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- from Latin words, Ingenium (cleverness) and Ingeniare (to contrive, devise)
- application of scientific, economic, social and practical knowledge in order to invent, design,
build, maintain, and improve structures, machines, devices, system, materials and processes.
- exploiting basic mechanical principles to develop useful tools and objects

History of engineering
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental
inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is consistent with the
modern definition of engineering, exploiting basic mechanical principles to develop
useful tools and objects.
The term engineering itself has a much more recent etymology (the study of the origin of words
and the way in which their meanings have changed throughout history.), deriving from the
word engineer, which itself dates back to 1325, when an engine’er (literally, one who operates
an engine) originally referred to "a constructor of military engines."[1] In this context, now
obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i. e., a mechanical contraption used in war
(for example, a catapult). The word "engine" itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving
from the Latin ingenium (c. 1250), meaning "innate quality, especially mental power, hence a
clever invention."[2]
Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings matured as a technical
discipline, the term civil engineering[3]entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between
those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the
older discipline of military engineering (the original meaning of the word "engineering," now
largely obsolete, with notable exceptions that have survived to the present day such as military
engineering corps, e. g., the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers).
Civil Engineering

– One of the earliest engineering discipline

* Imhotep - Earliest Civil Engineer (Pyramid of Djoser) a step pyramid at Saqqara in Egypt in
2630–2611 BC. He may also have been responsible for the first known use of stone columns to
support a building.

Civil engineering (Wikipedia)

is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and
maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads,
bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways. Civil engineering is
traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines. It is considered the second-oldest
engineering discipline after military engineering, and it is defined to distinguish non-military
engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from
municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual
homeowners through to international companies.

Is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society,
and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding
of physics and mathematics throughout history? Because civil engineering is a wide-ranging
profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of
structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and
other fields.
What is Civil Engineering? (Academic Approach- Modern)

The Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering (BSCE) program is a five-year program that
educates students with basic principles of Science in conjunction with mathematical and
computational tools used in engineering.

The BSCE program provides technical skills and knowledge in planning, design, construction,
supervision, and maintenance of civil engineering works. Examples of civil engineering works
include infrastructures for transportation (roads, railroads, bridges, ports, airports), commerce
(shopping malls), education (schools, universities), human settlements (large scale housing
projects, water supply, sewage disposal), energy development (power stations, power lines)
and agriculture (irrigation, farm drainage).

Civil engineers collaborate with architects with regards to the design of infrastructures; they
also coordinate and supervise construction, working with other engineers and contractors. They
make decisions on the best materials and methods, review and approve project drawings,
manage budgets, schedule equipment and materials purchases and delivery, and make
necessary changes when the situation warrants or when clients change their minds about

The program covers the five essential fields of civil engineering: structural engineering,
transportation engineering, water resources engineering, Geotechnical engineering and
construction engineering and management.

What skills are required to succeed in this course?

There are many skills that will help you succeed in this course. The following are the most
important ones:

o Mathematical skills – the ability to compute and use different computational methods to
solve a problem
o Critical thinking skills – the use of logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and
weaknesses of alternative solutions
o Analytical skills – the identification and analysis of product requirements to create a
o Complex problem solving skills – identification of complex problems and reviewing
related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions
o Graphical skills – the ability to transform a design into an image
o Judgement and decision making skills – considering the relative costs and benefits of
potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
o Communication skills – the ability to effectively relay information both orally and in
written form

Fields of Specialization

o Structural Engineering:
scope of practice includes the calculation of loads and stresses on structures , strength of
foundations and beams and determining whether or not a structure can function safely
o Construction Engineering and Management:
field of civil engineering that deals with the effective planning and implementation of
construction projects
o Transportation Engineering:
the design and maintenance of transportation facilities such as highways and streets, ports
and harbors, airfields, railroads and mass transit systems
o Water Resources Engineering:
the design of water treatment plants, pump systems and stations, distribution systems for
drinking and non-drinking water, pipelines for collecting waste water and analysis of the
floodplain or storm water drain systems to prevent and control water damage
o Geotechnical Engineering:
a specialized field of civil engineering that involves soil evaluation to determine the
suitability of a particular area for construction
o Civil Environmental Engineering:
the design of systems and solutions to protect the environment

Jobs for non-board passers

o Surveyors – measures and maps land, collect data on precise land boundaries; their land
descriptions are used in leases and deeds
o Drafters – engineers hand their notes and other information to drafters so they can make
visual guidelines for the engineers or construction crews
o Technicians – assist engineers or researchers with the development and handling of the
technical aspects of civil engineering; they set up equipment, perform experiments and
collect information for scientists and engineers
o Career Opportunities Abroad
Engineers are in demand in most developed countries. However, different countries have
their own licensure examinations, which you need to pass in order to practice as a civil
engineer aboroad.
o Salary Levels
In the Philippines, the salary for inexperienced Civil Engineers is between P15,000 –
P20,000 per month, while experienced engineers can earn P30,000 per month.
(see source)
In most industrialized countries, pay and benefits are much higher than local rates. In the
US, civil engineers receive a salary of $60,000 to $120,000 per year.
(see source)

Source: http://www.finduniversity.ph/majors/bs-in-civil-engineering-philippines/

What is Civil Engineering?

The discipline of Civil Engineering deals with the various aspects of planning, designing,
construction, maintenance and modification of physical structure and naturally built
The discipline offers a huge umbrella and covers varied aspects ranging from geotechnical
engineering to structural engineering, environmental to material, forensic to hydrology.

Civil Engineering is considered as a single largest branch among all the engineering branches. It
is the also second oldest discipline after military engineering.

Source: https://engineering.careers360.com/civil-engineering-1

Interview a civil engineer and ask the following;
1. Name, School graduated, year graduated
2. Brief biography
a. as civil engineering student
b. as fresh graduate applying for a job in the industry
c. Engineer’s professional responsibilities