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Q1: What do scientists currently believe an atom consists of?

Ans: Currently scientists believe that an atom consists of a tiny positively charged nucleus
surrounded by a cloud of rapidly morning electrons.

Q2: What gave the Dalton idea that everything is made up of atoms?

Ans: Dalton found out that water could only evaporate into the air if water and air were
made up of particles that could mix together, so he had the idea that everything is
made of particles which could not be broken down.

Q3: What are subatomic particles?

Ans: These particles are smaller than an atom such as electrons, protons and neutrons.

Q4: Define Thompson’s atomic model.

Ans: In Thompson’s atomic model also called as “Plum Pudding Model” most of the space
in an atom is made up of positively charged material with lots of tiny negatively
charged electrons scattered through it.

Q5: Describe what happened when Rutherford fired positively charged particles at thin
gold foil, what did this prove?

Ans: When Rutherford fired positively charged particles at thin gold foil, some particles
were repelled instead of passing straight through it proved there must be a very
small positive bit in the center of each atom.

Page: 35

Q1: (a) Name the tree tiny particles which make up atoms.

Ans: Proton, Neutron and Electron

(b) Write the charge alongside each one

(i) Proton: Positive charge

(ii) Neutron: Neutral / no charge

(iii) Electron: Negative charge

Q2: What does the nucleus contain?

Ans: Neutrons and Protons.


Q3: (a) Where are electrons found in an atom?

Ans: In orbits around the nucleus.

(b) Explain why electrons take up most of the atom’s space?

Ans: Electrons take up most of the space in an atom because they are moving rapidly in
orbits and orbits build up in layers as they become full.

Q4: Suggest why Scientists use chemicals symbols?

Ans: Because chemical symbols are a kind of short hand recognized all ones the world.

Q5: Explain these terms:

(a) Atomic Number:

The number of protons in an atom is called as its atomic numbers.

(b) Mass Number

The number of protons and neutron in an atom is called as its mass number.

Page: 36

Q1: what is an ion?

Ans: an ion is electrically charged particle formed when an atom loses or gains electron.

Q2: gold has atomic number 79 and mass number 197. What would you find inside an
atom of gold?

Ans: 79 protons and 118 neutrons

Q3: oxygen has atomic number 8 and mass number 16. Draw a labeled diagram to
show the structure of an oxygen atom.


P=8 Electron



Q4: All carbon atoms have atomic number 6 but some have mass number 12 and others
have mass number 14 what is

(a) the same:-

Ans: Both have same number of proton 6.

(b) Different about the structure of these two types of carbon atoms.

Ans: Each one has different unber of neutrons i.e. 6 and 8.

Page: 39
Q1: write down the group numbers for carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur.

Ans: Elements Group

Carbon IV

Oxygen VI

Nitrogen V

Sulphur VI

Q2: where in the periodic table do you find the precious metals gold, silver and

Ans: These metals lie between group II and III.


Q3: Write down the names of elements having symbols.

Ans: Symbols Elements

Pb Lead

Sn Tin

W Tungsten

K Potassium

P Phosphorous

Hg Mercury

Q4: (a) how many electrons do these elements have in their outer shell.

Ans: i. Nitrogen 5 electrons

ii. Chlorine 7 electrons

iii. Calcium 2 electrons

(b) Explain how you got yours answer?

Ans: BY checking in which group they were in the periodic table.

Q5: what do the elements in these groups have in common (a) alkali metals (b)
halogens (c) noble gases?

Ans: a) Alkali metals

i) They belong to group 1 of the periodic table, as they have only one electron
in their outer most shell.
ii) They are metals which are soft and react violently with water.

b) Halogens:

i) They belong to group Vii of the periodic table as they have seven electrons in
their outer most shell.

ii) They are coloured, poisonous gases that are very reactive.

c) Noble gases:

i) They belong to group Viii of the periodic table.

ii) They do not react because their outer electron shells are completely full.

Page # 41
Q:1 When an atom loses an electron, what charge does the ion have?

Ans: Positive charge

Q:2 When an atom gains an electron, what charge does the ion have?

Ans: Negative charge

Q:3 Describe the changes in appearance of substances when sodium and

chlorine combine to form sodium chloride.

Ans: Sodium is a solid metal, where as chlorine is a greenish yellow gas.

When both of them combine, they form sodium chloride which is a white
crystalline salt.

Q:4 Give one way in which the formation of magnesium oxide differs from
the formation of sodium chloride.

Ans: two electrons are lost by magnesium and gained by oxygen in the
formation of magnesium oxide while one electron is lost by sodium and gained by
chlorine in the formation of sodium chloride.

Q:5 Explain, using diagram, how potassium forms the compound

potassium fluoride (KF) when it reacts with chlorine.

Ans: Potassium atom loses one electron forming positive potassium ion.
Flourine atom gains one electron forming negative fluoride ion. One molecule of
potassium fluoride has the formula KF and contains one potassium and one
fluorine atom.

19 P

Potassium (K) Flourine (F)


Pg # 43
Q:1. Which particle in an atom is involved in a covalent bond?

Ans: Electron

Q:2. Describe how a covalent bond is formed?

Ans: A covalent bond is formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms.

Q:3. What particle is made in a covalent bond?

Ans: Molecule

Q:4. Explain the difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond.


Covalent bond Ionic bond

In a covalent bond, atoms share electrons to In an ionic bond, electrons are either lost or
form a neutral molecule or compound. received from atoms. The atoms become
charged particles called ions and are held
together by electrostatic forces.

Q:5. A carbon dioxide molecule has the formula CO2.

a) What elements are in carbondioxide?

Ans: Carbon and oxygen

b) How many atoms of each element are there in one molecule of carbondioxide.

Ans: one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen.


c) Draw a diagram to show how two covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons
in carbon dioxide.


Ch # 6


Test Yourself
Q.1. Give three differences between a physical change and a chemical change.


Physical change Chemical change

No new substances are formed One or more new substance are formed.
Energy is not always given out or taken in. Energy is always given out or taken in
It can be reversed. It is usually very difficult to reverse.

Q.2. which of the photographs on left page are examples of physical change wnad which
one are chemical changes? Explain your answer.

Ans: crushed can, chopped food and ice melting are examples of physical changes because
no new substance is formed.

Fuel burning, toast burning and food cooking are examples of chemical change
because these can not be reversed.

Q.3. when do chemical changes happen?

Ans. Chemical changes happen during chemical reactions.

Pg # 74
Q.1. what is the easiest way of writing a chemical reaction?

Ans: as a word equation.

Q.2. What name is given to the chemicals involved in chemical reaction.

Ans. Reactants.

Q.3. what name is given to the chemicals produced in chemical reaction?

Ans. Products.

Q.4. explain the difference between an endotheramic and exothermic rections.

Ans: The chemical reactions which need heat energy to get them started are called
endothermic reactions. The chemical reactions which give out heat energy are called
exothermic reactions.

Pg # 76
Q.1. (i) what type of chemical reactions in magnesium burning in oxygen?

Ans: Synthesis.

(ii) is this reaction endo or exothermic? Explain your answer.

Endothermic because it needs heat to get the magnesium burning.

Q.2. Lime (calcium oxide) is produced by heating lime stone (calcium carbonate) in a hot
kiln. Carbon dioxide gas is given off as a waste product.

(i) is this chemical reaction endothermic or exothermic?

Endothermic reaction

(ii) write a word equation for the production of lime.

Calcium Carbonate Calcium oxide + carbon dioxide

Q.3. Explain why the reaction between iron and Copper Sulphate is an example of a
displacement reaction.

Ans: Because in this reaction iron displaces Copper from Copper sulphate to form iron

Iron + copper sulphate iron sulphate + copper

Pg # 78
Q.1. is burning endothermic or exothermic? Explain your answer.

Ans: exothermic because heat energy is given off.

Q.2. What is an oxide? Which oxide is produced when carbon is burnt in air?

Ans: An oxide is produced when fuel reacts with oxygen. Crbondioxide (CO 2) is produced
when carbon is burnt in air.

Q.3. name three fuels that burn well in air

Ans: wood, coal and oil

Q.4. what is a hydrocarbon? What happens to hydrocarbon when it burns?

Ans: the compounds which contain the elements carbon and hydrogen are called
hydrocarbons. When they burn water and carbon dioxide is produced.

Q.5. why do our bodies need fuel? Where does this fuel comes from?

Ans: our bodies need fuel to produce energy to keep the body working, fuel comes from
food we eat.

Q.6. give one way that combustion and respiration are

i) same:

Ans: in both energy is produced by combing a fuel with exygen.

iii) different:

in combustion a lot of heat energy is produced while respiration is a much slower


Pg # 79
Q.1. In the candle experiment, the test tube had a volume of 10cm3 and it took just 2
seconds for the candle to go out. Suggest how this time might change if test tube of

i) 20cm3 ii) 50cm3 were used

Ans: i) 20cm3

The candle would take 4 secons to go out.

ii) 50cm3 The candle would take 10 seconds to go out.

Q.2. what happens to carbondioxide produced in the experiment?

Ans: the carbondioxide stays in the test tube and dissolves in water.

Q.3. How did priestly know he had discovered oxygen?

Ans: Priestly did not know at that time that he had discovered oxygen. He thought that he
had simply found a new kind of air in which things burnt much more brightly.

Q.4. Give one way in which the candle experiment and lavoisier’s experiment are

i) the same:

Ans: in both the things burned more brightly in oxygen.

ii) different:

Ans: Lavoisier burned things in an enclosed space.

Q.5. write down three things need to keep a fire burning.

Ans: fuel, oxygen and heat.

Q.6. Explain why water can be used to put out a bonefire.

Ans: Because water removes heat from fire.

CH # 7


Test Yourself

Pg# 85
Q.1. How do humans and other animals detect sound energy?

Ans. Their ears can detect sound energy.

Q.2. How are sound made?

Ans. Sounds are made when something vibrates.

Q.3. Name two musical instruments

a) that have vibrating sting

Ans: guitar and violin

b) that you blow into

Ans: clarinet and flute

c) that you hit

Ans: Drum and tambourine

Q.4. Explain how humans produce speech sounds?

Ans: Humans produce sounds by the vibrations of their vocal chords.


Pg# 86
Q.1. Describe how we hear the sound when a drum is hit.

Ans. When the drummer hits the drum, the drum skin vibrates rapidly up and down. The
vibrating drum skin makes air molecules vibrate backwards and forwards. These molecules
affect the molecules next to them and sound spreads out. We hear the sounds when the air
inside our ears starts vibrating our eardrums.

Q.2. what evidence is there that sound travels through

a) gases:

Ans: we can hear sounds all around us.

b) liquids:

Ans: Dolphins communicate by sending out high pitched squeaks and clicks which travel
through water.

c) solids:

Ans: we can hear someone knocking on the door and the sounds of beating drum.

Q.3. Explain why sound can not travel through vacuum.

Ans: Sounds can only move when there is something to move through. It means sound
can pass anywhere there are particles, and more tightly packed the particles are, the further
the sound travels sound can not travel in vacuum because there are no particles in it.

Pg# 87
Q.1. What are sound waves?

Ans: sound waves are stretches and squashes of the air spread out from the source of the

Q.2. In sound waves what is the distance between compressions called?

Ans: The distance between two compressions is called a wavelength.

Q.3. What is a longitudinal wave?

Ans: The vibration moving backward and forward is called a longitudinal wave.

Q.4. How are sound waves different from the waves in the sea or the ripples on water.

Ans: the waves on sea or the ripples on water move up and down, not backward and
forward like sound waves.

Pg# 88
Q.1. What is the approximate speed of sound?

Ans: In air, the speed of sound is 330 meter per second.

Q.2. Does sound travel at the same speed through all materials?

Ans: No, in general sound travels faster in liquids than gases. It travels fastest of all in

Q.3. In a thunderstorm the thunder is made at the same time as the lightning. Explain
why a person 1600 meters away hears thunder about 5 seconds after seeing the lightning.

Ans: Light travels faster than sound, so we see the lightning first and hear the sound of
thunder after some time. A person standing 1600 meters away will hear the thunder after 5
seconds because

The speed of sound = Distance/time = 1600/5 = 320 m/s

Q.4. what is an echo?

Ans: An echo is the reflected sound from walls and other hard surfaces. It is heard after a
short time of the original sound.

Q.5. what is echo time?

Ans: Echo time is the time for a sound to travel from, it’s source to hard surface and back

Q.6. calculate the speed of sound in the example of echoes. Use the formula

Ans: Speed = distance/time = 160 m/ 0.5 s = 320 m/s

Pg# 90
Q.1. What is meant by

a) pitch

Ans: the pitch of sound means how high or low the sound is.

b) the frequency of sound

Ans: the frequency of a sound is the number of sound vibrations set in one second. It is
measured in hertz.

Q.2. The frequency of drum note is 20hz. What does this tell you about the drum skin

Ans: it tells that skin of drum vibrates 20 times in one second.

Q.3. A drum is hit hard and then softly

a) How does the volume change?

Ans: When the drum is hit hard, a loud sound is produced (high volume). When it is hit
softly a quiet sound is produced (low volume).

b) How does the amplitude changes.

Ans: When the drum is hit hard the skin of the drum vibrates with high amplitude. When
it is hit softly the amplitude of vibrations are smaller.

Q.4. What is the wavelength of a sound with a frequency of 330hz? Take the speed of
sound in air 330 m/s.

speed 330 m/s

wavelength= = =1 m
Ans: frequency 330 hg

Pg# 91
Q.1. a) What is noise pollutions?

Ans: Too much noise is called noise pollution.

b) Give there sources of noise pollution.

Ans: Traffic, noise from radios, Tvs and machinery.

Q.2. a) How can noise levels be measured?

Ans: Noise levels can be measured with a sound meter. A sound meter converts sound
energy into electrical energy which can be displayed on scale.

b) what units is sound measuredin?

Ans: In decibels (dB)

Q.3. How much louder is

a) a motorcar than a washing machine

Ans: 30 dB

b) an aeroplane taking off than a baby crying.

Ans: 20 dB

Q.4. Explain why you hear echoes when you speak in an empty room.

Ans: The walls, floor and ceiling are hard, flat solid surfaces and reflect the smallest sound
in an empty room.

Q.5. a) Name three good sound proofing materials.

Ans: Soft foams, wadding and fabric.

b) explain how they work?

Ans: They contain lots of air which absorbs sound energy sound travels much quicker
through solids than through air.

CH # 10

Pg# 123
Q.1. how fast does light travels?

Ans: Light travels one million times faster than sound with speed of 300000km/s in air.

Q.2. why can we represent light rays using a scale?

Ans: we can represent light rays using a scale because light travels in straight line.

Q.3. Explain the difference between a transparent and a translucent material.

Ans: The material which allows all the light the pass through it is called transparent and
the material which allows some of light to pass through it is called translucent.

Q.4. which of the following materials are

a) transparent:

Acetate paper and glass.

b) translucent:

Frosted glass and grease proof paper.


c) opaque:

wood and metal.

Pg# 124
Q.1. what is a plane mirror?

Ans: A plane mirror is flat mirror with reflecting surface.

Q.2. Explain why you cannot see an image in a piece of paper.

Ans: A piece of paper has rough surface. It reflects light at all angles in an irregular or
diffused way.

Q.3. Explain the difference between incident ray and a reflected ray.

Ans: the incident ray is the incoming ray which strikes the mirror which the reflected ray is
the outgoing ray which is reflected by mirror.

Q.4. what is a normal?

Ans: A normal is a line drawn between the incident ray and reflected ray at 90 degrees to
the mirror.

Q.5. What is the rule of reflection of light?

Ans: On a smooth surface the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.

Q.6. Explain these terms.

a) Virtual image:

Ans: When light rays from object strike a plane mirror, the image appears to be the same
distance behind the mirror as the object is in front. This is a virtual image because no rays of
light actually pass through it.

b) laterally inverted:

Ans: The image of object in plane mirror seems to be laterally inverted which means it
appears changed from left to right.

Pg# 126
Q.1. a) what is refraction?

Ans: when a ray of light passes from air, into a material such as glass or water, it slows
down and bends towards the normal this bending of light is called refraction.

b) Describe how a ray of light is refracted when it passes through a glass block.

Ans: The light entering the glass block slows down and bends towards the normal.

As it leaves the glass, it speed up again and bends away from the normal. The ray emerging
from rectangular block is parallel to the ray going in.

Q.2. Explain why light bends more when it passes through diamond the it does through

Ans: because diamond is more dense than glass so refraction is greater in diamond.

Q.3. Explain why things look as if they are in different position when seen through

Ans: Since the refracted ray is parallel to the ray of light entering the water that’s why the
object appears to be in a different position.

Pg# 127
Q.1. Describe the shape of

a) a concave lens:

Ans: A concave lens is thin in the middle and thick round the edges.

b) a convex lens:

Ans: A convex lens is thickest in the middle and thin round the edge.

Q.2. What kind of lens would you use as a magnifying glass?

Ans: A convex lens.

Q.3. a) what is the focal point of a lens?

Ans: The focal point of a lens is the point at which all the rays passing through a lens
seems to meet.

b) what is the focal length of lens.

Ans: The focal length is the distance between the focal point and middle of lens.

Q.4. explain why it is easier to find the focal point of a convex lens than that of a
concave lens:

Ans: Because a convex lens focuses that light rays to a point, where as a convex lens
spreads the light rays. To find the focal length of a concave lens the refracted rays have to be
traced back through the lens.

Pg# 128
Q.1. What is a spectrum?

Ans: when a ray of white light is passed through a triangular prism, it is split into different
colours. The continuous spread of colour is called a spectrum.

Q.2. a) which is refracted most by prism, red light or blue light?

Ans: Blue light is refracted more than red light.

b) explain your answer

Ans: Red light has a longer wavelength than blue light. So it is refracted at a greater angle
than blue light which has a smaller wavelength and is refracted at a smaller angle.

Q.3. a) write down the seven colours of the visible spectrum in order starting with

Ans: Red, orange, yellow, green blue, indigo, violet.

b) Make up an easy way of remembering the colours of spectrum. Write it down.

Ans: Roy G BIV

Q.4. Explain why white light is refracted by a prism into the colours of the spectrum.

Ans: The different colours of spectrum are produced because different wavelengths of
light are refracted at slightly different angles this is called dispersion.

Q.5. a) Explain how a rainbow is formed?

Ans: A rainbow is an example of a spectrum that occurs naturally. It is caused when

sunlight from behind us is refracted through raindrops in front of us. Rain drops act like tiny
prisms splitting sunlight into different colours of spectrum.

b) If you were facing a rainbow, where would your shadow be?

Ans: in front.

Pg# 129
Q.1. What are the primary colours of light?

Ans: The primary colours of light are red, blue and green.

Q.2. a) What are the secondary colours of light?

Ans: The secondary colours of light are cyan, yellow and magenta.

b) Describe how the secondary colours of light are made.

i. Red light mixed with blue gives magenta.

ii. Red light mixed with green given yellow.

iii. green light mixed with blue gives cyan.

Q.3. Explain the difference between absorption and transmission of light.

Absorption Transmission
Absorbing some or all ligt colours by an Passing some or all light colours by an object
object is called absorption of ligt is called transmission of light

Q.4. What colours of light will a blue filter

a) Absorb

Ans: A blue filter will absorb red and green colours of light.

b) Transmit

Ans: A blue filter will transmit blue colour of light.

Q.5. Draw a diagram showing what happens when you look at which light through a red
and green filter together.


Pg# 130
Q.1. a) What are pigments?

Ans: Pigments are chemical which produce colours.

b) Name six things that contain pigments.

Ans: Paints, inks, coloured crayons, petals of flower, leaves of plants and skins of animals.

Q.2. What are the primary pigment colours?

Ans: The Primary pigment colours are red blue and yellow.

Q.3. Name the secondary pigment colours.

Ans: The secondary pigment colours are magenta, green and orange.

b) How are they produced?

i. Red mixed with blue gives magenta

ii. Blue mixed with yellow gives green

iii. Yellow mixed with red gives orange.

Q.4. Explain why in white light

a) Red paint appears red.

Ans: A red paint absorbs blue and green light and reflects red light.

b) Plant leaves appear green.

Ans: A green leaf absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light.

c) Blue ink appears blue.

Ans: the blue ink absorbs red and green and reflects blue light.

Q.5. Explain why

a) white objects are white.

Ans: Because white objects reflect all the colours of the spectrum.

b) Black objects are black

Ans: Because black objects absorb all the colours of spectrum.

Pg# 131
Q.1. Which two primary colours absorb red light?

Ans: Blue and yellow.

Q.2. Which two secondary colours reflect red light.

Ans: Magenta and orange.


Q.3. The Picture alongside shows an actor wearing a yellow shirt and blue trouser
standing in a cyan light

a) which primary colours make cyan light.

Ans: Green and blue.

b) what colour do the actor’s shirt and trouser appear under the cyan light?

Ans: The shirt will look green and trouser will look blue.

Q.4. Green plants use light energy to grow. What would happen to plants in a dark
greenhouse if they were bit only by green colour?

Ans: Green leaves of the plant absorb yellow and blue light and reflect the green light. If
they were hit only by green colour light thy will not be able to make their food as green light
is reflected from the leaves.

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