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1 Cell introduction exam style question


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8. In what way is the DNA of a nerve cell different from the DNA of a muscle cell?
A. The DNA is the same but each cell contains different genes C
B. The DNA is the same but different genes are turned on and turned off in each cell
C. The DNA is different, but the same genes are turned on and off in each cell
D. The DNA is different, but each cell contains the same genes

9. Which is true about Adult Stem Cells.


A. They no longer do mitosis, their cell type is set and can not change B
B. They are limited to the type of cell they can become.
C. They can become any cell type in the body
D. They are found in embryos

10. Which is true about Embryonic Stem Cells.


A. They no longer do mitosis, their cell type is set and can not change C
B. They are limited to the type of cell they can become
C. They can become any cell type in the body
D. They are found in adults

11. Which types of cells are undifferentiated?


A. Nerve cells
B. Red blood cells C
C. Stem cells
D. White blood cells

12. Tightly packed form of DNA is called

A. Supercoiling
B. Compressed state D
C. Euchromatin
D. Heterochromatin

13. Type of chromatin that participates in active transcription of DNA to mRNA products is

A. Heterochromatin
B. Euchromatin B
C. Centromere
D. Acrocentric chromosomes
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16. What happens to the surface area to volume ratio as a cell grows?

A. It decreases.

B. It increases. A
C. It doubles.

D. It does not change.

17. What are stem cells?

A. Specialized cells that can be used therapeutically

B. Surplus cells taken from an embryo


C
C. Cells that retain their ability to divide and differentiate

D. Cells in the xylem and phloem tissues that support a plant

18. What causes cells to differentiate?

A. Sufficient nutrition D
B. Full expression of all genes

C. Specialized functions at different stages of embryo development

D. Expression of some genes with suppression of other genes


19. Though a single nerve cell does not think, millions of them organized as a brain result in thinking.
What kind of property does thinking represent?

A. Anatomical

B. Adaptive
D
C. Extracellular

D. Emergent

20. Which of the following are special properties of stem cells which make them so useful for
new medical treatments?

They can divide, and differentiate along different pathways

They can make antibodies to protect against disease.

A
They are very small and can be frozen to preserve them.

They are large and difficult to damage.

21. The electron microscope image below shows a scale bar marked with 10µm.

It has been measured to be 3.5cm (i.e. 35 mm) long by a student using the rule shown.

What is the magnification of the image?

x3500

x3300
x350

x330

22. The image below shows a small food vacuole in a cell.

Using the scale bar, estimate the diameter of the vacuole. Which answer is the best estimate

50 µm

7.5 µm

5.2 µm

5.0 nm

21. Explain how the surface to volume ratio influences cell sizes. [3]

small cells have larger ratio (than larger cells) / ratio decreases as size increases; surface area /
membrane must be large enough to absorb nutrients / oxygen / substances needed; surface area /
membrane must be large enough to excrete / pass out waste products; need for materials is
determined by (cell) volume; cell size is limited (by SA / vol ratio) / cells divide when they reach a
certain size; reference to diffusion across / through membrane / surface area; 3 max

22. List two sources of stem cells that can be used in therapeutic treatment. [2]

23. Describe one type of cell which is atypical to the concept of cell theory. [4]
24. Define the term cell differentiation. [1]

25. (a) State the typical size of bacterial cell and an average eukaryotic cell. [2]

(approximately) 10 m to 100 m 1 Accept any value within this range

(b) Explain the importance of surface are to volume ration in limiting the cell size. [3]
rate of transport of materials across membrane; energy / heat is a function of surface area;
rate of metabolism is a function of mass to volume ratio; as size increases the ratio between
SA and volume decreases; causing problems in transport / rate of exchange

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