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Skills Requirements of Manpower Agency for Local and

International Employment: An Assessment

CHAPTER 1

Problem and its Background

Introduction

Skill is an ability and capacity acquired through

deliberate, systematic and sustained effort to smoothly and

adoptively carry out complex activities or job functions

involving cognitive skills, technical skills, and/or

interpersonal skill. And also skills performance, it really

develops them.

A strong desire to work on a cruise ship, then it’s a

good idea to think carefully about which positions on board

that would be ideal for. There are certain types of jobs that

do require specific qualifications and skills. All jobs on

board require a high level of customer service skills, tact

and diplomacy, the ability to deal with difficult situations

and complaints, the ability to work under pressure, a

methodical approach to work and attention to detail.

When applying for a cruise ship, Cruise employers,

consider the age. Although the most cruise line and agencies

will tell their applicants that the minimum age to work on


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board ship is 21, there are crew members that have been able

to get hired at the age of 18, 19 and 20. For the most part

it depends on which department that you will work for. But

for positions within the Food and Beverage and within the

Casino Department this is mainly due the minimum age to serve

alcoholic drinks and to gamble. It has been known that cruise

line make exceptions for some applicants for some applicants

in select departments base on maturity and responsibility.

It is also important that the applicant has a working

knowledge skill in English language. As it is the language

used by major cruise lines, as well as their passengers. This

is especially important for guest relations positions. Work

on social skills, it is important to be trustworthy friendly

and personable. Building relationships is an important aspect

of the job.

Mostly certain on-shore experience for a related job and

working with a public is always requiring. The most common

background experience is in the Hospitality Industry.

Restaurants and hotel are perfect for learning customer

service and guest experience. They are expected to

demonstrate commendable human resources skills where they can

be effective communicator, team player and leader through

professionalism with the blend of practice and hands on

experience.
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Most people fail to land work on cruise ships not because

of their lack of experience but because of their lack of know-

how. Make sure that the job and position is best suited to

your abilities and skills and most importantly of all, is

learning the knack of selling yourself. Knowing how to do it

correctly and easily land ypu the job you desire.

The researchers have chosen this study because the

skills requirements have a huge relevance on our course. This

study helps to understand and value the much needed skill in

the industry.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework which guided the research of

this study is shown in Figure 1.

The conceptual model illustrated in figure 1, presents

the input, process, and output.

The Input (I) consist of reading books, journals, and

internet, skills requirements of accredited manpower

recruitment agencies for International Cruise Line and the

problems encountered

The Process (P) of the data gathering survey

questionnaire, statistical treatment of data and analysis and

interpretation of data in textual and tabular form.


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The Output (O) of the study is highly required skills of

accredited manpower agency for International Cruise Line.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


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INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


o Survey on the Gathering of data
skills through
requirements of
accredited o Survey
manpower questionnaire
Highly required
recruitment skills of
agency for manpower agency
International o statistical for International
Cruise line. treatment of Cruise Line
data
o Problems
encountered by
the respondents o Analysis and
interpretatio
ZZ n of data in
textual and
tabular form.

Feedback

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the study

Statement of the Problem


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This study aimed to assess the skills requirements of

manpower agency for International Cruise Line. It seeks to

answer the following problems:

1. What are the skills requirements of the accredited

manpower recruitment agency for employment?

2. How do the respondent assess the skills requirements of

manpower recruitment agency for employment in terms of:

2.1 Food and Beverage

2.2 Housekeeping?

3. Is there a significant difference on the skills

requirements of the accredited manpower recruitment agency

for employment as to the aforementioned variables?

4. What are the problems encountered by the respondents on

the skills requirements of accredited manpower recruitment

agency for employment?

Hypothesis
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The researchers hypothesized that there is no

significant difference on the assessment of the respondents

as to skills requirements of accredited manpower recruitment

agency for employment as to the aforementioned variables.

Scope and Limitation

The study is limited to the following scope:

This study focused on the Skills Requirements of

Accredited Manpower Recruitment Agency for Employment and the

problems encountered.

The respondent of the study was composed of Employees

and Applicants from C Sharp (25), United Philippine Lines

INC. (28) and Asia World Crew Management INC. (22).

The researchers considered working on this study to find

out if the cruise line students are qualified for the skills

requirements on the job employment on board. The duration of

the study was from June 2016 to March 2017.

Significance of the Study

The following will benefit from the study:


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Researchers To accomplished the requirements in

hospitality research and to be prepared on OJT.

CO OJT Students. This research will help CO students to

identify their shortcomings so they would be able to improve

such weaknesses then turn them to be their strengths.

CO Students. They can use this research as a guideline

or basis when they are going to conduct their own research.

CHM Faculty. It will be used as an alternative reference

for instruction especially on related topics and also in

formulating policies.

Other Researcher. This will supply the or give them

necessary information relevant to their study.

Definition of Terms

The following terms were conceptually and operationally

defined for better understanding of the study.


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Accredited give authority or sanction to when recognized

standards have been met.

(https://www.google.com.ph/Accredited)

Agency is a business that serves as a representative,

acting on behalf of another.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency)

Casino is a facility which houses and accommodates

certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals

in casinos is called the gaming industry.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casino)

Cognitive skills are the core skills your brain uses to

think, read, learn, remember, reason, and pay attention.

(https://www.google.com.ph/ cognitive skill)

Cruise Line is a company that operates cruise ships and

markets cruises to the public Cruise lines are distinct from

passenger lines which are primarily concerned with

transportation of their passengers.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruise_line)

Cruise ship a cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger

ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and

the ship's amenities are a part of the experience, as well as

the different destinations, ports of call, along the way.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruise_ship)
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Customer service is the act of taking care of the

customer’s needs by providing and delivering professional,

helpful, high quality service and assistance before, during,

and after the customer’s requirements are met.

(https://www.google.com.ph/ customer service)

Hospitality Industry is a broad category of fields

within service industry that includes lodging, event

planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and

additional fields within the tourism industry.

(https://www.google.com.ph/ hospitality industry)

Hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on

a short-term basis. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hotel)

Human resources are the people who make up the workforce

of an organization, business sector, or economy.

"Human capital" is sometimes used synonymously with "human

resources", although human capital typically refers to a more

narrow view.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human Resources)

Interpersonal skills are the skills used by a person to

interact with others properly. In the business domain, the

term generally refers to an employee's ability to get along

with others while getting the job done.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human Resources)
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Job is an activity, often regular and performed in

exchange for payment. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job)

Manpower is the number of people working or available

for work or service.

(https://www.google.com.ph/ manpower)

Qualification is a quality or accomplishment that makes

someone suitable for a particular job or activity.

(https://www.google.com.ph/ Qualification)

Requirement is a thing that is needed or wanted.

(https://www.google.com.ph/Requirement)

Restaurant is a business which prepares and serves food

and drinks to customers in exchange for money.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restaurant

Skill is the ability to do something well; expertise.

(https://www.google.com.ph/Skill)

Technical skills are abilities and knowledge needed to

perform specific tasks. They are practical, and often relate

to mechanical, IT, mathematical, or scientific tasks. Some

examples include knowledge of programming languages,

mechanical equipment, or tools.

(https://www.google.com.ph/Technical Skills)

CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies


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Local Literature

This was also underscored in the book of Rey Bould

and Wilkins (2006) which stated that there is a need to ensure

not only educational expectations but also industry

expectations regarding skill sets needed in the workplace.

Though there were several researches that emphasized the need

to meet the employer expectations in terms of skills, there

is still a growing mismatch of workers skills and the need of

the industry that makes the issue more difficult to deal with.

In research by Whitelaw, et al. (2009), they stated that to

reflect the need of the industry, it is important to define

the skills and competencies.

In the article of Aguba (2015) he refers to providing

opportunities to acquire relevant skills through experience.

Hands on activities can be a tool to measure competencies and

outcomes skills development. Since experience is one of the

approaches to hospitality, balance of theory and practice

through experimental learning can be fully utilized.

Practicum internship is an excellence approach to create the

balance.

According to the World Bank (2010) the Skill

Requirements of New Hires beyond formal education and

qualifications, what matters are the actual “functional”

skills that workers possess to be employable and productive?


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The firm skills survey also looked at more direct measures of

skills, such as employers’ assessments workers’ generic and

job specific skills. The 2008 Philippines Skills Survey asked

employers to separately rank the five most important generic

skill and job specific skills for two broad groups of

employees, managers and directors; and production,

administration, and sales as well as the three most important

generic skills and job specific skills for which gaps

(compared with job requirements) were most noticeable.

John Walker (2008) emphasize that once workers know

what to do and how to do they can concentrate on improving

their skills. Improved skills and knowledge, coupled with

goals to be met, encourage people to work more independently.

If a reward system is related to achievement – as it should

be – people will respond with better and better work, Better

and better work means better productivity, better customer

service, more sales, and higher profits.

Morale benefits greatly. People feel secure when they

know what to do and how to do it, and when their work is

judged on the basis of job content and job performance. If

they have participated in developing the objectives, they

have a sense of pride and a commitment to seeing that the


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objectives work. Participation also contributes to their

sense of belonging and their loyalty company.

Foreign Literature

In the book of Gregoire (2013) he defined skills as an

ability that can develop and that is manifested in

performance. Such skill requires specialized knowledge,

analytical ability, and expertise in the use of tools and

procedures. Indicated human skill cannot be a sometime thing.

Such skillfulness must be a natural, continuous activity that

involves being sensitive to the needs and motivations of

others in the organization.

According to Cousins et al. (2014) the hospitality

industry provides many opportunities to learn because of its

complexity and diversity. There are many different sectors,

trends and themes, and there are new developments in training

all the time.

Qualifications show that a person has studied a subject

successfully and a certified is usually awarded as proof of

the qualification. Successfully achieving a qualification

usually involves some sort of assessment, either in the form

of examinations, coursework or observation by an assessor, or

a combination of these things. The assessor decides whether

the student had learned what they were supposed to and whether
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they have performed the skills to the required standard.

Courses without assessment are not viewed very highly by

potential employers

Qualifications inform employers of what you should be

able to do. They indicate to the employer whether have the

skills required to do the job. Qualifications differ all over

the world and it is often difficult to make comparisons

between qualifications in different countries.

In the book of Wood (2013) the argument is that whilst

a small ‘core’ of skilled and committed staff may be managed

using ‘softer’ HRM practices, most staff are poorly paid and

poorly skilled ‘peripheral’ workers.

Hughes (2002) if they are uninterested and untrained,

it is customer satisfaction and ultimately the company’s

bottom-line that will suffer. Some authors argue therefore

that organizational performance would be better if there was

more emphasis on ‘soft’ HRM practices of engaging and training

staff so they become more committed to the organization and

empowered to find ways of delivering better service.

Lashley (2001) where jobs can be simplified and scripted

so they require little training or skill.

Vineet Taing (2014) it is significant to mention that

work experience requires a triangular partnership, and

industry occupies one side of that triangle.


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HCTC (2014) believe that, based on their research,

there is a strong correlation between employers’ satisfaction

with employees and the extent of employees’ qualifications.

Keep concludes by commenting that international competitive

advantage is likely to turn upon the skill, knowledge and

commitment of an enterprise’s employees, and points out that

the economic consequences of a failure to invest in the human

resources “are deemed to be dire”.

Local Studies

The study shows that placing graduates of branded

universities to industry was easy regardless of the knowledge

and skill they acquired. The discrimination happening in the

industry affects different universities.

According to Magbuhos et al. (2014) research the Big

Four Universities; Universities of the Philippines, Ateneo de

Manila University, De La Salle University, University of

Santo Tomas, which had established trademark and well known

to different sectors of the industry are the most prioritized

among other universities. Even if the graduates of an unknown

university are more qualified than those from the Big Four,

the employers will definitely not hire them. Magbuhos et al.

(2014) Asia Pacific of Education Art and Sciences vol. 1 No.

4
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Job and skill mismatch. Due to inadequate employment

opportunities in the formal economy, limited labor market

information and inadequate academic preparation, the mismatch

between jobs and skills compounds the problem of high

unemployment levels among the youth educated.

TESDA (2011),. Based on a survey of the Bureau of Labor

and Employment Statistics (BLES), covering a period of

January 2007 to January 2008 despite unemployment affecting

more than two million Filipinos, employers had difficulty

filling up their vacancies because of shortage of applicants

with the right competencies and qualification for the job.

TESDA (2011), Investing in the 21st Century Skilled Filipino

Workforce.

Assessment of the job requirement (skills and

competencies) is imperative in the final selection of

employees or training candidates. Every effort is made to

objectively formulate exactly what the requirements in terms

of skills and competencies are. Employees should be allowed

to broaden their vision and understanding of the business and

also help them accept more responsibility. When employees

achieve these qualities the organization can grow, increase

its profits and be more effective in the industry.

Foreign Studies
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According to Raybould and Wilkins (2006), for students

to be successful, hospitality management programs must the

needs of both students and industry, developing skill sets

needed in the industry while achieving the academic rigor

demanded by institution. Students may be encouraged to obtain

industry based skills beyond an internship by holding a part

time job while completing their studies; students and

graduates who do not gain extra experience may be inadequately

prepared for the work and demands of the hospitality industry

(Alosso & O’Neil, 2011; Tesone, 2002). However, students

engaged in employment face challenges such as demanding time

commitments, stress, and other issues affecting academic

performance (Curtis, 2007; Holmes, 2 2008; Robotham, 2009).

Chen and Gurosy (2007) contended new graduates must possess

diverse skill sets and behavioral traits to competitively

take advantage of career opportunities. The more prepared

graduates are, the better their chances will be of entering

the job market and appreciating long lasting success.

According to Gursoy and Swanger (2004) studies

hospitality is deeply rooted in action management, the

industry does require maintaining certain requisite skill in

the curriculum. Although academics tend to promote the

insertion of general management skills in the curriculum, the

industry does not show particular interest in the development


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of high order cognitive skills (Baum 1990). However, more

recently Baum (2006) has noted some changes in this

perspective. As such, changes or at least evolutions occur.

All studies do not use similar subject area names, which make

comparisons more difficult but a comparison of studies made

over the time demonstrates some discrepancies. Such results

prove that skills determined as important change and are not

clear obvious any more. Expectations also vary according to

the area of the hospitality industry respondents work in but

there are some universal skills like ‘ethics’ leadership,

preparation for industry employment, internships/industry

experience, and hospitality management organization’ becoming

apparent (Gursoy and Swanger 2004, p. 142).

Inui, wheeler and Lankford (2006), they reflect the four

state models of Tribe (2002), propose developing a curriculum

that would have as its main objective employability skills

and would include philosophical and sociological foundation

to support decision-making strategies. The argument is that

students need to understand their industry, society and

themselves to work successfully and independently in complex

and changing environments. Critical and a learning styles

approach teach students how to learn and use experience and

knowledge in the learning process (Lashley 1999; Lashley


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2002;). The point is not to erase all forms of traditional

practical learning but instead to review them in terms of

type and role (Go 1990; Breiter 1992; Zapalska, Rudd and

Flanegin, 2002).

Synthesis

The review related literature and studies were relevant

to the present study because this provide ideas, and

background of information that were useful in the

conceptualization of the study through the review of the

relevance of the study.

According to (Rey Bould and Wilkins 2006), Aguba (2015),

World Bank (2010), John Walker (2008), Gregoire (2013) and

HTTC (2014) that there is a need to meet the employer

expectations in terms of skills, there is still a growing

mismatch of workers skills and the need of the industry that

makes the issue more difficult to deal with. But what matters

are the actual “functional” skills that workers possess to be

employable and productive. So for them to ensure they usually

involves some sort of assessment either in the form of

examinations, coursework or observation by an assessor,

whether if they have performed the skills to the required

standard.
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According to Cawthorn (2014), Tesda (2011), (Beggs et al

2008), (Ray Bould and Wilkins 2006), (Wheeler and Lankford

2006) that Industry require maintaining certain requisite

skill and competencies are imperative in the final selection

of employees or training candidates. There are also a need to

understand the industry, society and themselves to work

successfully and independently in complex and changing

environment in their work place.

CHAPTER 3

Methodology

Research Design

The researchers used the descriptive, research method

which highlights its purpose and methods and other facts

regarding the study. The descriptive (research) is considered

appropriate using the process that will seek to gather

describe, analyze and interpret data. The researchers will

use survey method with the use of questionnaire. Through this


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method the researchers gathered information through the

respondents about the study (Rangarjan, 2013)

Population and Sampling

The respondents were the applicants and employees of the

selected International Cruise line. There were seventy five

(75) total respondents all in all.

Purposive sampling technique was used to determine the

sample size of the population.

Purposive sampling is a sampling technique in which

researcher relies on his own judgment when choosing members

of population to participate in the study. Purposive sampling

is a non-probability sampling method and it occurs when

“elements selected for the sample are chosen by the judgment

of the research.(Black 2010

Respondents of the Study

The study composed of Applicants, and Employees of the

Selected International Cruise Line. There were seventy five

(75) in total respondents.

Table 1 shows the respondents of the study

Table 1
Population of the Study

Respondents f %
C.F Sharp 25 33
United Philippines 28 37
Lines Inc.
23

Asia World Crew 22 30


Management Inc.
Total 75 100

As shown in the table there is 25 or 33 percent


respondents from C.F Sharp, 28 or 37 percent from United
Philippines Lines Inc. and 22 or 30 percent from Asia World
Crew Management Inc. a grand total of 75 or 100 percent.

Table 2 Shows the Profile of the Respondents as to sex

Table 2
Respondents as to Sex

Asia World
Sex C.F Sharp U.P.L Inc. Crew Mngt. TOTAL
Inc.
f % f % f % f %
Male 20 80 15 54 13 59 48 64

Female 5 20 13 46 9 41 27 36

Total 25 100 28 100 22 100 75 100


As shown in the table, from C.F Sharp has 20 or 80 percent
female respondent.
United Philippine Lines Inc. has 15 or 54 percent male
while there were 13 or 46 percent female.
Asia World Crew Management Inc., there were 13 or 59
percents male and about 9 or 41 percent female
In general, there were 48 or 64 percent male against 27
or 36 percent female respondents for a total of 75 or 100
percent.

Table 3 presents the Profile of Respondents as to Age

Table 3
Respondents as to Age
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Asia World
Age C.F Sharp U.P.L Inc. Crew Mngt. TOTAL
Inc
f % F % F % f %
20 – 25 10 40 1 4 0 0 11 15

26 – 30 6 24 2 7 0 0 8 11
31 – 35 0 0 3 11 6 27 9 12
36 – 40 7 28 5 18 10 46 22 29
41 and above 2 8 17 60 6 27 25 33

Total 25 100 28 100 22 100 75 100

As Presented in the table, C.F Sharp got 10 or 40 percent


belong to the age of above 41 years old, there were 6 or 24
percent belonging to ages 36-40 years old; others were 7 or
28 percent belong to 26-30 years old; there was 2-8 percents
were 20-25 years old.
In the respondents for United Philippine Line has 1 or 4
percents belong to above 40 years old; 2 or 7 percents are
36-40 years old; 3 or 11 percent are 31-35 years old; there
were also 5 or 18 percents belong to 26-30 years old; there
was 17 or 60 percents were 20-25 years old.
Asia World Crew Management Inc. has 6 or 27 percents who
belong to 31-35 years old; there were also 10 or 46 percent
belong to 20-25 years old; there was 6 or 27 percent were 20-
25 years old.
As a whole, majority of the respondents belong to the
young generation with 25 or 33 percent belong to 20-25 years
old; followed by 22 or 29 percent with ages belong to 26-30
years old, there were 11 or 15 percent belong to above 41
years old; about 9 or 12 percent were 31-35 years old and only
8 or 11 percent belong to 36-40 years old.
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Table 4 manifests the educational attainment of the


respondents
Table 4

Respondents as to Educational Attainment

Educational Asia World


Attainment C.F Sharp U.P.L Inc. Crew Mngt. TOTAL
Inc
f % F % f % f %
Bachelor’s 16 64 22 79 12 55 50 66
Degree

Undergraduate 9 36 6 21 8 36 23 31
from College

High School 0 0 2 9 2 3
Graduate

Total 25 100 28 100 22 100 75 100


As Manifested in the table, the C.F Sharp with 16 or 64

percent respondents with bachelor’s degree; undergraduate

from college there were 9 or 36 percent.

United Philippine Lines Inc. get 22 or 79 percent

bachelor’s degree holders; 6 or 21 percent were undergraduate

from college.

Asia World Crew Management Inc. get 12 or 55 percent

bachelor’s degree holders; 8 or 36 percent from college; 2 or

9 percent were high school graduates.

In sum, 50 or 66 percent get bachelor degree holders; 23

or 21 percent were undergraduate from college and 2 or 3


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percent were high school graduates for total of 75 or 100

percent.

Table 5 Denotes the Profile of Respondents as to Civil

Status

Table 5
Respondents as to Civil Status

Asia World
Age C.F Sharp U.P.L Inc. Crew Mngt. TOTAL
Inc
f % F % F %
Single 11 44 22 79 14 47 63

Married 14 56 6 21 8 28 37

Total 25 100 28 100 22 75 100


As denotes in the table, from C.F Sharp, there were 11

or 44 percent who are single, 14 or 56 percent who are married.

Likewise the United Philippine Lines Inc., about 22 79 percent

who are single, 6 or 21 percent who are married. Asia World

Crew Management Inc. has 14 or 47 percent single, 8 or 28

percent who are married.

In general, 47 or 63 percent are single, 28 or 37 percent

are married for a total of 75 or 100 percent.

Research Instrument

The instrument used to gather the needed data was:


27

The Survey Questionnaire was the main instrument used in

this study, consisted of (4) parts:

Part I. Profile of the Respondents in terms of Age, Sex,

Educational Attainment and Civil Status

Part II. Skills Requirements of the accredited manpower

recruitment agency for selected International Cruise Lines.

Part III. Assessment on the skills requirements

Part IV. Problems Encountered by the respondents on the


skills requirements of accredited manpower recruitment agency
for selected International cruise lines.

Data Gathering Procedures

The following procedures were undertaken in gathering of

data relative to the conduct of the study.

1. Sought permission and approval from the dean to

conduct the study.

2. Presented the survey instrument to the thesis

adviser for comments and suggestions.

3. Incorporated all comments, suggestions and

recommendations after validating the instrument.

4. Reproduced the survey questionnaire.


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5. Requested approval from the manager, employee, and

supervisor of to conduct the study.

6. Administered the instrument to the respondents.

7. Collated, sorted, tabulated the data for

statistical treatment by the statistician.

8. Presented, analyzed and interpreted the data in

textual and tabular forms.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The data gather were compiled, collated and summarized

separately by group. The responses for each item will be

categorized base on the specific problem raised. The following

tools will be used in the treatment of the data.

Frequency is the actual responses to a specific

item\question in the questionnaire where the respondent will

make choices.

Formula:
X=fx/n

Where:

x = weighted mean

fx = Sum of all scope of variable x

n = number of respondents
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Percentage will be used as descriptive statistics or

something that describes a part of a whole. This will be

utilized to compute the demographic profile of the

respondents.

Formula:
%=f/N x 100

Where:
% = percentage

F = frequency

N = total no. of respondents

Weighted mean will be used to measure the respondents’

assessments. Each value in the group will be multiplied by

the appropriate weight factor does it and the products are

sum and divide by the total number of respondents.

Formula:

WM = (f5x5) (f4x4) (f3x3) (f2x2) (f1x1


N
Where:

WM = weighted mean

(f5x5)… = the frequency count

N = Number of respondents by group

The responses on the assessment of will be scaled

using the Five-Point Likert scale as follows:


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Range Scale Verbal Interpretation Symbol

4.20-5.00 5 5 Highly Required (HR)

3.40-4.19 4 4 Required (R)

2.60-3.19 3 3 Fairly Required (FR)

1.80-2.59 2 2 Least Required (LR)

1.00-1.79 1 1 Not required (NR)

Z-TEST this is used to determine the significant difference

in the assessment of the two groups of number of applicants

and employee of selected International Cruise Line.

The formula will be

𝑥1 − 𝑥2
√𝑆 21 + 𝑆 22
𝑁
Where:

𝑥1 = Average of the first group

𝑥2 = Average of the other group

𝑠21 = Standard deviation squared or variance

of first group

𝑠22 = Standard deviation squared or variance

of the other group

n1 = number of ease for each group


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Vineet Taing (2014) Global Hospitality Industry and Service


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3G Learning FZ LLC (2015) Resort Management, Sage Publications


Ltd, London, Page 10 156
32

Walker (2008) Introduction to Hospitality, Pearson Education


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33

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34

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August 29, 2016


35