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# ELECTROSTATICS

LECTURE - 1
Jayant Nagda
Years teaching experience B.Tech IIT Bombay

## AIR- 161 (IIT-JEE 2005) 3 Coaching institutes with

Among top 1 % in
International Physics
multiple under 15 AIRs
Physics Schedule

Electrostatics

## Branch of physics that

deals with static
electric charges
(i.e. charges at rest).

Electrodynamics

Branch of physics
that deals with
dynamic charges
(charges in
motion).
Electric Charge

## ❏ Scalar quantity can be added algebraically.

❏ Examples of Charged particles: proton, electron, α-particles
Fundamental Charges

## Charge on Proton p = +1.6×10-19 C

Charge on Neutron = 0 C

## Charge on any body can be found by knowing the total number of

protons and electrons in it

## What will be the charge on He2+?

● Charge present in every atom, it exists
in everything around us.
● “Neutral” objects have equal no of
positive and negative charges.
● “Charged” objects have lack or excess
of e−s.
Types of Charges

Positive Negative

## Deficiency of e-s Excess of e-s

Properties of Charges
Properties of Charges

● Charge is Quantized
Charge on a body must always exist as an integral
multiple of fundamental unit of charge e.

Hence Q = ± ne

## 0.001 Coulomb = 0.001/1.6 x 10-19 = 6.25 x 1015 electrons missing

Hence larger values of charges are more or less continuous.
● Like (same) charges repel, unlike (opposites) attract.

● Charge is Conserved
In any reaction/transformation the total charge on an
isolated system remains constant.

Example

## Charge is neither created nor destroyed

● Relativistic Invariance
Unlike mass, the charge on a body does not vary with
speed Q rest = Q motion

The total charge in a system is obtained simply by adding
charges algebraically,

## i.e. charges add up like real numbers or they are

scalars like the mass of a body.

Example

## System of three charges: -2 C , +4 C and -3 C will have a total

charge of -1 C.
Methods of Charging
Charging By Friction

## ● Charging by friction requires rubbing of two objects.

● Magnitude of total charge on both bodies remains same
(Conservation of Charge)
Example

## Ebonite Rod + Fur

Charging By Conduction

## ● Requires only contact between two objects and no rubbing.

● The conductors will be charged with the same sign.
● The total charge is distributed between the objects

Example

## ● Ebonite Rod (Rubber) +

Metal
Charging by Induction

## ● Process by which a charged body can be used to create

other charged bodies without touching them or losing its
own charge.
● By Induction, the charge developed will always be opposite
to charge on stimulating body.

## (a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)
Example
How can you charge a metal sphere positively without
touching it ?
Question Three metallic spheres, X, Y and Z have charges 10C, -10C, 10C respectively.
X, Y, Z are brought in contact such that charge on each of X and Y becomes
3C. What is the charge on Z?

A. 1 C B. 2 C C. 3 C D. 4 C
Coulomb’s Law

Coulomb

## It quantifies the amount of force between two stationary, electrically

charged particles

## According to the law, magnitude of electrostatic force acting

between two point charges is directly proportional to product
of charges and inversely proportional to square of the
distance between them (Inverse Square Law).

r
q2

q1
k = 9 x 109 N-m2/C2
ε0: permittivity of free space or vacuum.

1m?

Example:

## Determine force of interaction between an electron and proton in

a hydrogen atom, where they are separated by an average
distance of approximately 5.3 x10-11m. Find magnitude of Electric
and Gravitational interaction between them:

## Particle Charge Mass

Electron(e) -1.602 x 10-19 9.1 x 10-31 kg
Proton(p) +1.602 x 10-19 1.67 x 10-27 Kg

## Similarly FGr= Gmemp /r2 = 3.6 x 10-47 N

Coulomb’s Law in Vector Form
Coulomb’s force on q2 due
q1 q2 to q1 is directed along.

Or

## But for most questions, For Magnitude use Coulomb’s Law in

scalar form and Direction use the fact: like repel & unlike
attract
Question Determine magnitude and direction of force on a 1μC charge

1m 1m

## 2μC 1μC -1μC

Relative Permittivity
Relative Permittivity

## Charges placed in medium other than vacuum

experience a net force that is different.

## εr or K is Relative permittivity of the medium w.r.t free

space or Dielectric constant.

When charges are submerged in a medium

## K lies between 1 and ∞

with Kvacuum = 1 and Kconductor= ∞

## Hence, Fmedium < Fvacuum

q1 KWater = 80

r
q2
Superposition Principle
Principle of Superposition in
Coulomb’s Law
Fnet
● Net force on a charge can be
found by vector addition of the
F3 F2
forces due to each of these
charges as if they were acting
F1
alone.
q1
● Net force on any one charge
is unaffected by the
presence of other charges. q2 q3

Hence,
The fact that you must understand is, each force is
individual and not affected by other forces on particle.

## All vectors do not necessarily follow the Principle of

Superposition.
Question Determine force on 2C charge in the following arrangement of charges
kept at corners of a square of side 2m. Where k is Coulomb’s constant.

A. B. C. 2k D. None of these

2m −2C
2C
2m
2m

−2C 2m 8√2 C
Question Five point charges, each of value +q are placed on five vertices of a regular
hexagon of side L. The magnitude of force on a charge -q placed at the
centre of a hexagon is:

A. B. C. D.
Electric Field
Electric Field
Electric Field

## Region around charged particle into which when another

charge is brought in, it experiences electrostatic force.

## Process of interaction between

charged particles is a two step
process:
● Charge creates Electric
Field around it
● Another charge feels the
force when it is brought into
this Electric Field.
Charge Field Force
Electric Field Intensity

## at a point is equal to electrostatic force experienced by a

unit positive charged.

q0 is a test charge.

## S.I units is N/C (Netwon/Coulomb).

[E] = M1L1T-3A-1
Properties of Electric Field Intensity

## Electric force on a charge q placed in the region of electric

field at a point where the electric field intensity is given
by

## obeys superposition principle, i.e the field intensity at a

particular point due to a system of charges is vector sum
of field intensities due to individuals point charges.
Electric Field Due to a point charge

## General method of determining Electric Field:

1. Bring in positive test charge ‘q0’
2. Find Force on q0

1. Determine
q0
Use a test positive charge ‘q0’

Now,

q0

or
q

## Works for both q>0 and q<0

Electric field due to a Continuous
Charge distribution
At point P, field due to ‘dq’ is

or P

## Total field due to all such elements

dq
Electric field due to a uniform ring on axis

dq
R r

x P
Electric field due to an infinite line of charge

Find ‘E’ at P?

d P
Home-Work
How many no. of e-s are present in one cup (180g) of water.
Question
A. 6.023 x 1023 B. 6.023 x 1024
C. 6.023 x 1025 C. 6.023 x 1026
Question Two charges 9μc and 1μc are placed at separation of 10 cm. At what
distance from 1μc should a third charge be placed such that it
experience no net force due to these two charges.
A. 2cm B. 2.50cm C.3.33cm D.5cm
Question A charge q is placed at the centre of the line joining two equal charges
Q. The system of the three charges will be in equilibrium if q is equal
to:
A. B. C. D.
Question Charge Q is to be divided into two parts q and Q-q, for what value of q
will the force between them be maximum at a particular distance?

A. B. C. D.
Question Determine force on P in the following system of the charges ‘q’ kept
at vertices of an equilateral triangle of side ‘a’.

A. B. C. D.

P q

a a

q a q