Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

ELECTROSTATICS

LECTURE - 1
Jayant Nagda
Years teaching experience B.Tech IIT Bombay

AIR- 161 (IIT-JEE 2005) 3 Coaching institutes with


Among top 1 % in
International Physics
multiple under 15 AIRs
Olympiad Examination
Physics Schedule

Date Day Lecture Name Grade

12 April Friday Electrostatics L-1 12

13 April Saturday Electrostatics L-2 12

14 April Sunday Electrostatics L-3 12

15 April Monday Induction to IIT-JEE 11

16 April Tuesday Basic Kinematics 11

17 April Wednesday Units & Measurements 11


Electrostatics

Branch of physics that


deals with static
electric charges
(i.e. charges at rest).

Electrodynamics

Branch of physics
that deals with
dynamic charges
(charges in
motion).
Electric Charge

❏ Intrinsic characteristic property of fundamental particles,

just like mass.

❏ Produces electrical and magnetic effects.

❏ S.I. Unit of measurement: Coulomb (C)

❏ Dimensional Formula is M0L0T1A1. Derived from Q = i x t.

❏ Scalar quantity can be added algebraically.


❏ Examples of Charged particles: proton, electron, α-particles
Fundamental Charges

Charge on Electron e = −1.6×10-19 C (Electronic Charge)

Charge on Proton p = +1.6×10-19 C

Charge on Neutron = 0 C

Charge on any body can be found by knowing the total number of


protons and electrons in it

For example no. of charge on H+ atom is +1.6×10-19 C

What will be the charge on He2+?


● Charge present in every atom, it exists
in everything around us.
● “Neutral” objects have equal no of
positive and negative charges.
● “Charged” objects have lack or excess
of e−s.
Types of Charges

Positive Negative

Deficiency of e-s Excess of e-s


Properties of Charges
Properties of Charges

● Charge is Quantized
Charge on a body must always exist as an integral
multiple of fundamental unit of charge e.

Fundamental unit e = 1.6 x 10-19C

Hence Q = ± ne

Quarks have and but they don’t exist independently.

0.001 Coulomb = 0.001/1.6 x 10-19 = 6.25 x 1015 electrons missing


Hence larger values of charges are more or less continuous.
● Like (same) charges repel, unlike (opposites) attract.

● Charge is Conserved
In any reaction/transformation the total charge on an
isolated system remains constant.

Example

Charge is neither created nor destroyed


● Relativistic Invariance
Unlike mass, the charge on a body does not vary with
speed Q rest = Q motion

● Additivity of charges
The total charge in a system is obtained simply by adding
charges algebraically,

i.e. charges add up like real numbers or they are


scalars like the mass of a body.

Example

System of three charges: -2 C , +4 C and -3 C will have a total


charge of -1 C.
Methods of Charging
Charging By Friction

● Charging by friction requires rubbing of two objects.


● Magnitude of total charge on both bodies remains same
(Conservation of Charge)
Example

Silk + Glass Rod

Ebonite Rod + Fur


Charging By Conduction

● Requires only contact between two objects and no rubbing.


● The conductors will be charged with the same sign.
● The total charge is distributed between the objects

Example

● Ebonite Rod (Rubber) +


Metal
Charging by Induction

● Process by which a charged body can be used to create


other charged bodies without touching them or losing its
own charge.
● By Induction, the charge developed will always be opposite
to charge on stimulating body.

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)
Example
How can you charge a metal sphere positively without
touching it ?
Question Three metallic spheres, X, Y and Z have charges 10C, -10C, 10C respectively.
X, Y, Z are brought in contact such that charge on each of X and Y becomes
3C. What is the charge on Z?

A. 1 C B. 2 C C. 3 C D. 4 C
Coulomb’s Law

The law was first published in 1785 by French physicist Charles-Augustin de


Coulomb

It quantifies the amount of force between two stationary, electrically


charged particles

According to the law, magnitude of electrostatic force acting


between two point charges is directly proportional to product
of charges and inversely proportional to square of the
distance between them (Inverse Square Law).

r
q2

q1
k = 9 x 109 N-m2/C2
ε0: permittivity of free space or vacuum.

What are the dimensions of [k]= ?

Dimensions of k are [k] = ML3T-4A-2

Force of interaction between two +1C charges separated by


1m?

Force will be 9 x 109N


Example:

Determine force of interaction between an electron and proton in


a hydrogen atom, where they are separated by an average
distance of approximately 5.3 x10-11m. Find magnitude of Electric
and Gravitational interaction between them:

Particle Charge Mass


Electron(e) -1.602 x 10-19 9.1 x 10-31 kg
Proton(p) +1.602 x 10-19 1.67 x 10-27 Kg

FE= ke2/r2= 8.2 x 10-8 N

Similarly FGr= Gmemp /r2 = 3.6 x 10-47 N


Coulomb’s Law in Vector Form
Coulomb’s force on q2 due
q1 q2 to q1 is directed along.

Hence, Vectorially Position of q2 w.r.t q1

Or

If q1q2 > 0 i.e. same charges, F is repulsive.

And q1q2< 0, unlike charges, F is attractive.

But for most questions, For Magnitude use Coulomb’s Law in


scalar form and Direction use the fact: like repel & unlike
attract
Question Determine magnitude and direction of force on a 1μC charge

A. 9 mN B. 18mN C. 27mN D. 54mN

1m 1m

2μC 1μC -1μC


Relative Permittivity
Relative Permittivity

Charges placed in medium other than vacuum


experience a net force that is different.

Where ε : absolute permittivity of that medium

And ε= εrεo or Kεo

εr or K is Relative permittivity of the medium w.r.t free


space or Dielectric constant.

For freespace or vacuum εr = K = 1


When charges are submerged in a medium

Now as K≥1 (i.e ε>ε0)

K lies between 1 and ∞


with Kvacuum = 1 and Kconductor= ∞

Hence, Fmedium < Fvacuum

q1 KWater = 80

r
q2
Superposition Principle
Principle of Superposition in
Coulomb’s Law
Fnet
● Net force on a charge can be
found by vector addition of the
F3 F2
forces due to each of these
charges as if they were acting
F1
alone.
q1
● Net force on any one charge
is unaffected by the
presence of other charges. q2 q3

Hence,
The fact that you must understand is, each force is
individual and not affected by other forces on particle.

All vectors do not necessarily follow the Principle of


Superposition.
Question Determine force on 2C charge in the following arrangement of charges
kept at corners of a square of side 2m. Where k is Coulomb’s constant.

A. B. C. 2k D. None of these

2m −2C
2C
2m
2m

−2C 2m 8√2 C
Question Five point charges, each of value +q are placed on five vertices of a regular
hexagon of side L. The magnitude of force on a charge -q placed at the
centre of a hexagon is:

A. B. C. D.
Electric Field
Electric Field
Electric Field

Region around charged particle into which when another


charge is brought in, it experiences electrostatic force.

Process of interaction between


charged particles is a two step
process:
● Charge creates Electric
Field around it
● Another charge feels the
force when it is brought into
this Electric Field.
Charge Field Force
Electric Field Intensity

at a point is equal to electrostatic force experienced by a


unit positive charged.

q0 is a test charge.

Vector quantity, directed along force on positive charge.

S.I units is N/C (Netwon/Coulomb).

[E] = M1L1T-3A-1
Properties of Electric Field Intensity

Electric force on a charge q placed in the region of electric


field at a point where the electric field intensity is given
by

obeys superposition principle, i.e the field intensity at a


particular point due to a system of charges is vector sum
of field intensities due to individuals point charges.
Electric Field Due to a point charge

General method of determining Electric Field:


1. Bring in positive test charge ‘q0’
2. Find Force on q0

1. Determine
q0
Use a test positive charge ‘q0’

Directed away from q q


Now,

q0
Directed radially away from ‘q’.

or
q

Works for both q>0 and q<0


Electric field due to a Continuous
Charge distribution
At point P, field due to ‘dq’ is

or P

Total field due to all such elements

dq
Electric field due to a uniform ring on axis

dq
R r

x P
Electric field due to an infinite line of charge

Find ‘E’ at P?

d P
Home-Work
How many no. of e-s are present in one cup (180g) of water.
Question
A. 6.023 x 1023 B. 6.023 x 1024
C. 6.023 x 1025 C. 6.023 x 1026
Question Two charges 9μc and 1μc are placed at separation of 10 cm. At what
distance from 1μc should a third charge be placed such that it
experience no net force due to these two charges.
A. 2cm B. 2.50cm C.3.33cm D.5cm
Question A charge q is placed at the centre of the line joining two equal charges
Q. The system of the three charges will be in equilibrium if q is equal
to:
A. B. C. D.
Question Charge Q is to be divided into two parts q and Q-q, for what value of q
will the force between them be maximum at a particular distance?

A. B. C. D.
Question Determine force on P in the following system of the charges ‘q’ kept
at vertices of an equilateral triangle of side ‘a’.

A. B. C. D.

P q

a a

q a q