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ME – 130

THERMODYNAMICS – I

INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS

TEXT BOOK: CHAPTER 1

Instructor: Dr. Ali Zaidi

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 System of units
 Explanation of terms used in
Thermodynamics
 Thermodynamic Systems
 Properties of a System
 State of a System

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SYSTEM OF UNITS (Quick Review)

Dimension SI Unit English Unit


Length Meter (m) Foot (ft)

Mass Kilogram (kg) Pound (lb)

Time Second (s) Second (s)

Temperature Kelvin (K), oC Rankine (R), oF


Force Newton (N) Pound-force (lbf)

Pressure Pascal (Pa) Pound per square inch (psi)

Work (J) or (N·M) Btu (B) or ft-lbf

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USEFUL TERMINOLOGIES
 Fluid:
 Matter in the form of liquid, gas or vapour that
offers little resistance to deformation
 Working Substance:
 Fluid used in power producing machines that
is capable of storing or removing energy e.g.
 Steam in steam turbines
 Water in hydraulic turbines
 Air in air compressors
 Air-fuel mixture in internal combustion engines
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THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS
 System: quantity of matter
or region in space chosen
for study.
 It has:
 A Boundary – fixed or
moveable with zero
thickness
 Surroundings – region
outside the system
 Two Types:
 Closed System
(Control Mass)
 Open System
(Control Volume)

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CLOSED SYSTEM
 Quantity of mass is
fixed!
 System boundary may
be fixed or moveable
 Mass can not cross the
system boundary
 Energy can cross the
system boundary
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Closed System: Schematic
System
Boundary

E System

Matter can not cross the system boundary,


however, energy can cross it!

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OPEN SYSTEM
 System boundary
may be fixed or
moveable

 Both mass and


energy can cross
the system
boundary
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Another Illustration of
Open System (Control Volume)

Matter
Energy
Water
Heater

Energy

Matter

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OPEN SYSTEM (Control Volume)
 A control volume is an enclosure that separates a
quantity of matter from the surroundings or
environment.
 The enclosure does not necessarily have to consist of
a solid boundary like the walls of a vessel.
 It is only necessary that the enclosure:
 Forms a closed surface and
 Its properties are defined everywhere.
 An enclosure may transmit heat or be a heat insulator.
 It may be deformable and thus capable of transmitting
work to the system.
 It may also be capable of transmitting mass.
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PROPERTIES OF A SYSTEM

 PROPERTY: any observable characteristics of


a system e.g.
 Pressure
 Temperature
 Volume
 Mass
 Density
 Modulus of elasticity
 Viscosity - etc.

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PROPERTIES OF A SYSTEM

 Types of property are:


 Intensive – independent of size of the
system, e.g. temperature, pressure, density
etc.
 Extensive – values depend upon size or
extent of the system, e.g. mass, volume, total
energy etc.
 Specific property: extensive properties per
unit mass

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To Summarize:
Types of Properties of a System are:
 Intensive
 Does not depend on the system’s size
 Temperature
 Pressure
 Extensive
 Depend on the system’s size
 Volume
 Mass
 Total Energy

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We often define properties in terms
of other properties
 Density
r = m/V

 Specific Volume
 v = V/m = 1/r

 We can define most of the extensive


properties per unit mass and call them
specific properties; e.g.
 u = U/m is the specific internal energy

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Pressure
 The force exerted by a fluid per
unit area
 Only meaningful for a gas or a
liquid
 In solids we talk about stress
 With respect to a given location:
 Pressure increases as we go down
 Pressure decreases as we go up
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Units of Pressure

P
F In SI units, pressure is
expressed in Pascal [Pa]
Pa   2
N
A m
One Pascal isn’t very much; we generally use kPa
or MPa to represent large pressures!

1 atm = 101,325 Pa

1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 1.01325 bar = 14.7 psi

Note: 1 bar = 105 Pa and psi is lbf / in2


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Types of Pressure
 Absolute pressures are measured relative
to perfect vacuum
 Usually we will talk about absolute pressure, and
will use absolute pressure in our calculations
 Gage pressures are measured relative to the
surroundings
 If the system pressure is less than the
surroundings pressure, the gage pressure is
termed as Vacuum Pressure

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Absolute vs Gage Pressure
System
Pressure

Surroundings pgage

pabs
Patm

Vacuum

Psys > Psurr Pgage= Pabs – Patm


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Absolute vs Vacuum Pressure

Surroundings

pvac
System
Pressure
pabs
Patm

Vacuum

Psys < Psurr Pvac= Patm– Pabs


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Devices to measure pressure
 Barometer
 Manometer
 Bourdon tube
 Pressure Transducer
 Piezoelectric Transducers
 Strain gage Pressure Transducers

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F
Barometer P  rgh
A
Measures atmospheric A
pressure
F  mg  rghA

m  rV  rhA
h V  hA
Note: The
pressure measured
by a barometer is
independent of tube
cross sectional
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