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Triton Knoll Offshore Wind Farm Project

Technical Note
OSP Secondary Structure Calculations
Airtight Platform Substantiation
Ref: 5159711-812-03-1001

Notice
This document and its contents have been prepared and are intended solely for Smulders SIF Steel
Foundations BV’s information and use in relation to the Triton Knoll Offshore Wind Farm Project.

Atkins Ltd assumes no responsibility to any other party in respect of or arising out of or in connection with this
document and/or its contents.

Table of Contents
1. References 2
2. Introduction 2
3. SACS Modelling 3
3.1. Geometry 3
3.2. Results 10
4. Additional Calculations 14
4.1. Primary Beam-Beam Welded Connection 14
4.2. Support Column to TP Flange Connection 15
4.3. Support Column to Ring Beam Welded Connection 16
4.4. Deck Plate and Welded Connection 16
4.5. Deck Penetration and Welded Connection 18
4.6. Kick Plate and Welded Connection 18
4.7. Beam Curvature Checks 19
Appendix A. Primary Beam-Beam Welded Connection Substantiation 20
Appendix B. Support Column to TP Flange Connection Substantiation 22
Appendix C. Support Column to Ring Beam Welded Connection Substantiation 34
Appendix D. Seal Plate and Welded Connection Substantiation 39
Appendix E. Deck Plate and Welded Connection Substantiation 47
Appendix F. Deck Penetration and Welded Connection Substantiation 58
Appendix G. Kick Plate and Welded Connection Substantiation 65

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1. References
[1] 2505-TKN-FOU-A-RA-0001, Triton Knoll Offshore Wind Farm Project – Design Basis – Part C, latest
revision
[2] DNVGL-ST-0145, Offshore Substations, April 2016
[3] DNVGL-ST-N001, Marine Operations and Marine Warranty, June 2016
[4] DNVGL-OS-C101, Design of Offshore Steel Structures, General - LRFD Method, July 2017
[5] BS EN1993-1-8:2005, Design of Steel Structures: Part 8 - Design of Joints
[6] DNVGL-RP-C203, Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel Structures, April 2016
[7] Det Norske Veritas Germanisher Lloyd, DNVGL-OS-C401 Fabrication and Testing of Offshore
Structures, January 2018.
[8] Smulders, 2505-3SF-WFO-N-XE-2823412-01 Airtight Platform for OSP Load plan, November 2018.

2. Introduction
This document covers the design basis, methodology and results of the Triton Knoll OSP Airtight Platform
structural capacity calculations. SACS V11.0 has been used to model the platform for ULS, SLS and ALS load
cases. Specific elements have been verified by separate hand calculations.

This document revision presents an updated loading plan to capture the latest information on the monopile
(MP) to transition piece (TP) flange bolt boxes. It also captures a correction to the modelled column lengths
and presents the updated analyses results and associated calculations.

The Airtight Platform (ATP) provides access for personnel to reach the TP to MP bolted flange during
installation of the TP. The platform also forms a seal to assist with maintaining a controlled environment for
the internal volume of the TP. The design of the ATP for the OSP foundations has been based on the WTG
design and the design is kept identical as much as possible with all main member sizes identical. Key
differences for the OSP ATP compared to the WTG ATP are:

• No cable hang-offs on the OSP


• No ICCP cable hang-off on the OSP
• No ventilation pipes on the OSP
• No equipment barrels/scaffolding on the OSP
• Modified connection details and bottom plate thickness to withstand increased transportation loads
and pressure loading on the OSP

The primary grillage of the ATP has undergone structural analysis and strength code checks by Atkins. The
ATP grillage consists of an outer ring beam (SHS 150x150x7.1) and internal members (SHS 150x150x7.1 and
RHS 150x100x7.1). The ATP is supported at six locations by SHS 150x150x7.1 columns. The top of each
column is connected by a bolted connection to a horizontal bracket welded to the lower TP flange. The ATP is
covered by a structural deck plate, with penetrations provided for a covered access hatch and flood hole.

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3. SACS Modelling
All modelling has been carried out in line with DNVGL-ST-0145 [2] and the Design Basis Part C [1]. The ULS
Material Factor of 1.15 has been set in line with DNVGL-ST-N001 [3] and DNV-OS-C101 [4] for the
transportation cases. This value has been conservatively used for all SACS model member checks. A value
of 1.1 has been used for the checks in section 4 which are non-transportation cases.

3.1. Geometry
The geometry of the ATP is shown in Figure 1, and Figure 2 shows the geometry of the platform used in the
SACS model. Deck plating and penetrations have not been included. An allowance for the self-weight of
unmodeled structural items has been included (refer to Table 1 and Figure 6). Dummy members, shown in
grey in Figure 2, have been used in the model to allow for the application of point loads away from the structural
members. Pinned member end releases have been used in the central area of the deck at the connection to
the ATP deck structure to ensure loads are correctly transferred to the deck structure. The self-weight for these
dummy members is set to zero and the elastic modulus reduced to avoid over stiffening the deck artificially.

The support at the top of the columns will behave as a partially pinned connection. To ensure that conservative
design loads are considered, two analyses have been performed with different support conditions at the top of
the SHS 150x150x7.1 columns. The first run models the supports and member ends as fixed, as this provides
conservative loads for the design of the support points, as described in Section 4.2.

The second analysis has member end releases applied to the top of the columns to treat the connection as a
pinned support. Additional member end releases have been applied to conservatively release the shear loads
at these connections, based on the bolted connection detail to the bracket plate at each location. This condition
gives the worst possible case for the deck member forces. Refer to Figure 3 and Figure 4, where:

• Supports 1 and 6 consider fitted holes for the connection to the support bracket (and therefore able to
transfer lateral loads in the local Y and Z directions).
• Supports 3 and 4 consider slotted holes aligned with the local Y direction at the support bracket (and
able to transfer lateral loads in the local Z direction only).
• Supports 2 and 5 consider oversized holes for the connection to the bracket (with the connection
unable to transfer lateral loads)

These releases have been modelled to allow sufficient restraint in the analysis model, however the platform
will be fabricated with oversized holes at each location to allow for ease of assembly when considering
fabrication tolerances. This is judged acceptable as the pretension in the bolts will provide some lateral
restraint, and a single bolt pair is able to resist this shear load in the worst-case scenario.

The internal ladder has not been modelled. However, the ladder weight and live loads have been applied to
the dummy members located at the base support points of the ladder.

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Figure 1 – Platform geometry

Figure 2 – SACS model section sizes


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Figure 3 – Boundary conditions for fixed analysis

Figure 4 – Member end releases at the support columns for fixed analysis

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The structural checks of the primary layout of the ATP have been performed considering the loading provided
in Table 1, largely as detailed in the Design Brief for Secondary Steel [1] for the WTG foundations. There is an
additional pressure load applied for the OSP ATP as there will be no ventilation through the ATP. A value of
10kN/m2 is conservatively assumed, based on a 0.5m water column inside the monopile, with this load applied
uniformly to the bottom of the platform. For load combinations that include bolt boxes, the live loading due to
general access has been removed over the box footprint.

Table 1 – Applied loading in SACS model

Loading Value
Item Support Conditions
Type ULS SLS ALS
Primary members As calculated in
N/A
self-weight analysis model
Other structural self-
Dead
weight (inc. plating, Uniformly distributed
Loading 1.5 kN/m2
flood hole and access over ATP
(G)
hatch)
Internal ladder self-
Point loads 3.0 kN
weight
Live loading – General Uniformly distributed
3.0 kN/m2
Access over ATP
Live loading –
Pressure Build-Up Uniformly distributed
10.0 kN/m2
below ATP Deck (no over ATP
Imposed ventilation pipes)
Loading Distributed according
9.72 kN (group of 3 boxes)
(Q) Flange Bolts to the load plan
19.42 kN (group of 6 boxes)
provided in [8]
20 kN
Vertical
Internal ladder Point loads 3.0 kN 3.0 kN
10 kN
Horizonal

Transportation loads for the OSP have been calculated based on DNVGL-ST-N001 and the location on the
barge provided by ISC (Figure 5) as shown in Table 2 below. The vertical elevation is based on a 5.0 m
freeboard and 4.0 m grillage height with the ATP 1.2m below the flange.

Table 2 – OSP TP transportation location

Location on Barge
X: Distance from pitch axis 38.5 m
Y: Distance from roll axis 7.0 m
Z: Vertical elevation above roll centre 21.2 m

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Figure 5 – OSP TP transportation location

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Figure 6 – Load diagram for ATP analysis
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The load combinations used for the ATP analysis are given below in Table 3.

Table 3 – Load combinations in SACS model

Label Load Combination Load Factors

LC1A ULS (operating case, includes ladder loads applied in the vertical -Z direction) 1.30*G + 1.30*Q

LC1B ULS (operating case, includes ladder loads applied in the -X direction) 1.30*G + 1.30*Q

LC1C ULS (operating case, includes ladder loads applied in the +X direction) 1.30*G + 1.30*Q

LC2A SLS (operating case, includes ladder loads applied in the vertical -Z direction) 1.00*G + 1.00*Q

LC2B SLS (operating case, includes ladder loads applied in the -X direction) 1.00*G + 1.00*Q

LC2C SLS (operating case, includes ladder loads applied in the +X direction) 1.00*G + 1.00*Q

LC3A ALS (accidental load case, ladder loads applied in the vertical -Z direction) 1.00*G + 1.00*Q

LC3B ALS (accidental load case, ladder loads applied in the -X direction) 1.00*G + 1.00*Q

LC3C ALS (accidental load case, ladder loads applied in the +X direction) 1.00*G + 1.00*Q

LC4 ULS (upending load case, horizontal loads in +Y direction) 1.30*G + 1.30*Q

LC5 SLS (upending load case, horizontal loads in +Y direction) 1.00*G + 1.00*Q

T1X ULS-a (transportation load case, horizontal loads in the +X direction) 1.30*G + 0.70*Q

T1Y ULS-a (transportation load case, horizontal loads in the +Y direction) 1.30*G + 0.70*Q

T2X ULS-b (transportation load case, horizontal loads in the +X direction) 1.00*G + 1.30*Q

T2Y ULS-b (transportation load case, horizontal loads in the +Y direction) 1.00*G + 1.30*Q

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3.2. Results
The ATP deck has been assessed for the ULS, SLS and ALS conditions as detailed in Section 3. The analysis
with the support columns fixed at the top had a maximum member utilisation of 0.54 within one of the vertical
columns, while the analysis with pinned columns had a maximum member utilisation of 0.77.

As the member utilisation for all sections are below 1.0 the ATP members are shown to have sufficient
structural capacity. The member utilisations under the ULS and ALS condition are labelled in Figure 7 for the
fixed analysis, and in Figure 8 for the pinned analysis.

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Figure 7 – Maximum member utilisations for fixed analysis

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Figure 8 – Maximum member utilisations for pinned analysis

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Due to the arrangement of the ATP, with vertical supports being located on the outer ring beam, the design of
the deck primary members is governed by the SLS condition. The maximum vertical deflection in a single deck
beam is reported as 16.9mm (for fixed support condition) and 27.7mm (for released support condition), with
the corresponding location as shown in Figure 9. The maximum allowable deflection limit is taken as 23mm,
𝑙
which is equal to in accordance with [4], where 𝑙 is the span between supports shown in Figure 9. As the
200
supports will act ‘partially pinned’, an average of the reported members deflections from the SACS models is
determined and compared to the allowable limit. The average value achieved is (16.9+27.7)/2 = 22.3mm,
which is just on the allowable deflection limit and is deemed acceptable.

The members within the ATP deck have also been selected to meet fabrication preferences. This includes the
use of a uniform member depth across the ATP deck.

Figure 9 – Deflected shape of the ATP

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4. Additional Calculations
4.1. Primary Beam-Beam Welded Connection
There are two types of beam-beam welded connection detail on the ATP deck:

• RHS 150x100x7.1mm to SHS 150x150x7.1mm


• SHS 150x150x7.1mm to SHS 150x150x7.1mm

The beam to beam welded connections have been checked for the maximum member end forces from the
ATP SACS model described in Section 3. The strength of the welded connection has been assessed as per
EN 1993-1-8 [5], with the following welded details (and as labelled in Figure 9) demonstrated to be acceptable
for all RHS/SHS to SHS welded connections within the ATP deck:

• Partial penetration welds with a minimum penetration of 5mm (i.e. equal to flange thickness minus
2mm)
• Fillet welds of a minimum 7mm throat thickness.

5mm

7mm

Figure 10 – Typical beam-beam welded connection detail for ATP deck

The calculations for the primary member welded connections are presented in Appendix A.

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4.2. Support Column to TP Flange Connection
A bolted connection is provided at the top of ATP columns to a horizontal bracket welded to the TP lower
flange. The key dimensions for this connection are shown in Figure 11. The connection has been assessed as
per EN 1993-1-8 [5] for the maximum loads calculated by the ATP SACS model described in Section 3. The
following critical elements have been checked as part of this connection assessment and shown to be
acceptable for the loads within the connection:

• 6mm throat thickness all round fillet welded connection of the SHS 150x150x7.1mm column to 25mm
thickness column top plate
• Contact surfaces of the bearing plates are to be friction class B as per table 3.7 of [5]
• Bolted connection of the column top plate to the welded bracket using 2 No. M24 8.8 grade bolts, pre-
tensioned to 140kN
• 45mm thick bracket with full penetration weld to the TP lower flange

Figure 11 – Bracket plate dimensions for support column to TP flange connection

The calculations for the bolted connection and welded bracket are presented in Appendix B. A hook-on point
is provided at each support location.

During the transportation of the TP, the ATP support connection will be subject to reversing shear loads. As
per section 2.9.3 of DNVGL-RP-C203 [6], bolts in oversized holes subjected to load reversal should not be
designed for fatigue loading. To avoid fatigue shear loading in the bolts, the bolted connection is designed to
be slip-resistant for transportation loads.

The calculation for the ATP Support Column to TP Connection is presented in Appendix A.

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4.3. Support Column to Ring Beam Welded Connection
The bases of the support columns are welded to the ATP deck, which is welded to the ring beam below. The
weld arrangement at this connection is shown in Figure 12. The sizing of the welds has been assessed as
below:

a = 7mm

b = 12mm (throat thickness)

c = 7mm

d = 4mm (throat thickness)

The assessment of these welds is shown in Appendix C.

Figure 12 – Weld Arrangement at the Base of the Support Columns

4.4. Deck Plate and Welded Connection


The deck of the ATP is formed of a continuous 10mm structural plate positioned above the RHS/SHS beam
sections. The deck plate has been checked against the ULS and SLS conditions.

Intermittent fillet welds, with 4mm throat thickness, provide a connection between the underside of the deck
plate and the ATP beam sections. The weld arrangement is shown in Figure 13 and Figure 14. The strength
of the welded connection has been assessed as per EN 1993-1-8 [5] and shown to be acceptable for the
design loads.

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Figure 13 – Indicative position of deck plate to beam fillet welds shown in red

Figure 14 – Deck plate intermittent weld spacing

The seal plate on the bottom of the ATP is formed of a continuous 10mm structural plate positioned below the
RHS/SHS beam sections. Unlike for the WTG, the plate shall be subjected to negative pressure build-up and
as such requires structural assessment. The seal plate has been checked against the ULS conditions and
meets the requirements.

It is proposed that the seal plate is welded to RHS support beams via 20mm diameter spot welds as shown in
Figure 14 below, along with a 5mm fillet weld around the perimeter. Analysis has determined that a minimum
13 No. spot welds are required across the deck.

Figure 15 – Seal plate spot welds

The calculations for the ATP deck/seal plate checks are presented in Appendix A.

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4.5. Deck Penetration and Welded Connection
A penetration is provided through the ATP deck for an access hatch. An assessment has been carried out of
the strength of the penetration and welded connection for a 1020Φ x 10mm tubular hatch penetration and the
welded connection to the ATP deck plate. The assumed arrangement of the ATP hatch is shown in Figure 16.

Figure 16 – Typical hatch detail

The hatch penetration has been assessed for the hatch dead load (with a nominal 10% lateral load applied).
No additional lateral loading conditions during hatch opening / closing procedures have been assessed. The
strength of the welded connection to the ATP deck has been assessed as per EN 1993-1-8 [5]. A 4mm throat
thickness fillet, positioned as shown in Figure 17, has been shown to be acceptable.

Figure 17 – Typical deck penetration weld detail

During hatch use, the operational load will be concentrated through the hinge connection highlighted in Figure
17. The strength of the hinge has been assessed as per EN 1993-1-8 [5] and found to be satisfactory.

The calculation for ULS deck penetration and hinge checks are presented in 0.

4.6. Kick Plate and Welded Connection


A kick plate is provided on the outside perimeter of the ATP ring beam. The strength of the kick plate and the
welded connection to the perimeter of the ATP ring beam have been assessed for a 1kN point load applied
horizontally to the top edge of the plate. The kick plate arrangement, as presented in Figure 18, has been
shown to be acceptable for the applied loading.

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Figure 18 – ATP toe plate detail

The strength of the welded connection of the kick plate to the ring beam has been assessed as per EN 1993-
1-8 [5] and shown to have sufficient strength for the design loads.

The calculation for the kick plate detail is presented in Appendix G.

4.7. Beam Curvature Checks


The plastic strain of the curved outer ring beam has been checked in accordance with Chapter 2, Clause 4.2.4
of DNVGL-OS-C401 [7]. In the below calculation (Figure 18), the radius refers to the ring beam radius.

Figure 19 – Outer ring beam plastic strain calculation

Since the calculated plastic strain is less than 5%, the curved beam section is acceptable.

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