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ENERGY AUDIT OF IIT-BOMBAY CAMPUS

Draft Final Report

Ist Year M.Tech Students of the


Department of Energy Science and Engineering

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY – BOMBAY


POWAI, MUMBAI – 400 076.

JULY, 2008
This report has been prepared by:

Chikku Abraham (T.A. for the project)


Mel George
Victor Jose
and Sharath Deshpande

with the support and cooperation of the following students of the Department of
Energy Science and Engineering.

Manoj Kumar
Mahendra Rane
Ms. Debasmita Panda
Ms. Ragini Agarwal
B. Kiran Kumar
Hrushikesh Patade
Hardik Patel
A. Senthil Kumar
Ms. Harathi Nanda
Deepak Yadav
Chinmay Kinjavdekar
Anand Upadhyay
Yajnavalkya K. Nookala
Ravindra Narkhede
S. Nagaraja Rao
Anoop S.
Prasad Wani
Kalpesh Karnik
Shiva Kumar
D. Surendranath
Vineet P.
Ms. Riddhi Panse
Vikrant Bhalerao

under the guidance of


Prof. Rangan Banerjee

as a part of the course work for the subject EN 607: Energy Management

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Disclaimer

The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and may not represent or reflect the
views of IIT - Bombay.
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3
PREFACE

An energy audit is a study of a plant or facility to determine how and where energy is
used and to identify methods for energy savings. There is now a universal recognition of the
fact that new technologies and much greater use of some that already exist provide the most
hopeful prospects for the future. The opportunities lie in the use of existing renewable energy
technologies, greater efforts at energy efficiency and the dissemination of these technologies
and options.

This energy audit of the IIT-B academic area and the hostels was carried out by the
students of the Department of Energy Science and Engineering as a part of the course work for
the project EN 607. This report is just one step, a mere mile marker towards our destination of
achieving energy efficiency and we would like to emphasise that an energy audit is a
continuous process. We have compiled a list of possible actions to conserve and efficiently
utilize our scarce resources and identified their savings potential. The next step would be to
prioritize their implementation. We look forward with optimism that the institute authorities,
staff and students shall ensure the maximum execution of the recommendations and the success
of this work.

To all of you, we hope that the ideas and pages that follow will give as much enjoyment
and challenge as they have given us in their development, synthesis and writing. Any
suggestions to further enhance the quality of this work are always welcome. Kindly email your
comments and suggestions to melgeorge@iitb.ac.in or melgeorge.v@gmail.com by 25th July,
2008.

- Authors

4
TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of figures
List of tables

1. Introduction
1.1 Objective of the energy audit
1.2 IIT present energy scenario
1.3 Specific Energy Consumption (SEC)
1.4 Segmentation

2. Energy Audit
2.1 Methodology
2.2 Grouping and strategy

3. Quantification by end use


3.1 Departments, library, main building
3.2 Hostels
3.3 Gulmohar and guest houses
3.4 Street lighting
3.5 Water pumping
3.6 Energy consumption in hostel kitchens
3.7 Central air conditioning for library

4. Measurements performed
4.1 Room air conditioners
4.2 Lighting and fan loads
4.3 Energy usage in hostels-washing rooms and geysers
4.4 Computers/printers
4.5 Water pumping

5
5. Benchmarking
5.1 Energy performance of various departments
5.2 Per unit area energy consumption
5.3 Per capita energy consumption
5.4 Per capita electrical energy consumption in hostels
5.5 ECBC standards and comparison

6. Energy conservation and efficiency


6.1 Implementation measures
6.2 Energy management structure

Appendix A – List of instruments used


Appendix B – Distribution of room ACs
Appendix C – BEE thumb rules for air conditioning loads
Appendix D – Calculations for Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHS) in hostels
Appendix E – Calculations for power savings in computers
Appendix F – Operating schedule of pumps at main pump house
Appendix G – General recommendations
Appendix H – Summary of hostel electricity bills
Appendix I – Details of library central air conditioning
Bibliography and websites
Acknowledgements

6
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure no. Title


1.1 Recorded monthly peak demands at IIT-B during the year 2007
3.1 Distribution of connected load by end use in IIT-B
3.2 Room air conditioning load (ton per unit of total floor area) for different
departments
3.3 Room air conditioning load (ton/ air conditioned sq.m) for offices in Main
Building
3.4 Distribution of connected load in hostels (excluding computers)
3.5 Connection diagram of Main Pumping Station
3.6 Per capita consumption of energy (as LPG) for different hostels
4.1 AC Load curve for the day without the energy saver for ACs (on 12 th May,
2008)
4.2 AC Load curve for the day with the energy saver for ACs (on 7th May, 2008)
4.3 Power consumption in H5 washroom for 5 hrs. on 5th April 2008
4.4 Power consumption of 2 kW Bajaj geyser in Hostel 5 on 6th April 2008
4.5 Efficiency-discharge for various pumps at Main Pump House
5.1 Total annual energy consumption of different departments
5.2 Normalized per unit area energy consumption (kWh/sq.m/year) for
departments
5.3 Normalized per capita electrical energy consumption (kWh/person/yr.) for
departments
5.4 Annual electricity consumption in hostels over the years 2005-2007
5.5 Annual electricity bills for hostels: student and institute contributions

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LIST OF TABLES

Table no. Title


1.1 Time of Day Tariff as per MSEDCL Tariff Order for HT-I
category
3.1 AC loads in various departments
3.2 Computers and printers in departments and Main Building
3.3 Connected loads (excluding computers) in hostels
3.4 Connected Load in kW for Gulmohar and Guest Houses
3.5 Common area lighting loads
3.6 Ratings of pumps in IIT-B
3.7 Capacity of water storage tanks
3.8 Details of energy consumption and food wastage in hostel kitchens
and staff canteen
4.1 Energy savings achieved by installation of the energy saver for a
1.5 ton AC
4.2 Measurements for lighting in hostels
4.3 Lux meter readings for departments
4.4 Lux level measurements for common area lighting
4.5 Sample measurements on fans in hostels
4.6 Measured power consumption for computers and printers in
different operating modes
4.7 Details of pumps for departments and residential complexes
4.8 Details of pumps in some hostels
5.1 ECBC recommended levels for lighting power density
5.2 Measured values of lighting power density at select locations in
IIT-Bombay
6.1 Implementation Measures

8
1. INTRODUCTION

The Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay (IIT-B), set up by an Act of Parliament,


was established in 1958, at Powai, a northern suburb of Mumbai. Today, the Institute is
recognised as one of the centres of academic excellence in the country. Over the years, there
has been significant progress at IIT Bombay in all academic and research activities, and a
parallel improvement in facilities and infrastructure, to keep it on par with the best institutions
in the world. Institutes in positions of excellence grow with time. As on date, it has 14
Departments, 10 Centers, 3 Schools and 4 Interdisciplinary programs. The student strength of
the institute is about 5300, with faculty strength of about 450 and supporting staff of about
1500 over an area of about 500 acres.

1.1 Energy audit objective

This energy audit assumes significance due to the fact that the IIT-B electricity bill had
crossed Rs. 10 crores during 2007, and it was aimed at obtaining a detailed idea about the
various end use energy consumption activities and identifying, enumerating and evaluating the
possible energy savings opportunities. The target is to achieve savings in the electrical energy
consumption to the extent of 20%. The audit was also aimed at giving the students a feel of the
practical problems and difficulties in carrying out energy audits. As energy engineers, the
students of the department enthusiastically participated in the endeavour.

1.2 IIT present energy scenario


The energy consumption on campus is mainly in the form of electricity, apart from the
use of LPG as cooking fuel in the hostels.
The campus had a connected electrical load of 5.3 MW as on April 2008 and a contract
demand of 4.5 MVA. The monthly recorded peak demand for the year 2007 is given in Fig.
1.1. The IITB energy bill for the year 2007 was Rs. 10.2 crores. The electricity bill comprises
two parts: one related to the energy consumed (per kWh or per unit energy consumed) and the
other is the maximum demand charge (per kVA of maximum demand during the month). There
also exists a penalty for low power factor. Furthermore, the energy charge includes a
component based on time of use. The Time of Day (TOD) tariff as per the MSEDCL

9
(Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd.) for category HT-I is as given in
Table 1.1. The existing tariff rate is Rs. 300/kVA for maximum demand and Rs. 4.3 /kWh on
an average.
The maximum demand in April 2008 was 4168 kVA and corresponding power factor
was 0.97. The energy charges during the month were Rs. 3.1 per unit for industrial use, Rs. 2.6
p.u. for residential users and Rs. 4.5 p.u. for commercial activities. The average power factor
for the year 2007 was 0.98 which was achieved by means of power factor correction units.
The contract demand in the year 2001-02 was 3000 kVA, which was increased to 3708
kVA and then finally to 4500 kVA in 2005-06. Before the last extension, the institute was
paying a penalty to MSEDCL (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd.) for
drawing more than the contract demand. Recently, IIT-B had again applied for extension of
present contract demand to 5000 kVA, which was not granted by MSEDCL/ Tata Power
Supply Company.

Monthly maximum demand for IIT-B in 2007

4500

4000

3500

3000
Max demand in kVA

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Months

Fig. 1.1: Recorded monthly peak demands at IIT-B during the year 2007

10
Table 1.1 Time of Day Tariff as per MSEDCL Tariff Order for HT-I category
(since December 2003)
Consumption during following hours of the day Energy Charge (p/u)
2200hrs-0600 hrs (-)85
0600hrs-0900 hrs 0
0900hrs-1200 hrs 60
1200hrs-1800 hrs 0
1800hrs-2200 hrs 100

1.3 Specific Energy Consumption (SEC)

The Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) is defined as the energy consumption per unit
of product output. The specific energy consumption considering students, faculty and staff
members were calculated which forms the institute SEC and was taken as reference for
comparison. The SEC was calculated to be 1384 kWh/person/annum (for 2007) for the
academic area and Rs. 5950 per person per annum.

1.4 Segmentation

This energy audit report has segmented the energy consumption patterns both by
departments/ hostels/ offices and by end use activities (lighting, cooling, pumping, washing
etc.). The details are provided in the subsequent chapters.

11
2. ENERGY AUDIT

2.1 Energy audit methodology

The methodology adopted for this audit was


• Formation of audit groups for specific areas and end use
• Visual inspection and data collection
• Observations on the general condition of the facility and equipment and quantification
• Identification / verification of energy consumption and other parameters by
measurements
• Detailed calculations, analyses and assumptions
• Validation
• Potential energy saving opportunities
• Implementation
As a first step in this regard, 13 teams of total 27 students from the department were formed
and each group was assigned a particular area or application of energy in the campus. The
activity was organized as a Graded Course Project for the course EN 607 (Energy
Management) during January-April 2008.

2.2 Grouping and strategy

The following groups were formed with specific target areas and end uses assigned.

Group 1: Lighting and fans in Main building, Library and staff canteen

Group 2: Lighting and fans in Departments (all departments, offices, class rooms and
labs)

Group 3: Lighting common area – Covering street lights, corridors, grounds

Group 4: Lighting and fans in Hostels (Hostel 1 to 7)

Group 5: Lighting and fans in Hostels (Hostel 8 to 13)

Group 6: Electric water heating and washroom/ironing loads in all Hostels (Hostel
1-13)

Group 7: Total energy audit of Gulmohar, old guest house and new guest house

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Group 8: Energy use in Kitchen – Hostels (1-13) and staff canteen

Group 9: Room air conditioners in main building, departments and labs.

Group 10: Central air conditioning (library)

Group 11: Computers/printers – All departments, labs, library and main building

Group 12: Water Pumps in the entire campus

Group 13: Benchmarking of electricity consumption

The groups were allowed the use of various measuring instruments like Power demand
analyzers and Lux meters to assist in the auditing activity. Also, cooperation of the Electrical
Maintenance Section was sought to collect past data and for taking measurements.

13
3. QUANTIFICATION BY END USE

The loads were segregated based on the end use as lighting and fans, air
conditioning, Computer/printers, water pumping, hostel mess cooking loads, washing machines
and irons. Quantification, types and necessary measurements were carried out. The details are
given here.

Airconditioning
11%
4% Lights and fans-hostels
and academic area
6% Gulmohar and guest
40% house
7% Computers and printers in
depts.
Water pumping
6%
Common area lighting

Hostel-geysers and
26%
washrooms

Fig. 3.1 Distribution of connected load by end use in IIT-B

3.1 Electricity use in departments, library, main building

3.1.1 Lighting and fans


The Institute has about 14,000 Fluorescent tube lights in different departments and labs.
Out of which about 3,500 tube lights are fitted with electronic ballast and rest are with
electromagnetic ballast.
The Institute is having 3,670 fans in different departments and labs. Out of which about
3,000 fans are fitted with resistance type regulator and rest are with electronic regulator.
The library and Main Building together have a total of 2,480 lights and 880 fans
(including table fans and exhaust fans).
The total lighting load from the above is 501 kW and the connected fan load is 307 kW.

14
3.1.2 Air Conditioners

On using the rated capacity details supplied by the manufacturers, the total room AC
load is about 1.991 or 2 MW. The total AC load (rated) is about 1,450 tons of refrigeration.
The distribution of ACs in different departments is as shown below in Table 3.3.

Table 3.1 AC loads in various departments


Deptt/capacity 1 ton 1.5 ton 2 ton 3 ton others
Aerospace 0 62 2 3 0
ASC 0 3 1 0 0
Bio school 7 25 0 0 0
CDEEP 0 0 12 0 0
CFDVS 0 4 0 0 0
Chemical 5 93 0 0 0
Chemistry 2 65 2 0 0
Civil 2 34 0 0 0
Comp. Sc. 0 43 10 0 0
Earth Sc. 0 12 0 0 0
Electrical Gaitonde bldg 0 18 0 0 0
Electrical Main+annex 0 93 3 0 0
Energy Science and Engg. 0 6 0 0 0
Humanities 0 19 0 0 0
IDC 0 14 0 0 0
IRCC 0 9 6 0 0
KReSIT 0 105 0 0 6
Main Bldg. 6 37 21 0 0
Mathematics 0 13 3 0 0
Mechanical 0 27 4 0 0
Metallurgy 0 73 1 0 0
Physics 0 57 2 0 0
SOM 0 15 1 0 0
Total 22 827 68 3 6
10% excess assumed for
unaccounted areas 1020

This is 44.3% of the contract demand at unity pf and 63.2% at 0.7 pf lag. But the whole
demand is not usually at one time due to a diversity factor. The kW/ton based on the rated
values was found to be 1.375. As air conditioning load is about 50% of the campus contract
demand, any savings achieved in this field would be significantly important.
The tonnage of AC per unit of total area for different departments is shown below in Fig.
3.2. A wide variation in the values can be seen in this plot, but the numbers of labs in the
department which are air conditioned have a clear influence on this.

15
0.03
AC tonnage per sq.m.
0.025

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departments

Fig. 3.2 Room air conditioning load (ton per unit of total floor area) for different
departments

A study of the AC tonnage per unit air conditioned area for the Main Building was done
and it was found that the average is about 0.08 T/m2 which is fine by the standards specified
[Please refer to Appendix C]. Few areas exceed the limits specified and resizing in future could
be an option. In many cases, the utilisation of the area has changed when compared with the
building plans.

16
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0.12
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Fig. 3.3 Room air conditioning load (ton/ air conditioned sq.m) for offices in Main
Building

3.1.3 Computers/printers

Computers and monitors account for 30%-40% of the energy used by office equipment.
Their energy consumption is second only to office lighting. It is estimated that a power
managed computer consumes less than half the energy of a computer without power
management.
The total number of computers and printers in different departments in the campus is as
shown below. The computers in hostels and residential area are not included here.

17
Table 3.2 Computers and printers in departments and Main Building

Computer Printer
S No Department/Building CRT LCD
Laser Jet DeskJet
Monitor Monitor
1 Aerospace 77 12 8 3
2 CESE 41 4 5 4
3 Bio-school 38 8 7 -
4 SOM 104 11 9 1
5 Chemical/Chemistry 194 44 29 3
6 HSS 32 1 1 -
7 Metallurgy 63 24 11 4
8 Earth Science 39 8 7 1
9 IDC 42 33 8 -
10 KRESIT 160 81 15 2
11 Electrical 226 170 33 -
12 Civil 90 36 10 1
13 Main Building 171 92 83 8
14 Mechanical 76 36 13 1
15 CSRE 71 11 9 4
16 Physics 90 23 8 5
17 Energy Systems 24 3 4 2
18 Central Library 31 7 3 1
19 SYSCON 27 11 4 -
20 CFILT 8 5 1 1
21 CFDVS 18 17 2 -
22 CDEEP 20 22 7 3
23 Mathematics 39 24 3 1
24 CSE 20 126 3 1
25 IEOR - 8 - -
26 CTARA 3 1 3 -
27 Faculty 288 145 371 62

18
Computer Printer
S No Department/Building CRT LCD
Laser Jet DeskJet
Monitor Monitor
1 Aerospace 77 12 8 3
Total 1992 963 657 108

Thus there are a total of about 3,000 computers and about 800 printers in the departments.

3.2 Hostels

There are 14 hostels in IIT Bombay, having an aggregate connected load of 1.25MW.
The loads are analyzed after segregating them into lighting, fan, geyser and wash room loads.
Here, the personal computers or laptops of individual students in their rooms or in hostel
computer rooms are not included.
Table 3.3 Connected loads (excluding computers) in hostels
Connected
Connected Connected Total Connected Average
Load of
Load of Load of Load of Light, Fan, Load of the
Hostel Wash
Light & Fan Geysers in Geysers & Wash Hostel in
Room in
in kW kW Room in kW 2007 in kW
kW
H1 42.5 18 4.42 64.92 30.7
H2 46.6 24 1.76 72.36 26.22
H3 46.3 28 2.52 76.82 38.25
H4 52.1 24 2.31 78.41 44.55
H5 40.3 12 1.76 54.06 32.64
H6 49.8 16 5.9 71.7 37.72
H7 34.9 40 2.52 77.42 39.73
H8 37.64 19 2.02 58.66 37.93
H9 38.47 39 2.05 79.52 24.75
H10 19.74 36 3.72 59.46 21.8
H11 38.4 42 3.38 83.78 33.35
H12 97.28 108 4 209.28 77.03
H13 97.28 108 4.6 209.88 80.87
Tansa 15.72 32 2.32 50.04 29.29
Total 657 546 43 1246 555

Fig. 3.4 Distribution of connected load in hostels (excluding computers)

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3.3 Gulmohar and guest houses

Gulmohar is the alumni building of the campus in which a cafeteria, a banquet hall, a
bank and the placement office are situated. There are two guest houses in the campus. The first
one is the Jal Vihar, also called old guest house with 25 rooms and two suit rooms. The second
is Vanvihar with 51 rooms. The connected load details are as shown below.
Table 3.4 Connected Load in kW for Gulmohar and
Guest Houses
Jal Vihar Van Vihar Gulmohar
Lighting 7.6 34.26 1.68
Air Conditioners 19.05 35.19 43.2
Others 52.67 112.05 1.21
Total 79.32 181.5 46.09

The cumulative connected load of these buildings comes to 307 kW.

3.4 Street lighting and common area lighting

All street lights and garden lights in the campus, corridor lights, and lights on
gymkhana grounds were accounted. The connected load is 193.7 kW, and about 60% of this
includes the illumination in the Gymkhana grounds, and these lights are normally operational
only in the evenings. The quantification is as follows.

Table 3.5 Common area lighting loads

A. Street & Corridor Lighting


Number
Rating
No Fitting of
(W)
Fittings
1 Filament Lamp 100 16
2 Compact Fluorescent Lamp 18 10
3 Fluorescent Lamp 40 33
4 Fluorescent Lamp 80 52
5 Sodium Vapour Lamp 70 511
6 Sodium Vapour Lamp 150 99
7 Sodium Vapour Lamp 250 14
8 Mercury Vapour Lamp 150 146
9 Metal Halide Lamp 400 2

20
B. Gymkhana Grounds
Rating
No Ground/Court Fitting (W) Nos.
1 Football Metal Halide 2000 24
2 Hockey Metal Halide 800 16
3 Basketball Metal Halide 800 24
4 Volleyball Metal Halide 800 32
5 Badminton Metal Halide 250 16

The total number of lighting fixtures in common area is 985.

3.5 Water pumping

The water supply to the institute is taken from the BMC (Brihan-mumbai Municipal
Corporation) lines which pass just outside the campus. The connection diagram of the main
pumping station is as in the following Figure 3.5.
There are two water tanks which store water coming from the BMC lines. One of the
tanks stores water which is supplied to all departments and residential complexes. Water from
this tank is pumped on to an overhead tank which is located next to ANANTA building. Water
from this overhead tank gets distributed to various pumps by the effect of gravity. The second
tank stores water for supplying the same to all hostels and Tansa house.
The ratings of the pumps are as shown in table 3.6, and it comes to a connected load of
343.2 kW. The motors are operated in a daily pattern as shown in Appendix F.
Table 3.6 Ratings of pumps in IIT-B
Serial Motor Electrical Flow rates
no capacity loading in m3 / hour
1 160 HP 0.71 308.7
2 75 HP (new) 0.68 227.67
3 75 HP (old) 0.70 212.23
4 60 HP 0.89 208.37
5 30 HP - 1 0.94 92.61
6 30 HP – 2 0.94 92.61

21
Fig. 3.5 Connection diagram of Main Pumping Station

.
The water storage tanks in the campus are as shown in Table 3.7 and the total storage
capacity is about three times the average daily water consumption of the campus.
Table 3.7 Capacity of water storage tanks
No. Tank Capacity ( m3)
1 Tank 1 500
2 Tank 2 500
3 Overhead 900

22
3.6 Energy usage in hostel kitchens

Each of the hostels in the campus is equipped with a kitchen, except hostel 7, where it
is under re-construction. The staff canteen in the campus is also having an associated kitchen.
The connected load and LPG usage pattern in these hostels is shown below.
Table 3.8 Details of energy consumption and food wastage in hostel kitchens and staff
canteen
Connected Electrical LPG Usage Food Wastage
No Kitchen
Load (kW) per day (kg) per day (kg)
1 H1 11.49 67 20
2 H2 8.5 57 20
3 H3 6.58 43 20
4 H4 7.75 50 20
5 H5 10.7 36 25
6 H6 10.9 50 20
7 H8 10.7 43 20
8 H9 10 57 20
9 H 10 5.3 28 10
10 H 11 10.7 50 15
11 H 12 & 13 10.7 133 128
12 Staff Canteen 3.2 57 10
Total 106.5 671 328

Assuming the calorific value of LPG as 46.4 MJ/kg, the daily energy consumption in
LPG is 31 GJ. Thus the major energy consumption is from LPG only. LPG consumed per
student in different hostel kitchens is as shown below.

Fig. 3.6 Per capita per day consumption of energy (as LPG) for different hostels (red line
indicates Institute average)

23
3.7 Central air conditioning for library
The system has a rating of 110 ton refrigeration capacity and mostly operates at part
load. It has been discussed in Appendix I. The savings could not be quantified due to
difficulties in taking measurements. However, considerable potential for energy savings may
exist as the efficiency of the system will be lower at part loads.

24
4. MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED

Data obtained based on measurements are included in this chapter.

4.1 Room air conditioners

A commercially available energy saver for room ACs was procured * and measurements
were carried out for over 60 hrs, with and without the saver, for a typical 1.5 ton Voltas Vertis
AC in the DESE Urja Computational Lab from 7th- 12th May, 2008.

2500

2000
Power (watts)

1500

1000

500

0
900 1100 1300 1500 1700
Time (hrs.)

Fig. 4.1 AC Load curve for the day without the energy saver for ACs (on 12th May, 2008)

2500

2000
power (watts)

1500

1000

500

0
900 1100 1300 1500 1700
Time (hrs.)

Fig. 4.2 AC Load curve for the day with the energy saver for ACs (on 7th May, 2008)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* The Aircosaver was procured from M/s Ecopower Ltd., Mumbai. These measurements are purely
from a study point of view and are applicable only in the specific context. They should not be
construed as an endorsement of the merits or deficiencies of the said product(s) by IIT-Bombay.

25
Table 4.1 Energy savings achieved by installation of energy saver for a 1.5 ton AC

Time hrs. Energy consumed without Energy consumed with saver % savings
saver (in Watt hrs.) installed(in Watt hrs.)
1000-1110 2532 1368 46
1140-1230 1886 1086 42.4
1250-1310 372 334 10.2
1340-1430 1900 1050 44.7
1530-1650 1650 1544 41.7
Whole working 14880 8887 40.3
day (7.5 hrs)
Thus savings of the order of 35-40% was seen when the energy saver was fitted with
some deterioration in comfort conditions. It can be inferred that the apparatus provides better
savings when used for oversized ACs with a higher duty cycle.

4.2 Lighting and fan loads


The energy consumption of FTLs (Fluorescent Tube Lights) which are commonly used
in the campus is shown below. The energy consumption of the FTLs used in hostels is found to
be high compared to 28W T5 FTL.
4.2.1 Lighting in Hostels

Table 4.2 Measurements for lighting in hostels


FTL with Electronic Ballast [Room
No.48, H5 (3rd April 2008)
V(volts) I(Amp) P(W) P.F.
226.5 0.54 38 0.522 FTL with Magnetic choke [Room No.
49,H5](3rd April 2008)
V(volts) I(Amp) P(W) P.F.
224.3 0.532 42.5 0.5813

Few of the lux measurements taken in the campus are as shown below.

Hostels Hostel 5 Hostel 3


Room No #52-FTL #48-FTL #49-FTL #49-14W CFL #289
Day without Fl.
lamp 85 31 38 87
Day with Fl. lamp 170 133 150.6 64 107
Night 75 95 105 52 78
Study Table 70 31 55 10 98

The lux levels are found to be far less than the standard values in hostel rooms.

26
4.2.2 Lux meter Readings for Departments:
Table 4.3: Lux meter readings for departments
Mechanical Engg.
location With daylight+lights Only daylight Only lights
Nuclear Engg Lab 180,162 110,120 135
Refrigeration lab 183,156 120 155
Metal Forming lab 119,104 44,32,22 101
Testing of material 91,87,61 90
Robotics Lab 112,126 30 100
Fracture Mechanics 119,130 31 102
CAM 481,400 220,120 395,400
Room no. 303 134,113 78
323 188 128
301 193
CFDL 198 65
IEOR 178 62
308 193 80
309 193 82
311 144,136 88
201 150 81
202 136 79
217 136 77
104 122 65
Electrical Engg.
Machine Lab: 185,180,170 110,105 140,150
Field computation lab: 210,200 150,155 170,175
Power electronics research lab 190,185,180 130,140 155
power electronics hardware 200,210,195 65,120 140,160
lab
power system computation lab 250,225 105,110 170,180
Micro electronics lab 360,400 110,105 220,200
Gaitonde Building:
R-001 340,300 127,120 221
R-002 350 180 282,234
Library 436,446 250,285 379,300

27
4.2.3 General Lighting
Table 4.4: Lux level measurements for common area lighting

Here:
Average Horizontal Illumination- AH
Variation in Horizontal Illumination- VH
Average Vertical Illumination- AV

4.2.4 Fans
From the power consumption of ceiling fans with resistance and electromagnetic
regulators, it was seen that the latter consumes less power at lower speeds of the fan.
Table 4.5 Sample measurements on fans in hostels
Sample reading [Room No 49, H5]
(4th April 2008)

Ceiling Fan Resistance regulator


FanSpeed V(volts) I(Amp) P(W) P.F.
1 224.7 0.43 41 0.791
2 225.6 0.43 56 0.9
3 223.81 0.453 63 0.956
4 223.4 0.45 66 0.984
ON 223.3 0.452 70 0.996

Sample Reading [H5 Mess] (4th April 2008)


Electronic Regulator
Ceiling Fan
Fan Tab V(volts) I(Amp) P(W) P.F.
1 233.7 0.26 13 0.385
2 233.6 0.396 37 0.66
3 233.7 0.382 49 0.815
ON 233.18 0.405 68 0.997

28
4.3 Energy consumption in Hostels: Wash Room & Geysers

The power consumption of H5 wash room for 5 hours is shown in Fig. 4.3. The
measurements were taken at 15 minute intervals.

Fig. 4.3 Power consumption in H5 washroom for 5 hrs. on 5th April 2008

The typical power consumption of geysers installed in Hostel 5 is shown below in Fig. 4.4.

Fig. 4.4 Power consumption of 2 kW Bajaj geyser in Hostel 5 on 6th April 2008

29
4.4 Computers & Printers

The power consumption by the computer and printer under different modes of
operation are shown below.
Table 4.6: Measured power consumption for computers and printers in different
operating modes
Mode of Power
S No System Equipment Power (W)
Operation factor
1 LCD Monitor On 29.8 0.596
2 Jwala CPU On 56.0 0.620
Monitor &
3 Jwala On 105.5 0.650
CPU
4 Vayu CPU On 60.0 0.650
5 Prithvi Monitor On 53.4 0.620
6 Urja CPU On 48.0 0.560
7 Urja System Hibernate 2.5 0.200
8 Urja Monitor On 55.0 0.634
9 Urja System Sleep Mode 3.0 0.225
10 - Laser Printer On 3.0 0.360

4.5 Pumping

The power consumption and efficiency of the pumps used in the campus are as shown below.
4.5.1 Pumps for Department and Residential complexes
Table 4.7: Details of pumps for departments and residential complexes
Electrical Power
Hydraulic Power Overall system
Pump Consumption
(kW) Efficiency
(kW)
160HP 37.0 78.6 0.47
75HP NEW 24.3 37.7 0.65
75HP OLD 22.2 38.6 0.58
60HP 21.7 33.2 0.65

30
Fig. 4.5 Efficiency-discharge for various pumps at Main Pump House

It is observed that the 75HP (new) pump set is giving the best performance among all, since it
has high discharge as well as high efficiency.

4.5.2 Hostel Pumps


Table 4.8 Details of pumps in some hostels
Overall
Hydraulic Electrical Power
Pump system
Power Consumption
Efficiency
30HP 13.5 21.2 0.64
30HP 13.5 21.2 0.64

31
5. BENCHMARKING

Energy benchmarking involves the development of quantitative and qualitative


indicators through the collection and analysis of energy-related data and energy management
practices. Benchmarking in simplistic terms is the process of comparing the performance of a
given process with that of the best possible process and to try to improve the standard of the
process to improve quality of the system, product, services etc. It allows organizations to
develop plans on how to adopt such best practices, usually with the aim of increasing some
aspect of performance. Benchmarking may be a one-off event, but is often treated as a
continuous process in which organizations continually seek to challenge their practices.
Benchmarking is a method which should be used on a continual basis as best practices are
always evolving.

Benchmarking of energy consumption is a powerful tool for performance assessment


and logical evolution of avenues for improvement. Historical data, well documented, helps to
bring out energy consumption and cost trends month-wise / daily. Trend analysis of energy
consumption, cost, relevant production features, specific energy consumption, help to
understand effects of capacity utilization on energy use efficiency and costs on a broader scale.
The basis for benchmarking the energy consumption at IIT-B is energy consumed per person
(includes teaching staff and students). The benchmarking parameters here are,

• Departmental energy performance


• kWh consumed per sq.m of area and
• kWh consumed per capita

5.1 Departmental energy performance


The details of the annual energy consumption in various departments are as shown here
in Fig. 5.1.

32
1400000

1200000

1000000
kWh energy consumption

800000

600000

400000

200000

y
l

s
es

il

s
y

M
e

E
c.

al

.
g.

es
try

ca

Sc
iv
ic

lit
c
rg

ac

SR

ES
ID
rs

ic

SO
ng

si
nc

iti
is

bi
at
ni

lu
m

sp

rth
an
m
te

lE

ia
C
ha

C
ie

al

Ph
he

M
ro
he
pu

el
Sc

he

um

Ea
et
ca

ec

SJ
C

R
Ae
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om

at
tri

H
o

M
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ec
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El

departments

Fig. 5.1 Total annual energy consumption of different departments in 2007

5.2 Per unit area energy consumption


The energy consumption per sq. m for each department is determined and it is
normalized with respect to average value of per sq. m energy consumption of the institute,
which was set as the basis. For normalizing, the Institute average of 75 kWh/sq.m./year is
taken as the denominator.
The results are shown in Fig. 5.2.

33
Fig. 5.2 Normalized per unit area energy consumption (kWh/sq.m/year) for departments

From the above graph it can be observed that Chemistry, KReSIT, Electrical,
Mathematics, Mechanical and Bioscience departments are above the base line of per sq. m
energy consumption as their values are greater than one.

5.3 Per capita energy consumption for departments


The per capita (student + faculty) consumption for each department is determined and it
is normalized with respect to the average value of the per capita consumption for the institute.
Basis for 2007: 1384 kWh/person/year.
From the graph (Fig. 5.3) it can be observed that Chemistry, KReSIT, IDC,
Mathematics, Bio-science, CSRE are above the base line of the per capita consumption as their
values are greater than one.

34
Fig. 5.3 Normalized per capita electrical energy consumption (kWh/person/yr.) for
departments

5.4 Per capita electrical energy consumption in hostels


The general trend of electricity consumption in the hostels for last three years is as
shown below in Fig. 5.4.
The average tariff for the hostels is about Rs. 5.13 per kWh ** of electrical energy
consumed. For the year 2007, the average electricity cost for hostels on per student basis is
calculated to be Rs. 4,300 per annum. The actual amount paid by the students during 2007-08
as the fee contribution (electricity, fan and water charges) was Rs. 600 per annum. This amount
has since been raised by Rs. 2000 and so the subsidy has been eliminated.

** Please refer to Appendix H for the hostel bills. There seems to be some discrepancy in the way the
Electrical Maintenance Section calculates the amounts as hostels should come under residential tariff
which is Rs. 2.6 per kWh (basic charge).

35
A graph showing the present institute subsidy and the student fee contribution to the
annual hostel electricity bills in 2007 is shown below (Fig. 5.5). The institute subsidy is to the
extent of 85% of the bills. So, any savings achieved in the hostel bills is directly beneficial to
the institute and can be used for other works.

Electricity consumption in hostels (2005-2007)

800000

700000

600000
units of electricity consumed

500000

2005
400000 2006
2007

300000

200000

100000

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
hostel no.

Fig. 5.4: Annual electricity consumption in hostels over the years 2005-2007

36
electricty bill in hostels: student and institute contributions

4000000

3500000

3000000
annual amount paid in Rs.

2500000

institute subsidy
2000000
student fee contribution

1500000

1000000

500000

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
hostel no.

Fig. 5.5: Annual electricity bills for hostels: student and institute contributions
during the year 2007
5.5 ECBC Standards and comparison
As per the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) – 2006, published by the
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Govt. of India, the recommended levels of lighting power
density are as given below in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1: ECBC recommended levels for lighting power density
Space/ application Lighting power density in W/sq.m.
Enclosed offices 11.8
Offices-open plan 11.8
Conferences/meeting rooms/ multipurpose 14.0
Classrooms/ lecture theatres 15.1
Lounge 12.9
Dining area 09.7
Food preparation 12.9
Library stacks 18.3
Library reading area 12.9
Workshops 15.1
Cafeteria 15.1

37
The measured values for locations at IIT-Bombay are as follows.
Table 5.2 Measured values of lighting power density at select locations in IIT-
Bombay
Space/ application Lighting power density in W/sq.m.
Main Building office 07.8
Conference room 14.8
Classrooms in Main Building 13.5
Library reading area 07.3
Hostel Lounge (Hostel 5) 08.1
Hostel mess (Hostel 13) 07.6
Hostel mess (Hostel 5) 10.7
Staff Canteen 05.2
Hostel rooms (Hostel 13, Room B 108) 04.5
Hostel rooms (Hostel 5, Room 52) 05.6
Hostel rooms (Hostel 5, Room 49) 03.8

It can be seen that the lighting power density values in the Institute are not higher than
the ECBC standards.

38
6. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND EFFICIENCY

6.1 Implementation Measures

Energy Savings in Capital Simple Pay


No Recommended Measure savings Rs. Per Investment Back
per year year in Rs Period
Replacing Electromagnetic ballast by Electronic
1 ballast in FTL in study room and using 18W 7400 kWh 38,000 10,000 4 months
CFLs in staff canteen
Replacing Electromagnetic FTLs by T5 in 6,95,500
2 34.8 lakhs 63 lakhs 19 months
Departments (10500 Fittings) kWh
Replacing common area lighting in departments 1,18,800
3 2.7 lakhs 4.32 lakhs 17 months
with T5 FTL /CFL kWh
Replacing 1970 FTLs used in student rooms in 1,11,000
4 5.4.lakhs 2.56 lakhs 6 months
H1 to H7 with 28W ballast FTLs. kWh
Replacing rheostatic speed regulators of 1950
59,300
5 fans in the student rooms (H1 to H7) with 2.8 lakhs 2.7 lakhs 1 year
kWh
electronic speed regulators
Replacing 1700 FTLs used in student rooms in 72,100
6 3.4 lakhs 3.4 lakhs 1 year
H8 to H11 with 28W ballast FTLs. kWh
Replacing rheostatic speed regulators of 1045
15,600
7 fans in the student rooms (H8 to H11) with 79,300 1.57 lakhs 2 years
kWh
electronic speed regulator
Installing solar water heaters in all hostels [For 10,35,000
8 49.68 lakhs 182 lakhs 3.7 years
calculations, refer Appendix D] kWh
15,700
9 Solar Water Heater for Guest Houses 80,000 2.6 lakhs 3.3 years
kWh
1825 LPG
(a)NISARGUNA biogas plant for food waste
cylinders of
processing (300 kg capacity) 6.41akhs 6.54 lakhs 13 months
14.2 kg
10 OR

900 LPG
(b)ARTI biogas plant for food waste
cylinders of 3.1 lakhs 95,000 4 months
processing(300 kg capacity)
14.2 kg
11 Installing 200 Aircon savers for 1.5 Ton ACs with 4,38,000 21.9 lakhs 13 lakhs 8 months

39
a higher duty cycle (> 8 hrs./day) kWh
If 300 AC users can be made to switch of the ACs 51,300
12 2.5 lakhs nil nil
15 mins. prior to leaving the office. kWh
Adopting a normal energy saving power setting
6,20,000
13 for computers [For calculations, refer Appendix 31.1 lakhs nil nil
kWh
E]
Rescheduling the pump operating pattern [New 50,420
14 2.42 lakhs nil nil
pattern is given in Appendix F] kWh
Replacing faulty non-return valves of pumps,
49,100
15 replacing 75 hp motors with 55 hp and 160 hp 2.4 lakhs 1 lakh 4 months
kWh
motor with 90 hp motor
Replacing 160HP motors with an energy efficient
1,07,300
16 55 kW motor and changing its piping with 5.3 lakhs 23 lakhs 4 .2 years
kWh
diameter of 250 mm.
34,46,500
kWh and
Total savings 1825 / 900 1.75 crores 3.05 crores 1.7 years
LPG
cylinders

Implementation of all the above measures can bring about a total saving of around Rs.
1.75 crores per year, i.e. 17% of the present electricity bill. The total investment required
would be to the extent of Rs. 3.05 crores and an average simple payback period of around
1.75 years.
In addition to the above, a set of general recommendations is provided in Appendix
G.

6.2 Energy Management Structure


In order to streamline the use of energy in the IIT-B campus and to ensure its efficient
utilization, we propose three possible energy management structures. A final decision on
the type of energy management structure suitable for the institute should be taken by the
Institute management.

40
I. Appointment of an Energy Manager for the institute, with suitable experience and a
proven track record. The person shall be responsible for the day to day energy
conservation activities. New staff should be allotted to the Energy Manager or some
staff members from Electrical Maintenance Section be made responsible to him/her.
An annual review of the energy performance of the institute is to be performed and
a certain percentage of the quantified savings be shared with the Energy Manager.
II. The Executive Engineer (Electrical) should himself take over the responsibility of
ensuring efficient energy use on the campus. This will ensure prompt
implementation of measures. This system may also require additional staff. A
performance related incentive in the form of a bonus can be provided to the
Electrical Maintenance staff based on savings achieved.
III. Formation of an Institute level committee headed by the Dy. Director to review the
implementation of energy conservation measures. All departments and section
heads should submit a bi-annual report of compliance for review and action.
Sections/ departments not achieving savings to be penalized and suitable incentives
may be given to the performing departments.

An annual review of the implementation of the energy saving measures should be taken up
and performance should be monitored. A report of the same should be sent to the Director.
Electrical energy consumption should be made a subject in the Institute budget with
separate heads for departments and hostels. Energy performance can be a basis for providing
incentives to hostels and departments.

41
APPENDIX A
LIST OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS USED

1. Power analyzer (measures active, reactive, apparent power, power factor, energy
consumed)
2. Lux meters (to measure lighting levels in lux or lumens per sq.m.)
3. Thermometers –digital
4. Thermocouples

42
APPENDIX B
DISTRIBUTION OF ROOM ACs
The distribution of the room air conditioners by type and utilization location is as
shown below in Fig. B.1 and B.2 respectively.

29%

window

split

71%

Fig. B.1: Distribution of room air conditioners by type

24%

labs

rooms

offices

57%

19%

Fig. B.2: Distribution of room air conditioners by utilization areas

43
APPENDIX C
BEE THUMB RULES FOR AIR CONDITIONING LOADS
The recommended levels for comfort air conditioning loads as per the BEE (Bureau of
Energy Efficiency) thumb rules are as given below in Table C.1.

Table C.1: BEE thumb rules for comfort AC loads


Type of office Heat load in ton rating per sq.m.
Small office cabins 0.10
Medium size offices (seating 10-30 people) 0.06
Large multi-storied office buildings with 0.04
centralized air conditioning

44
APPENDIX D
CALCULATIONS FOR SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEMS (SWHS)
FOR HOSTELS
A sample calculation for the storage tank volume, collector area requirement and
payback period for the hostel no. 5 has been done below.
Total no. of hot water users in hostel = 329
Assume that amount of hot water used per student = 20 litres / day.
Total amount of water used per day in the hostel = 6580 litres.
Now typically 2 m2 of collector gives 125 Litres per day of hot water output at 60 °C
Normal tolerable hot water temperature by measurement we found to be 40 °C.
However, assuming that the end user consumes hot water at 60 °C (since piping losses are also
involved) the collector area required for the hostel is 106 m2.
The option is either to go for forced circulation or natural circulation. Forced circulation
requires various accessories and proper control of the pump. Hence selecting natural
circulation system and considering three wings in hostel, the collector area required on each
wing is 37 m2.
Cost of collector = Rs. 10,000 / m2.
Total capital cost required for installation of solar water heater in the hostel = 10,000*106
= Rs 10,60,000
The total energy consumption in the hostel considering 12 hours of geyser operation is found to
be 6*1.5*12=108 kWh/day
Total energy consumption in a year = 27,000 kWh (assuming 250 days operation)
Assuming the cost of electricity as Rs. 4.8 / kWh,
Total electricity bill due to geysers in the hostel = 27000*4.8
= Rs. 1, 29,600 /-
Simple Payback period (SPP) = (capital cost of SWHS / Electricity bill per year)
= 8 years.
This is a bit on the higher side due to the lower number of geysers in Hostel 5.

45
The same calculations are done for each hostel in which, capital required and payback
period are calculated and are listed below.
Table D.1: Calculations for SWHS in hostels
Sr. Hostel Numbers Energy Energy No. of Water Collector Cost of SPP in
no. of consumed Cost students requirement Area reqd. collectors years
geysers (kWh) (Rs.) per day
1 H-1 9 40500 202500 315 6300 100.8 1008000 5
2 H-2 12 54000 270000 396 7920 126.72 1267200 4.7
3 H-3 12 54000 270000 414 8280 132.48 1324800 5
4 H-4 12 54000 270000 512 10240 163.84 1638400 6
5 H-5 6 27000 135000 329 6580 105.28 1052800 8
6 H-6 8 36000 180000 432 8640 138.24 1382400 7.6
7 H-7 18 81000 405000 279 5580 89.28 892800 2
8 H-8 8 36000 180000 416 8320 133.12 1331200 7
9 H-9 18 81000 405000 485 9700 155.2 1552000 3.8
10 H-10 18 81000 405000 437 8740 139.84 1398400 3.5
11 H-11 21 94500 472500 430 8600 137.6 1376000 2.9
12 H-12 36 162000 810000 514 10280 164.48 1644800 2
13 H-13 36 162000 810000 530 10600 169.6 1696000 2.1
14 Tansa 16 72000 360000 200 4000 64 640000 1.8

Comments:
1. The pay back periods of the hostels are found to be in between 1.8 to 8 years.
2. The discrepancy in the payback period can be attributed to the variation in no. of
students per geyser as reported earlier.
3. Solar heater option is looking quite attractive but, some efforts are needed for
synchronization of output of solar heater system and geyser.
4. Natural circulation system is recommended.

46
APPENDIX E
CALCULATIONS FOR POWER SAVINGS IN COMPUTERS

Formula used:
Total energy consumed for each setting
= No of computers x Duty cycle x 24 x Average power x No of operating days in a year.

The table below shows the existing settings for monitors on the campus. There are 1992
CRT monitors and 963 LCD screens. The CRT monitor consumes 66 W and LCD monitors
consume 30 W. We have assumed 6.5 hrs of monitor ON (i.e. in use) and 17.5 hrs when it is
not being used and 300 days operation in a year.

Table E.1 Present annual energy consumption for computer monitors on campus
Percentage of
Turn off existing Energy Consumed
S No Monitor monitors (kWh)
1 Never 16 184737
2 20 min 54 181551
3 30 min 16 55053
4 40 min 14 49274

In addition, the CPUs consume 40 W. Using a similar assumption as given above, the
annual energy consumption is as tabulated in Table E.2.

Table E.2: Present annual energy consumption for CPUs


Energy Consumed
S No System Standby Percentage (kWh)
1 Never 83 706363
2 10 min 17 45255

Now, using the recommended settings for all the computers, the energy consumption
would be as per Table E.3.

47
Table E.3: Annual energy consumption for all computers with recommended power
settings
Turn off Energy Consumed
Item Monitor Percentage (kWh)
Monitors 10 min 100 328796
CPUs 20 min 100 271455

The annual energy savings thus obtained is about 6, 20,000 kWh, i.e. about Rs.31.1
lakhs (assuming Rs. 5 per kWh).

48
APPENDIX F
OPERATING SCHEDULE OF PUMPS AT MAIN PUMP HOUSE
160 HP:
This pump is operated in the peak hours, when water is required the most. On the
whole, this pump operates for 8 hrs every day.
75 HP AND 60 HP PUMPS:
The two 75 hp and the 60 hp pump are set into operation for four hours alternatively.
30 HP PUMPS
The 30 hp pumps are in operation from 0500 to 0100 hours everyday. Hence, the
pumps are in operation for 20 hours in a day and each pumps alternatively works for 4
hrs. There fore, each of these pumps is on for ten hours in a day.
The prevailing operating schedule and a new proposed schedule are shown in Fig. F.1.

Fig. F.1: Comparison of the existing and proposed loading of pumps at Main Pump
House

49
An annual saving of Rs. 2.42 Lakhs can be achieved using the modified schedule.
In order for this proposal to work, the pumps at various buildings have to run after 22:00 hrs so
that the water demand is lowered during peak hours. This will also bring in savings due to time
of usage tariff for those smaller pumps.

50
APPENDIX G
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

In addition to the recommendations given in section 6.1, a few more general ones are
presented here. The savings due to their implementation could not be easily quantified, but
their importance cannot be understated. Implementing all these measures, a total saving of
20-25% can be achieved without compromising much on the existing facilities and comforts.

G.1 Lighting
• Photo sensors to be installed in central library to utilize optimum day lighting. A
scheme for the same has been proposed here.
Proposed areas:
1) Central Library Ground Floor Reading room near window:
Currently 10 FTL are controlled with one switch. Since it is near to window, sufficient
day lighting is available. So if we use photo sensor to control this lights we can reduce
the duty cycle and energy consumption.
2) Central Library G Floor Reference section near window:
Presently 5 FTL are controlled with one switch. By slight modification in the circuit we
can use photo sensor to control 5 lamps.
3) Second Floor Journal reading room near window:
Presently 5 FTL are controlled with one switch .photo sensor can be installed to control
lights in the alternate row.
• Currently, approximately 50% of the street lights are controlled by timers. It is
recommended that all the lights be taken under this control scheme to reduce chances of
over-usage due to human error.
• The existing split switching system to be further enhanced/improved in inside corridors
of Hostels 12 and 13
• Hostels 12 and 13: Natural lighting can be considered for corridors.
• Split switching: In the internal corridors of H13, the present arrangement is that
alternate lights are clubbed together in one switch. Yet, the distance of them is 7 m and
seems to be too close to each other. As such the tubes are at a distance of approx 3.5 m

51
So, the split switching may be such that far off ie., may be the first and fourth tubes
may be included in one switch. Alternatively, the alternate tubes may be removed
form the installation.

G.2 Geysers
• It is advisable to have manual switching of the geyser in peak periods, as most of the
geysers were ON for 24 hours.

G.3 Room Air Conditioners


• It was found that in many cases, the utility type of the area has changed and the AC
may no longer be required there. This can save expenses on procurement of new ACs.
• Proper maintenance of ACs is not being done. Many of the older ACs could be
replaced. About 20-22 % of all installed ACs suffer from some or the other defect. In a
large number of cases, the filters were found to be dirty (3%), thermostats not working
(7%), ice formation/ water leakage (1%), rusting (3%), fans not working (4%), swing
problems (3%) etc. were observed.
• The heating load can also be reduced by reducing the consumption by other sources
like lights, computers etc. and the occupancy needs to be considered. Explore the
possibility of occupancy sensors.

G.4 Pumping
• Rescheduling of small pumps at individual buildings to late night timings
• Installation of water meters at every building to make sub-sections inside IIT
accountable to the water being used.

52
APPENDIX H
SUMMARY OF HOSTEL ELECTRICITY BILLS
Table H.1 Hostels electricity consumption during 2007 and amounts paid in rupees
Mon Hostel 1 Hostel 2 Hostel 3 Hostel 4 Hostel 5 Hostel 6 Hostel 7
th Units Amount Units Amount Units Amount Units Amount Units Amount Units Amount Units Amount
Jan 21223 95003 22591 101114 30025 134326 33277 149254 23106 103415 26613 119083 30576 1369897
Feb 22235 129776 23398 136558 34762 202827 37734 220558 27064 157936 29601 172730 38112 222562
Mar 20342 117234 18116 104418 31399 180895 34536 199356 25474 146782 28106 161935 33209 191516
Apr 23221 113851 16676 81803 37105 181834 40468 199773 29364 143930 29013 142211 41076 201478
May 19745 111762 12775 72350 18700 105834 25127 142594 18382 104055 28391 160651 22057 125035
Jun 22330 108491 5608 27364 23816 115700 26274 128025 21161 102819 27932 135669 24575 119582
Jul 23312 99835 9162 39351 17698 75838 24408 104920 18123 77654 27042 115779 21256 91246
Aug 25260 134141 33606 178421 29356 155872 35810 190514 26145 138836 28896 153432 35164 186887
Sep 26122 129655 30638 152046 32337 160469 36879 183389 27519 136582 26828 133156 39668 197076
Oct 23960 127205 10692 56838 31343 166360 35859 190711 26597 141190 29354 155812 27385 145569
Nov 22526 113905 24830 125540 28529 144220 34212 173319 26512 134034 27757 140321 20736 105065
Dec 18968 91793 21638 104692 19977 96668 25633 124392 16489 79817 20912 101185 14259 69244

Hostel 8 Hostel 9 Hostel 10 Hostel 11 Hostel 12 Hostel 13


Month Units Amount Units Amount Units Amount Units Amount Units Amount Units Amount
Jan 27600 123692 17047 76347 15541 69594 22078 98798 49154 220385 57995 259882
Feb 31340 183071 20005 116771 17396 101532 24913 145367 48990 286397 62446 364866
Mar 28618 165083 18377 105921 16743 96488 23452 135115 46299 261282 56947 328587
Apr 32763 160773 22407 109865 20953 102721 27094 132790 55314 271594 71551 351099
May 21673 122864 12862 72842 11794 66778 21508 121706 47395 268709 44981 255059
Jun 22937 111635 13522 65759 12311 59858 25485 123772 43894 213708 40381 202017
Jul 21100 90580 12703 54487 10893 46725 24512 104939 47526 203938 38988 167442
Aug 30652 162948 20537 109083 18428 97869 26287 139565 47412 252268 55301 294123
Sep 32832 163124 22403 111217 19772 98147 27214 135044 46705 232306 57864 287632
Oct 31034 164922 20986 111432 18254 96918 27505 145981 47757 254012 58700 312048
Nov 30005 151874 21621 109334 17647 89241 22391 113198 40644 206001 49809 252284
Dec 21684 105114 14340 69435 11227 54371 19690 95256 41432 200917 41534 201410

53
APPENDIX I
DETAILS OF LIBRARY CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING
The schematic is as shown in the following figure.

Fig. I.1: Schematic of central air conditioning system for library


The refrigerant used is R-22 and water. The total rating is 110 tonnes, comprising two
compressors, three condensers (including one on standby) and an air handling unit.
The following procedure is proposed for auditing:
Thermocouples should be installed at each inlet and outlet to measure temperatures.
Install flow meters/pressure gauges to obtain the flow rate of refrigerant, water. Using
temperatures & flow rates obtained, apply energy balance equation for each component.
Identify losses.

54
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND WEBSITES
1. S.P. Sukhatme, Solar Energy, Tata McGraw Hill Publ., New Delhi, 1996.
2. L.C.Witte, P.S.Schmidt, D.R.Brown, Industrial Energy Management and Utilisation,
Hemisphere Publ, Washington, 1988.
3. W.C.Turner, Energy Management Handbook, Wiley, New York, 1982.
4. Guide Books for the National Certificate Examination for Energy Managers and Energy
Auditors (set of four books, available at
http://www.energymanagertraining.com/new_course.php)
5. J.C. Andreas, Energy Efficient Motors, Marcel Dekker Publ., New York, 1992.
6. Nisarguna Biogas Plant by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, details available at
www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/technologies/kitchen/kitchen_br
7. Compact biogas plant by Appropriate Rural Technology Institute, Pune, details
available at http://www.arti-india.org/content/view/46/43/
8. US Government’s Energy Star page for fluorescent bulbs,
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm
9. Explanatory video on various types of lamps, www.commoncraft.com/cfl
10. Typical lumen outputs and energy costs for outdoor lighting,
www.nofs.navy.mil/about_NoFs/staff/cbl/lumentab.html
11. General Electric and lighting products,
www.gelighting.com/na/home_lighting/products/energy_smart
12. Information on energy saver for room air conditioners, www.aircosaver.com
13. Official website of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Govt. of India, www.bee-
india.nic.in
14. Detailed information and case studies on energy audits,
www.energymanagertraining.com
15. www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_audit
16. Website of the Ministry of Power, http://powermin.nic.in/distribution/energy_audit
17. The Energy Conservation Act, 2001,
http://powermin.nic.in/acts_notification/energy_conservation_act/index.htm

55
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to the following persons for the support
and cooperation they rendered during the course of this energy audit.

• The Dean and Associate Dean (Planning) and other Institute functionaries
• Mr. B.K. Sahoo (Executive Engineer), Ms. Y. Naik, Mr. Yadav, Mr. Mohandas, Mr.
Adhare, Mr. Kishor Mali and other staff members of Electrical Maintenance Section
• Prof. B.G. Fernandes, Prof. K. Chatterjee (Dept. of Electrical Engg.), Prof. C.S. Solanki
(Energy Science) and Prof. Anand B. Rao (CTARA)
• Mr. K.G. Kale, Mr. Kharte, Mr. Ajay, Mr. V. Chaudhari (all of DESE)
• Mr. Sawant and other staff members (Estate Maintenance Section)

56

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