shown in Fig. 12
A load if Unbalanced Load when Impedance Nature is not same in all the three phases and draw
unequal currents in the three phases
. IR

IR
Z
Z
Z
Z Z

IY IY
IB
Z

IB
Fig. 12 Unbalanced Loads
How do we connect the sources to loads. Through lines which are either overhead lines or
underground cables. Commonly employed cables are XLPE (Cross Linked Polyethylene) or
PILC (Paper Insulated Lead covered), they could be single cored at higher voltages or multi
cored at lower voltages.
Normally Single storied small buildings are serviced by single phase a.c. i.e. 220V, 50Hz
Where as large buildings are serviced by three phase a.c. i.e. 400V, 50Hz. It may be mentioned
that sparsely populated, short distances are serviced by distribution at 400 V. In densely
populated, vast areas power distribution is at 11 kV / 33 kV. Distribution of power may be
through underground (UG) cables or overhead (OH) lines urban localities are serviced by UG
cables. Rural settings are serviced by OH lines, where there is a lot of free space.

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Conclusion
This Lecture essentially covered need for illumination, and fundamentals of electric utility

Lecture Summary

Physiology
Medicine Psychology

Math Usefulness
Illumination
Chemistry to
Engineering
Physics Humanity

Economics
Architecture

Art
(Aesthetic point)

Good lighting → our eyes clearly and pleasantly perceive things. Artificial lighting → use some
form of physical phenomena. All lighting sources today employ electrical energy.

• Electric Current sources


• DC
• AC – single phase and three phase.
• Sources of electrical energy – Hydro & Thermal.

~
Generator11/ 400
X’mission line V
33 kV 132/220/400 kV

• Load is always unbalanced for a practical 3-phase system.

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Tutorial Questions
• Why do we go for transmission of power at higher voltages?
Because power losses on transmission lines is inversely proportional to the operating
voltage
• What are two ways through which power can be distributed?
By underground cables & overhead transmission lines
• How do you decide the distribution voltage level for a particular area?
Sparsely populated short distance distribution – 400V Densely populated vast area
distribution – 11/33kV
• What do you mean by 400V, 3-phase in Indian system?
In Indian system, it means 3-pahse 400Vline to line rms voltage at a frequency of 50 Hz.
• When is a load balanced?
When both the magnitude and phase of the load impedances for a 3-phase system are
equal
• When do you go for 1-phase & 3-phase supply?
For a single storied small building-1-phase supply For a large building – 3-phase supply

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Module
1
Illumination Engineering
Basics
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
2
Radiation
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional objectives
1. State the Visible Range of light.
2. State the range of light human eye responds to.
3. Define UV radiation.
4. Define IR radiation.
5. List the physical phenomenon employed in artificial lighting.
6. Define color temperature.

Introduction
Light is the Radiant Energy that provides visual sensation. It is similar to radiant heat. But has
different frequencies and wavelengths. However, Visible Light – spans from 180nm to 700nm
wavelength. It must be mentioned that human Eye responds from 380 (violet) to 700nm (red).
This becomes necessary for us to understand the suitability of various types of sources of light.

Red 700nm

Sunlight

Violet 380nm

Fig. 1 Spectrum of sunlight when passed through a Prism


Fig.1 shows how sunlight splits into various color bands spread over violet to red often termed
vibgyor. Energy is spread over this spectrum from the sunlight. Fig. 2 shows the relative energy
content of the solar radiation. While Fig. 3 shows the response of human eye to the solar
radiation, which is maxima at about 550nm. (Corresponding to yellow green color).

Relative Energy
Germicidal
Visible Spectrum
Drying
IR Heating
Therauptic
UV
f < fred
λ >λred
X

f > Fviolet 380nm 800nm


λ < λ violet Violet λ Red

500 – 600nm Green Yellow

Fig. 2 Spectral energy Content of sun light.


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Relative Luminosity
Green

400nm 550nm 720nm


Violet Red
Wavelength
λ
Fig. 3 Luminosity Curve of Average Human

This being the scenario of natural light, artificial sources are made to produce radiation close to
this. Artificial sources employed are Incandescent lamps which depend on temperature of the
filaments giving a continuous spectrum and gas or discharge lamps giving a discontinuous –
Line spectrum / Band spectrum.

Fig. 4 shows the relative energy content of Noon Sunlight, clear blue sky, and an Incandescent
lamp. It is seen that the relative energy is peak at about 450nm for blue sky.

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Spectral Energy
Blue sky
1.0
200

Luminosity
160 .8

Luminosity
Relative Energy

120 NOON .6
SUN
80
.4
40
.2

400 500 600 700


Violet Red

λ
in nm

Fig. 4 Spectral Energy Distribution


As may be seen, most of the energy is of low visual value. Even sunlight has very small portion
in highly luminous region. Energy content multiplied Luminosity of eye at a particular
wavelength gives the Luminosity of the source.

Physical Processes Employed in the artificial sources


1. Incandescence
Thermo luminescence is by definition radiation at high temperature. The sources employing
this process are Incandescent Lamp, Gas Lamp, (flames and in oil Lamps and wax candles).
They lead to a continuous spectrum of radiation.

2. Luminescence – Luminescence Electro luminescence by definition Chemical or


Electrical Action on gases or vapour radiation. Here color of radiation depends on the material
employed. Usually this process leads to Line or Band Spectrum.

3. Fluorescence
Fluorescence is a process in which radiation is absorbed at one wavelength and radiated at
another wavelength eg: UV impinging on Uranium – Fluorescent oils. This re radiation makes
the light radiated visible.

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4. Phosphorescence
Phosphorescence is a process when energy is absorbed at some time and radiated later as glow.
Examples of this process are Luminous paints that contain calcium sulfide that lead to
Phosphorescence. They produce light Radiation after exposure to light.
In practice good efficient lighting is obtained by combining Luminescence and Fluorescence.
Fluorescent lamp is Luminescent source of low luminous value activating Fluorescent surfaces
which lead to visible radiation. Here intensity depends on gas or vapor involved and phosphor
material. However, the temperature of the material play a role in radiation. That is taken up
next

Color Temperature
Radiation Temperature of the materials follow Steafan Boltzman’s Law:

W = kT4 …………………….( 1 )
Its Boltzman’s constant
Absolute °k or
≈ 5.71x10-12 radiation constant
Say Ambient Temperature is T0

W = k ( T4 – T04 ) watts/cm2 ................(2)


Thus energy radiated depends on the 4th Power of temperature. So efficiency is high at high
temperatures.

Fig. 5 shows the variation of radiation with wavelength for a black body. In each curve total
area denotes the energy which increases as 4th power of temperature. Rate of increase of
radiation is greater as maxima of radiation shifts with temperature. It goes on till 6500 – 7000°
K with 43% radiation visible. This relates to an emission of 90 lm/w

4000°k
3000°k

2000°k

1000°k

0 200 300 λ 800 nm

Fig. 5 Black Body Radiation

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Wien displacement law
This displacement of maxima is given by wien’s law, expressed as

λm.T = a ( constant ) …………………( 3 )

°k

In μm → corresponds to wavelength where radiation is a maxima.

a = 2960 for a perfect black body

= 2630 for platinum

Combining, (1) and (3) it results

Wm T-5 = b ( constant ) ……………...( 4 )

Energy corresponding to λm

Wm T -c = constant ……………………( 5 ) C ≈ 6.0

In terms of radiation ability, a body may be called black body or grey body. Black body is one
that is not transparent, does not reflect and absorbs all the energy while a Grey Body is one in
which energy radiated at each λ is less than that in the case of a black body. That is to say Ratio
Visible Energy
of (remains same). It remains same or reflects a percentage of energy at each
Total Energy
wavelength. Carbon filament lamp is an example of a grey body. There are bodies of selective
radiation also. They radiate less total energy compared to a black body at the same temperature
but radiate more energy at certain wavelengths. If this wavelength is in the visible region it will
be use full for illumination purpose e.g. Arc Lamps.

Thus color temperature is the temperature at which complete radiator ( i.e. a black body ) must
be operated to match the color of luminous source. Complete scale of color temperature for
various natural and artificial sources is shown in Fig. 6. As may be seen color temperature, for
Blue sky it is 25000°K., for a Flourescent Lamp it is 4500°K., for a 500w day light it is
4000°K. and for a Candle flame it is 2000°K.

This Lecture has attempted at understanding the nature of solar radiation – natural light source.
It is seen to have maximum energy content around 550 nm close to sensitivity of human eye. It
has also a addressed the physical process employed in creating artificial illumination.
Concludes color temperature an important index of radiation.

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Natural Daylight DEGREES KELVIN Artificial sources

28,000 1 blue and 1 daylight fluorescent lamp


Extremely blue clear 26,000
Northwest sky 24,000
22,000 Blue glass north skylight filters
Available to give a range from
Blue northwest sky 20,000 5,400 to 30,000 °K
18,000

Fluorescent lamps and various combinations


16,000
Blue sky with thin white 14,000 1 blue and 2 daylight fluorescent lamps
clouds 12,000
Blue sky 10,000 1 blue and 4 daylight fluorescent lamps

Uniform overcast sky 8,000


6,000 Daylight fluorescent lamps

4 daylight and 1 white fluorescent lamps


5,500
Average noon sun 3 daylight and 1 white fluorescent lamps

2 daylight and 1 white fluorescent lamps


5,000 Daylight photoflood
3.30 p.m.

High efficiency filament


4.30 p.m.

Photographic lamps
4,500 4,500 °K White fluorescent lamp
2 hours

1 1/2 hours 4,000 500-watt Daylight lamp


Photoflash
150-watt daylight lamp
Time after sunrise

1 hour 3,500 White fluorescent lamp


CP Photo lamps - Photofloods
Gas-filled
40 mins 3,000
General
Service

Range of Standard
filament lamps
30 mins 2,500 Vacuum

20 mins Heat and Drying lamps


2,000 Candle flame
Sunrise
Fig. 6 color Temperature Scale
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Lecture Summary
• Light – Radiant energy that provides visual sensation
• Human eye can sense – 380nm (violet) to 700nm (red)
• Maximal relative energy content of sunlight
• Maximal luminosity of human eye
• Artificial light sources
• Incandescent Lamp
• Gas Discharge Lamp
• Physical Processes employed for artificial lighting
• Incandescence
• Luminescence
• Fluorescence
• Phosphorescence
• Good efficient lighting obtained by combining luminescence & fluorescence.
• According to Stefan’s-Boltzmann Law & Wien’s Law, thermoluminescence, radiation
output is directly proportional to the operating temp.
• Color temp. – temp. at which complete radiator (black body) must be operated to match
the color of luminous source

Tutorial Questions
• What is the visible range of light? 380nm (violet) to 700nm (red)
• What is the maximal relative energy contentof sunlight? 550nm (corresponding to green
light)
• Distinguish between incandescent and gas discharge lamps. Incandescent lamps operate
on the principle of incandescence, radiation output depends on operating temperature
and it gives a continuous spectrum of light while gas discharge lamps operate on the
principle of electroluminescence. The output color depends on the material employed
and it gives discontinuous spectrum of light.
• Why is it necessary to operate incandescent lamp at maximum possible operating
temperature? Due to the fact that the radiation output is directly proportional to the
operating temp. of lamp
• State principle of working of a carbon filament lamp. The ratio of the visible energy to
the total energy is constant for all wavelengths.
• State principle of working of an arc lamp? They work on the principle that they emit
selective radiations in the visible zone.

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Module
1
Illumination Engineering
Basics
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
3
Eye and Vision – I
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
1. Identify similarity between eye and camera
2. List the nerve system responsible for adaptation of eye.
3. List factors responsible for visual acuity.
4. State the purpose of good lighting.
5. Define glare.
6. Define Purkinjee effect.

Introduction
As already mentioned eye acquires > 80% information acquired by human. We look at the
structure and function of eye here. An Eye comprises of Iris, Focusing Lens and Retina. It
Resembles – a Camera in general structure and action.
Table I shows the similarity between them.

Eye Camera

Iris Shutter

Lens Lens

Retina Film

Table I: Eye Vs Camera

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Fig. 1 shows the structure of eye. As may be seen it consists of:

Fig. 1 Structure of Eye


Iris – a diaphragm that regulates amount of light by expanding contracting also know as (Pupil),
lens that focuses under the control of ciliary muscles forms image on to the retina. The lens is
crystalline in nature. Lastly there is a screen like structure called retina that is holding a lot of -
optic nerves – that communicate with the brain. The central region has the greatest sensitivity
and is called Fovea. Fovea is the most acute spot of vision where fine details are formed. Rest of
the retina is responsible for orientation. The eye communicates through optic nerves located on
the retina. They are a system of double nerves called Rods and Cones. Rods are responsible for
Dim light / Night vision and Cones are mainly concentrated around or at Fovea and are
responsible for form/color sensitivity.
As a result vision is of two types; (i) Photopic and (ii) Scotopic

Photopic vision involving cone cells and is used for discrimination of fine details for critical
observation. They are densely packed and transmits sharp images. The cone cells have low
sensitivity below 0.01 ft lamberts and cease to function < 0.001 ft lamberts. It must be mentioned
1 1
that by definition 1 lambert is candles / m 2 and 1 ft lambert is candles / ft 2
π π
Scotopic vision involving Rods takes over when brightness < 0.01 ft lambert. This vision has no
color discrimination ability. Most images have gray appearance and are viewed as silhouettes
lacking sharp details. Eyes have good ability to change from one to other. This shift in
Luminosity and ability of eye to adjust is known as Purkinjee effect. Upon increase of intensity
of illumination by a decrease in Pupil size producing clearer images with greater and fine details.
Pupil diameter varies in the range of 1.2 – 2 mm. Eyes are error free and accommodate very

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well. So eye functions under varying illumination levels by a change in pupil size together with
change in Retinal Nerve System (i.e. cones/ rods) as shown in Table II.

Pupil Size or Opening Light Received

Large Dim Light

Small High Illumination

Table II Pupil size Vs Light received


Eye is Unconscious to variations in natural light. Thus human eye is A chromatic with a
dispersive power little greater than water. Hence for near vision eyes easily focus for blue and
tires to focus for red. On the other hand for far vision eye easily focus for Red and strains to
focus blue.

Table III shows the relationship of Eye opening to lens size, distance of object & color of focus.

Pupil Opening Lens Shape Object Focus

Large Flattest Distant Red

Small Convex Near Blue

For objects distant 1m from the eye, there is no difference in accommodation.

Luminosity of Eye
Bluish Green
≈ 507 nm 550 nm

Rods

Cones
(Yellowish
Luminosity

Green Hue)

400 500 600 700

λ nm
Fig. 2 Luminosity of Human eye

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Fig. 2 shows the Luminosity curves for Human Eye. As may be seen Cone cells have peak
sensitivity around 550nm while Rods have at 500nm.

Remember that seeing is the primary purpose of lighting is to be borne in mind. Good Lighting
aims at Prevention or reduction of defective vision at the same time reduces waste of human
resources. Improving the conditions of visibility.

However, visibility depends on the Size of the object, details of the object, level or Quantity of
illumination, contrast or color in brightness and time required (available) for observation. It may
appear that requirements are Contradictory as regards size, illumination, contrast and time. For
effective deficiency in one of these is to be compensated by the other. So, Visibility depends on
efficacy of individual. This in turn depends on eye defects, Eye fatigue which could be optical or
physical. It also depends on amount of distraction present. Eye Fatigue are of two kinds Retinal
and Muscular. Fatigue is enhanced by glare. Glare by definition is intense illumination in the
plane of observation. Source of Glare – Front or behind the plane of attention tires maximum.
Best in the plane of attention. Rotating or focusing muscles on the source of glare causes strain
and fatigue. Similar fatigue in fact results by reading double impression obtained due to slipping
paper in a printing press. After a days work – Pupil is dilated. A nights rest offsets this fatigue.
Similarly weekend rest offsets fatigue of the working week. Pupiliary change call for good
conditions for seeing. Eye defects arise due to Age Use or Abuse. No doubt Eyes ability to
adjust to severe or unnatural conditions – gets injured in the long run. Defective vision may be
due to difference in size and location of images by way of Refractory errors. Easy limited tasks
lead to no defects. Lower Retinal Sensibility calls for larger pupil diameter and higher
illumination levels. Seeing is not instantaneous process. Countless impressions are formed on the
retina. Good illumination looks for producing clear and quick images.

Lecture Summary
• A human eye resembles a camera in structure and function.
• Important parts of a human eye
• Iris / pupil
• Lens
• Retina
• Types of vision
• Photopic (fine image details and color discrimination, due to cone cells).
• Scotopic (functions in dim light and no image details, due to rod cells)
• Human eye is achromatic in nature
• Dispersive power of human eye is little greater than water
• Purkinjee Effect – shift of luminosity and ability of eye to adjust
• Maxima sensitivity of
• cone cells – 550nm (yellowish green hue)
• rod cells – 507nm (bluish green)
• Good lighting
• Prevention of defective vision
• Optimization of resources
• Improving conditions of visibility
• Visibility depends on – (Observer Issues)
• size / details of object
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• level / quality of illumination
• contrast / color
• available time
• Visibility depends on – (Observer Issues)
• efficacy of individual
• one’s eye defects
• optical / physical fatigue
• distraction
• Causes of fatigue –
• rotating source
• focusing on the source of glare
• reading double impression
• after a days work pupil is dilated
• A nights rest offsets fatigue due to a days work
• Visibility reduces due to eye defects and fatigue
• Eye defects caused due to –
• Aging
• Use
• Abuse
• Good illumination looks for producing clear and quick images

Tutorial Questions
• Which is the most acute spot in human eye?
Fovea as it accounts for the fine details of the image formed.
• What are the two types of vision?
Photopic & Scotopic vision.
• Distinguish between rod cells & cone cells.
Rod cells – scotopic vision, functions in dim light when brightness < 0.01 ft-L, no color
discrimination, lack sharp details
Cone cells – photopic vision, ceases to function in dim light, color discrimination, fine
details
• How does eye communicate with the brain?
Through a set of optic nerves – the double nerve system i.e. Rods and Cones
• What is the diameter of pupil?
1.2 – 2 mm
• How does eye functions under varying illumination?
By a change in pupil size together with change in retinal nerve system
• Why is red color used for stop signal?
The eye can easily sense red color from a distance due to its large wavelength so that one
can get enough time to react & stop.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 7


Module
1
Illumination Engineering
Basics
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
4
Eye and Vision – II
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
1. What is visual acuity?
2. List qualitative factors responsible for visual acuity.
3. State how the acuity varies with other parameters.
4. State Minimum Illumination requirement for good visibility.
5. Define Chromatic aberration.

Today eye tasks are many and for long duration requiring increased illumination. More exacting
the task, more illumination is required. Apart from quantity, quality is also important.
Illumination affects Physiology and Psychology also. Natural Illumination conditions need to be
reproduced. Artificial Illumination characteristics are influenced by the physical characteristics
of room or object or illuminating equipment. Color finish of walls or ceiling etc. Quality, Glare,
Diffusion, Direction and Composition effect light Distribution. Illumination requirement for
equal visibility calls for at least 100 ft candles or more.
Functioning of eye may be assessed by the Visual acuity, ability of Discrimination of brightness
and Speed of retinal impression. Factors responsible for visual acuity are Nervous muscular
tension, Fatigue of ocular muscles, Normalcy of heart rate, Normal rate of reading, maximal rate
of reading, Precision of tasks, Performance in demonstration visual test. Visual acuity is reduced
in defective vision. Mainly depends on experience in day light. It bears a Logarithmic
relationship.

Visual Activity Vs Illumination


As may be seen from Fig.1 visual acuity improves with illumination on a logarithmic basis.
Acuity improves by 30% when illumination is increased by 10 times. It may be observed that
contrasts sensitivity becomes 280% on increasing illumination 10 times (Fig 2)

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 3


Contrast Sensivity Vs Illumination

Nervous Muscular Tevlion Vs Illumination


Fig. 3 shows that in order to reduce the muscular tension in the nerve system higher levels of
illumination are required.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 4


Frequency of Blinking Vs Illumination
From figure 4 one can note that with increased illumination levels frequency of blinking is
reduced. This is further corroborated by the convergence rate shown in Fig. 5

Convergence rate Vs Illumination


Keeping this in view, Table I lists illumination levels for different Activities

Table I : Suggested Illumination Levels


Task Foot Candles
Black thread on black cloth 800
News paper – stock equation 100
Typing on dark blue paper 80
Telephone directory 60 ( Yellow pages)
News paper – text 40
Excellent printing 6 pt. 10
8 pt 8
Well formed letters 10 pt. 6
on pristine white background 12 pt. 5

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 5


Visual criteria apart from illumination depends on Visual acuity, Visual efficiency, Visual speed
and Visual health. Distinguish detail depending on brightness of the object, Characteristics of
light entering the eye and Contrast details.

Fig. 6

Fig.6 shows the variation of visual acuity with background brightness. As may be noted 90%
acuity levels are attained around 50 ft lamberts but increase to 95% requires 1300 ft lamberts.

Fig. 7

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 6


Fig. 7 shows the acuity variation with surrounding brightness. The peak is seen to be around 1.2
– 1.4 ft L. It also shows that surrounding brightness should not be greater than object brightness.
This is further confirmed by the data shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8

Fig. 9

Fig. 9 shows change in speed with increase in illumination levels. Curve A pertains to a white
background. Over 1 to 40 ft lamberts, there is not much change in speed of reading. As opposed

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 7


to this in case of Curve B pertaining to Gray background, increasing illumination improves the
speed, very much.

Visual acuity reduces with age due to decrease in pupil size, decrease in elasticity of
pupil and decrease in flexibility of optic lens and decrease in adjustment of local length leading
to higher illumination requirement in older people. This may be seen in Fig.10

Fig. 10

Monochromatic light and acuity forms distinct images on retina and details are distinguished
well. Gaseous source using Mercury and Sodium are used.Three primary colors are Red Green
and Blue. Combination results in reduced acuity.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 8


Fig. 11

In Color Sensation of eye, Lag exists. Depends on presentation and cessation of stimulus,
presentation of the object, rate of rise / fall of different colors. G – Green is slowest, B – Blue is
fastest. Simultaneous Contrast is max. when adjustable e.g.: Red and Green.

This lecture has looked into the functioning of the eye.Various quantities affecting the acuity.

Lecture Summary
• Illumination affects physiology as well as psychology, hence quality lighting is important
• Factors governing illumination quality :
• glare
• diffusion
• direction / focus
• composition
• distribution
• Minimum lighting required for good visibility is 100 ft-cd or more
• For good visibility, brightness of surrounding should be greater than 0.01 ft-L & also
should be less than that of test object.
• Apart from illumination, visibility is talked in terms of :
• visual acuity
• visual efficacy
• visual speed
• visual health
• Acuity is the ability to distinguish details depending upon:
• brightness of the object
• characteristics of light entering the eye
• contrast maintained

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• Age Vs. Vision
• reduction of visual activity
• decrease in size & elasticity of pupil
• decrease in flexibility of optic lens
• leading to higher illumination requirement
• Monochromatic light & acuity :
• distinct images on retina
• details are distinguished well
• Combination of different colors reduces acuity which is known as Chromatic Aberration.
• Color sensation by eye has a lag which depends on :
• presentation & cessation of stimulus
• rate of rise / fall (different for various colors)
• simultaneous colors & combination of colors

Tutorial Questions
• Why is quantity as well as quality of Illumination important?
At present eye tasks are more & for longer duration, hence increased illuminance is
required. Illumination also affects psychology, hence quality is important.
• What should be the minimum brightness of the surrounding?
Brightness of surrounding must be less than that of the object and should not be less
than0.01 ft-L
• What are the three primary colors?
They are Red, Green & Blue.
• How does aging leads to loss of vision?
Aging leads to decrease in adjustment capability of the focal length of eye. Thus higher
illumination is required for older people
• What is chromatic aberration? Why does it occur?
It is the reduction in acuity due to combination of different colors. It occurs due to the
fact that the eye lens has different refractive power for different wavelength of light.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 10


Module
1
Illumination Engineering
Basics
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
5
Laws of Illumination
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
1. Define Standard of Illumination?
2. What is a Candela?
3. Understand MSLI
4. State Freschner’s Law
5. State Inverse Square law of Illumination.

Laws of Illumination
The original standard of light was Wax Candle, which is highly unreliable. It was replaced by a
Vaporized Pentane Lamp. This is equal to10 original Candles. In the year 1909, Incandescent
Lamp was taken as standard by comparison with a Pentane Lamp. Thing to be kept in mind is
Primary Standard should be reproducible. It was in1948, Luminous Intensity; based on
Luminance (objective brightness) of a small aperture due to Light from a Radiator maintained at
1773°c i.e. Solidification temperature of platinum was adopted as Standard. It consists of:

1. Radiator – Fused Thoria – Thorium Oxide. 45mm long internal dia of 2.5mm. Packed
with Fused Thoria Powder at the bottom.
2. Supported Vertically Pure Platinum in a Fused thoria crucible with a small aperture of
1.5mm in a large refractory container.
3. Platinum melted by a High Frequency Eddy current.Luminance = 589000 Candles /m2 ≈
600 000 units

The standard is shown in Fig.1.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 3


Transparent
Common unit of light intensity is candela. It is Luminous intensity in the Perpendicular direction
of a surface, 1 / 600,000 of a black body at temperature of solidification or Freezing of Platinum
under Standard Atmospheric pressure. It is abbreviated as Cd. It is indicative of Light Radiating
Capacity of a source of Lamp.

Fig. 2 Light flux


Consider a transparent sphere of radius 1m shown in Fig.2. If we place a 1 Cd source at the
centre then light flux coming out through an area of 1m2 over 1 steradian solid angle will be 1
lumen.

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Thus Luminous Intensity over 1 Str. by 1, Cd, we call it 1 lumen ≈ 1 lm. Basic unit of Light
Flux. ∴ Total Flux = 4 π lumens, out of the sphere in Fig 2.
If the Solid Angle be dω and Luminous Intensity I Cd at the center then Luminous flux in dω =
dφ = I dω lm.


∴ I= Cd

Yet another important unit is MSLI. It means Mean Spherical Luminous Intensity. Average
value of Luminous Intensity in all directions. Therefore for the case in Fig 2.
φ = I 4π lumens
Now we define Luminous intensity on a surface. It is known as Illuminance. It is Luminous Flux
per unit area or lumens per sq m. = lumen / m2 = lm / m2 = lux (lx).

Fig. 3 Definition of Illuminance.

Frechner’s law
Weber in 1830 found that I – Stimulus (Intensity) produces dI – Least perceptible increment
affecting sense organs. Then the ratio

dI
= Constant " Under fixed – 1) Fatigue
I
2) Attention and
3) Expectation.
Thus we have sensitivity given by the equation

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 5


I
S = C log """" (2)
Io
Here I0 is the threshold intensity. This is known as Frechner’s Law. The same percentage change
in stimulus Calculated from the least amount perceptible. Gives same change in sensation.
Sensation produced by optic nerves have logarithmic dependence or relationship to Light
Radiation producing the sensation.

Inverse Square Law


Intensity of Illumination produced by a point source varies inversely as square of the distance
from the source. It is given by the equation and as shown in Fig. 3
I
E= 2
""""(3)
D
Where I is

Lambert’s Cosine Law of Incidence

E = I cos2 ∝ """(4)
D
This – tells us the variation of Illuminance on arbitrary surface inclined at an angle of α. As
shown in Fig 4.

Fig. 4 Lambert’s Cosine Law of Emission

I ∝ = I cos ∝""""(5)

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Fig. 5 Typical Lighting Scheme

Fig. 5 shows a lamp placed at A, bm above the floor. For this scheme Fig 6. shows the
variation of Illuminance on the floor. It is well known that Illuminance is maximum under the
lamp at ‘B’.

Fig. 6 Variation of Illuminance

LI in direction AB
Illuminance at B =
b2

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LI in direction AC
Illuminance at C =
AC 2

LI in direction AB× Cosθ


=
(b2 + d2 )

LI in direction AB× b
=
3
(b2 + d 2 ) 2

b
Cosθ =
b + d2
2

∴ Illuminance at C = Illuminance at Bx Cos3θ

Illuminance at B
=
3
[1+ (d b)2 ] 2

Next is to measure the candle power of the lamp. Typical measurement can be done using a
photometric bench shown in Fig. 7 where IS represents standard lamp. IX represents test lamp.
There is a screen at the centre called photometer head, adjusted for equal brightness on either
side. Applying inverse law one can arrive at the value of IX.

This lesson introduced the primary standard and other terminology related to measurement of
light flux.

Fig. 7 Photometric Bench

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 8


Lecture Summary
• Unit of luminous intensity is Candela (Cd), it is the luminous intensity of a surface which
is1/600,000 of a blackbody, at the solidification temp. of Platinum (1773 °C) under
standard atmospheric pressure.
• Luminous intensity over 1 steradian solid angle by a source of 1 Cd is called as 1 lumen
flux (lm)
• MSLI = average intensity x solid angle (mean spherical Luminous intensity).
• Luminous Flux = luminous intensity × solid angle
• Illuminance is luminous flux per unit area
• Frechner’s Law – the same percentage change in stimulus calculated from the least
amount perceptible gives the same change in sensation.
• Inverse Square Law – The intensity of illumination produced by a point source varies
inversely as square of the distance from the source.
I× cosα
• Lambert’s Cosine Law of Incidence – E =
D2
• Lambert’s Cosine law of Emission – Im = I×cosα

Tutorial Questions
• What is the standard unit of luminous intensity?
Candela (Cd)
• What is MSLI?
Mean Spherical Luminous Intensity. This unit is used as the light flux is radialy outwards
from a source which may be assumed to be a point.
• What is the standard procedure to measure luminosity?
• Luminosity can be measured by the standard procedure of photometry

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 9


Module
1
Illumination Engineering
Basics
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
6
Photometry
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
• Understand photometric bench
• What is an Illumination Meter
• Understand Light Distribution Curves
• What is a Rousseau Diagram
• Understand a Luminaire.

Photometry
Primary Standard was defined in an earlier lecture based on the brightness of a body (i.e. black
body) maintained at Freezing Temperature of platinum. Unit of Luminous Intensity abbreviated
as is candela cd(z). Light Flux hence emanating from a point source in all directions is
Illuminance - ¼ π lumens and is termed msli is the light flux incident on a task surface in lumens
per unit area and is called lux. Comparison with a standard. Normally Primary standards are kept
in standards Laboratories. Usually Incandescent Lamp Compared with a Primary standard is
used as a Laboratory Standard. The test source / lamp is compared With the Laboratory
Standard. However, Incandescent Lamp not suitable beyond 50 – 100 hours Standardization of
Lamp is by voltage rating Current rating and wattage.
These measurements comprise photometry. They employ a Photometric Bench with a
photometric head which is an opaque screen. These measurements involve compassing the test
lamp with standard lamp
a. by varying the position of comparison lamp (standard Lamp) Is
b. by varying the position of the test lamp IT
c. by varying the position of the screen
Measurement is complete when the bench is balanced. It is balanced when two sides of the
screen are equally bright [in a Dark Room] as shown in Fig. 1.

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Photometric Bench

Is I T2
= 2 ⇒ IT = I s 2
S2 T S
Fig. 1 Photometric Bench

Measurements may be made on Illumination meter or Lux meter also in this instead of the screen
adjust the meter to get the same reading on photometric bench. Fig 2. shows a method where
distance is varied to get the same reading on the meter.

Fig. 2 Use of Lux meter on Photometric Bench

Alternatively, the distance on the bench may be kept constant and readings on the meter are
noted.

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Fig. 3 Photometric Bench with Lux meter at a Constant Distance

Then the intensity of the test Lamp is given by the relation

Reading with Test Lamp


IT = Is × ………………………………………(i)
Reading with Standard Lamp

R2
I T = Is ………………………………………………………………………(ii)
R1

Fig. 4 Integrating Photometer

Fig 4 shows a typical photo meter. It has a standard point source ‘L’ of Light at the centre of a
opaque sphere. It has an opening W where a photo cell is placed that receives diffused light from
the source. Window ‘W’ is shielded by diffusing screen ‘C’ from direct light. Reading on the
micrometer is first taken with a standard Lamp and later with the test Lamp. Then we have

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 5


msli of test Lamp reading with test lamp
= ………………………… (iii)
msli of standard Lamp reading with standard lamp

from this, one can obtain light flux output of the test lamp by multiplying msli with 4π.

Fig. 5 shows the photocell employed in a photometer. In a photocell sensitive element ‘S’ is
selenium coated in the form of a thin layer on a steel plate P. This is in turn covered with a thin
layer of Metal ‘M’ on which is a collection ring R.

Fig. 5 Photovoltaic cell

Sensitive element is a semi-conductor that releases electrons upon exposure to light. Selenium
and Cuprous oxide are most suitable semi-conductor materials. Steel Plate ‘P’ coated with thin
layer of Selenium at 200°c and annealed at 80°c Producing crystalline form. It is in turn coated
by a thin transparent film of metal ‘M’ with a collection ring ‘R’ of metal.

Fig. 6 Top view of a photo cell

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B is the barrier Layer Upon exposure to light – light enters through ‘M’ releases electrons from
metallic Selenium. They cross barrier ‘B’ to ‘M’ and are collected through ‘R’ and P Current
indicated by (A) is proportional to Illuminance. Often (A) is a micro ammeter calibrated in lm.
The next aspect of photometry is to look at the luminance curves of the Lamps. Here comes the
role of Luminaries. Luminaries primarily provide the physical support to the Lamps. They may
be directing, globes, reflecting or refracting. They could be supported on the walls using wall
branects. They may be portable units on pole mounted in case of street Light. In all cares we
need light distribution curves. Light distribution curves are curves giving Variation of Luminous
intensity with angle of emission in a Horizontal plane i.e. Polar angle Azimuth or Vertical plane,
passing though centre.
Fig 7 shows a typical Polar Luminance distribution curve of a point source of Light. From a
Polar Curve in order to arrive at msli of the lamp a Rousseau diagram is constructed. Fig 8 shows
such a construction.

Fig.7 A typical Polar Luminance distribution diagram

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Fig. 8 Rousseau Diagram

Consider the Polar curve A for the typical lamp with O as centre of the Lamp Draw a semicircle
of convenient radius OB = OC Insert no. of radii. From the top of there radial segments. From
the tip of the radial segments draw horizontal lines extended to cut the vertical line to scale
depending on length of Radic. Then the average width of the curve DP “Q” R “S” F is msli.

Luminaire
They Provide Support and electrical connection to the lamp. They are used to control and direct
the light and distribute as required. They help to keep the operating temperature within
prescribed limits. Using Rousseau diagram, graphical techniques are employed to obtain the
MSLI. They should be easy to install and maintain and have a pleasing appearance. They are
expected to b economically viable. Thus Requirements for good luminaries may be listed as
i. to provide support & electrical connection to the lamp
ii. to control, direct & distribute light as required
iii. to keep operating temp. within prescribed limits
iv. should be easy to install & maintain
v. should have aesthetically pleasing appearance and
vi. be economically viable

In them Lens & prisms can be used for focusing the light one has to keep in mind Depreciation
which is often used as Maintenance factor varies from 0.85 – 0.6. This lesson had a look at the
ways of measuring light output of a Lamp. They consisted using photometric bench, either by
comparison or reading on an illumination meter. Luminaries which form integral part of
Illumination system are characterized by polar luminance curves. Way to assess their luminance
has also been discussed.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 8


Lecture Summary
Brightness is measured by a illumination meter which is a photoelectric cell comprising of a
photo transistor activated by light. Brightness or luminance is the luminous intensity in the
direction of interest per unit projected area
• Light output from a source of light is obtained by comparing it with a primary standard
(standard lamp)
• Methods of comparing a test lamp with a standard lamp:
• vary position of standard lamp
• vary position of test lamp
• vary position of the screen
• Luminnaires are used for directing the light from a source of light in the desired direction
• Types of luminaires:
• directed reflectors
• diffusing

Tutorial Questions
• Why can’t an incandescent lamp be used as a standard lamp?
• What is utilization factor?
• What is maintenance factor of a luminaire?
• What are the advantages of diffusing type luminaire?

Answer to Questions of previous Lecture


• What is the standard unit of luminous intensity?
Candela (Cd)
• What is MSLI?
Mean Spherical Luminous Intensity. This unit is used as the light flux is radialy outwards
from a source which may be assumed to be a point.
• What is the standard procedure to measure luminosity?
• Luminosity can be measured by the standard procedure of photometry

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 9


Module
2
Lamps
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
7
Incandescent Lamps
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
• What are Incandescent Lamps?
• State the Components of an Incandescent Lamp.
• Understand need for inert Gas in Incandescent Lamp.
• What is Lamp Darkening?
• State Factors responsible for Performance of an Incandescent Lamps.

Incandescent Lamps
Natural Illumination due to sun which is 93 million miles away and 865,000 miles in dia, and has
temperature > 6000°c, leads to 2.3 × 1027 cd. Luminance. Moon, 240,000 miles away and 2160
miles dia, is said to have I ≈ 1.0 × 1027 cd. In order to provide artificial Illumination one of the
following Physical Properties is employed:
Incandescence depending on thermo luminescence,
Luminescence depending on electrical discharge in a gas or vapor
Fluorescence depending on radiation of visible light by absorbing ultra violet light and
Phosphorescence involving radiation at a latter point in time.

Incandescent Lamps
Incandescent Lamps were first invented by Edison in 1879. They employed Carbonized Paper as
Filament. It was Fragile. Later it was improved by coating with a Hydrocarbon. In 1893
Cellulose Filament was developed from absorbent cotton dissolved in ZnCl. Normally Filament
is mounted in a glass bulb and maintained in vacuum (type ‘B’) gets heated upon Passage of
current and typically radiating 3.3 lm / W. They are called Type ‘B’ lamps. In 1905, Metallizing
by heating Carbon filament at high temperature in an Electric furnace efficiency improved to 4.0
lm/W. In Europe Osmium a Rare & expensive – Fragile filaments were employed with 5 lm/W
radiation. It was soon, replaced by Tantalum a Ductile material (1906 - 1913) by crystallizing by
application of ac leading to 5 lm/W radiation. In 1907 Tungsten Filaments entered with 7 lm / W
radiation. Finely divided Tungsten Powder is mixed with a binder and squirted through a die. In
1911 Coolidge developed Tungsten in ductile form which could result in a Continuous uniform
Filament. It was Rugged and had very high efficiency. Langmuir introduced use of inert gases
and improved the radiation efficiency – (1913). They ware called type ‘C’.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 3


Fig. 1 Incandescent Lamps

Fig. 1 shows a typical Incandescent Lamp. It has filament made of Tungsten of S. G. 18.81
before drawing, 19.3 – 20.2 after drawing with a high mp of 3655°K. (Osmium with a mp of
2972°K & Tantalum with a mp of 3172°K). Were other materials Theoretically 52 lm / W
radiation is possible at m.p but Practically, Highest radiation of 35.8 lm / W is achievable. They
are available from 250W Flood Light with a life up 3 hours to 1500 W (at 115 V) of 1000 hr life
radiating 22 lm / W. Smaller lamps being 6 W(at 115 V) with a 1500 hr life radiating 6 lm / W.
Smallest Lamp being used in Surgical Instruments of 0.17 W of “Grain of wheat” radiation 0.35
lm. Largest Lamp being 50,000 W; 1,600,000 Lumens. Equivalent to 1000 - 100 W Lamps. Inert
Gases are introduced in the Glass envelope to decrease the vaporizations of Tungsten. The gases
Nitrogen and Argon are most suitable. Conduction Losses in a gas are proportional to velocity of
gas molecules. Velocity is inversely proportional to square Root of atomic weight. Argon with
atomic weight of 39.8 and Nitrogen with atomic weight 28.0 are most suitable. Ionization
Potential of Argon is low. Hence a mixture of Argon and Nitrogen in the ratio of 85% Argon –
15% Nitrogen are employed. Concentrate the filament over a small region. To adopt tightly
wound helical coil.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 4


Fig. 2 Blackening of Glass Bulb

Fig. 2: shows darkening of Glass bulbs due to vaporization of Tungsten. Hence the lamps are
called either

Type B – Vacuum < 40 W rating or


Type C – Gas > 40 W using Inert gases

During operation Filament evaporates and Tungsten particles deposit on the interior of Bulb in a
Vacuum Lamp. Tungsten Filament cross section of the Filament decides the current Rating and
varies as square of dia. The radiation surface varies as dia. With decrease in operating voltage for
the same wattage filament becomes larger. If a lamp of 40W were to operate at 115 V and has a
cross section C 1 , it becomes C 2 at 220 V then C 1 > C 2 .
S S S S

Fig. 3 Voltage vs Efficiency

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Fig. 3 shows variations of voltage with luminous efficiency for 40 W and 100W lamps. As may
be observed for both the lamps variation in luminous efficacy between 200 – 240V is very little.
It implies that small variations in voltage do not effect the light efficiency. Where as in the 110V
region variation is significant though one gets higher efficacy compared to 220V region.

Fig. 4 Performance Curves

Fig. 5 Characteristics with change in voltage

Figures 4 and 5 show the performance of Incandescent Lamps. As may be seen from Fig. 4 both
luminous efficacy lm/W and light flux lumeses reduce to 20% of Virgin values. Fig 5 shows the
effect of variation of voltage from rated value. From this it may be said that although light output
may reduce marginally when voltage reduces, one can get near 90% performance at about 95%
rated voltage. Fig 6 shows the survival rate. More than 81% survive 80% stated life. Only 30%
survive beyond 100% stated life.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 6


Fig. 6 Survival Rate

• Filament characteristics depend on Filament Length, Diameter, Coil Spacing, Lead wires,
No. of Supports, Method of mounting, Properties of Gas, Gas Pressure, Bulb Size and
Shape of the Bulb.

The lamp is said to be most economical for the intended Service, if uniform radiation is there at
stated wattage with guaranteed efficiency and Life Rating. Lamp characteristics may be
quantified interest of
Watts – W, Lumens – F, Lumens per watt – E, Life – L, and Volts – V
Equations (1) to (4) give the characteristics. They all show dependence on exponents a, b, c, d, e,
f, g and h.
Table I shows the typical values for Gas Lamps and Vacuum Lamp

( )
a
w
= Vv ………
(1)
W

( ) ( )
b c
= w ……… ( 2 ) ?
f v
=
F V W

Typical cal values of Exponents

( ) ( ) ……( )
v d=
E e
= F 3
e V f

( ) ( ) ( ) ……( )
l f g h
= V = F = E 4
L v f e

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Table I: Typical Constants
a b c d e f g h
G
A 1.54 3.38 2.19 1.84 0.544 13.1 3.86 7.1
S

V
A
C 1.58 3.51 2.22 1.93 0.540 13.5 3.85 7.0
U
U
M

This lecture covered the characteristics of Incandescent Lamps. One important specifications of
any light source is power consumed in watts. Any lamp is guaranteed to give radiation at stated
efficiency, if operated around rated voltage.

Lecture Summary
• Incandescence – radiation at high temp.
• Incandescent Lamps:
• Type-B : tungsten / osmium / tantalum filament, in vacuum
• Type-C : tungsten filament, in inert gas (generally a mixture of Ar & N2)
• Tungsten is ductile in nature, has high MP & high efficiency which makes it suitable for
use as filament
• Use of inert gas in incandescent lamps helps in decreasing the rate of evaporation of
tungsten & improves efficiency
• Higher efficiency is obtained when incandescent lamps are operated at low voltages
• Filament characteristics depend on
• filament length
• filament diameter
• coil spacing
• lead wires
• method of mounting
• no. of supports
• properties of gas employed
• gas pressure
• bulb size
• shape of bulb
• Bulbs are designed for :
• uniform radiation

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 8


• accurate consumption of power
• efficiency
• life rating

Tutorial Questions
• What are the methods employed to tackle evaporation of tungsten filament in an
incandescent bulb?
• use of inert gases in the bulb
• adopt coiled filament.
• Why is it not feasible to operate bulbs at low voltages although it amounts to high
efficiency?
With decrease in voltage current increases & it becomes difficult to handle large current
• What properties of tungsten make it a better material to be used as filament of a bulb?
High melting point, high efficiency, ready availability & ductility.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 9


Module
2
Lamps
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
8
Discharge Lamps I
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
• What are Discharge Lamps?
• State Various type of Discharge Lamps
• List Types of Emission that make a Gas Conducting.
• Distinguish Line and Band Spectrum.

Discharge Lamps
Incandescence was employed in Tungsten Filament lamps. Halides were employed to reduce
blackening of the bulb. Lumniescence and Fluorescence increase efficiency far beyond
incandescence. Discharge of electricity through a tube containing a conducting medium leading
to electron Flow is employed in Lumniescence. This calls for an abundant supply of electrons.

Electron Emission
Electron emission is a process by which abundant supply of electrons is obtained. Electric Field
Emission is employed in Cold cathode Lamps. Electrons are pulled out by application of High
Potential. Thermionic Emission is employed in Hot cathode Lamps. Electrons are emitted even
at a low voltage by heating. Barium / strontium oxide on a base of iron or Tungsten is used as
Cathode. Photo electric Emission: Striking with Light Radiation of Photons, emission is
achieved. Thus gas / vapor made Luminous by an electric discharge. Color / intensity of light
are dependent on Gas / vapor employed. Intensity is proportional to the current. Commonly
used gases are Neon, Mercury and Sodium. Cold Cathode needs large energy consumption at
the cathode with decreased efficiency. This may lead to disintegration of cathode with high
velocity positive ions due to large Potential drop at the cathode. Blackening of cathode does
occur. They have Long Discharge Tubes with Low voltage Lamps. Mercury Vapor Lamps give
light of Bluish Green, deficient in red rays. In this case color rendering (CRI) improves at high
Pressures. Considerable distortion in colors occurs. Mercury – oxide coated Cathodes
(Electrodes) are employed. In a typical discharge lamp coated tungsten wire electrodes with
Strontium Oxide or Barium oxide coating are located at the opposite ends of a glass tube.

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Mercury Vapor Lamp

Arc is a Constant Current Phenomenon. The starting electrodes are connected to lower electrode
through a resistance (R). Arc tube contains Mercury at the desired vapor pressure. Pure Argon
initiates arc prior to vaporization as pressure is increased – Radiation moves into visible
spectrum. Standard Rating are 100,250, ……3000 W with a typical illumination of 35 lm / W.
Arc initiation takes place at 20V at about 5A. Argon arc lasts for 2 min with a bluish Glow. At
about 137 V, 3.2 A – Mercury vaporizes and takes over. Run up time or arc initiation time is up
to 30 minutes. Lowest run up time is around 2 minutes. Ballast is a reactor in series that limits
the current. Typical Power factor ≈ 0.65 – 0.7 capacitors added across the Lamp improve power
factor to 0.94.

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These lamps are suitable for Factory Lighting, Exterior Lighting / Flood Lighting and Street
Lighting. They need 5 min of cooling before restarting. It is found that Combination Lamps –
UV + Visible Light termed SUN Lamps with 3 min of Run up time and 5 min for restarting are
more useful. They give out a band spectrum. Mercury – Radiates around 320 – 400 nm.
Remember 365 nm is in the U.V. region.

Sodium Vapor Lamp


It is similar to High Pressure Mercury Vapor Lamp. It is in a hermetically sealed Glass tube with
Sodium vapor. Electrodes are elliptical foil of Molybdenum and Coiled Barium oxide coated
Tungsten. In one half cycle, Tungsten at the top acts as cathode, Molybdenum at the bottom acts
as anode. Other Half cycle electrodes are reversed. Pure metallic sodium does not initiate arc. It
needs a starting gas. Neon acts as a starter. This requires preheating, heaters are provided with in
the Lamp. The Lamp glows with Red Color (Neon vapor), Orange yellow arc (sodium vapor
arc). Leads to a line spectrum of radiation.

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Figs. 3 to 7 show the Radiation spectrum for various sources along with curves for human eye
sensitivity. In each curve the hatched region indicates, theoretically possible radiation energy in
the visible region. It may be observed that incandescent lamp has maximum energy in the
visible range and has a continuous spectrum.

Lecture Summary
• Luminescence – chemical / electrical action on gas / vapor producing radiation
• Fluorescence – radiation is absorbed at one wavelength & radiated at another wavelength
• Combination of luminescence & fluorescence increase efficiency far beyond
incandescence.
• Discharge lamps consist of discharge of electricity through a tube containing a
conducting medium
• Types of electron emission
• Electric Field Emission
• Thermionic Emission
• Photoelectric Emission
• In a discharge lamp :
• gas / vapor made luminous by an electric discharge
• color / intensity are dependent on gas / vapor used
• intensity to some extent proportional to current.
• Types of discharge lamps :
• Mercury Vapor Lamps.

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• Sodium Vapor Lamps
• Hg-lamps give a light bluish green color (deficient in red color)
• In a Hg-vapor lamp, a starting electrode is provided to initiate the arc. After a run-up time
of 2 min., Hg-vapor discharge starts.
• Gas at high pressure improves the CRI (color rendering index) of discharge lamps
• With Na-lamps a pre-heating heater is provided. The lamp glows initially with red color
(Ne-vapor discharge) & then turns to orange yellow arc (Na-vapor discharge)

Tutorial Questions
• What are the different electron emission methods? What method is employed for Hg-
vapor & Na-vapor lamp?
The different methods are electric field emission, thermionic emission & photoelectric
emission. In Hg-vapor lamp electric field emission & Na-vapor lamp thermionic emission
• What are the commonly used gases in discharge lamps?
Commonly used gases are Sodium, Mercury, Neon & Argon
• What are the disadvantages of using cold cathode lamps?
Cold cathode lamps consume large energy consumption at cathode and therefore
decreased efficiency. Also it often results in disintegration of cathode.
• What do you mean by run-up time?
The taken by the starting gases (Ne / Ar) in the discharge lamp to initiate the discharge
process of the main gas (Na / Hg).
• Why do we connect a choke / ballast in series with a Hg-vapor lamp?
It enables high potential build up at the cathode while starting & limits the current
thereafter
• What steps are taken to improve the low power factor of a Hg-vapor lamp?
Generally Hg-vapor lamps have low power factor. To improve the power factor
capacitors are connected in parallel with the lamp
• What do you mean by principle line? What is the principle line for Hg-vapor lamp?
It is the wavelength on the lamp output spectrum which gives the maximum light output.
For Hg-vapor lamp it is 365nm

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Module
2
Lamps
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
9
Discharge Lamp II
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
1. List various Discharge Lamps.
2. State Utilization Factor for a Discharge Lamp.
3. What is color rendering.
4. Understand Working of a Fluorescent Lamp.
5. State various types of Phosphors usable.

Discharge Lamps (contd)…


As already seen in the last lesson Sodium Vapor Lamps are placed most favorable from the
utilization point of view with high utilization factor. Low Pressure Mercury Vapor Lamp is seen
to radiate clear blue line Spectrum. Low Pressure Sodium vapor radiates Monochrome light.
High Pressure Mercury vapor with certain additives like Halides can be made to radiate multi
line spectrum. Low Pressure Mercury vapor utilizes only 25 % of energy as compared to
Incandescent Lamp. Consuming 7-11 W, with a burning for 5000 hrs. Normally fluorescent
lamps based on low pressure mercury vapor are recommended for Homes, Hotels and
Restaurants. They give warm white color and are often used as Blended Lamps. Low Pressure
Sodium Lamp with outer Envelope’s inner surface coated with Indium oxide as selective IR
reflector. They have efficacy up to 200 lm / w and are available from 18 to 180W. They are
suitable for lighting Highways, Harbors, Marshalling Yards etc. High Pressure Mercury Vapor
Lamp are available in the range of 50w to 2000w. The radiation obtained is Bluish white line
spectrum. Pure Mercury vapor lamps have very poor CRI, together with phosphors color
improves, very much. Halide-iodide additives of Indium and Thallium or Sodium are added to
reduce blackening of bulb. High Pressure Sodium Vapor Lamp have excess of sodium which
saturates as Vapor of Sodium. Mercury and Xenon are used as buffer gases for ignition. These
lamps operate around 700ºC with a color temperature of 2100° k at 130 lm / w efficacy.

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Table I Properties of Discharge Lamps
PROPERTY INCANDESCENT MERCURY SODIUM
LP HP LP HP
Flux lm 250 - 40000 450-1200 2000- 1800- 3300-
125000 33000 130000
Efficacy lm / w 10 - 20 41-50 40-63 100-183 70-130
Rating w 25 – 2000 9-25 50-2000 18-180 50-1000
Light Color Warm-white warm- intermedi warm- warm-
white ate white white
Color rendering Excellent Good Moderate non Poor
existent
Ballast None built-in Chock hybrid Choke
Separat
e or
Starter None Built-in None Built
into
Ballast
Run up time Zero Zero 3 10 5
min
Restrike time Zero Zero 5 2 <1
min

Table I lists various properties associated with various types of discharge lamps.

Fluorescent Lamp
Employs transformation of UV radiation due to low pressure mercury vapor. Luminescent
Powder in tubular vapor Lamps Enhances brilliancy of light. Radiation from Low Pressure
Mercury Vapor (which is in UV region) is impinged on Luminescent Materials and re – radiated
at longer wavelengths of visible spectrum. In a Glass Tube small drop of Mercury and small
amount of Argon gas are placed for initiation of discharge. Pressure, voltage and current are so
adjusted that 253.7 nm line is excited. This re-radiates at longer wavelength. Typically a 40W
lamp requires 2-3g of phosphors. Maximum sensitivity is around 250 – 260 nm. Various types
of Fluorescent Lamps are:
1. Day Light Fluorescent Lamps
- Average Noon Day Light. 6500°k suitable where demands are not exacting
2. Standard white Light - 3500°k general Lighting.
3. 4500°k white Lamp – between std. white Light & Day Light Lamp.
4. Soft white Lamp – Pinker Light. 25% lower light output than Std. white Lamp suitable
for Residential lighting and Restaurants.

Dimension and Voltage depend on Luminous Efficacy, Brightness, Lumen Output and Lumen
Maintenance. Reliable Starting is achieved by having preheated cathodes / hot cathode. Half the
open circuit voltage should be used by the Lamp and the other half by the ballast. Lamp Voltage
decides the arc length, bulb diameter and lamp current. Hot Cathode lamps operate at lower
voltage < cold Cathode lamps. Typically cold cathodes have 70-100V drop at the cathode.

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Figure1 shows the schematic of a typical Fluorescent lamp. In a normal lamp the ratio of
open circuit voltage to lamp voltage drop is 2 where as in an instant start lamp it is
around 4.
Figure2 shows the radiation sensitivity of various phosphors. As may be
observed, the peak sensitivity at 253.7 nm is for Zinc Beryllium Sulphate. Table 2 lists
various phosphor properties. For each material emitted color after fluorescence, range of
emission, peak emission wavelength and peak sensitivity are listed. It may be observed
that Zinc Beryllium Silicate has peak emission coinciding with peak eye sensitivity.
Hence this is the most commonly employed phosphor.

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Table 2 Characteristics of Fluorescent Chemicals
Phosphors Color Exciting Sensitivity Emitted Emitted
Rang nm Peak nm Range nm Peak nm

Calcium Blue 220-300 272 310-700 440


Tungstate
Magnesium Blue – 220-320 285 360-720 480
Tungstate white
Zinc. SiliCate Green 220-296 253.7 460-640 525
Zinc Beryllium Yellow 220-300 253.7 480-750 595
silicate white
Cadmium Silicate Yellow 220-300 240 480-740 595
Pink
Cadmium Borate Pink 220-360 250 520-750 615

Lecture Summary
• LP Na-vapor Lamp – in this type of lamp the outer envelope of inner surface is
coated with Indium Oxide & that acts as an IR – reflector
• HP Hg-vapor Lamp – gives rise to bluish white line spectrum, together with some
phosphors improves color
• If some luminescent powder is put in the tubular lamps it enhances brilliancy of
light
• Radiation from LP Hg-vapor lamp (which is in the UV-region) is impinged on
luminescent materials to reradiate at longer wavelength of visible spectrum
• Types of Fluorescent Lamps :
• Day Light Lamp
• Standard White Lamp
• Soft White Lamp
• Factors deciding the dimension of fluorescent lamps :
• luminous efficiency
• brightness
• lumen output
• lumen maintenance
• reliable starting
• Factors deciding the lamp voltage :
• arc length
• bulb diameter
• lamp current

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Tutorial Questions
• What are halide lamps?
These discharge lamps contain some additives like Indium, Thallium
• Why are Hg-vapor lamps preferred than Na-lamps?
Hg-vapor lamps have a good CRI while Na-vapor lamps are monochrome
• Describe the working principle of a fluorescent lamp.
The energy of the UV radiation from a LP Hg-vapor lamp is directed on
luminescent materials. These in turn give out radiations in the visible region.
• For what wavelength do we get maximum efficiency for a fluorescent lamp?
Maximum sensitivity is achieved at 253.7 nm
• How do we obtain reliable starting of a fluorescent lamp?
By having preheated cathodes or hot cathodes
• What are the voltage drop at the electrodes & the choke for a fluorescent lamp?
At the choke the voltage drop is half the operating voltage. If the cathode is a hot
electrode type then voltage drop is 14 – 16 V and if it is a cold cathode type then
voltage drop is 70 – 100 V.

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Module
2
Lamps
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
10
Discharge Lamp III
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
1. How are Fluorescent Lamps specified.
2. Understand how every watt of Power is spent in a fluorescent lamp.
3. State Various applications of UV Light
4. What are CFLs?
5. How do CFLs compare with Ordinary Lamps?

Discharge Lamps (contd.)


Continuing with our discussion on Fluorescent lamps, for a given Current & tube diameter,
Voltage Increases as length increases, Voltage Decreases as Diameter increases and Voltage
Decreases as Current increases. In other words the ratio of length to diameter remains a
constant. Inherently brightness is more at the ends. It is low 6-7 diameters from the end. They
are specified as Tx, where x denotes that diameter and is x/8 inches. Typically Hot Cathode
lamps have 14-16V voltage drop at Cathode, while Cold cathode lamps have 70-100V drop at
cathode. Further, radiation increases with the current density. At low temperatures, pressure
drops and Mercury tends to condense. To avoid prefer to operate at high temperatures.

Bulb Temperature Vs Light output

Fig 1 shows the variation of light output with bulb temperature. Shaded region indicates normal
operation at room temperature. It is seen to have a peak around 100º F.
Fig 2 shows the relative efficiency of a 1.5” dia lamp (≈ T12) lamp, with tub length. As may be
seen about 80” – 100” are necessary to get a reasonably good light output.

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Having understood functioning and characteristic of a fluorescent lamp, it is time, we looked at
the energy distribution.

Relative Efficiency of 1.5” Diameter Lamp

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As may be seen from Fig 3, which shows the energy distribution of a typical 40 W
Fluorescent Lamp, about 20.30% results in useful light output. About 26% is radiated as heat
and 53 % results in conductive and convective heat. Important observation to be made is that
about 18% light output is through fluorescence. This is the reason; we say that they are more
efficient than incandescent lamps.
UV radiation apart from being used to illuminate employing fluorescence is also used for
Purification, Detoxifying Bacteria, Curing of Rickets, Colds, TB, and Pernicious Anemia.

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Ultraviolet radiation is beneficial in small quantities but direct exposure to heart kidneys should
always be avoided. In industry it is used for production of Dyes and Food Preservation. UV
radiation helps in producing Vitamin ‘D’ in Food Sources in Plants and Animals. Various peak
sensitivities for different applications are:
1. Germicidal – 260 nm Peak.
2. Erythemial – 296 nm Peak.
3. Fluorescent / Black light – 253.7 nm Peak.
Figs. 5, 6, 7 show typical characteristics of the fluorescent lamps. From Fig 5 it is quite clear
that mere increase of current does not guarantee increase in light output.
Fig 6 tells us that one can expect about 2000hr of life with about 80% of nominal output light.
Mortality curve in Fig 7 tells us that close to 80% lamps have more than 80% nominal life. This
helps us in arriving at a clear lamp replacement policy.
Fig 8 shows a typical CFL or Compact Fluorescent lamp which is compact with all accessories,
with fixture so arranged as to fit in an outlet meant for an incandescent lamp.

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Lumen Maintenance Curve

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Fluorescent Lamp Mortality Curve

Table 1 compares the characteristics of various fluorescent lamps.


Table 1: Properties of Fluorescent Lamps
Conventional Energy Saving CFL
150-5300 lm 600-4800 lm
38-91 lm/W
4-65W 24-28W 9-55W
Warm white color - 54W
Excellent Color Rendering Good CR Good CR
Choke additional Inbuilt Inbuilt
Zero Run up time
Zero Restrike time
5000 hrs. 18000 Hrs 8000 hr
Rs.400/- Rs. 1000/-
Rs. 40/- 20 mm
38 mm, 28-26 mm

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In addition there are RS or rapid start lamps where electrodes are continuously heated. For
instant start, preheated cathodes with reasonably high starting voltage are used. In Explosive
environments lamp caps thick with long pins having maximum surface contact are used to avoid
sparks.
This lesson has had a look at the characteristics of fluorescent lamps.

Lecture Summary
• Fluorescent lamps are LP Hg-vapor lamps
• For a given current & tube diameter of fluorescent lamp we have :
• voltage is directly proportional to length
• voltage is inversely proportional to diameter
• voltage is inversely proportional to current through discharge tube
• By a T12 fluorescent tube we mean that a tube with diameter of 12 × (1/8)” = 1.5“
• Radiation output from a fluorescent tube is directly proportional to the current density in
the tube.
• Fluorescent lamps emit a considerable amount of UV & IR radiation along with visible
radiation
• UV radiations is beneficial in small quantities. Applications of UV radiation:
• purification
• detoxifying bacteria
• curing of diseases
• dye & food processing
• employed in producing Vitamin-D in food sources

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• Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) are compact, efficient, energy saving, higher lifetime,
reasonably good CRI & near daylight illumination characteristics. Moreover they have all
the accessories inbuilt. Hence they are better than common fluorescent lamps

Tutorial Questions

• What do you mean by a T16 tube light?


By a T16 fluorescent tube we mean that a tube with diameter of 16 × (1/8)′ ′ = 2′′
• Why is hot cathode discharge tube preferred than cold cathode discharge tube?
Hot cathode has a voltage drop of 14-16 V whereas cold cathode has a voltage drop of
70-100 V. hence to avoid large voltage drop hot cathode is preferred
• Why is it desirable to operate fluorescent tubes at room temp.?
At low temp., pressure drops & Hg tends to condense while it is unsafe to operate at
extreme high temp. Hence fluorescent tubes are operated at around room temp.
• What are three categories of usage of UV radiation?
• Germicidal
• Erythemal
• Fluorescent / Black Light
• What are rapid start & instant start fluorescent lamps?
• in rapid start, filaments are heated continuously
• in instant start, preheated cathode is present
• What precautions are taken to use fluorescent lamps in explosive environments?
Lamp caps are present and long thick pins are used to offer maximum surface contacts
thereby avoiding sparks

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Module
3
Illumination Systems
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
11
Illumination Systems I
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
1. List Components of an Illumination System.
2. What is a Luminnaire?
3. What are various forms of Lighting?

Illumination Systems
It is time we looked at an illumination system as a whole. These systems tend to produce
radiation close to natural radiation. They employ artificial sources. These sources obey Laws
of Illumination. The quantification is done through Photometry. Thus an Illumination system
consists of Lamp which may be Incandescent lamp, Discharge lamp or Fluorescent lamp along
with control gear placed in a suitable luminaire.

Luminaries
Luminaire or Luminaries provide support and electrical connection to Lamp or Lamps within it.
They control, distribute and direct the Light on to the object. They ensure that lamps are operated
in a way such that operating temperature is kept within prescribed limits. They should be easy to
install and maintain, aesthetically pleasant and economically viable. Systems may be commercial
or general. Usually Fluorescent Lamps with one or more at a preferred mounting height less than
5 – 6 m are used for general lamps. Fluorescent Lamp may be Batten Fully exposed or Multi
lamp type. Ventilated-Reflectors with Mirrors optics are used. Difference lies in control of
Luminous Intensity, Luminous distribution, No. of Lamps. One may recall that for a
1
Point source of radiation ∝ 2 (e.g one can recall that Incandescent Lamp),
d
1
Line source of radiation ∝ (e.g. Tube Lights), and
d
Plane Source of Radiation ∝ independent of distance (Ideal situation).

Here‘d’ is the distance to the source of light. Designer aims in locating Lamps in this fashion.
Reflectors help in controlling and directing the light. Louvres-opening with slanted Slates are
often employed. Fins / vanes are provided to ventilate. Batten mounted lamps amounts to no
control. Most systems have enameled reflectors. Improved ones have Mirror reflectors.
Additional control obtained through louvre shields and opalescent shades. Reflectors help direct
in a desired solid angle. Louvres may have Square Mesh Box type Luminaries or Diamond
Mesh or Lamellae -Thin Plate Layer type.

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Fig 1 shows a typical luminaire with reflector and louver. The luminaries may be recessed in the
ceiling, mounted on the walls (or a surface) or take box shape as shown in Fig 2. They are
suspended at times.

Efficiency of Luminaries is expressed in terms of Light Output Ratio ‘LOR’


light output with luminaries
LOR =
Σ individual light output(w/o luminaries)
This includes both downward as well as upward light. Down ward light is important from the
utilization point of view. Hence, DLOR is crucial. Up ward light illuminates indirectly by
reflection. With Mirror Reflectors, LOR goes up and Glare comes into Consideration.

Industrial Luminaries
Coming to industrial areas if in the Interior-up to 6m Fluorescent Lamp with matt white reflector
are employed. In High bays beyond 6m Discharge Lamps with Mirror Reflectors are employed.
Luminaries in Hazardous Areas are specially deigned. They are encapsulated in boxes made of
steel or cast iron exterior housing to avoid any explosion, sturdy resisting pressure.

Categories of Explosive Areas


In this respect explosives are as are categorized as

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Zone 0 – Explosive all the time,
Zone 1 – Normally Explosive and
Zone 2 – Explosive Abnormally.

Here moisture & dust are taken care by Gasketted Luminnaires – Completely sealed eg: in a
Shower or a Laundry. Emergency Lighting is required when normal lighting fails. Escape
Lighting sufficient for evacuation typically 1 – 10 lx. Safety Lighting – 5% normal Lighting
is provided in Potentially Hazardous areas. Stand by power supply required for activation of vital
implements. A permanent, separate, self supporting Power system which is reliable and mains
rechargeable batteries in each Luminnaire are provided
Non Permanent - Auto Switching - Emergency Generator - Battery Supply is also used.

Road Lighting
Conventionally by they are arranged in a column, mounted on a wall or suspended by a span
wire. Plane of Symmetry being in vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of the road along the
road. Catenary – suspended from a catenary cable parallel to the axis of road. Plane of
symmetry parallel to the axis of road. They employ Corrosion Resistant sturdy materials and are
usually closed.

Flood Lights
Rain Proof Lamp holder with wide / narrow beam Reflectors are used for flood light. They are
usually High wattage Incandescent Lamps, Halogen Lamps, High Pressure Mercury Vapor Lamp
or Low / high Pressure Sodium Lamp.

Spot lights / down lights are usually used with Screens, Reflectors, Filters, Colored envelope and
Closed Lamps.

Down lights are Spot lights when suspended.

This lesson has had a look at the components of an Illumination system under various scenarios.

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Lecture Summary
• Illumination system comprises of a lamp (the artificial source of light), luminnaires & the
control gear
• Commercial luminnaires can be categorized into
• General
• Industrial
• Luminnaires are characterized by the way they control & direct light :
• luminous intensity
• luminous distribution
• number of lamps
• Use of mirrors in luminnaires are avoided as they cause glare
• Efficiency of a luminnaire is talked in terms of light output ratio (LOR). This includes
both downward as well as upward light.
• Practically DLOR (downward LOR) is of importance
• Luminnaires for hazardous areas :
• maintains temp.
• is encapsulated to resist pressure
• Gasketted luminnaires which are completely sealed takes care of handling moisture &
dust.
• Emergency lighting should have self supporting power system to provide lighting when
normal lighting fails

Tutorial Questions
• Which type of lighting are used for general lighting & why?
Incandescent & fluorescent lamps are preferred because they have a good CRI & provide
near day light illuminance
• What are louvers?
They are opening with slanted slates often used with luminaires to control & direct light
• What are the different luminaires considered placement wise?
• box type,
• recessed in the ceiling,
• mounted on a surface and
• suspended from a ceiling
• What type of lighting is used in industrial lighting?
For interior lighting fluorescent lamps with matt white reflectors are used while for high
bays discharge lamps with mirror reflectors are used
• What are the different types of emergency lighting used?
• Escape lighting – just sufficient lighting,
• Safety lighting – not less than 5% of normal lighting,
• Standby lighting – for activation of vital implements when power fails

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Module
3
Illumination Systems
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
12
Illumination Systems II
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
1. Understand the accessories employed in Illuminating systems.
2. What is a Ballast?
3. List various types of Ballasts.
4. List starting devices.

As already brought out the components of an Illumination system are Lamp, the Radiation
Source, Luminaire that directs and controls the light flux. Control Gear is the accessory that
helps in controlling the requisite amount of flux on the work plane. Now we take a look at the
accessories involved. First of these is Ballast. In a discharge lamp a series impedance to limit the
current is required. If the current is allowed to increase there can be explosion of the lamp. This
takes the form in a.c. as Inductance-w/o undue loss of power. This is called Ballast. It should
have high power factor for economic use of the supply and should generate minimum harmonics.
It should offer high impedance to audio frequencies.It should suppress-Electromagnetic
interference (Radio interference-TV interference). It is essentially, a reactor of a wound coil on a
magnetic core often called Choke and is in series with the lamp. Typical power factor is 0.5 Lag.
Power factor is improved by having a capacitor connected across input lines.

Fig 1 shows the connection for a discharge lamp employing a ballast formed by a reactor
commonly known as choke. Fig 2 shows how the capacitor may be connected to improve the
power factor. As may be seen the capacitor is placed in shunt. At times a lead circuit may result
by placing a capacitor in series as shown in Fig 3. However, when a illumination system
employing two lamps is used power factor may be improved by having one with a lead circuit
and other with a lag circuit as shown in Fig. 4. Next important accessory is a starter that initiates
the discharge in a discharge lamp. Starter is marked as ‘S’ in the Figs.1 to 4. Starter less circuit
are shown in Fig 5. They employ pre-heated filament electrodes. The preheating obtained
through a small portion of voltage tapped from the input source.

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When discharge lamps are used on dc the ballast takes the form of a resistor together with
associated power loss. These days they take the form of an electronic ballast which converts dc
to high frequency ac of around 20 kHZ.
Except high pressure mercury lamp where V > VS (starting) all lamps need a starting device.
At times, it is integral part of a lamp. Switch start employs bimetallic strip that opens upon
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heating. Starterless, rapid start or instant starts are useful for outdoor applications. Other forms
of starters employed are three electrode devices called ignitors.

Ignitors are small 3 electrode devices, which are ignited by control pulses from small electronic
circuit. Typically Metal Halide lamps require 600 – 700V and Low Pressure Sodium Vapor
lamps require 400- 600V. Ignition is through a Thyristor that generate a set of HV pulses, which

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are stopped after Lamp glows or ignited. High Pressure Sodium Vapor Lamp needs about
3000V.

Different Light Flux Levels are required at different times. This consists Local and General
Lighting taken care by having dimmers and lamps of different wattages. Fig. 7 shows a typical
Dimmer stat.

A dimmer stat is an autotransformer that can give a variable output voltage. Fig. 8 shows a
typical metal halide lamp employing ignitor as a starting device.
Fig. 9 shows a typical scheme for a multi watt circuit. Typically street lighting requires
such multi watt lamps. High wattage lighting is employed during heavy traffic and low wattage
during the rest of the night.
This lecture thus covered the accessories necessary in an Illumination system.

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Lecture Summary
• Control gears are the accessories that help in controlling the requisite amount of light flux
on the work plane
• Gas discharge lamps are constant current devices. Constant current is achieved by use of
ballasts.
Requirements for good ballasts:
• less undue power loss
• should offer high impedance to audio frequency
• should suppress EMI / RFI / TVI
• should provide proper starting conditions
• should have as high power factor as possible
To improve power factor capacitors are used in series.
• Excepting HP Hg-vapor lamps, all lamps have starting voltage > spark over voltage.
Hence starters & igniters are used as starting devices.
• Igniters are small three electrode devices which are fired by controlled pulses from small
electronic circuits.
• Apart from local & general lighting dimmers / timers are used for two – stage lighting

Tutorial Questions
• Why are inductors preferred for use as ballasts?
They provide high starting voltages without undue loss of power.

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• What is the disadvantage of using inductance as ballasts? How can it be rectified?
Inductance have low power factor which is undesirable. Hence series capacitor or lead-
lag circuits are used for improving the power factor
• How can we stabilize current when a DC source is used? What are its disadvantages?
Resistance are used to stabilize current but they have a constant power loss
• What is the principle of operation of starterless circuits? What is its usefulness?
They work on the principle of semi-resonant circuits. They employ preheated
filament electrodes which draw small amount of voltage. They are useful in smooth
operation of discharge lamps at extreme cold conditions
• What are switch type starters?
They are bimetallic switches which remain close while starting & opens upon heating
when lamp glows

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Module
3
Illumination Systems
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
13
Glare
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional objectives
1. Define Glare.
2. List types of Glare.
3. List the effects of Glare.
4. What are various Glare Indices
5. How is Glare Evaluated?
6. List measures to reduce the Glare.

An important issue in effective use of an illumination system is Glare. Glare by definition


brightness within the field of vision that causes discomfort, annoyance interference and eye
fatigue. It reduces the visibility of an object. This is the common fault of lighting installations. It
injures the eye, disturbs the nervous system, causes discomfort and fatigue, reduces efficiency,
interferes with clear vision and increases risk of accident.
Glare is experienced, when Lamps, Windows, Luminaries, other areas are brighter than
general brightness in the environment. Glare may be Direct and Reflected. Direct glare results
from bright luminaire in the field of vision. Reflected glare arises due to reflection of such a
source from a glossy surface it is more annoying than direct glare can be avoided by appropriate
choice of interiors.
Direct glare, minimization or avoidance is possible by mounting luminaries well above the
line of vision or field of vision. Limit both brightness and light flux (in the normal field of view).
Disability glare is that level of glare that impairs the vision. Whereas Discomfort glare only
causes feeling of discomfort that increases or depends on time of exposure. There is no reduction
of visual acuity but leads to fatigue. Annoyance is at lower ever luminance of the glare but
source is more than the general luminance. Solid angle subtended at the observer’s eye in the
field of view is a measure of glare. There is a need to look at the Glare Evaluation System.

Glare Evaluation
Visual comfort system is most common evaluation in the USA/Canada. This is expressed as
percentage of people considering an installation comfortable as viewed from one end. Glare
tables list various proportions and layout of room for glare free lighting. Figure of merit is based
on a source of 1000 lm.from a luminaire. If VCP ≈ 70% then the system is said to be glare free.
British method employs Zone of luminaire with a classification for quality of light expressed as
Glare index. Luminance limit system is adopted in Australia. Standard code for Luminaire base
lamp. dep. on room dimensions, mounting height and a Empirical shielding angle

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Luminance curve system is employed in Europe.
Luminance limits for luminaires critical angles, γ are 45º < γ < 85º. Quality class is expressed
from A to E type is based on Luminaire orientation.
Type 1. Luminous sides when Luminous side plane> 30 mm
length
Type 2. Elongated - >2
width

Orientation C0 – C180 Plane

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Table I
Shielding Angle Glare Limit Lamp
Luminance Cd/m2 B D E Fluorescent lamp.
L ≤ 2.104 10º 0 0 HP discharge lamp
2.104 < L ≤ 50.104 15º 5º 0º LP Sodium lamp
L > 50.104 30º 15º 0º HP Discharge clear

Table I lists for different types of lamps effective shielding angle. Quality class A denotes very
high level; B denotes high, C medium D low and E very low.

General light is predominantly light coming downwards. Typically reflectance of 0.5 for walls /
ceiling and 0.25 for furniture.
How is Glare evaluated?
1. Determine luminance of the source between 45º - 85º
2. Determine the quality class and illuminance required.
3. Select the curve – class / level.
4. Determine. Max. Angle to be considered from length & height and plane of eye level &
plane of luminaires. (Refer to Fig 1)
5. Horizontal limit based on” a / h”, part of the line ( or curve) to be ignored.
6. Compare luminance of one luminaire with selected part of the limiting curve.

No glare if luminance given by the curve > actual luminance over the whole range of Emission.

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Table II
Quality Service values of Illuminance (lux) Glare
class rating
Luminance A 2000 1000 500 ≤300 1.15
curve system B 2000 1000 500 ≤300 1.50
C 2000 1000 500 ≤300 1.85
E 2000 1000 500 ≤300 2.20
F 2000 1000 500 ≤300 2.55
Curve a b c d e f g h
letter
British Glare 15,5 17,0 18,5 20,0 21,5 23,0 24,5 26,0
Index
American VCP 75% 65% 45%

Table II lists glare in dicer and curves to be used for different levels of illuminance and quality.

Quality G Service values of Illuminance (lux)


class
A 1.15 2000 1000 500 ≤300
B 1.50 2000 1000 500 ≤300
C 1.85 2000 1000 500 ≤300
E 2.20 2000 1000 500 ≤300
F 2.55 2000 1000 500 ≤300
a b c d e f g h

Fig 4 and 5 show the luminaire curves to be employed for different levels for Type I luminaire
and Type II luminaire.

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h IllumA (B) IllumD IllumC

1 1.35 I/h2 1.425 1.43 I/h2


2 1.72 I/h2 1.798 1.827 I/h2
3 1.85 I/h2 1.902 1.919 I/h2
4 1.91 I/h2 1.943 1.95 I/h2

1 ⎡ ⎛ h ⎞3 ⎤
Illuminance at A (B) = ⎢1+ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥ (i)
h2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ h +1 ⎠ ⎥⎦

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Namely height is an issue in avoiding glare. Fig. 6 shows two lamps placed at a height ‘h’ from
ground at A and B. As can be seen from relations (i), (ii),(iii). Illuminance below the lamp falls
rapidly, less rapidly at the mid point ‘C’.

1 ⎡⎛ h ⎞ ⎤
3

Illuminance at C = ⎢⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥*2 (ii)


h2 ⎢⎣⎝ h + 0.25 ⎠ ⎥⎦

1 ⎡⎛ h
3
⎞ ⎛ h ⎞ ⎤
3

Illuminance at D = 2 ⎢⎜ 2 2 ⎟
+⎜ 2 2 ⎟
⎥ (iii)
h ⎢⎣⎝ h + (0.75) ⎠ ⎝ h + (0.25) ⎠ ⎥⎦

h ↑ (i) ↓↓↓ (ii) ↓↓ (iii) ↓

Glare from windows is the next issue. Sky has a typical luminance of 2000 Cd/m2. Horizontal
Illuminance ≈ 10,000 lx. under overcast conditions. It is prevented by curtains, blinds, louvers.
Opening of windows can be reduced. Shift the work plane away from offending windows. i.e.
normal field of view no light enters from the offending window on the work plane. Lightest
decorative finish on surfaces surrounding window openings. Veiling reflections and reflected
glare are allowed outside the task. Reflected by glossy surface – semi matt. Mild distraction can
cause considerable discomfort. When glare (bright light) on the task. Veiling reflection – reduce
task contrast with some loss of details.
Glare can be minimized by not locating in the forbidden zone, increase light from sideways at
right angles to the direction of viewing. Luminaries having large surface area with low
luminance may be employed. Working surface to be provided with reduced reflection preferably
Matt surface

CRF (Contrast Rendition Factor) is yet another index and influence of Lighting on Task Contrast
and Task Visibility is Contrast Rendition Factor. By definition

Given Emmision
Task visibility =
Sphere Illuminance

Where Sphere Illuminance is the Illuminance by the source providing equal Luminous Intensity
in all directional in a hypothetical sphere. (ESI)

Observer is located / views at angle of 25º to the vertical. Observer considered to be viewing
pencil task which id believed to be slightly conveying.

This lecture has had a look at glare, how originated various evaluation procedures and ways to
minimize.
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 8
Lecture Summary
• Glare is the brightness within the field of vision
• Effects of glare :
• injures the eye
• disturbs the nervous system
• causes annoyance, discomfort & fatigue
• reduces efficiency of work
• interferes with clear vision
• risk of accident increases
• Types of glare :
• Direct Glare
• bright luminaire in the field of vision
• Reflected Glare
• reflection from a glossy surface
• Reflected glare causes more annoyance than direct glare
• Direct glare can be minimized by mounting luminaires well above the line of vision
• Disability Glare impairs the vision
• Discomfort Glare increases with time of exposure
• Glare Evaluation Systems :
• American system (VCP)
• British system (Glare Index)
• European system (Luminance Curves)
• Luminance angle limit for luminaires : 45° < γ < 85°
• Glare from windows can be prevented by using :
• curtains
• blinds
• louvers
• Glare from windows is of two types :
• veiling reflections
• reflected glare
• Techniques for minimization of glare from luminaires :
• not locating luminaires in forbidden zone
• increase light from sideways
• luminaires having large surface area
• CRF (Contrast Rendition Factor) – influence of lighting on task contrast & task visibility
Given_Emmision
Task_Visibility =
Sphere_Illuminance
• Sphere Illuminance – Illuminance by the source providing equal luminous intensity in all
directions. Also known as ESI (Equal Spherical Illuminance)
• Three categories of lighting :
• general lighting
• local lighting
• combination of local & general lighting
• Combination of general & local lighting are preferred to avoid glare

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Tutorial Questions
• When is glare experienced?
Glare is experienced when source of light is brighter than general brightness
• How can reflected glare be avoided?
Reflected glare can be avoided by appropriate choice of interiors i.e. wall color & finish
of furniture
• How can direct glare be minimized?
Direct glare can be minimized by limiting both brightness as well as light flux, normal to
the field of view. Luminaires should be mounted well above the line of vision
• What is VCP?
VCP is the Visual Comfort Percentage. It is the American standard of glare evaluation.
• What is Glare Index?
Glare Index is the British standard of glare evaluation
• What level of reflectance should be maintained for walls / ceiling & furniture?
For ceiling / walls a reflectance of 0.5 should be maintained & for furniture it should be
0.25
• Why should we have long & narrow windows?
As day progresses, illumination increases in vertical plane. Hence we have long narrow
window
• How can we minimize glare from windows?
• shift the work plane from the offending windows
• use lightest decorative finish on surfaces surrounding window opening
• How can we minimize reflected glare?
Reflected glare from glossy surfaces can be avoided by having semi-matt kind of finish
• What are the factors that govern good general lighting?
General lighting should be based on the required horizontal illuminance. Lamps should
be arranged in a regular fashion & all over the ceiling. They should be equally spaced.
• What is localized lighting? What care should be taken for localized lighting?
Localized lighting is non-uniform lighting on horizontal plane at the place of interest.
Care should be taken to avoid glare as localized lighting may produce glare
• Why is it important to have general lighting ON all the time?
Localized lighting may cause glare. Moreover we should have sudden change in
brightness. So we should have high level of illuminance at place of interests (localized
lighting) & at other places minimum of 50% lighting (general lighting)

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Module
3
Illumination Systems
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
14
Color
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
1. What are Primary colors?
2. How is color specified?
3. What is CRI?

This lesson introduces concepts of color and how it is specified. Three basic elements in color
perception are source of illumination, object illuminated and detector that recognizes color by the
reflected light from the object. It is well known that human eye perceives between 400 to 700 nm
as visible light. Radiation of a source is characterized by the Spectral Power Distribution (SPD)
which affects the color of the illuminated object by way of shift in color under different types of
Lamps.

Color implies different things under different contexts. Firstly at the Source color, characteristic
by which an observer distinguishes patches of light of same shape and size. It connotes the
Spectral Power Distribution. Perceived color, as perceived as object color. This is a result of
object characteristics, viewing direction and adaptation of the observer. Lastly Object Color:
Light reflected, transmitted or absorbed by a source when exposed to radiation from a Standard
Light source. Normally selective absorption of incident light results in object color. However,
color appearance depends on light reflected.

An important index to asses the color appearance due to a radiation from a source is Color
Rendering Index (CRI). So, what is Color rendering? It is the property of making color
appearance of objects under the source in question when compared to color under reference
Light Conditions. This reference condition would no doubt be the conditions under natural day
light conditions. From the point of view of color appearance lamps are broadly divided into three
groups according to correlated color temperature. Table I lists a classification of correlated color
temperature and color appearance.
Table 1
Correlated Color
Color Temperature Appearance
>5300°K Cool (Bluish white)
3300 - 5300°K Intermediate (white)
> 3300°K Warm (Reddish white)

A good quality Lighting calls for Good Illuminance level. As illuminance level increases color
temperature also increases i.e. to say whiter should be the source.

Color Specification Systems

Munsell system
Surface colors in day light conditions are best specified according to Munsell system. According
to this system color has three dimensions i.e. hue, value and chroma. Each of these dimensions

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are given a scale of values. Scales themselves being made of collection of color chips forming
books of color charts. Each chart has one of the three kept constant.

Hue contains five Principal Hues namely, Red (R), Yellow (Y), Green (G), Blue (B) and Purple
(P). Five intermediate Hues are also used they are, YR, GY, BG, PB and RP.

Value indicates lightness or brightness of the hue on a Grey Scale from (0) corresponding to
black, (10) corresponding to white. Chroma is index of saturation – given in 14 steps indicates
freedom from dilution with white. In munsell system, 5y 5/6, indicates yellow with half way up
the Grey scale and six steps away from neutral in chroma. Sequence in specifying is Hue,
value/chroma. Fig 1 shows a typical Munsell color chart for 5y5/6.

CIE System
Around 1931 – mathematically exact specification of the color based on color triangle also
termed chromaticity diagram was introduced. This relies on two chromaticity coordinates x and
y obtained from spectral distribution of Lamp and standard colorimetric observer to three
Primary colors Red, Green and Blue. Saturated Light colors are at the edge of the triangle
diluting to white towards the centre.

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L ∗a ∗ b Colors Space
It is the prevalent CIE system of color specification. Both Munsell and CIE are subjective and
rely on visual comparison of colors differences. Standard colors observer of CIE requires
objective measurements. According to L*a*b system space is defined by two mutually
perpendicular axes (a & b) in a horizontal plane and a vertical axis ‘L’. Here Positive ‘a’
indicates Red content, Negative ‘a’ indicates Green content, Positive ‘b’ indicates Yellow
content, and Negative ‘b’ indicates Blue content .While values along ‘L’ (in Munsell system) the
value or lightness from 0 (Black) to 100 (white), a and b effect hue and saturation respectively.

Color Rendering: Index Ra


Index that compares color appearance of various light sources. It is based on appearance of
number of test colors under different illuminants. The average shift of chromaticity when test
colors illuminated by test lamp and reference source of same color temperature give a measure of
color rendering. For sources having color temperature ≤ 5000°K full radiator of nearest color
temperature is taken as reference. For sources having color temperature > 5000°K – simulated
daylight of appropriate color temperature is used. Earlier 8 Munsell test colors of medium
saturation ware used for measurement. Now fourteen test colors are employed. In these system
general color rendering index Ra can have a maximum of 100 when spectral distributions are
identical for both test and reference source. Some discharge lamps have spectral energy
distribution is close to that of the reference source. Thus they have high color rendering, even
though efficacy may be low.

This lesson covered essentials of Color. Three prevelant color specification schemes are studied.
Color rendering Index for is a way to assess color rendering property of any radiation.

Tutorial Questions
• What are primary Colors?
Primary Colors are Red, Green and Blue
• What are the various Color Specification schemes?
Color specification schemes in vogue are Munsell system, CIE system and L*a*b Color
space.
• What are basic elements in Color Specification?
Basic elements in Color Specification are hue, value and chroma
• What is Perceived Color?
Color that is perceived as object color. This is a result of object characteristics, depending
on the viewing direction and adaptation of the observer
• What is CRI?
It is the property of making color appearance of objects under the source in
question, when compared to color under reference Light Conditions.

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Module
4
Lighting Application
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
15
Interior Lighting
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
• List the factors responsible for interior lighting.
• State recommended requirements for Good Lighting
• List Factors governing light output
• State Maintenance procedures for proper interior lighting
• Enumerate recommended Illuminance levels

Interior Lighting
Interior Lighting is a complex problem depending on various factors such as
• Purpose intended service,
• Class of Interiors.
• Luminaire best suited,
• Color effect and
• Reflection from ceiling, walls, floors.

Good Lighting means intensity should be ample to see clearly and distinctly. The light
distribution should be nearly uniform over a part of the room at least. It should be diffused that
is soft and well diffused. Color depends on purpose and taste source but should approach
daylight / yellow. Source location should be well above range of vision. To avoid glare intrinsic
brightness is reduced by diffused glass ware and by remaining objects of secular reflection from
range of vision. Shadows are a must for accentuating depth but should not too apparent abruptly
or dense, they are not to be harsh and should toned down.

Standard practice is to have general lighting in all areas at a level comfortable to eye. It should
eliminate dark shadows and avoid sharp contrast. In order to emphasize on parts that should be
shown. Light sources located such that visual importance of object is kept in mind. Lamp may be
concealed or counter lighted with a very low attention value to itself. Glare minimized by
diffusing.

American Institute of Architects Recommends for Good Illumination.

1. General. Lighting – effectively illuminate all objects/areas with due regard to relative
importance in the interior composition. Adequate for eye comfort throughout the room
elimination of dark shadows and sharp contrasts – preserve soft shadows for
roundness/relief – lighting emphasis on those parts that need first attention.
2. Light sources be subordinated in visual importance to the things intended to illuminate,
except rarely when itself is a dominant decorative element. Unless – concealed/counter
lighted, that they are not apparent they have extremely high attention value – dominate
the scheme. If visible – so disposed – to attract eye to major feature of room than
themselves.
3. Glare must be eliminated. Result of intense brightness in concentrated areas within the
line of vision. Produced by excess brightness of visible light.

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reflection of bright lights from – Polished – low diffused surfaces - extreme contrast of
light/shade
Employ – means of diffusing – at source or finish the room - with Diffusing/Absorbing
materials rather than reflecting material.
4. Level of illumination to be adequate for the type of eye work. Local lighting to
supplement general lighting adequate illumination – working at m/cs – desks – reading
tables High level local lighting is always to be accompanied by general lighting to avoid
eye strain and minimize controls. If glare is avoided there is no over illumination.
Natural light limits are for outdoor 107600 lux and 1076 lux for indoor. Level should be
adequate for eye task expected.
5. General lighting is to be related and controlled to suit the mood. While worship,
meditation, introspection need low levels. Gaiety, mental activity, physical activity or
intense activity needs high levels. Theaters, homes and restaurants may need levels varied
according to mood. Shops level should be appropriate to woo customers through
psychological reaction. Offices, factories and schools adequate illumination to work w/o
eye strain.
6. Light source must suit interior in style, shape and finish in all architectural aspects.

Trends
It is always taken care to keep brightest surface not greater than 3 – 4 times brightness of task on
hand whereas brightness of task not greater than 3 – 4 times darkest surface. That is to say
luminance ratio from brightest to darkest is 10:3:1. Eliminating glare results in good visibility,
eases viewing, and creates pleasing psychological effect. All the calls for large light sources
covering entire ceiling approaching sheet of light. This ensures good uniform illumination all
over the room! Commonly white ceiling with semi indirect luminaires. One may employ false
ceiling (white or off white) with translucent diffusing material on top of which an array of lamps
are located. Major defects in lighting design are too bright luminaires, too dark floors and
furniture. Preferred scheme is to have light color interiors with large sources of low brightness.
Day light illumination or natural illumination, constantly changes, varies with weather, time of
the day or season. Typically lower daylight levels on upper levels. This required looking into
openings or windows. It is observed that at 20 – 25' from window, daylight falls below 10lx
under these conditions artificial general lighting needs to be turned on. Common technique is to
partially screen them, thus makes uniform general lighting. Top section of window should be as
close to ceiling as possible. It controls the light to the deepest end of the room. Normally height
to top window not less than ½ the depth of the room. Window area is responsible for glare.
Hence termed glare are. Glare area = 1/5th the floor space. Shades, baffles, louver, diffusers are
employed to control glare

If ‘X’ be the artificial illuminance that is sufficient for the task on hand: natural daylight
illuminance (minimum) = 2X. Say windows are located only on one wall. Width of the room less
than 2 times height to top of the window is preferred. Say windows are located on the opposite
walls, width between the walls not greater than 6 times height to top of the window.

Location of lamps based on candle power, maximum allowable spacing, height at which located.
Too great a spacing introduces dark shadows and dark spaces. Preferably lamps closer to ceiling,
clear of obstructions are useful. They may be mounted on surface, suspended or recessed in the

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 4


ceiling. Typically tasks of great visual acuity are at a plane 1.2m above floor low hanging light
units are used for local lighting. In using a matrix of lamps spacing not greater than mounting
height.

Remembering that a plane source of light gives out light flux which produces illuminance
independent of distance, mounting height is redundant when approaching a sheet of light.

Interior Finish
It is an important issue in interior lighting. Color reflectance – affects utilization white or off
white or yellow are preferred. Typical reflectance for Ceiling is 70 – 85%, for Walls is 45 –
60%, for Floor is 10 – 20%. In addition systems need to be maintained regular by Periodic check
preferably when lux levels fall by 20 – 25%, time to replace lamps. Usually luminaires are likely
to collect direct light. 1½ times of minimum requirement is taken to take care of this. If voltage
is maintained properly energy costs will be optimum. If voltage greater than labeled voltage, life
is shortened. If voltage is less than labeled voltage, less light output results. Lamps and
Luminaires are washed, cleaned. Direct lamps have less dirt, indirect lamps have more dirt.
Luminaries are wiped with brush/dry cloth if necessary with a damp cloth. Grease removed by
washing. Painting walls/ceiling – every 1½ - 2 years ensures good lighting levels. Clean offices
may be lit using direct/indirect fluorescent lamps. Dusty smoky factory lit by mercury vapor
direct or sodium vapor lamps. Replacement strategy should be related to large no. of lamps reach
70% of life preferably in a group.

This lesson covered issues pertaining to interior lighting. Best thing is to approach near plane
source of light. Reflectance’s of Walls, Ceiling and Floor also matter. Last but not least a good
maintenance strategy is required.

Lecture Summary
• Good interior lighting is governed by :
• intensity (ample to see clearly & distinctly)
• distribution (nearly uniform)
• soft & well diffused light
• color (depending on taste / purpose)
• source location should be above plane of vision (to avoid glare)
• Shadows are required for actuating depth of object. It shouldn’t be too apparent abruptly
or dense. Also it shouldn’t be harsh & needs to be toned down
• General lighting controlled to suit psychological moods
• Natural / daylight illumination constantly varies with weather, time of day & season
• We design the window opening such that the minimum daylight illuminance is twice the
artificial illuminance that is sufficient for the required task
• Location of lamps depends on :
• candle power
• maximum allowable spacing
• height at which located
• should be clear of obstruction
• distribution of light required

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• Color reflectance from the interior finishing affects utilization
• Interior lighting needs to be periodically checked & maintained
• Lamps should be replaced when they reach 70% of its life or illumination level falls
below standard. Moreover it is preferred to change lamps in groups rather than
individually.

Tutorial Questions
• What are the factors which need to be considered while designing interior lighting?
• purpose of lighting or intended service
• class of interiors
• luminaires best suited
• color effect
• reflection from ceiling, walls & floor
• Why are shadows important while designing interior lighting?
Shadows are important for actuating the depth of object to be perceived
• What are the defects in interior lighting considering from brightness point of view?
Major defects from lighting systems arise due to too bright luminaires & too dark floor &
interiors. So we should have light color interiors with large sources of low brightness
• What is the criteria for deciding the height of window?
If windows are located on only one wall then the height to the top of window should be
greater than half of the width of room. If windows are located on the opposite walls then
the height to the top of window shouldn’t be less than one-sixth of the distance between
the walls.
• Why is periodic check of the interior lamps required?
Periodic check is required because the lamps need to be replaced when they reach 70% of
its life or illumination level falls below standard. Moreover regular maintenance is
required to clean any accumulated dust / grease / moisture.

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Module
4
Lighting Application
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
16
Sports Lighting
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional objectives
1. List the factors responsible for sport lighting?
2. List the categories of users concerned with sport lighting.
3. State the grouping of games according to CIE.

Sports Lighting
This lesson addresses sports lighting application. Lighting for sports facility looks for comfort of
four user groups namely Players, Officials, Spectators and Media. Players and officials should
see clearly in the play area to produce best possible results the object used in the game.
Spectators should follow the performance of the players. In addition to play area surroundings
also need to be illuminated. Lighting should be such that it enables safe entry and exit. With
increasing crowd level safety becomes more and more important. Media include TV and film, for
whom lighting should provide lighting such that conditions are suitable for color picture quality
as per CIE 83. This should be suitable for both general pictures as well as close up of players and
spectators. Additionally, it should have provisions for emergency power supply to provide
continuous transmission.

Criteria relevant for sports lighting are Horizontal Illuminance, Vertical Illuminance, Illuminance
Uniformity, Glare restrictions, Modeling & shadows and Color appearance & rendering

Horizontal Illuminance
This becomes important as major part of view is illuminated playing area. Illuminance on the
horizontal plane serves adaptation of the eye. It acts as a background, so adequate illuminance is
important. For safe entry and exit adequate illumination is required in the circulation area also.

Vertical Illuminance
Sufficient contrast across players’ body is essential for the identification of the player. This is
possible only if sufficient vertical illumination is there. This is characterized by both magnitude
and direction. Players need adequate vertical illumination, from all directions. Spectators and
Media need illumination only in defined directions. Generally, if horizontal illuminance is taken
care, vertical illuminance levels become adequate. Usually vertical illuminance is specified or
measured at a vertical height 1.5 m above the play area. Apart from player recognition and
picture quality vertical illuminance should enable observation of movement of ball (or object
moving in the sport concerned) above the playing field by both players and spectators.
Spectator’s stands are also part of the environment and must also have adequate vertical
illuminance, more from the safety point of view.

Illuminance Uniformity
Good illuminance is important in both the horizontal and vertical planes. If it be good it does
away need for continuous adjustment of cameras. This is achieved by having Illuminance
Uniformity. Uniformity of illumination is expressed by two indices:

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 3


Lowest Illuminance
(1). U1 =
Highest Illuminance
Lowest Illuminance
(2). U2 =
Average Illuminance
For best conditions of Illumination ratio of average illuminance in the horizontal plane to vertical
plane should be between 0.5 and 2.0.

Glare
When disturbing brightness nears or enters field of view, glare is said to be there. As already
caused at low levels it could cause discomfort or annoyance but can be disabling at higher levels.
It is minimized by a proper choice of flood lights or luminaries, located suitably and aimed in
appropriate direction.

Modeling and Shadows


Ability of lighting to reveal form and texture provides overall pleasant impression of players,
ball and spectators. It depends on direction of the light, no. and type of light sources. Shadows
from narrow beams are termed “hard” are deep. The while light from luminous side lighting
termed “Flat” produce no shadows. These are two extremes and are not desirable. Later
improved by few spotlights. Good quality pictures on TV require good modeling. Hence, for
media to limit shadows about 60 % light must come from main camera side and 40 % from
opposite side.

Color Appearance and Color Rendering


Good color perception is very important for complete recognition. Some color distortion is
acceptable in the field but becomes important for media transmission.

Color has two distinct aspects:

i. Color appearance of the light that takes care of color impression of the total environment,
essentially due to the lamp.
ii. Color rendering of the light, the ability to reproduce color of an object faithfully.

Depends on spectral energy distribution of light emitted. Color appearance obtained from color
temperature varying between 2000 (warmer) to 6000 (cooler) K. Color rendering is specified by
CRI or Ra. Maximum possible CRI being 100, which is comparable to day light situation.
Higher the Ra more agreeable is the environment.

Table I lists the recommendations for various types of sports in terms of E’ Average Minimum
Horizontal Illuminance and Illuminance Uniformity indices.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 4


Table I
Sport Level E (lux) U1 U2 Ra Tk Group
of
activity
Athletics A
Indoor t/r 200 0.3 0.5 65 2000
Ca 300 0.4 0.5 65 4000
Cp 500 0.5 0.7 65 4000

Outdoor t/r 100 0.2 0.3 20 2000


Ca 200 0.2 0.3 20 2000
Cp 400 0.3 0.5 65 4000
Badminton t/r 300 0.4 0.6 65 4000 B
Ca 600 0.5 0.7 65 4000
Cp 800 0.5 0.7 65 4000
Basketball B
Indoor t/r 300 0.4 0.6 65 4000
Ca 400 0.5 0.7 65 4000
Cp 600 0.5 0.7 65 4000

Outdoor t/r 100 0.2 0.3 60 2000


Ca 200 0.3 0.4 60 2000
Cricket C
Indoor t/r/Ca 750 0.5 0.7 65 4000
Cp 1500 0.7 0.8 65 4000

Outdoor t/r/Ca 100 0.4 0.5 65 4000


Cp 200 0.5 0.6 65 4000
Football B
Indoor t/r 300 0.4 0.6 65 4000
Ca 600 0.5 0.7 65 4000
Cp 800 0.5 0.7 65 4000

Outdoor t/r 100 0.4 0.6 65 4000


Ca 200 0.5 0.7 65 4000
Cp 500 0.5 0.7 65 4000
Table t/r 300 0.4 0.6 60 4000 C
Tennis Ca 400 0.5 0.7 60 4000
Cp 600 0.5 0.7 60 4000
Tennis B
Indoor t/r 500 0.4 0.6 65 4000
Ca 750 0.4 0.6 65 4000
Cp 1000 0.4 0.7 65 4000

Outdoor t/r 250 0.4 0.6 60 2000


Ca 500 0.4 0.6 65 4000
Cp 750 0.4 0.6 65 4000

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 5


Here t – training amateur and professional
r – General recreation
Ca – National competition amateur
Cp – National and International competition, without media requirements
E – Average minimum horizontal illuminance
U1 – Illuminance uniformity Emin/Emax
U2 – Illuminance uniformity Emin/Eav
Ra – color rendering index
Tk – correlated color temperature
Group – according to CIE 83.

Initial values are taken to be 1.5 times indicated minimum levels. CIE grouping into A, B, C
denotes speed of action in descending order. One may observe small ball size and high speed of
movement are grouped under C. These recommendations change as shown in Table II for media
coverage for National TV, while that for International coverage are as shown in Table III and for
HDTV as shown in Table IV

Recommendations for TV (National)


Table II
Group Maximum Illuminance level Illuminance Uniformity Color Color
Shooting vertical Horizontal Rend Temper
distance ering ature
Main Secondary U1 U2 U1 U2
camer camera
a (lux)
(lux)
A ≤ 25m 500 500 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 65 4000
≤ 75m 700 500 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 65 4000
≤ 150m 1000 700 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 65 4000
B ≤ 25m 500 500 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.5 65 4000
≤ 75m 1000 700 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.5 65 4000
≤ 150m 1400 1000 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.6 65 4000
C ≤ 25m 1000 700 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 65 4000
≤ 75m 1400 1000 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.6 65 4000

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 6


Recommendations for TV (International)
Table III
Group Maximum Illuminance level Illuminance Uniformity Color Color
Shooting vertical Horizontal Rende Temper
distance ring ature
Main Secondar U1 U2 U1 U2
camer y camera
a (lux) (lux)
A ≤ 25m 700 500 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 65 4000
≤ 75m 1000 700 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.5 65 4000
≤ 150m 1400 1000 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 65 4000
B ≤ 25m 1000 700 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.5 65 4000
≤ 75m 1400 1000 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.6 65 4000
≤ 150m 1750 1250 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.6 65 4000
C ≤ 25m 1400 1000 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.6 65 4000
≤ 75m 1750 1250 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.7 65 4000

Recommendations for HDTV


Table IV
Group Maximum Illuminance level Illuminance Uniformity Color Color
Shooting vertical Horizontal Rende Temper
distance ring ature
Main Secondar U1 U2 U1 U2
camer y camera
a (lux) (lux)
A ≤ 25m 1000 700 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 90 5500
≤ 75m 1500 1000 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 90 5500
≤ 150m 2000 1500 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 90 5500
B ≤ 25m 1500 1000 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 90 5500
≤ 75m 2000 1500 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 90 5500
≤ 150m 2500 1750 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 90 5500
C ≤ 25m 2000 1500 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 90 5500
≤ 75m 2500 1750 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 90 5500

The recommended values are average Horizontal Illuminance values to be maintained


throughout operation and installation. Therefore, initial values are taken 1.25 times these
suggested values.

Vertical Illuminance is provided such that camera operators have free choice of camera angle.
These levels are specified at a height of 1.5m above the playing area.

As seen from the recommendations, Illuminance uniformity is very stringent for TV or media
although human eye is less sensitive and has ability to adjust, levels of uniformity required
higher for TV coverage.

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Metal Halide Lamps
Most sports installations employ metal halide lamps. They are similar to high pressure mercury
lamps. It contains number of metal halides in addition to mercury. Halides are partly vaporized
when normal operating temperature is reached. Hence dissociates into halogen and metal in the
hot central region. Radiation attains the color of the metal employed.
Groups of halides include:
1) three band color radiators
2) multiline radiators
3) molecular radiators

Three band radiator are Indium (In), Titanium (Ti), Sodium (Na). Multi Line radiator are
Dyspersium (Dy), Hofnium(Ho), Thalum(Tm); Titanum (Ti), Sodium (Na) and Dyspersium
(Dy), Titanium (Ti), Sodium (Na). Molecular radiators are Stannic Chloride (SnCl2) and Stannic
Iodide ( SnI2) Essentially improve color rendering ability of a mercury vapor radiation.

Lecture Summary
1. Sports Lighting has four user groups in mind
a. Players
b. Officials
c. Spectators and
d. Media.
2. Category of sport is made as A, B or C depending on the size of the ball/object and place
of the game. “C” denotes fast paced game with small sized object.
3. Horizontal Illuminance, vertical illuminance and illuminance uniformity are crucial for
this category of lighting.
4. Color appearance is very important for media coverage.
5. Considering all user groups CRI of 65 and color temperature of at least 4000K is
recommended.

Tutorial Questions
• Where do we use narrow beam flood lights?
• Where do we use wide beam flood lights?
• Why are lamps used for sports lighting operated at higher voltage than rated voltage?

Answer to Questions of previous lecture


• What are the factors which need to be considered while designing interior lighting?
• Purpose of lighting or intended service
• Class of interiors
• luminaires best suited
• Color effect

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 8


• Reflection from ceiling, walls & floor
• Why are shadows important while designing interior lighting?
Shadows are important for actuating the depth of object to be perceived
• What are the defects in interior lighting considering from brightness point of view?
Major defects from lighting systems arise due to too bright luminaires & too dark floor &
interiors. So we should have light color interiors with large sources of low brightness
• What is the criteria for deciding the height of window?
If windows are located on only one wall then the height to the top of window should be
greater than half of the width of room. If windows are located on the opposite walls then
the height to the top of window shouldn’t be less than one-sixth of the distance between
the walls.
• Why is periodic check of the interior lamps required?
Periodic check is required because the lamps need to be replaced when they reach 70% of
its life or illumination level falls below standard. Moreover regular maintenance is
required to clean any accumulated dust / grease / moisture.

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Module
4
Lighting Application
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
17
Road Lighting
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional objectives
1. List factors affecting Road lighting scheme.
2. State the conditions provided by Road lighting.
3. List the categories of Road and recommended light levels.
4. Understand zones in a tunnel lighting.
5. What are Post Top Lanterns?

Road Lighting
Road lighting provides visual conditions for safe, quick and comfortable movement of Road
users.
The factors responsible for the lighting scheme for roads are:
i. Luminance Level.
ii. Luminance Uniformity.
iii. Degree of Glare limitation.
iv. Lamp Spectra and
v. Effectiveness of visual guidance.

Luminance Level
As the Luminance of a road influences contrast sensitivity of drivers’ eyes and contrast of
obstacles, relative to back ground. Hence affects performance of Road users. Surrounding
brightness affects the adaptation of human eye. Bright surroundings lower contrast sensitivity
there by requiring higher luminance for the road surface. Darker surroundings make driver
adapted to road (assuming road is brighter). Roads with dark surrounds are to be lit by including
surroundings. Otherwise drivers cannot perceive objects in the surroundings. CIE 12
recommends that 5m away from the road on either side should be lit by illuminance level at least
50% of that on the road.

Luminance Uniformity
Adequate uniformity is necessary for visual performance and visual comfort of the user. From
visual performance view point, uniformity ratio is defined by U0 = Lmin / Lavg .U0 should not be
below 0.4. From visual comfort view point uniformity ratio is defined as U1 = Lmin / Lmax
measured along the line passing through the observer positioned in the middle of the traffic
facing the traffic flow. Termed longitudinal uniformity ratio.

Glare Limitation
Physiological or disability glare affect visual performance. Psychological or discomfort glare
affect visual comfort. Glare is to be avoided at all costs.

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Lamp Spectra
Spectral composition determines color appearance of the lamp. The way lamp is going to render
color to objects Low pressure sodium vapour lamps give greater visual acuity. Spectrum should
be such; there is Great speed of perception, less discomfort glare and shorter recovery time after
glare.

Visual Guidance
Visual guidance guides the road user and hence must for user to get a recognizable picture of the
course immediately. This is improved by lamp arrangement that follows the run of the road.
More so if turns and intersections are there. Lighting scheme must provide visual guidance. On
roads having separate lanes with a separator the lighting columns are located on the separator.
As is the custom in large avenues in Metros. On a curve the lighting column is located along the
outer column. This gives a clear indication of the run of the road on the curvature. Visual
guidance pilots traffic through lights of different colors on different routes. Exits on main roads
are lit differently. Sodium vapour lamps for the main road and mercury lights for exits are
employed.

Official Recommendations
National standards are taken from CIE 12. Visual conditions for smooth movement and safe
traffic pattern. They depend on speed, intensity, composition of traffic and complexity of the
road.

Table I lists the categories of the road as A to E based on the locality and traffic density. Table II
lists the appropriate recommendations for lighting.

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Road categories
Table I
Category Type and density of Type of Road Examples
traffic
A Heavy and high speed Road with separators. No Motorway
motorized traffic. crossings. Complete access Expressway
control
B Important traffic road for Trunk road
motorized traffic only. Major road
Separate road for slow
traffic/pedestrian.
C Heavy and moderate Important all purpose rural Ring road
speed motorized traffic or urban road Radial road
or heavy mixed traffic
of moderate speed.
D Fairly heavy mixed Roads in City or shopping Trunk road
traffic of which a centers, approach roads Commercial road
major part may be motorized traffic meets Shopping streets
slow traffic or heavy slow or pedestrians. etc.
pedestrians.
E Mixed traffic of Collector road between Collector road
limited speed and residential areas Local streets.
moderate

Recommendations for lighting


Table II
Category Surrounds Luminance level. Uniformity road
Average road Overall Lengthwise
surface luminance Uniformity ratio Uniformity ratio
Lav(Cd/m2) U0 U1
≥ ≥ ≥
A Any 2 0.4
B1 Bright 2 0.7
2 Dark 1 0.4
C1 Bright 2 0.4
2 Dark 1 0.4 0.5
D Bright 2 0.4 0.5
E1 Bright 1 0.4 0.5
2 Dark 0.5 0.4 0.5

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Lighting Arrangements
Depending on the road category there are various arrangements for two way traffic roads. They
are four types as shown in Fig. 1. They are:
a) Single sided – located on one side, if width of the road ≤ mounting height. Luminance at
the opposite remote end lower than under the lamp.
b) Staggered – located on either side of the road in a staggered or zigzag fashion when width
is 1 – 1.5 times the mounting height. Here care is to be taken to avoid dark patches.
c) Opposite – located opposite one another. When width is greater than 1.5 times the
mounting height.
d) Span wire – luminnaires suspended along the axis of the road only normally for narrow
roads. Suspended from cables strung between buildings.

a b c d
Single sided Staggered Opposite Span wire
Fig. 1 Lighting arrangement for 2 way street

High speed ways and dual lanes lamps may be located on the separator and are termed central
twin bracket arrangement. As shown in Fig 2.

(a) (b)
Central Twin Central Twin
Bracket Bracket and opposite

Fig. 2 Lighting arrangement on the 2 Lane Roads.

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Road Junctions
Special care is taken at road junctions as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. Care is taken such that junction
is clearly visible from a distance. Should prevent traffic congestion. Higher luminance at
junction. Using different colors at the junction. Different arrangements be for main roads and
secondary roads. High mast lighting preferred at junctions.

Fig. 3 Crossing of major and minor roads roads.

Fig. 4 Crossing on a two lane highway.

Curves
Special care is taken on curves. On radius larger than 300m, the curve can be treated as straight
roads. Smaller radius curves, lamps are located outside of the curve. Smaller the radius, closer
is the spacing. Usually 0.5 – 0.25 times that for a straight road.

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Tunnel lighting
Tunnels needs to be lit both during day and night. Sense of safety same as on open road. Tunnel
for this purpose is divided into five zones Access zone, Threshold zone, Transition zone, Interior
zone and Exit zone. Access zone is immediately outside the tunnel, where driver must be able to
detect obstacles in the tunnel. Threshold zone is first of the four zones driver in the access zone
must detect, obstacles in this zone before entering the tunnel. Length depends on the maximum
speed and corresponding stopping distance. Transition zone is where levels can be gradually
reduced. This is where reduction takes place. Interior zone is the Tunnel stretch farthest from
influence of day light. Only artificial light enables drivers’ vision in this zone. Level is constant
throughout depending on the speed, here highest level is chosen. Exit zone where vision is
influenced by the brightness outside. Tunnels need extra day time lighting when tunnels are very
long. CIE recommendation, including various aspects, needs at least for tunnel lengths.
Tunnel lengths < 25m – no day time lighting, 25 – 125m – 50% normal threshold zone lighting
and >125m – normal threshold zone lighting . Fig. 5 shows Tunnel lighting levels as a function
of tunnel length.

Entrance
L20 Exit
Lth
Lexit
Access
Zone Transition
Interior

Threshold Zone Exit Zone


Fig. 5 Tunnel lighting levels

Tunnel lighting employs transverse and longitudinal light distributions which are symmetrical
and counter beam system, which is asymmetrical. Transverse light radiated at 90º to the axis of
the tunnel may be continuous line of tubular fluorescent lamps that give good visual guidance,
minimal glare and require simple switching. Only disadvantage is close spacing. Longitudinal –
light radiated parallel to the tunnel axis. It leads to high efficacy and large luminaire spacing.
Counter beam is light radiated parallel to the tunnel axis against the direction of traffic flow. In
Residential area, road safety, security and amenity are kept in mind. Where only pedestrians are
there, security and amenity are major criteria. In such areas high pressure mercury vapour lamps
or blended lamps are preferred. Sodium vapor lamps of 50 / 70W have been successfully used.
Wherever light needs to serve pedestrians post top lanterns are preferred.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 8


Transverse

Longitudinal

Counter beam

Fig. 6 Scheme for Tunnel lighting.

Summary
• Road lighting aims safe, quick and comfortable movement of traffic.
• There are five categories of Roads, A, B, C, D and E depending on the type and density
of traffic.
• Mostly sodium vapor lamps are preferred on the roads.
• At junctions mercury vapor lamps may be provided.
• Tunnel lighting needs to be carried out in such a way as to gradually change the light
level. Tunnels lit during the day as well as night.
• Residential areas have post top lanterns.

Tutorial Questions
• What are the factors responsible for road lighting?
• What are the various arrangements of locating lamps on roads?
• What are the various categories of the roads?
• List the various zones in a Tunnel from lighting view point
• What are the various schemes employed for tunnel lighting?

Answer to Questions of previous lecture


• Where do we use narrow beam flood lights?
Narrow beam flood lights have higher light flow. So they are used where greater
distances are involved.
• Where do we use wide beam flood lights?
Wide beam flood lights have lower intensity. So they are used where large areas are
involved.
• Why are lamps used for sports lighting operated at higher voltage than rated voltage?
A small increase in voltage produces higher light output & comparatively less increase in
power consumption. Hence they are operated with voltage greater than rated voltage

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 9


Module
4
Lighting Application
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
18
Lighting Calculations
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
• List the issues for Lighting Calculations
• Learn the quick way of estimating recommended levels
• Understand the use of Iso-lux diagrams
• List the factors to be accounted for calculation
• What is room index

Lighting Calculations
In order to do calculate, manufactures manuals data sheets are the first source. For the
Engineer/Architect several softwares, fast, accurate and convenient are available which rapidly
assess requirements on field. One should be able to check if software is giving right solution!
This needs understanding of long hand calculations discussed in this lesson. Various issues
involved are Illuminance – horizontal and vertical may be got from Tables. Also given in the
form of graphs, called Isolux diagrams. The other issue is the Luminance of the source in
question.

Horizontal Illuminance
Specified as Average illuminance on the work plane while Sitting 0.75 – 0.9m above floor and
while Standing 0.85 – 1.2m above floor.
φ tot
Thus E ar = U.F. × M , where
A
E = Average horizontal illuminance in lux.
φ = Total light output in Lumens.
A = Area in m2
U.F = Utilization factor
M = Maintenance factor

Ceiling Frieze (wall area


4 above luminaire plane)
Lam
3 3 3 3
2 2
1
walls walls

Work plane

Floor
1 – work plane, 2 – wall area below the
luminaire, 3 – on the frieze, 4 – ceiling
Fig. 1 Schematic showing various zones in an interior of a room.

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Utilization Factor UF depends on Light distribution of luminaire, Reflectance of ceiling, walls
and Room Index K. Room surface reflectance which depends on the dimensions shown in Fig. 1
is specified in the form of reflectance code as given in the next section

Reflectance code
Code 7751 connotes a reflectance from Ceiling of 0.7, Frieze of 0.7, Walls of 0.5 and work plane
of 0.1. Similarly 751 denote reflectance from Ceiling of 0.7, Walls of 0.5 and Work plane of 0.1.
That is to say there is no frieze at all. If not known or available average value of 753 is taken for
a room with light colors.

If l = length, b = breadth then the hm = Mounting height of luminaires.


lb
Room Index k=
h m (l + b)
Table I lists the minimum number of luminaries required for different room indices, if there be
M luminaries length wise and N luminaries width wise.

Table I
K 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.25 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0
M 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 8 10
N 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6

Direct component at a point p due to a point source is as already discussed is shown in Fig. 2 and
that due to a line source is shown in Fig. 3.

Iα α Iα
Ep = cos 3α
2
hm hm
d

a p
Fig. 2 Illuminance due to a point source

Linear source of infinite length


hm

π I α C osα
Ep =
α hm 2d
π Iα
= C osα
2hm

Fluorescent lamp
Fig. 3 Illuminance due to line source.
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 4
Calculating from Isolux diagram involves no of steps. Let us consider source placed at P be a
point source. Then place the Isolux diagram on that plane.

Step1. From the luminous intensity table for the luminaire calculate illuminance on the working
plane and distances to each point.

Step2. Plot E and a using this 2 illuminance distribution curves draw isolux curves as shown.

Step3. Extend to four quadrants using tracing or transparent paper. Then

Step4. Place isolux diagram on the plan of the luminaire layout. Positioning: centre over the
point of interest. Sum the illuminance.

Step5. If 1000 lumens per luminaire is assumed,

φn E
Ep =
1000
N = no. of lamps per luminaire
E = value from step 4.

1 2 3 5 – 40
4–5
8 – 10
4 5 6 9–5
5 P 40
60402010 5 lx
Epe 594
n=3
7 8 9
10 5 3300 = φ

Fig. 4 Typical Isolux diagram

Indirect component at ‘p’


φ eav
E ind =
∑ Fn 1- eav
φ = light flux leaving in lumens.

∑Fn = total area of the room surfaces

eav = average reflectance of the surface.

eav =
∑e F n n

∑F n
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 5
Where en = reflectance of the nth surface

Vertical Illuminance
It becomes important in case of an Average wall, wall mounted object, black board – chalk board
and wall display in a shop.

Illuminance is given by
φtot
E av = (R)n w M
A
Where φ = Luminous Flux – Lumens,
A = Area of the work plane,
(R)Nw = U.F,
M = maintenance Factor.
Figure 5. shows the vertical illuminance at a point ‘P’

Direct component at a point P


α Iα
Ep = Cos 2 α Sinα
h2
h
d

a p

Fig. 5 Vertical Illuminance due to a point source

At any point total Illuminance due to all luminaries is given by


EP (total) = E1 + E2 + …+ En
Linear sources Permanent length
πIα
Ep = Sinα Cosα Infinite Length
2h
πIα
= Sin 2 α
2a
φ
Iα = Finite Length
9.25
Luminaire Luminance

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 6



Ah

Fig. 6 Luminaire Luminance Calculation



Lν = → Apparant area

A ν = A h Cosν + A νSinν

1000 Lumen – 0 < ν < 85º

Lecture Summary
• Illuminance level depends on the nature of working environment & is specified in terms
of horizontal, vertical & inclined illuminance. These are obtained graphically from
numerical tables.
• Isolux diagrams are used for calculation of illumnance & luminance levels
• A room can be divided into four zones for calculation of illumination level :
• work plane
• wall area below luminaire
• on the fieze (wall area above luminaire)
• ceiling
• Horizontal illuminance is given by:
φ tot
E avg = × UF× M
A
• Utilization Factor (UF) depends on:
• light distribution of luminaire
• reflectance of ceiling / walls
l× b
• Room index (k) is given by : k =
h m × (l + b)
• Vertical Illumination is given by:
φ
E avg = tot × UF× M
A
I
• Luminaire Luminance is given by: L γ = γ

Where Aγ is the apparent area in the specified direction & is given by
A γ = A h × cosγ + A v ×sinγ

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 7


Tutorial Questions
• What do you mean by surface reflectance of 7751 & 751?
• What are isolux diagrams?
• What do you mean by fieze?

Answer to Questions of previous Lecture


• What is silhouette?
It is brightness towards the observer rather than illuminance on the road surface.
• Why do lamps have asymmetrical light distribution on roadways? How is it achieved?
We have light directed towards the street only with ample light on the pavement to
enhance the aesthetics of the buildings & lower level of lighting on the street.
Asymmetrical distribution is achieved by use of reflectors, refractors & prisms.
• On what factor does the arrangement of luminaires depend?
It depends on the electrical aspect. We may have one side or opposite or staggered
lighting depending on the number of circuits available. Optimization is achieved by using
double lamps at middle of road.
• What is the importance of supplementary lighting in tunnels?
While entering or coming out of the tunnel drivers may face problem due to abrupt
change in brightness. So supplementary lighting are used to avoid abrupt changes.

Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 8


Module
4
Lighting Application
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1
Lesson
19
Lighting Applications
Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2
Instructional Objectives
• List various lighting applications
• Understand the need to integrate lighting with other applications
• Classify Industrial Lighting
• Classify Office Lighting
• List requirements of lighting for Educational Institutions, Auditoria, Hospitals, Hotels
and restaurants

Lightning Applications
This lesson presents various issues pertaining to lighting applications. First area of application is
Industrial. Here Wide range of visual tasks are involved compared to schools or offices. Involves
Extremely small to very large objects. The objects or areas could be Dark or light with Flat or
contoured surfaces. In industrial environs the tasks are graded according to degree of fineness.
Less critical tasks require low level/quality of light Finer work requires high level with
minimum glare. General lighting is usually supplemented by specific lighting. Lighting is
dictated by Nature of work, Shape of the space and ceiling structure

Thus lighting in Industry is Classified as:


• single storey without skylight
• multi storey
• single storey with sky light
• high bay
Single storey without sky light, specially in Work shops or factories floor to ceiling height is
kept around 3m or 5 m or 7 m.
Fluorescent lamps are used up to a mounting height of 5m arranged in Continuous or broken
rows. They may be mounted directly on ceiling or suspended.
When Mounting height hm > 5m, usually discharge lamps with reflector luminaries are employed
separation distance S < 1.5hm. Usually line of luminaires is mounted perpendicular to work
benches. Normally trunking systems containing wires enables efficacy of illumination.

Multistorey
Ussually Smooth white ceilings with height in the range 2.8m < h < 3.5m. Here Roof acts as
extended reflector. They use Tubular fluorescent lamps in continuous or broken rows. The
lighting is Integrated with a/c system.

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Single storey with skylight

Fig. 1 Typical Single storey with Sky light

When using Lantern roof uses saw toothed roof, to allow more of day light Employs Reflector
type luminaires in a row perpendicular to work bench.

In High bays, where ceiling height h > 7m, light sources need to be mounted higher. This
facilitates avoiding obstruction to guide rails of cranes and tall machinery. Here, Dispersive
narrow beam reflector luminaries fitted with metal halide or high pressure sodium vapour lamps
that are color corrected are used.

Special Tasks in Industrial Environment


Best way of assessing Visual requirement is known by doing it one self. Lighting design should
Create necessary contrast between the details to be distinguished against the background. If
general lighting does not meet these requirements then additional aids such as Illuminated
magnifying glass, Stroboscopic lighting for viewing objects in motion or Monochromatic light in
glass and ceramic manufacture.

Office lighting
As regards office lighting they can be categorized as General offices, Private offices, Conference
rooms. Here usually Limited well defined visual task are involved. Typically there are
Horizontal work planes at 0.75 – 0.85m from the floor. Typical Ceiling heights are 2.8 – 3m.

Illuminance
Recommended Illuminance levels in Small offices are 500 – 750 lx on the task and in Large
office 750 – 1000 lx on the task. General lighting at least equal to 50% of task illuminance with a
minimum of 400 lx is recommended.

Luminances
Recommended luminance values for Walls is 50 – 150 Cd/m2, for Ceiling 100 – 200 Cd/m2 and
for Tasks / Task area 100 – 300 Cd/m2. Color appearance should be agreeable. All this easily
obtained using Day light fluorescent lamps with louvers and diffusers.

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General offices
They usually have Moderate to large area where work planes are not fixed. Such areas Ceiling
mounted / recessed luminaries are arranged in a regular pattern. Lighting is suitably combined
with air handling systems. This may be using false ceiling or suspended ceiling, hence luminaries
should be well ventilated. Since large areas are involved energy saving by localized lighting by
having appropriate controls for switching keeping lighting recommendations in mind.
It must be mentioned that Visual display units need special care such that Windows / sources do
not reflect on the screen. Typically recommended levels are 400 lx for light screen and 700 lx for
dark screen. Similarly for private office and conference rooms. As Drawing offices involve
precision work a min. of 1000 lx is recommended
In Educational Institutions where Writing, reading & reading black board are main tasks, Levels
for Office lighting with additional lighting for blackboards are sufficient. Recommended levels
for Class room are 300 – 500 lx, for Handcrafts room – 500 – 1000 lx, for Laboratories – 500 –
1000 lx. Optics laboratories need special lighting as dictated for the experiments in optics. On
chalk boards or Blackboard, level should be 300 – 500 lx (vertical). In Auditoria (during
projection) 50–150 lx otherwise 300–500 lx. Needless to mention that in auditoria Reading
writing require 500 lx. Care is to be taken to prevent glare. There is a need to provide Dimmers
to vary the lighting level. There should be additional Local lighting on the blackboard. For
proper functioning Centralized controls are required. The Control panel should be easily
accessible to Lecturer at the rostrum. Table I lists the recommended levels for shops and stores.

Shops and Stores


Table I
Interiors large shopping centers lx Other areas lx
General lighting 500 – 750 300 – 500
Local lighting 1500 – 3000 750 – 1500
Show case/windows
General lighting 1000 – 2000 500 – 1000
Local lighting 5000 – 10000 3000 – 5000

Show case in a store must be lit such that it brings out special features of the product. Hardware
can use diffused fluorescent lamps. Jewellery best lit by incandescent lamps.

Hotels / Restaurants
In hotels and restaurants lighting must take care of Approach roads / car parks / main entrance.
They are lit by Columns – 30cm to 12m high. They are termed post top Lanterns. EH = 10 lx.
canopy EH = 100 lx. Entrance halls, foyers attention is to be drawn to reception. Desk Hence
increase illuminance around reception. Lighting system should be Flexible. In restaurants
Fluorescent lamps around the perimeter of dining area with local lighting at tables (lowered at
night times). This needs Dimming and partial switching. Eav = 100 lx is recommended. No doubt
at Cash desk, higher level of 300 lx is preferred.

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In Corridors and stairs, when having Long corridors without any daylight Fluorescent lamps are
preferred with Day time Illuminance of 150 lx and Night time Illuminance of 75 lx. In addition
hotels must have all night pilot lighting and provisions for Emergency lighting

In Bed Rooms or Guest rooms provisions must be there for General lighting, Reading lamp at the
table Bed head reading lamp in wall brackets mounted high. Mirrors should be lit by Fluorescent
lamps right above or on either side.

Standard Light.

Table lamp.
Bed head lamp.

Mirror lamp.

Fig. 2 Arrangement in a typical Guest Room in a Hotel


Hospitals
Lighting in hospitals is from the view of Patients, Technicians and Doctors. In this application
Color rendering is important. Changes in color may misdiagnose a disease and effect
psychology. Radiation is employed for treatment interference free.
In Patients room General lighting recommended is 100–200 lx and Local lighting
recommended is 100 – 300 lx. Luminance 350 cd/m2 Examination lighting level should be 1000
lx. Night light should at least be 0.5 lx. Night observation light suggested is 5 – 20 lx.
Recommended levels for Corridors during day are 200 – 300 lx. and nights is 5 – 10 lx.

Lights recommended for Exam rooms are 4000ºK fluorescent lamps with 500 – 1000 lx.
Theaters should have shadow free lighting. ICU and X Ray rooms should have at least 10 – 30lx.

Before, we close this lesson some types of luminaries employed are illustrated. Figures 1 to 4
show various types of luminaries that may be used for various types of lamps shown in Fig.5

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Fig. 1 Typical Decorative Surface mounting Consumer Luminaires

Fig. 2 Typical Consumer Luminaires for Flourescent Lamps surface mountable

Fig. 3 Typical decorative Downlighters using CFL which can be recessed in ceiling

Fig. 4 Typical Commercial Luminaires using CFLs suitable for recessed mounting

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Fig. 5 Typical Spectrum of Lamps

Lecture Summary
• Industrial lighting is dictated by:
• nature of work
• shape of space
• ceiling structures
• Industrial lighting can be classified as:
• single storey without skylight
• multistorey
• single storey with skylight
• high bay light
• Additional lighting are used if general lighting doesn’t meet requirements viz. illuminated
magnifying glass, stroboscopic lighting, monochromatic light etc.
• Fluorescent lamps with louvres & diffusers are preferred for office lighting
• Vertical illumination becomes necessary for blackboards in educational institutions
• In hospitals lighting is done according to convenience of patients, technicians & doctors.
Operation theatres need shadow free lighting. ICU & X-ray rooms have low luminance
levels.

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• In shops, restaurants & other commercial places, local & color lighting is employed to
highlight a particular place / product

Tutorial Questions
• When do you need stroboscopic lighting?
• What care should be taken for auditorium lighting?
• How should be the line of luminaires be mounted in industries & why?

Answer to Questions of previous lecture


• What do you mean by surface reflectance of 7751 & 751?
• 7751 has surface reflectance of ceiling = 0.7, freze = 0.7, walls = 0.5 & work
plane = 0.1
• 751 has surface reflectance of ceiling = 0.7, negligible for fieze, walls = 0.5 &
work plane = 0.1
• What are isolux diagrams?
Isolux diagrams are used for calculation of illuminance & luminance levels
• What do you mean by fieze?
It is the wall area above the luminaire plane i.e. the plane at which luminaires are located

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Module
4
Lighting Application
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Lesson
20
Conclusions on
Illumination Engineering
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This lesson is to conclude the first part of the course on Illumination Engg.

Physiology
Psychology

Illumination Math Usefulness


Engineering Chemistry To
Physics Humanity

Economics

Art
(Aesthetic)

Fig. 1 Inputs necessary for Illumination Engg


It recaps the summary of material covered under Illumination Engineering. This forms the 50 %
of the course. Nineteen lessons covered need for lighting, behavior of eye, Principles of artificial
Lighting, Measurements, calculations & Applications. Figure 1 shows the typical inputs
necessary to a person dealing with Illlumination Engg. to make it useful to the humanity.

First lesson stressed the need for lighting .Good lighting aims so that our eyes clearly and
pleasantly perceive things. Invariably artificial lighting schemes use some form of physical
phenomena. All lighting sources today employ electrical energy. Electrical Energy sources may
be DC or AC single phase or three phases. Usual Sources of electrical energy are Hydro &
Thermal. Usually load is unbalanced for a practical 3-phase system.

Radiation
Second lesson deals with radiation. Light is the Radiant energy that provides visual sensation.
Human eye can sense over the 380nm (violet) to 700nm (red) wavelength.. Maximal relative
energy content of sunlight around 550 nm coincident with maximal luminosity of human eye.
Artificial light sources employed may be broadly categorized as Incandescent Lamps and Gas
Discharge Lamps. These are based on the following four Physical Processes:
• Incandescence
• Luminescence
• Fluorescence
• Phosphorescence
However, we learn as we go along that Good efficient lighting is obtained by combining
luminescence & fluorescence. Having learnt about necessity of artificial Illumination and
radiation characteristics, it is time to look at how the eye responds.

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Eyes & Vision
A human eye resembles a camera in structure and function. Important parts of a human eye are
Iris / pupil, Lens and Retina. The vision is either Photopic (dealing with fine image details and
color discrimination, due to cone cells) or Scotopic (functions in dim light and no image details,
due to rod cells). It may be mentioned that Human eye is achromatic in nature. Dispersive power
of human eye is little greater than water. Eye is subject to Purkinjee Effect essentially dealing
with shift of luminosity and ability of eye to adjust. Best sensitivity of cone cells is around
550nm (i.e. yellowish green hue) and that for rod cells is around 507nm (i.e.bluish green). Good
lighting scheme should aim at Prevention of defective vision, Optimization of resources and
improving conditions of visibility. Visibility depends on the (Observer Issues) size / details of
object, level / quality of illumination, contrast / color and available time. It also depends on
efficacy of individual, one’s eye defects, optical / physical fatigue and distraction. The Causes of
fatigue could be rotating source, focusing on the source of glare, reading double impression.
Usually after a days work pupil is dilated a nights rest offsets fatigue due to a days
work.Visibility reduces due to eye defects and fatigues. Eye defects are caused due to aging, use
or abuse. Hence, good illum0ination looks for producing clear and quick images. Illumination
affects physiology as well as psychology, hence quality lighting is important. Factors governing
illumination quality are glare, diffusion, direction / focus, composition and distribution.
Minimum lighting required for good visibility is 100 ft-cd or more. For good visibility,
brightness of surrounding should be greater than 0.01 ft-L & also should be less than that of the
test object. Apart from illumination, visibility is talked in terms of visual acuity, visual efficacy,
visual speed and visual health.
Acuity is the ability to distinguish details depending upon: brightness of the object,
characteristics of light entering the eye, contrast maintained. With age there is a reduction of
visual activity, decrease in size & elasticity of pupil, decrease in flexibility of optic lens there by
leading to higher levels of illumination requirement. Monochromatic light has good acuity
producing distinct images on retina and details are distinguished well. Combination of different
colors reduces acuity which is known as Chromatic Aberration. Color sensation by eye has a lag
which depends on presentation & cessation of stimulus, rate of rise / fall of sensation (different
for various colors) and nature of simultaneous colors & combination of colors

Laws of Illumination
Next lesson deals with quantification Illumination. Unit of luminous intensity is Candela (Cd), it
is the luminous intensity of a surface which is1/600,000 of a blackbody, at the solidification
temperature of Platinum (1773 °C) under standard atmospheric pressure. Luminous intensity
over 1 steradian solid angle by a source of 1 Cd is called as 1 lumen of light flux (lm). For a
point source one talks of MSLI or average intensity x solid angle (mean spherical Luminous
intensity). Hence, Luminous Flux = luminous intensity × solid angle. Illuminance is luminous
flux per unit area.
Frechner’s Law states that the same percentage change in stimulus calculated from the least
amount perceptible gives the same change in sensation. Inverse Square Law states that the
intensity of illumination produced by a point source varies inversely as square of the distance
from the source.

• Lambert’s Cosine Law of Incidence –


I× cosα
E=
D2
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• Lambert’s Cosine law of Emission –
Im = I × cosα

Photometry
The next lesson deals with Measurement issues. This is necessary before using any lamp source.
This involves comparing it with a primary standard (standard lamp) using a photometric bench.
This comparison may be carried out by varying position of standard lamp, by varying position of
test lamp or by varying position of the screen on the photometric bench. The lesson also
addresses issues pertaining to direction of light. Luminnaires are used for directing the light from
a source of light in the desired direction. Types of luminaires employed may be broadly
categorized as directed reflectors or diffusing.

Incandescent Lamps
Having covered generics, we take now each type of lamp in the subsequent lessons. As the name
suggests Incandescence employs radiation at high temperature. Incandescent Lamps called Type-
B employ tungsten / osmium / tantalum filament, in vacuum, where as those called Type-C:
tungsten filament, in inert gas (generally a mixture of Ar & N2). Tungsten being ductile in
nature, having high melting point & high radiation efficiency has been widely in use as filament
material. However, at higher wattages the filament tends to evaporate and darken the bulb known
as lamp darkening. Use of inert gas in incandescent lamps helps in decreasing the rate of
evaporation of tungsten & improves efficiency. Further it is observed that higher efficiency is
obtained when incandescent lamps are operated at low voltages. Filament characteristics depend
on filament length, filament diameter, coil spacing, lead wires, method of mounting, no. of
supports, properties of gas employed , gas pressure, bulb size and shape of bulb.

Usually Bulbs are designed for uniform radiation, accurate consumption of power, good
efficiency and reasonable rating of life. The most common lamps employed fall under the
category of Discharge Lamps, this is covered in the next three lessons.

Discharge Lamps I
This lesson introduces discharge lamps. They either use Luminescence which produces light
radiation by chemical / electrical action on gas / vapor or Fluorescence where in radiation is
absorbed at one wavelength & radiated at another wavelength with in visible spectrum. It is to be
noted that in lighting arrangements a combination of luminescence & fluorescence increase
efficiency far beyond incandescence. Efficiency is measured in terms of lumens per watt of
power consumed. Thus discharge lamps consist of discharge of electricity through a tube
containing a conducting medium. Conduction is by way of electrons. Types of electron emission
may be Electric Field Emission, Thermionic Emission or Photoelectric Emission. So in a
discharge lamp gas / vapor is made luminous by an electric discharge whose color / intensity are
dependent on gas / vapor used and intensity to some extent proportional to current. Broadly
discharge lamps are of two categories 1) Mercury Vapor Lamps, 2) Sodium Vapor Lamps.
Mercury vapor lamps tend to give a light bluish green color (deficient in red color). They have a
starting electrode provided to initiate the arc. After a run-up time of typically 2 min., mercury
vapor discharge starts. Gas at high pressure improves the CRI (color rendering index) of mercury

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vapor discharge lamp. With Sodium vapor lamps a pre-heating heater is provided. The lamp
glows initially with red color (Neon -vapor discharge which is used as initiating gas) & then
turns to orange yellow arc (Sodium vapor discharge)

Discharge Lamps II
Low pressure Sodium vapor Lamp has outer envelope of inner surface is coated with Indium
Oxide & that acts as an IR reflector. While high pressure mercury vapor Lamp gives rise to
bluish white line spectrum, together with some phosphors improves color. If some luminescent
powder is put in the tubular lamps it enhances brilliancy of light Radiation from Low Pressure
Hg-vapor lamp (which is in the UV-region) is impinged on luminescent materials, they reradiate
at longer wavelength of visible spectrum. This is the principle of Fluorescent Lamps. Various
types of Fluorescent Lamps Day Light Lamp, Standard White Lamp and Soft White Lamp.
Factors deciding the dimension of fluorescent lamps are luminous efficiency, brightness, lumen
output, lumen maintenance and reliable starting. The voltage rating of the lamp is decided by arc
length, bulb diameter and lamp current.

Discharge Lamps III


As already discussed fluorescent lamps are Low Pressure Mercury vapor lamps. For a given
current & tube diameter of fluorescent lamp we have voltage directly proportional to length,
inversely proportional to diameter and inversely proportional to current through discharge tube.
By a T12 fluorescent tube we mean that a tube with diameter of 12 × (1/8)” i.e. 1.5”. Radiation
output from a fluorescent tube is directly proportional to the current density in the tube.
Fluorescent lamps emit a considerable amount of UV & IR radiation along with visible radiation.
UV radiation is converted to visible light using phosphors. There are beneficial applications. UV
radiation is beneficial in small quantities. Applications of UV radiation are water purification,
detoxifying bacteria, curing of diseases, dye & food processing and employed in producing
Vitamin-D in food sources.

Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) are compact, efficient, energy saving, having higher lifetime
with reasonably good CRI & near daylight illumination characteristics. Moreover they have all
the accessories inbuilt. Hence they are better than traditional fluorescent lamps in terms of
economy and efficiency.

Illumination Systems I
Now using the lamps discussed so far lighting system needs to be developed. These are termed
Illumination Systems. This lesson discusses the issue. Illumination system comprises of a lamp
(the artificial source of light), luminnaires & the control gear. Commercial luminnaires can be
categorized into general or industrial. Luminnaires are also characterized by the way they control
& direct light i.e. luminous intensity, luminous distribution and number of lamps. Although use
of mirrors in luminnaires are avoided as they cause glare modern luminairres do have properly
positioned mirrors to act as reflectors. Efficiency of a luminnaire is talked in terms of light
output ratio (LOR). This includes both downward as well as upward light. Practically DLOR
(downward LOR) is of importance. Luminnaires for hazardous areas should maintain
temperature and are hence encapsulated to resist pressure. Gasketted luminnaires which are

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completely sealed takes care of handling moisture & dust. Emergency lighting should have self
supporting power system to provide lighting when normal lighting fails.

Illumination Systems II
The II part on Illumination systems addresses control gears. Control gears are the accessories
that help in controlling the requisite amount of light flux on the work plane. Gas discharge lamps
are constant current devices. Constant current is achieved by use of ballasts. Requirements for
good ballasts very less undue power loss, should offer high impedance to audio frequency,
should suppress EMI / RFI / TVI, should provide proper starting conditions and should have as
high power factor as possible. To improve power factor capacitors are used in series. Excepting
high pressure mercury vapor lamps, all lamps have starting voltage more than spark over voltage,
hence require starters & igniters to be used as starting devices. Igniters are small three electrode
devices which are fired by controlled pulses from small electronic circuits. Apart from local &
general lighting dimmers / timers are used in lighting systems to have good control and direction
of light.

Glare
This lesson discusses all important issue of glare, which affects the performance of lighting
system. By definition Glare is the brightness within the field of vision. Effects of glare injures
the eye, disturbs the nervous system, causes annoyance, discomfort & fatigue, reduces
efficiency of work, interferes with clear vision and risk of accident increases. Glare could be
direct bright luminaire in the field of vision or Reflected Glare due to reflection from a glossy
surface. Reflected glare causes more annoyance than direct glare. Direct glare can be minimized
by mounting luminaires well above the line of vision. When glare level impairs the vision, it is
said to be Disability Glare. If eye is subjected to glare for a long time results in Discomfort
Glare.
Glare Evaluation Systems in vogue are American system (VCP), British system (Glare Index)
and European system (Luminance Curves). Luminance angle limit for luminaires is between 45°
< γ < 85°. Other source of glare being windows. It is of two types i.e. veiling it can be prevented
by using curtains, blinds or louvers. Reflections and reflected glare. The Techniques employed
for minimization of glare from luminaires are not locating luminaires in the forbidden zone,
increasing light from sideways or using luminaires having large surface area.

In addition CRF (Contrast Rendition Factor) – influence of lighting on task contrast & task
visibility. By definition Task Visibility is the ratio of Given Emission and Sphere Illuminance.
Where Sphere Illuminance is the Illuminance by the source providing equal luminous intensity
in all directions. Also known as ESI (Equal Spherical Illuminance).

All this means three categories of lighting are required they are general lighting local lighting
and a combination of local & general lighting. Combination of general & local lighting are
preferred to avoid glare

Color
Next lesson deals with issues pertaining to color. Three Components of Color Perception are
Source of Illumination, Object Illuminated and detector. Source color tells us about spectral
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power distribution of the light source. Object Color denotes appearance of the object due to
selective appearance of incident light. Perceived Color is a result of object characteristics
together with viewing conditions. Color characteristics are assessed by Color Rendering Index
(CRI). CRI is appearance of an object under test source in comparison to appearance under
standard light conditions, like those under natural day light conditions. Color standards follow
Munsell system or CIE system.

Interior Lighting
Next lesson discusses recommendations pertaining to interior lighting. Good interior lighting is
governed by intensity (ample to see clearly & distinctly), distribution ( maintained nearly
uniform), using soft & well diffused light, color (depending on taste / purpose) with source
located well above plane of vision (to avoid glare). Although shadows are required for actuating
depth of the object. It shouldn’t be too apparent abruptly or dense. Also it shouldn’t be harsh &
needs to be toned down. General lighting controlled to suit psychological moods. Natural /
daylight illumination constantly varies with weather, time of day & season. We design the
window opening such that the minimum daylight illuminance is twice the artificial illuminance
that is sufficient for the required task Location of lamps depends on candle power, maximum
allowable spacing, height at which located, position of obstructions ( if any) and required
distribution of light. Color reflectance from the interior finishing affects utilization. With all this
like any other system interior lighting needs to be periodically checked & maintained. It is
advisable that lamps are replaced when they reach 70% of its life or when illumination level falls
below standard level. Moreover it is preferred to change lamps in groups rather than individually.
Next important issue pertains external lighting. This consists of Sports lighting and Road
Lighting.

Sports Lighting
This lesson details sport lighting recommendation. Sports Lighting has four user groups in mind
Players, officials, Spectators and Media. Category of sport is made as A, B or C depending on
the size of the ball/object and place of the game. “C” denotes fast paced game with small sized
object. Horizontal Illuminance, vertical illuminance and illuminance uniformity are crucial for
this category of lighting. Color appearance is very important for media coverage. Considering all
user groups a CRI of 65 and color temperature of at least 4000 K is recommended.

Road Lighting
This lesson looks into Road Lighting recommendations. The aim of the Road lighting is for safe,
quick and comfortable movement of traffic. From this view point, there are five categories of
Roads, A, B, C, D and E depending on the type and density of traffic. Mostly sodium vapor
lamps are preferred on the roads. At junctions mercury vapor lamps may be provided to highlight
the junction.. Tunnel lighting also needs to be carried out in such a way as to gradually change
the light level. Tunnels are lit during the day as well as night. Residential areas usually employ
post top lanterns

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Lighting Calculations
This lesson discusses lighting calculation methods. No doubt, today there are many software
packages are available, but one needs to have a physical basis of assessing the results. Therefore,
it is necessary to know how manual calculations are done. Illuminance level depends on the
nature of working environment & is specified in terms of horizontal, vertical & inclined
illuminance. These are obtained graphically from numerical tables. Isolux diagrams are used for
calculation of illumnance & luminance levels. A room may be divided into four zones for
purposes of calculation of illumination level as work plane, wall area below luminaire, on the
frieze (wall area above luminaire) and ceiling

Horizontal illuminance is given by:


φ
E avg = tot × UF× M
A
Utilization Factor (UF) depends on light distribution of luminaire and reflectance of ceiling /
walls
φ
Vertical Illumination is given by: E avg = tot × UF× M
A

Luminaire Luminance is given by: Lγ =

where Aγ is the apparent area in the specified direction & is given by
A γ = A h × cosγ + A v × sinγ

Lighting Application
Having had a look at all aspects of lighting this lesson looks at lighting applications. Industrial
lighting is dictated by nature of work, shape of space and ceiling structures. Industrial lighting is
classified as single storey without skylight, multi storey, single storey with skylight or high bay
light. Additional lighting is used if general lighting doesn’t meet requirements viz. illuminated
magnifying glass, stroboscopic lighting, monochromatic light etc. Fluorescent lamps with
louvres & diffusers are preferred for office lighting. Vertical illumination becomes necessary for
blackboards in educational institutions. In shops, restaurants & other commercial places, local &
color lighting is employed to highlight a particular place / product. In hospitals lighting is done
according to convenience of patients, technicians & doctors. Operation theatres need shadow free
lighting. ICU & X-ray rooms have low luminance levels. Some of the Indian Standards for
lighting application are also covered in this lesson. Details can be had from hand book of BIS.
Mostly adopted from CIE

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