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 Hydrology - it deals with the question of how much water can be expected at any particular time

and location.

 Surface water hydrology - -focuses on the distribution of water on or above the earth's surface.
It encompasses all water in lakes, rivers and streams, on land and in air.

 Groundwater hydrology - -deals with the distribution of water in the earth's subsurface
geological materials, such as sand, rock and gravel.

 Hydrological Cycle - -It describes the movement and conservation of water on earth.

 Evaporation
 Transpiration
 Evapotranspiration
 Precipitation
 Surface runoff
 Overland Flow
 Direct runoff
 Interflow
 Infiltration/Percolation - Hydrological CycleProcesses: ETEPSODII

 Evaporation - -conversion of liquid water from lakes, streams and other bodies of water to water

 Transpiration - -water is emitted from plants

 Evapotranspiration - -combined losses of water due to transpiration and evaporation.

 Precipitation - -water is released from the atmosphere. E.g. rain, hail, snow, sleet, freezing rain.

 Interflow - -move laterally just below the ground surface

 Infiltration/Percolation - -move vertically through the soils to form groundwater.

 Groundwater - is the water that soaks into the soil from rain or other precipitation and moves
downward to fill cracks and other openings in beds of rocks and sand.

 Groundwater - It is, therefore, a renewable resource, although renewal rates vary greatly
according to environmental conditions.

 Aquifers - -Is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or

unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand or silt) from which underground water can be extracted
using a water well.

 Aquifers - -Geologic formation, through which water can flow horizontally and be pumped.

 hydrogeology - The study of water flow in aquifers and its characterization is called

 Sand
 Sandstone
 Sedimentary rocks
 Fractured basalt
 Limestone
 Weathered granite - Examples of Aquifers (SSSFLW)

 Unsaturated zone
 Saturated zone - Zones of Aquifers

 Unsaturated zone - in which water drains down through the soil and flows through the root

 Saturated zone - when water continues to migrate vertically down through the soil until it
reaches a level at which all of the openings or voids in the soils are filled with water. Also called
as phreatic zone or zone of saturation. Water in the zone of saturation is referred to as
 vadose zone or zone of aeration - unsaturated zone is also called as

 phreatic zone or zone of saturation - saturated zone is also called as

 groundwater - Water in the zone of saturation is referred to as

 Unconfined Aquifer
 Perched Aquifers
 Confined Aquifers
 Artesian Aquifer - Types of Aquifers

 Unconfined Aquifer - -water table aquifer/phreatic aquifer.

 Water Table - is the upper surface of the zone of saturation in aquifers that are not confined by
impermeable geologic material. Water Table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation in
aquifers that are not confined by impermeable geologic material.

 capillary action
 capillary fringe - The smaller void spaces in the geological material just above the water table
may contain water as a result of interactive forces between the water and the soil. The process
of soil drawing water above its static level is known as ____________________ . The zone in
which this occurs is referred to as the _________________________.

 recharge - The process of infiltration and migration, renewing the supply of groundwater is
referred to as

 Perched Aquifers - -Is a lens of water held above the surrounding water table by an impervious
geologic layer, such as bedrock or clay.

 Confined Aquifers - Aquifers bounded both above and below the saturated zone by
impermeable layers..
 confining layers - The impermeable layers are called ________________

 Aquicludes
 Aquitards - Classification of confining layers:

 Aquitards - -less permeable than the aquifer.

 Aquicludes - essentially impermeable to water flow

 Artesian Aquifer - -Water in the aquifer is under pressure.

 -The water in a confined aquifer may be under considerable pressure due to the impermeable
nature of confining layers, which restrict flow or due to elevation differences in the aquifer. The
system is analogous to a manometer.

 manometer - The system in artesian aquifer is analogous to a___________________

 Artois - The name artesian comes from the French province of ________________ (Artesium in
Latin) where in the days of the Romans, water flowed to the surface of the ground from the

 Artesium - The name artesian comes from the French province of Artois (_____________ in
Latin) where in the days of the Romans, water flowed to the surface of the ground from the

 Water Quality Management - -science of knowing how much waste is too much for a particular
water body.

 assimilated - To know how much waste can be tolerated (technical term is ____________) by a
water body, water quality managers must know the type of pollutants discharged and the
manner in which they affect water quality.

 Water Quality Management - To protect the intended uses of a water body while using water as
an economic means of waste disposal within the constraints of its assimilative capacity.
- Water Pollutants and its Sources

 Point Sources - -They are generally collected by a network of pipes or channels and conveyed to
a single point of discharge into the receiving water.

 Point Sources - -They can be reduced or eliminated through waste minimization and proper
wastewater treatment.

 Point Sources - Industrial Wastes Domestic sewage

 Nonpoint Sources - -Urban and agricultural runoff

 Nonpoint Sources - -They are characterized by multiple discharge points.

 Nonpoint Sources- - They occur during rainstorms or spring snowmelt, resulting in large flow
rates that make treatment even more difficult.

 Nonpoint Sources - Polluted water flows over the surface of the land or along natural drainage
channels to the nearest water body.

 Oxygen-Demanding Material - -Anything that can be oxidized in the receiving water resulting in
the consumption of dissolved molecular oxygen

 Oxygen-Demanding Material - .-Usually biodegradable organic matter but also includes certain
inorganic compounds.

 Nutrients - -Nitrogen and phosphorus are considered pollutants when they become too much of
a good thing.

 Phosphorus-based detergents
 Fertilizers
 Food-processing wastes
 Animal and human excrement - -Major sources of Nutrients:

 Pathogenic organisms - -Found in wastewater which includes bacteria, viruses and protozoa
excreted by diseased persons or animals.

 Suspended Solids - -Organic and inorganic particles that are carried by wastewater into a
receiving water

 Suspended Solids - .-Particles that settle at the bottom as sediment which includes eroded soil

 Salts - All water contains some salt.

 These salts are often measured by evaporation on a filtered water sample.

 Total Dissolved Solids - -salts and other matter that don't evaporate.

 Pesticides - -chemicals used by farmers, households or industry to regulate and control various
types of pests and weeds.

 Herbicides
 Insecticides
 Fungicides - Major types of pesticides:

 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products - -are a class of compounds that are applied
externally or ingested by humans, pets and other domesticated animals.

 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products - -released to the environment through the
disposal of expired, unwanted or excess medications to the sewage system.
 Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDC) - -endocrine disrupters, are a class of chemicals that has
received significant interest from the scientific community, regulatory agencies and the general

 Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDC) - This includes polychlorinated biphenyls and phthalates.

 Other Organic Chemicals - -hydrocarbons from combustion processes and oil and gasoline spills
 -solvents used in dry cleaning and metal washing

 Arsenic - naturally occurring element in the environment.

 -Its occurrence in groundwater is largely the result of minerals dissolving naturally from
weathered rocks and soils, mainly from iron oxides or sulfide minerals.

 Toxic Metals - -Heavy metals which enter through discharge of industrial waste and wastewater
treatment plants, storm-water runoff, mining operations, smokestack emissions and other
diffuse sources such as from vehicles.
 -Examples: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and mercury

 Heat - Although heat is not often recognized as a pollutant, those in the electric power industry
are well aware of problems of disposing of waste heat
 .-Waters released by many industrial processes are much warmer than the receiving waters.

 Nanoparticles - -Particles that have a dimension less than 100 nm.--

 Humicmaterial - (plant and animal matter)-

 Titaniaparticles - (painkilling creams)-

 Fullerene nanotube composites - (manufacture of tires, tennis rackets and video screens)

 Fullerene cages - (cosmetics)

 Protein-based nanomaterials - (soaps, shampoos and detergents.

 palatable - Water that does not impart a taste or odor and is therefore pleasant to drink is called

 potable - Water that is free of chemicals, microorganisms and other contaminants and is safe to
drink is called

 Physical
 Physical
 Microbiological
 Radiological - Four categories used to describe drinking-water quality:1.

 Physical - -appearance of water, color, turbidity, temperature, taste, odor.

 Chemical - -components and concentrations.

 Microbiological - must be free from pathogens (disease-producing organisms) such as viruses,

protozoa, bacteria and helminths(worms).

 Limited Plants
 Coagulation Plants
 Softening Plants - Water Treatment Systems

 Limited Plants - have a high quality water source and employ very specific like disinfection,
corrosion control, fluoridation, iron/manganese removal and softening.
 -used only for the treatment of groundwater as a raw water source.

 Coagulation Plants - -used to treat surface water.-rapid mixing, flocculation, sedimentation,

filtration and disinfection are employed to remove color, turbidity, taste and odors and bacteria.

 Softening Plants - -used to treat waters having a high hardness level (calcium and magnesium),
typically groundwater
 Coagulation - -used to remove turbidity, color and bacteria from drinking waters.
 -the goal is to change the surface charge on the particles so they can stick together to form
larger particles that will settle by gravity.
 -larger particles and dissolved ions are removed by gravity settling or precipitation.
 -removal of particulate matter

 Coagulant - -a chemical that is added to the water to cause the particles to coagulate

 Trivalent cation
 Nontoxic
 Insoluble in the neutral pH range - Three key properties of coagulant:

 Trivalent cation - -e.g. sodium and calcium

 Insoluble in the neutral pH range - -to neutralize acid, use lime or sodium carbonate

 aluminum and ferric ion. - Most commonly used coagulants are __________________

 pH
 dose - Two important factors in coagulant addition:

 Mixing or Rapid Mixing - -the process whereby the chemicals are quickly and uniformly
dispersed in the water.

 Flocculation - -contacting process in which precipitates must be brought into contact with one
another so they can form flocs.

 Hardness - -used to characterize a water that does not lather well, causes a scum in the bath tub
and leaves hard, white, crusty deposits (scale) on coffee pots, tea kettles and hot water heaters.
 Ion Exchange Softening - -defined as the reversible exchange of an ion on a solid phase with an
ion of like charge in an aqueous phase

 .Sedimentation - -required process prior to subsequent treatment when surface water contains
high turbidity.

 Sedimentation basins - -also called clarifiers or settling tanks.-usually rectangular or circular with
either a radial or upward water flow pattern.
 -sludge that is withdrawn from the bottom of sedimentation basins may in some cases be
discharged back to the river.

 filtration - As the water flows over the weirs and exits the sedimentation tank, it still contains
particles that were too small to settle or somehow escaped escape removal due to fluid
 -process by which water flows slowly through a bed of granular media, usually sand, anthracite
coal or garnet.

 Disinfection - -used in water treatment to kill pathogens present I water that would cause mild
to fatal illness if ingested.-not the same as sterilization as this implies to destruction of all living

 Bacteria
 Viruses
 Protozoa
 Amebic cysts - Four categories of human enteric pathogens:

 Chlorine - is the most commonly used disinfectant.

 Dosage
 Contact time
 Turbidity
 Other reactive species
 pH
 Water Temperature - Effectiveness of chlorine depends on several factors:
 Sludge - -semi-solid slurry and can be produced as sewage sludge from wastewater treatment
processes or as a settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment and
other industrial processes

 Sludge - .-Generic term for solids separated from suspension in a liquid

 Thickening
 Stabilization
 Conditioning
 Dewatering - Sludge Treatment Processes:

 Thickening - -separating as much water as possible by gravity or flotation.

 Stabilization - -converting the organic solids to more refractory (inert) forms so that they can be
handle or used as soil conditioners without causing a nuisance or health hazard through
processes referred to as digestion

 Conditioning - -treating the sludge with chemicals or heat so that the water can be readily

 Dewatering - -separating water by subjecting the sludge to vacuum, pressure or drying.

 Ultimate Disposal
 Land Spreading
 Landfilling
 Dedicated Land Disposal (DLD)
 Utilization
 Sludge Disposal Regulations - Disposal