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ME – 130

THERMODYNAMICS – I

INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS

Instructor: Dr. Ali Zaidi

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 System of units
 Explanation of terms used in
Thermodynamics
 Thermodynamic Systems
 Properties of a System
 State of a System

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SYSTEM OF UNITS (Quick Review)

Dimension SI Unit English Unit

Length Meter (m) Foot (ft)

Temperature Kelvin (K), oC Rankine (R), oF

Force Newton (N) Pound-force (lbf)

Work (J) or (N·M) Btu (B) or ft-lbf

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USEFUL TERMINOLOGIES
 Fluid:
 Matter in the form of liquid, gas or vapour that
offers little resistance to deformation
 Working Substance:
 Fluid used in power producing machines that
is capable of storing or removing energy e.g.
 Steam in steam turbines
 Water in hydraulic turbines
 Air in air compressors
 Air-fuel mixture in internal combustion engines
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THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS
 System: quantity of matter
or region in space chosen
for study.
 It has:
 A Boundary – fixed or
moveable with zero
thickness
 Surroundings – region
outside the system
 Two Types:
 Closed System
(Control Mass)
 Open System
(Control Volume)

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CLOSED SYSTEM
 Quantity of mass is
fixed!
 System boundary may
be fixed or moveable
 Mass can not cross the
system boundary
 Energy can cross the
system boundary
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Closed System: Schematic
System
Boundary

E System

Matter can not cross the system boundary,

however, energy can cross it!

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OPEN SYSTEM
 System boundary
may be fixed or
moveable

 Both mass and

energy can cross
the system
boundary
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Another Illustration of
Open System (Control Volume)

Matter
Energy
Water
Heater

Energy

Matter

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OPEN SYSTEM (Control Volume)
 A control volume is an enclosure that separates a
quantity of matter from the surroundings or
environment.
 The enclosure does not necessarily have to consist of
a solid boundary like the walls of a vessel.
 It is only necessary that the enclosure:
 Forms a closed surface and
 Its properties are defined everywhere.
 An enclosure may transmit heat or be a heat insulator.
 It may be deformable and thus capable of transmitting
work to the system.
 It may also be capable of transmitting mass.
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PROPERTIES OF A SYSTEM

 PROPERTY: any observable characteristics of

a system e.g.
 Pressure
 Temperature
 Volume
 Mass
 Density
 Modulus of elasticity
 Viscosity - etc.

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PROPERTIES OF A SYSTEM

 Types of property are:

 Intensive – independent of size of the
system, e.g. temperature, pressure, density
etc.
 Extensive – values depend upon size or
extent of the system, e.g. mass, volume, total
energy etc.
 Specific property: extensive properties per
unit mass

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To Summarize:
Types of Properties of a System are:
 Intensive
 Does not depend on the system’s size
 Temperature
 Pressure
 Extensive
 Depend on the system’s size
 Volume
 Mass
 Total Energy

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We often define properties in terms
of other properties
 Density
r = m/V

 Specific Volume
 v = V/m = 1/r

 We can define most of the extensive

properties per unit mass and call them
specific properties; e.g.
 u = U/m is the specific internal energy

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Pressure
 The force exerted by a fluid per
unit area
 Only meaningful for a gas or a
liquid
 In solids we talk about stress
 With respect to a given location:
 Pressure increases as we go down
 Pressure decreases as we go up
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Units of Pressure

P
F In SI units, pressure is
expressed in Pascal [Pa]
Pa   2
N
A m
One Pascal isn’t very much; we generally use kPa
or MPa to represent large pressures!

1 atm = 101,325 Pa

Note: 1 bar = 105 Pa and psi is lbf / in2

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Types of Pressure
 Absolute pressures are measured relative
to perfect vacuum
 Usually we will talk about absolute pressure, and
will use absolute pressure in our calculations
 Gage pressures are measured relative to the
surroundings
 If the system pressure is less than the
surroundings pressure, the gage pressure is
termed as Vacuum Pressure

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Absolute vs Gage Pressure
System
Pressure

Surroundings pgage

pabs
Patm

Vacuum

Psys > Psurr Pgage= Pabs – Patm

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Absolute vs Vacuum Pressure

Surroundings

pvac
System
Pressure
pabs
Patm

Vacuum

Psys < Psurr Pvac= Patm– Pabs

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Devices to measure pressure
 Barometer
 Manometer
 Bourdon tube
 Pressure Transducer
 Piezoelectric Transducers
 Strain gage Pressure Transducers

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F
Barometer P  rgh
A
Measures atmospheric A
pressure
F  mg  rghA

m  rV  rhA
h V  hA
Note: The
pressure measured
by a barometer is
independent of tube
cross sectional
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