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# 1.9 3.

25
C C
2 2

S1 S2
2.95
C
2

stairs
2.95
0.95 C C S3 C
2 2 2

0.95

3.15 S4 3.15

0.5

4.6

## TWO WAY SLAB

ONE WAY SLAB

Given:
Live Load 3.0 kN/m2 Assume beam dimension
Flooring 1.5 kN/m2 width = 150
f'c 25.0 MPa depth = 300
fy 207 MPa
Unit Weight of Concrete 25 kN/m3
Storey Height 2.7 m
Assuming: Column Width 0m
Specific Weight of the brick wall 14.8 kN/m3
Assumed beam dimension
Estimate the thickness of the slab
EGYPTIAN Code
One way slab Two way slab:
L L
h= for simply supported h=
30 35
L L
h= for one end continous h=
35 40
L L
h= for both ends continous h=
40 45
L L
h= for cantilivered section h=
10 10

## Check for deflection calculation to be ignored the thickness should be at least:

t min =a  .85  fy 

 fy   1600 
ꝣ =  .4   0.718
 650  15 + 20/(b/a) + 10βƿ
Ln
t min. =
(36/ꝣ)

a b h t min. ratio
b/a > 2
S1 1.90 2.95 47.5 37.9 47.5 1.55 Two way slab 47.5 36.42201
S2 2.95 3.25 73.8 58.9 73.8 1.10 Two way slab 73.75
S3 2.95 3.25 73.8 58.9 73.8 1.10 Two way slab 73.75
S4 2.10 3.25 52.5 41.9 52.5 1.55 Two way slab 52.5
S5 3.15 3.20 90.0 62.9 78.8 1.02 Two way slab 78.75
S6 1.9 3.15 190.0 190.00 1.66 Two way slab 47.5
S7 0.95 2.10 95.0 95.00 2.21 One way slab 40.41346
S8 0.95 2.10 95.0 95.00 2.21 One way slab 40.41346
S9 0.95 1.11 95.0 95.00 1.17 Two way slab

## two way slab 61.9 say 100

one way slab 65.2 say 100

## Assumed beam dimension: 150 X 300 , 150 / 2 = 75 mm

Assumed slab thickness for all slab of the floor 100 mm

## Slab Lx Lclear,x Lclear,x 1.05 X L eff x Ly Lclear,y Lclear,y 1.05 X

L eff y
L eff y
+ ts Lclear x, + ts Lclear y,

S1 1.9 1.825 1.925 1.92 1.90 2.95 2.8 2.9 2.94 2.94
S2 3.25 3.1 3.2 3.26 3.25 2.95 2.8 2.9 2.94 2.94
S3 3.25 3.1 3.2 3.26 3.25 2.95 2.8 2.9 2.94 2.94
S4 3.25 3.1 3.2 3.26 3.25 2.10 1.95 2.05 2.05 2.05
S5 3.25 3.10 3.20 3.26 3.25 3.15 3 3.1 3.15 3.15
S6 1.95 1.88 1.98 1.97 1.95 3.15 3 3.1 3.15 3.15
S7 0.95 0.88 0.98 0.92 0.95 2.10 1.95 2.05 2.05 2.05
S8 0.95 0.80 0.90 0.84 0.90 2.10 1.95 2.05 2.05 2.05
S9 0.95 0.88 0.98 0.92 0.95 1.11 1.035 1.135 1.09 1.11

Wu = 1.4DL+1.6LL
= 1.4 X (25 X 0.100 + 1.5) + 1.6 X (3)
Wu = 12.32 kN/m2
Taking one strip of meter
Wu = 12.32 kN/m

Table 1.2 Values of α and β for solid slab with live load less than 5 kN/m2
r 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
α 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85
β 0.35 0.29 0.25 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.08

mb X b(bigger)
r =
ma X a(smaller)

1 simple span
ma or mb = 0.87 continous from one end
0.76 continous from two end

## S1 1.90 0.87 2.94 1.00 1.78 0.74 0.11 9.12 1.38

S2 3.25 0.87 2.94 0.87 1.11 0.41 0.286 4.99 3.52
S3 3.25 0.87 2.94 0.76 1.27 0.49 0.222 5.98 2.74
S4 3.25 0.87 2.05 0.76 1.81 0.755 0.108 9.30 1.33
S5 3.25 0.87 3.15 0.87 1.03 0.365 0.332 4.50 4.09
S6 1.95 0.87 3.15 0.87 1.62 0.66 0.136 8.13 1.68
S7 0.95 0.87 2.05 0.87 2.16 1 0 12.32 0.00
S8 0.90 0.76 2.05 0.87 2.61 1 0 12.32 0.00
S9 0.95 1 1.11 0.87 1.02 0.36 0.338 4.44 4.16
Bending moment and reinforcement

## Effective depth equals

d = ts - 20 = 80 mm (for main direction) α
d = ts - 30 = 70 mm ( for secondary direction) β

## Slab Leff, x Wux k Mux d R w As As

(m) (kN/m) (kN.m) required chosen
S1 1.90 9.12 8 4.11 80 0.0257 0.031 299.52 6Ф10/m
S2 3.25 3.52 10 3.72 90 0.0184 0.022 239.13 6Ф10/m
S3 3.25 2.74 10 2.89 70 0.0236 0.028 239.42 6Ф10/m
S4 3.25 1.33 10 1.41 70 0.0115 0.018 152.2 5Ф10/m use min
S5 3.25 4.09 10 4.32 70 0.0353 0.042 357.61 5Ф10/m
S6 1.95 8.13 10 3.09 80 0.0193 0.023 223.77 6Ф10/m use min
S7 0.95 12.32 10 1.11 80 0.0069 0.018 173.91 6Ф10/m use min
S8 0.90 12.32 12 0.83 80 0.0052 0.018 173.91 6Ф10/m use min
S9 0.95 4.16 2 1.88 70 0.0153 0.01836 155.22 5Ф10/m use min

0.6
Asmin  bd = 231.884 mm2
fy

## using 10 mm Ф- bars , Ad = 78.54 mm2

As 357.6
N = = = 4.5532 say pcs additional bar

## DESIGN CHART FOR SECTION SUBJECTED TO SIMPLE BENDING

(Table 4.1) page 469

R1 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055 0.060 0.065 0.070
w 0.018 0.024 0.030 0.036 0.042 0.048 0.055 0.061 0.068 0.074 0.081 0.088
R1 max
fy 400 360 280 240

## Slab Leff, y Wuy k Muy d R w As As

(m) (kN/m) (kN.m) required chosen

## S1 2.94 1.38 12 0.99 70 ### 0.018 152.17 6Ф10/m use min

S2 2.94 4.99 10 4.31 100 ### 0.020 241.55 6Ф10/m
S3 2.94 5.98 12 4.30 80 ### 0.030 289.86 6Ф10/m
S4 2.05 9.30 12 3.26 80 ### 0.024 236.06 6Ф10/m use min
S5 3.15 4.50 10 4.46 80 ### 0.033 322.71 6Ф10/m
S6 3.15 1.68 10 1.66 70 ### 0.018 152.17 5Ф10/m use min
S7 2.05 0.00 12 0.00 70 ### 0.018 152.17 5Ф10/m use min
S8 2.05 0.00 10 0.00 70 ### 0.018 152.17 5Ф10/m use min
S9 1.11 4.44 2 2.73 80 ### 0.020 198.03 6Ф10/m use min
` `
ACI Code:
Compute minimum thickness of one way slab:

## h4 = for cantilivered section

≥ 100 mm
Err:504

offset function
0
0.070 0.075 0.080 0.085 0.090 0.095 0.100 0.105 0.110 0.115 0.120 0.125 0.129
0.088 0.095 0.102 0.109 0.117 0.124 0.132 0.140 0.148 0.156 0.164 0.173 0.180
0.129 0.139 0.143
0.180 0.198 0.206
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

4.79 kN

Wu
17.72 kN/m
``
1.5

4.65 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 400 mm
Unit weight of b = 200 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Wall height = 1.00 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 30 mm
Length = 4.65 m
deff = 370 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 1.40 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
1.32 Leff. = 4.57 m
1.63 m

x x
4.57 m
x = 1.63 m , Loaded Area = 4.79 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 4.19 kN/m L/2x = 1.41 , α = 0.831 , β = 0.644
uniform live load = 2.09 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.09 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.7 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

1.00 m

4.57
hw = 1.00 m
L/2x = 1.00 , α = 0.700 , β = 0.500

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 2.31 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 1.65 kN/m

gb = 1.40 + 5.404 + 2.31
gb = 9.11 kN/m
gsh = 1.40 + 4.19 + 1.65
gsh = 7.24 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.70 kN/m

2.30

3.25
Height of the wall = 2.30
gw = 1.65 kN/m2 , 70 percent only due to window portion
L/2x = 1.22 , α = 0.78 , β = 0.59

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 2.95 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 2.24 kN/m

## Reaction due to the Wall load = 4.79 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 17.7245 kN/m
Pu = 1.5 x 4.79
= 7.19 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

= 46.2717 + 8.35987
= 54.63 kN.m

Beff = 565.60 mm
d = 370.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.953 The point is outside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 370.00 = 46.25 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 37 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 864.0 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 402.368 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 1123.17 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 111 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 864.0
N = = = 2.75011 say 3 pcs additional bar

## 200-2(30)-2(20) 50 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
2

Choose As = 3Ф 20 = 942.48
= 0Ф 20 = 0
Aschoosen = = 942.48 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 59.60 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2Ф10)

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 30.8478 + 4.17993
= 17.5139 kN.m 50 percent due to fixed end moment with concentrated load
b = 200 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 6.252 The point is outside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826
C = 0.125 x 370 = 46.25 mm
a = 0.8 x 46.25 = 37 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 276.975 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 402.368 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 360.067 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 111 mm2
100
use: As = 402.368 mm2
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 402.37
N = = = 1.28078 say 2 pcs
`
200-2(30)-1(20) 120 mm > 20 mm OK!
S = =
1
Aschoosen = 628.32 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 54.7 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 + P/2 = 44.81 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width}
Qu = 41.38 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.559 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy
0 .4
u min 
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 77.33 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 38.666 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 565.60 mm
A2 hf a = 400.00 mm
bf b = 200.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 280.00 mm
bf = 365.60 mm <4hf , 480.00
b

## y1 = 200 mm A1 = 80000 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 43872 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 150.416 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 1.675E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 249.58 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 20.13 kN.m
yt
Ma = 54.63 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 942.48 mm2 2 Ф 20 mm
2 Ф 20 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 9424.8 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
565.60 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 370 - z)

## 282.8 z^2 + 9424.8 z -

3E+06 = 0
z = 98.77 < 120 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 875003803 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok!

Ie = 9E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok!

Calculate deflection
5 WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
5 WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL   = 2.75629 + 0.5 = 3.3 mm
384 EcIe 48 EcIe

## Live load deflection Wu = 2.70 kN/m ,= 2.70 N/mm (Live load)

5WL ^4
LL  = defl. = 0.817 mm
384 EcIe

i = 4.07 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 0 then, α = 2
total = = 9.09 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
4650 / 250 = 18.6 mm > 9.09 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8

A B C
1.9 3.25
1 C C C
2 2 2
°
45
S1 S2
2.9

2 C
2

1
S3
0.95 5.05

3 S6 S7 1.8

3 C C
2 2

S5
3.6 S4 3.15

4 C C C
2 2 2

0.5
1
Data: slab thickness 100
live load = 2 kN/m2 beam dimension 120 X 300
Flooring = 1.5 kN/m2
Floor Height = 3.0 m
Unit weight of concrete = 25 kN/m3
Unit weight of masonry bricks = 14.8 kN/m3
thickness of wall = 0.2 m
Plastering Weight = 0.8 kN/m2
2
Own weight of the beam = 0.9 kN/m

## Loads transmitted to the beam through the slab

Own weight of the slab = 5 kN/m2

Live load, ƿs = 2 kN/m2

## 2.1 Between Support

45 degr A 1.90 C 0.35 B

A 1.90 B 3.25 C

## 2.3 Wall load, gw = 3.76 kN/m2

Height of the wall, hw = 2.7 m
60 degree
1.9 x

2.7 m

A X 3.25 X B C

use,

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.667 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.870 0.885 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.500 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.706 0.722 0.737 0.750
where:
L/2x ≥ 1
compute, x = 1.15 m
L/2x = 1.41 m
α = 0.833
β = 0.646

Between Support
● Equivalent uniform wall load for bending , (gwb) α x gw x hw
gwb = 8.46 kN/m
● Equivalent uniform wall load for sharing (gws), β x gw x hw
gws = 6.6 kN/m

Cantilever part
● Equivalent uniform wall load for bending
gwb = 10.2 kN/m
● Equivalent uniform wall load for sharing (gws)
gws = 10.2 kN/m

## 2.4 Calculation of the concentrated load (Beam A, 1-2)

Self Weight
Assumed dimension 120 X 300
Own weight of the beam = 0.9 kN/m
In computing its reaction, it should be analyzed for the load of shear

45 degree
0.95 m

1 x 2.90 x 2

60 degree

2.7 m

1x 2.9 x 2

## Direct wall load on Beam, A 1-2

compute trapezoidal part
x = 0.95 m
L/2x = 1.53
α = 0.86
β = 0.67
Slab live load for shear = 1.28 kN/m
compute trapezoidal part
x = 1.56 m
L/2x = 0.93
α = 0.61
β = 0.46

gsh = 9.74 kN/m
Total equivalent uniform live load for shear (ƿsh)
ƿsh = 1.28 kN/m

Reactions
Reaction due to live load (P) = 1.85 kN

## 3 Total load acting on B1, ABC

gb =

1.9

C C
2 2
°
°
45
S1 S2
2.9

C
2

Simple beam
Span = 2.72 m Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2
Assumed beam dimension, Flooring height = 3.00 m
t = 272 say 300 mm Flooring = 1.5 kN/m2
w = 109 say 130 mm Unit Wt. Concrete = 25.00 kN/m3
Slab t = 120 mm Unit Wt. Break Wall = 14.8 kN/m3
= 3.0 m Thickness of wall = 200 mm
Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = = 27.6 Mpa
fy = = 240 Mpa

## Own weight of the beam = 0.59 kN/m

Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

L eff. = 2.72 m
Slab 1.05 wall
45 degree 60 degree
0.95 m 2.7 m

1 x 2.72 x 2 1x 2.72 x 2

Direct Slab load on Beam, A 1-2 Direct wall load on Beam, A 1-2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

x = 0.95 , loaded area = 1.79 m2 L/2x = 1.432 m , α 0.84 , β 0.65
uniform live load = 1.32 kN/m uniform live load = 1.24 kN/m

uniform live load = 1.59 kN/m

gw = 3.76 kN/m2
x = 1.56 m
height of the wall = 2.7 m (Floor height - Beam thick.)
L/2x = 0.87 α = 0.67 β = 0.5 (see Table 6.1)

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.667 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.870 0.885 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.500 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.706 0.722 0.737 0.750
where:
L/2x ≥ 1

## live load for shear = 1.24 kN/m

live load for bend = 1.59 kN/m

Flexural Design
use,
DL = 7.4 kN/m LL = 1.59 kN/m
Factored design load = 1.5(DL + LL) live load less than 75 percent of DL
Wu = 13.5 kN/m

## Maximum positive bending moment at mid-span

Mu = (WuL^2)/8
Mu max (+) = 12.5 kN.m
Maximum negative bending moment at end span
Mu = (WuL^2)/24 (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)
Mu max (-) = 4.15 kN.m

Beff.
Design of Critical Section
Midspan hf 120 mm

300 a hw

b
130
Assume concrete cover to the C.L of the steel of 50 mm.
deff. = 250 mm b = 130 mm
Section at midspan: L-Sections
the smallest of 6ts+b, L2/10+b, C.L to edge

Mu
d  C1
fcuB

## C1 = 7.63 J = 0.83 c/d 0.13

The point is outside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 250 = 31.25 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x 31.3 = 25 < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 251.3 mm2
fyjd

## As min. the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 160.07 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 326.7 mm2

but not less than

0.15
As  xbxd = 48.75 mm2
100
(As)min < (As)required

## Choose: As = 2 Ф- 16 mm As = 402.125 mm2

As(choosen)
Mr = Mu x
As(required)
= 19.93 kN.m

Stirrup hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrup hanger is 10% of the main steel
As : 40.2125 mm2 , 157.08 mm2
2 Ф- 10 mm

At Support
b = 130 mm
Mu = 4.15 kN.m

Mu
d  C1
fcub
C = 7
The point is outside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125 , J = 0.83 c/d 0.13
C = 0.125 x 250 = 31.25
a = 0.8 x 31.3 = 25 < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 83.8 mm2
fyjd

## As min. the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 160 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 109 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 48.8 mm2
100
use: As min. = 160 mm2

## Double check with ACI 318-08

Given:
Wu = 13.5 kN/m d = 250 mm As = 402.125 mm2
fc' = 27.6 Mpa b = 130 mm Effective depth = 250 mm
fy = 240 Mpa d' = Concrete Cover = 50 mm
f = 0.90 L = 2.9 m
f = 0.85
Es = 200000 Mpa
From the rules of equilibrium
C = T equation 1
C = 0.85 x fc' x b x a
= 0.85 x 27.6 x 130 x a

T = fs x As
= 240 x 402.12
= 1E+05 N

a = 31.6 mm

a = β1 x c
31.6 = 0.85 x c
c = 37.2 mm

## with c, we can calculate the strain in steel ,

Ꜫc = 0.003
c d 37.23 250
= = = Ꜫt = 0.02015
Ꜫc (Ꜫc + Ꜫt) 0.003 (0.003 + Ꜫt)

## Determine the strain at which the steel yields:

Es = fy / Ꜫy , Ꜫy = fy/Es

Ꜫy = 240 / 200000
Ꜫy = 0.0012

## Ꜫy < Ꜫt therefore our assumption that the steel yields is correct

and the stress in the steel may be taken as 240 Mpa at Failure

## Determine if the section is tension controlled:

As per ACI beam is considered tension controlled if the strain in the extreme tension steel is greater than 0.005

## Minimum steel requirements

0.25 fcu
As  ≥ 1.4bw x d
xbxd
fy
fy
As 177.855 mm2 < 189.583 mm2
use As min. = 189.583 mm2
As(required) > As(minimum)
Calculate the nominal moment capacity about the center of the compressive force
ФMn = Ф x T x (d-a/2)
● Ф = 0.9 for a tension controlled
● T = As*fy
= 0.9 x 402 x 240 x 234
= 20 Kn.m

Calculate the nominal moment capacity about the center of the tensile force
ФMn = Ф x C x (d-a/2)
● Ф = 0.9 for a tension controlled
● C = 0.85 x f'c x b x a
= 0.9 x 0 x 234
= 20 Kn.m
C
2
°

2.9

C
2

3.15

C
2

slab thickness
beam dimension
Own weight of the slab

1/2(a+b)h Trapezoidal A
1/2(axb) Triangular area
45 degree

�w x
Floor height - beam thi
60 degree
x = h/tan 60

where r =

r =

3r^2
2r
α = (1
β = (1

α x gw

β x gw

1 x gw

1 x gw

x = h/tan 45

α = (1
β = (1
β x gs x X1
β x ƿs x X1
x = h/tan 60

3r^2 =
2r =
β x gs x h1

(gsh x L)/2
(ƿsh x L)/2

## o.w + slab load + wall fo

The smallest of:
2.90 ● distance CL to CL between the support

## 2.72 ● clear span + t slab

2.73 ● 1.05 x clear span

x = h/tan 45

## α = (1 - 1/3r^2) 3r^2 = 6.15

β = (1 - 1/2r) 2r = 2.86

## = ‫ ץ‬w x tw + plastering weight

= h/tan 60

3r^2 = 2.3
2r = 1.74
r than 0.005
slab thickness = 200
beam dimension = 120 X 300
Own weight of the slab + flooring

## 1/2(a+b)h Trapezoidal Area

1/2(axb) Triangular area
45 degree

tw + plastering weight
Floor height - beam thickness
60 degree
h/tan 60

long direction = L = L ≥ 1
short direction L1 2x

1.41

= 5.99 ≥
= 3
- 1/3r^2)
- 1/2r)

gw x hw

gw x hw

gw x hw

gw x hw

ƿs

h/tan 45

## - 1/3r^2) 3r^2 = 6.99

- 1/2r) 2r = 3.05
β x gs x X1
β x ƿs x X1
h/tan 60

2.59
1.86
β x gs x h1

(gsh x L)/2
(ƿsh x L)/2

## o.w + slab load + wall for bending

The effective width of the overhanging flang
●1/12 span of the beam
Beff. Does exceed the following ● 6ts
● 6ts+b = 850 mm ● 1/2 the clear distance to the next width
● L2/10 + b = 420
● CL to edge = 950
where:
L2 = L simple beam
L2 = 0.87L one end continous
L2 = 0.7L continous beam

Mu = 1E+07

fcuB = 11,592.00
Mu 32.777478
fcuB
Mu = 4E+06

fcub = 3,588.00

Mu 34.01
fcuB
h of the overhanging flange may not be larger,

## tance to the next width

1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
19.20 kN/m
``

2.95 m

Data:
Live load 4.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm
Flooring = 0.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 3.00 m t = 300 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 14.8 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 20.7 Mpa Flooring height = 3.00 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 2.95 m
deff = 275 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 0.68 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 4.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam support 200 mm
0.85 Leff. = 2.75 m ● distance CL to CL between the support
0.95 m

x x
2.75 m
x = 0.95 m , Loaded Area = 1.71 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 2.18 kN/m L/2x = 1.45 , α = 0.841 , β = 0.655
uniform live load = 2.49 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.49 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.2 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

3.00 m

2.75
hw = 3.00 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 6.84 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 6.84 kN/m

gb = 0.68 + 2.796 + 6.84
gb = 10.31 kN/m
gsh = 0.68 + 2.18 + 6.84
gsh = 9.69 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.49 kN/m

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 19.1973 kN/m

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8
= 18.1475 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 425.00 mm ● L2/10 + b
d = 275.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 6.055 The point is outside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 275.00 = 34.375 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 27.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 386.14 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 204.094 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 501.979 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 61.875 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624 add 12 mm Ф- bars

As 386.14
N = = = 1.92049 say 3 pcs

## 150-2(25)-2(16) 34 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
2

Choose As = 3Ф 16 = 603.187
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 603.187 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 28.3482 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2Ф10)

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/24
= 6.04915 kN.m
b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 6.23
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826 (Linear interpolation)
C = 0.125 x 275 = 34.375 mm
a = 0.8 x 34.375 = 27.5 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 128.713 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 204.094 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 167.326 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 61.875 mm2
100
use: As = 204.094 mm2
using 12 mm Ф- bars Ad = 113.0976

As 204.09
N = = = 1.80459 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(12) 88 mm > 12 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 226.195 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 6.7 kN.m
Asrequired
Design for shear force
Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 28.32 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + beam width/2}
Qu = 23.76 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.576 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.60 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.89
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 58.00 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 29 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.11 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 15.471 , say 15 Ф 11.7
Ldtop = 20.1123 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 425.00 mm
A2 hf a = 300.00 mm
bf b = 150.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 180.00 mm
bf = 275.00 mm <4hf
b

## y1 = 150 mm A1 = 45000 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 33000 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 111.923 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 531311538 mm4
((Q406*1000)*(H402/1000^4))/(G407/1000)
Calculate cracking moment

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 2.73 N/mm2

yt = 188.08 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 7.71 kN.m
yt
Ma = 18.1475 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 603.187 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
1 Ф 12 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 6031.87 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
425.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 275 - z)

## 212.5 z^2 + 6031.87 z - 2E+06 = 0

z = 83.85 < 120 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 303911867 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 20018.79 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok!

Ie = 3E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok!

Calculate deflection

5WL^4
DL  = defl. = 2.37074 mm
384 EcIe

## Live load deflection Wu = 3.73 kN/m ,= 3.73 N/mm (Live load)

5WL ^4
LL  = defl. = 0.572 mm
384 EcIe

i = 2.94 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 0 then, α = 2
total = = 7.68 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
2950 / 250 = 11.8 mm > 7.68411 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

3.25 1.9

3.25 1.9

1.83 kN

3.25 1.9

1.83 kN

## 3.07 kN/m 1.90 kN/m

3.25 1.9

Data:
Live load 4.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm
Flooring = 0.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 3.00 m t = 300 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 14.8 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Flooring height = 3.00 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 30 mm
L between Support = 3.25 m
L cantilever = 1.9 m
deff. = 270 mm (between support)
Calculation of loads between support deff. = 370 mm (cantilever part)
Own weight of the beam = 0.68 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 4.00 kN/m2

Leff. = 3.07 m
0.12
45 degree
1.48 m

x 3.07 x

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 2.68 kN/m L/2x = 1.04 , α = 0.69 , β = 0.52
uniform live load = 3.07 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.07 kN/m
uniform live load = 4.08 kN/m
60 degree
2.88 m = (hw)

x 3.07 x

hw = 2.88 m
x = 1.66 m
L/2x = 0.98 α = 0.7 β = 0.50

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 1 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.69 1 0.722 0.737 0.750

## ● Wall load for bending (gwb)

gwb = α x gw x hw
= 4.4 kN/m
● Wall load for sharing (gws)
gws = β x gw x hw
= 3.28 kN/m

gb = 0.68 + 3.57 + 4.4
gb = 8.65 kN/m
gsh = 0.68 2.68 3.28
gsh = 6.64 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 3.07 kN/m

Cantilever part
Let the depth of the fixed end = span/5 = 380 say 400 mm
The cross sectional dimension of the beam = 220 mm x 400 mm
Own weight of the beam = 1.54 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 4.00 kN/m2

## Slab load On the Cantilever part

45 degree
0.95 m

1.9 m
Leff. = 1.70 m , h = 0.95 m , Loaded = 0.9 m2
Area Method Coeffecient method
uniform dead load = 1.66 kN/m L/2x = 0.500 α = 0.70 , β =
uniform live load = 1.90 kN/m
uniform live load = 1.90 kN/m

60 degree 0.2

2.88 m

1.9 m
Leff. = 1.70 m , hw= 2.9 m , Loaded Area = 2.736 m2
L/2x = 0.3 m , α = 0.7 β =

## ● Wall load for bending (gwb)

Area Method gwb = 4.6 kN/m
gws = 3.3 kN/m

## Calculation of Concentrated load at Cantilever beam

gsh = 0.68 + 2.80 + 6.84 (From cantilver beam)
gsh = 10.31 kN/m
Total equivalent uniform live load for shear
psh = 1.24 kN/m
psh = 1.24 kN/m
Reactions
(G) = 15.2 kN
(P) = 1.83 kN

between support
gb = 0.68 + 3.6 + 4.4
= 8.65 kN/m
Cantilever part
gb = 1.54 + 2.33 + 4.6
= 8.46 kN/m
between support
gsh = 0.68 + 2.7 + 3.28
= 6.64 kN/m
Cantilever part
gsh = 1.54 + 1.66 + 3.3
= 6.49 kN/m
between support between support
psh = psh = 3.07 kN/m pb = 4.08 kN/m
Cantilever part Cantilever part
psh = psh = 1.90 kN/m pb = 2.66 kN/m

Flexural Design
Maximum +ve moments at mid-span
For Obtaining the maximum moment at mid-span, the full load is applied between the support,
while only 0.9 D.L (minimum dead load required by the code) w/o live loads are applied at the
cantilever part.
* Case 1
Between Support Cantilever Part
Wu = 1.5 x (DL + LL) Wu = 0.9 x DL
= 1.5 x ( 8.6 + 4.08 ) = 0.9 x ( 8.5 )
Wu = 19.10 kN/m = 7.62 kN/m
Pu = 0.9 x ( 15.2 )
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

3.25 1.9

3.25 1.9

1.83 kN

3.25 1.9

1.83 kN

## 1.53 kN/m 0.95 kN/m

3.25 1.9

Data:
Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm
Flooring = 1.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 3.00 m t = 300 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 14.8 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Flooring height = 3.00 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 30 mm
L between Support = 3.25 m
L cantilever = 1.9 m
deff. = 270 mm (between support)
Calculation of loads between support deff. = 370 mm (cantilever part)
Own weight of the beam = 0.68 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

Leff. = 3.07 m
0.12
45 degree
1.48 m

x 3.07 x

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 3.45 kN/m L/2x = 1.04 , α = 0.69 , β = 0.52
uniform live load = 1.53 kN/m
uniform live load = 1.53 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.04 kN/m
60 degree
2.88 m = (hw)

x 3.07 x

hw = 2.88 m
x = 1.66 m
L/2x = 0.98 α = 0.7 β = 0.50

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 1 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.69 1 0.722 0.737 0.750

## ● Wall load for bending (gwb)

gwb = α x gw x hw
= 4.4 kN/m
● Wall load for sharing (gws)
gws = β x gw x hw
= 3.28 kN/m

gb = 0.68 + 4.59 + 4.4
gb = 9.67 kN/m
gsh = 0.68 3.45 3.28
gsh = 7.41 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 1.53 kN/m

Cantilever part
Let the depth of the fixed end = span/5 = 380 say 400 mm
The cross sectional dimension of the beam = 220 mm x 400 mm
Own weight of the beam = 1.54 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## Slab load On the Cantilever part

45 degree
0.95 m

1.9 m
Leff. = 1.70 m , h = 0.95 m , Loaded = 0.9 m2
Area Method Coeffecient method
uniform dead load = 2.14 kN/m L/2x = 0.500 α = 0.70 , β =
uniform live load = 0.95 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.95 kN/m

60 degree 0.2

2.88 m

1.9 m
Leff. = 1.70 m , hw= 2.9 m , Loaded Area = 2.736 m2
L/2x = 0.3 m , α = 0.7 β =

## ● Wall load for bending (gwb)

Area Method gwb = 4.6 kN/m
gws = 3.3 kN/m

## Calculation of Concentrated load at Cantilever beam

gsh = 0.68 + 2.80 + 6.84 (From cantilver beam)
gsh = 10.31 kN/m
Total equivalent uniform live load for shear
psh = 1.24 kN/m
psh = 1.24 kN/m
Reactions
(G) = 15.2 kN
(P) = 1.83 kN

between support
gb = 0.68 + 4.6 + 4.4
= 9.67 kN/m
Cantilever part
gb = 1.54 + 2.99 + 4.6
= 9.13 kN/m
between support
gsh = 0.68 + 3.4 + 3.28
= 7.41 kN/m
Cantilever part
gsh = 1.54 + 2.14 + 3.3
= 6.96 kN/m
between support between support
psh = psh = 1.53 kN/m pb = 2.04 kN/m
Cantilever part Cantilever part
psh = psh = 0.95 kN/m pb = 1.33 kN/m

Flexural Design
Maximum +ve moments at mid-span
For Obtaining the maximum moment at mid-span, the full load is applied between the support,
while only 0.9 D.L (minimum dead load required by the code) w/o live loads are applied at the
cantilever part.
* Case 1
Between Support Cantilever Part
Wu = 1.5 x (DL + LL) Wu = 0.9 x DL
= 1.5 x ( 9.7 + 2.04 ) = 0.9 x ( 9.1 )
Wu = 17.57 kN/m = 8.22 kN/m
Pu = 0.9 x ( 15.2 )
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
22.53 kN/m
``

3.55 m

Data:

## Live load 3.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 350 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Wall height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 30 mm
Length = 3.55 m
deff = 320 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 0.86 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 3.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
0.22 Leff. = 3.47 m
1.63 m

x x
3.47 m
x = 1.63 m , Loaded Area = 3 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 3.46 kN/m L/2x = 1.07 , α = 0.708 , β = 0.532
uniform live load = 2.59 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.59 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.45 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

2.30 m

3.47
hw = 2.30 m
L/2x = 1.31 , α = 0.805 , β = 0.617

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 6.11 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 4.69 kN/m

gb = 0.86 + 4.599 + 6.11
gb = 11.57 kN/m
gsh = 0.86 + 3.46 + 4.69
gsh = 9.00 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 3.45 kN/m

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 22.529 kN/m

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8
= 33.9087 kN.m

Beff = 392.90 mm
d = 320.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.446 The point is outside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 320.00 = 40 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 32 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 620.04 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 261 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 806.054 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 72 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 620.04
N = = = 1.97365 say 2 pcs additional bar 0

## 150-2(30)-1(20) 70 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 20 = 628.32
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 628.32 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 34.3614 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2Ф10)

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/24
= 11.30 kN.m
b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.829 The point is outside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826
C = 0.125 x 320 = 40 mm
a = 0.8 x 40 = 32 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 206.681 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 261 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 268.685 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 72 mm2
100
use: As = 261 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 261.00
N = = = 1.29808 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(30)-1(16) 74 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2
Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 17.4 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 39.99 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + beam width/2}
Qu = 34.13 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.711 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 58.00 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 29 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars )   0 .5( Deformed .bars )
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 392.90 mm
A2 hf a = 350.00 mm
bf b = 150.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 230.00 mm
bf = 242.90 mm <4hf , 480.00
b

## y1 = 175 mm A1 = 52500 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 29148 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 133.945 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 818781805 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 216.05 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 11.37 kN.m
yt
Ma = 33.9087 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 628.32 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 6283.2 mm2

z
nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
392.90 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 320 - z)

## 196.45 z^2 + 6283.2 z -

2E+06 = 0
z = 86.17 < 120 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 427340302 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok!

Ie = 4E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok!

Calculate deflection

5WL^4
DL  = defl. = 2.46004 mm
384 EcIe

## Live load deflection Wu = 3.45 kN/m ,= 3.45 N/mm (Live load)

5WL ^4
LL  = defl. = 0.733 mm
384 EcIe

i = 3.19 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 0 then, α = 2
total = = 8.11 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
3550 / 250 = 14.2 mm > 8.11357 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
Beam Mark Size Location Steel Reinforcement
2nd Floor Beams B D Section A Section B Section c
No.of bars size (mm)
top 2 10 2 10
FB-1 150 310
bottom 2 16 2 16
Section c

3A to 2B
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
19.25 kN/m
``

1.90 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 310 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Wall height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 1.90 m
d.effective = 285 mm
Col.dim. = 200 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 0.71 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## -1.17 Leff. = 1.79 m

1.48 m

x x
1.79 m
x = 1.48 m , Loaded Area = 2.11 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 4.72 kN/m L/2x = 0.61 , α = 0.090 , β = 0.174
uniform live load = 2.36 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.51 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.26 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

1.79
hw = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 5.04 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 5.04 kN/m

gb = 0.71 + 4.720 + 5.04
gb = 10.47 kN/m 10.47
gsh = 0.71 + 4.72 + 5.04
gsh = 10.47 kN/m 10.47
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.36 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (none)

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 19.2488 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

= 7.66636 + 0.00
= 7.67 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 292.80 mm ● L2/10 + b
d = 285.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 8.807 > 4.85 ( The point is outside the C1-J Curve. )
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 285.00 = 35.625 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 28.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 157.4 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 232.449 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 204.619 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd
100
0.15
As  xbxd = 64.125 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 232.4
N = = = 1.15611 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 16 mm Ф

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 16 = 402.125
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 19.586 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2Ф12 mm)

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 5.1109 +

b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 7.72 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.17 , J = 0.813
C = 0.170 x 285 = 48.45 mm
a = 0.8 x 48.45 = 38.76 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 106.611 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 232.449 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 138.594 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 64.125 mm2
100
0.15
As  xbxd
100
use: As = 232.449 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 232.45
N = = = 1.15611 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 8.84 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 18.29 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 13.62 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.319 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 58.00 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 29 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0  top  1 .3
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 292.80 mm
A2 hf a = 310.00 mm
bf b = 150.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 190.00 mm
bf = 142.80 mm <4hf 480
b

## y1 = 155 mm A1 = 46500 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 17136 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 129.418 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 505958064 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 180.58 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 8.41 kN.m
yt
Wu = 12.83 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 5.1109 + 0.00
Ma = 5.11 kN.m
Ma < Mcr , Ie=Ig.

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 402.125 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 4021.25 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
292.80 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 285 - z)

## 146.4 z^2 + 4021.25 z - 1E+06 = 0

z = 85.19 < 120 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 220885891 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie > Ig Not ok! 0 Ie=Ig.

Ie = 5E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 285072173

Calculate deflection

## WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 1.53 + 0.00 = 1.53 mm

 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 2.36 kN/m ,= 2.36 N/mm (Live load)
WL ^ 4
 LL  = defl. = 0.35 mm
8 EcIe
WL ^ 4
 LL 
8 EcIe

i = 1.88 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 12 mm , then, α = 1.33
As = 2- 16 mm
total = = 3.92 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
1700 / 480 = 3.54167 mm < 3.91641 Not Ok!
280
3

8
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
13.73 kN/m
``

1.90 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 400 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 1.90 m
d.effective = 375 mm
Col.dim. = 200 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 1.05 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## -0.02 Leff. = 1.79 m

0.90 m

x x
1.79 m
x = 0.90 m , Loaded Area = 2.41 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 5.4 kN/m L/2x = 0.99 , α = 0.700 , β = 0.500
uniform live load = 2.7 kN/m
uniform live load = 1.8 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.52 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.00 m = hw

1.79
hw = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 0 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 0 kN/m

gb = 1.05 + 5.400 + 0.00 Checking
gb = 6.45 kN/m 6.45
gsh = 1.05 + 5.40 + 0.00
gsh = 6.45 kN/m 6.45
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.70 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load.

Wu = 9.39 of IB-8 + 8.175 of IB9
= 17.57 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

## Reaction = 9.9 + 4.54

= 14.44 kN
Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 13.725 kN/m
Pu = 14.44 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL/2

= 21.8655 + 12.89
= 34.75 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 150.00 mm for cantilever
d = 375.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 3.895 < 4.85 (The point is inside the curve take interpolation).
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.200
C = 0.2 x 375.00 = 75 mm , J = 0.8
a = 0.8 x C = 60 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 559.9 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 305.854 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 727.874 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 84.375 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 559.9
N = = = 1.78222 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 0 mm Ф

## 150-2(25)-1(20) 80 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 20 = 628.32
= 0Ф 0 = 0
Aschoosen = = 628.32 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 39 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
30% of the main steel use 2 Ф 12 mm , = 226.195 mm^2 30%As = 188.496 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 3.64424 +

b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 12.03 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.17 , J = 0.813
C = 0.170 x 375 = 63.75 mm
a = 0.8 x 63.75 = 51 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 57.773 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 305.854 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 75.105 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd
100
0.15
As  xbxd = 84.375 mm2
100
use: As = 305.854 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 305.85
N = = = 1.52119 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 4.79 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 27.48 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 23.53 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.418 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 58.00 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 29 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.266 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
fy
 ( ) fcu
s fbu  0 . 3
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 292.80 mm
A2 hf a = 400.00 mm
bf b = 150.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 280.00 mm
bf = 142.80 mm <4hf 480
b

## y1 = 200 mm A1 = 60000 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 17136 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 168.899 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 1.082E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 168.90 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 19.22 kN.m
yt
Wu = 9.15 kN/m
Pu = 9.63 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL/4

Ma = 14.577 + 4.30
Ma = 18.87 kN.m
Ma < Mcr , Ie=Ig.

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 628.32 mm2 2 Ф 20 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
As' = 188.496
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 6283.2 mm2
(n-1)As' = 1696.46 mm2
nAs ● ●

z
nAs' ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
150.00 x z x z/2 + 1696.46 x ( z - 25 ) = 6283.2 ( 400.00 - z )
75.00 z2 + 7979.66 z -3E+06
z = 153.76 mm

## Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

bz ^3
Icr   (n  1) As ' ( z  d ' ' )^ 2  nAs (d  z )^ 2 = 5.17E+08 mm4
3

## Calculate the effective moment of inertia

Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -18269866 Ie=Ig.

Ie = 1E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 546114038

(M300)+(I262-M300)*((U269/G277)^3)
Calculate deflection

## WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 0.45 + 0.06 = 0.51 mm

 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 2.70 kN/m ,= 2.70 N/mm (Live load)
WL ^ 4
 LL  = defl. = 0.21 mm
8 EcIe

i = 0.72 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 12 mm , then, α = 1.57
As = 2- 20 mm
total = = 1.52 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
1900 / 480 = 3.96 mm > 1.52 The code limit is satisfied.
mm2
280
3

8
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
13.50 kN/m
``

1.90 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 400 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Wall height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 1.90 m
d.effective = 375 mm
Col.dim. = 200 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 1.05 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

1.05 m

x x
1.79 m
1.6 m

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 5.3 kN/m L/2x = 0.85 , α = 0.700 , β = 0.500
uniform live load = 2.65 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.1 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.94 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.00 m = hw

1.79
hw = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 0 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 0 kN/m
gb = 1.05 + 5.300 + 0.00 Checking
gb = 6.35 kN/m 6.35
gsh = 1.05 + 5.30 + 0.00
gsh = 6.35 kN/m 6.35
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.7 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load.

Wu = 9.39 kN/m From IB-8
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 9.9 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 13.5 kN/m
Pu = 9.9 kN

= 21.507 + 8.84
= 30.34 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 150.00 mm ●
d = 375.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.169 < 4.85 (The point is inside the curve take interpolation).
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.175
C = 0.175 x 375.00 = 65.625 mm , J = 0.809
a = 0.8 x C = 52.5 mm ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 483.4 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 305.854 mm2
fy
0.225 fcu
As  xbxd
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 628.432 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 84.375 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 483.4
N = = = 1.53874 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 20 mm Ф

## 150-2(25)-1(20) 80 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 20 = 628.32
= 0Ф 20 = 0
Aschoosen = = 628.32 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 39.4386 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
30% of the main steel use 2- 12 Ф mm , 226.195 mm2 30%As = 188.5 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 3.5845 +

b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 12.13 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826
C = 0.125 x 375 = 46.875 mm
a = 0.8 x 46.875 = 37.5 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 55.9316 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 305.854 mm2
fy
1.3 As(required) = 72.7111 mm2
but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 84.375 mm2
100
use: As = 305.854 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 305.85
N = = = 1.52119 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 4.71 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 12.83 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 8.94 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.159 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 58.00 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 29 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.266 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 454.00 mm
A2 hf a = 400.00 mm
bf b = 150.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 280.00 mm
bf = 304.00 mm <4hf 480
b

## y1 = 200 mm A1 = 60000 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 36480 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 147.065 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 1.288E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 147.06 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr 
yt
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 26.28 kN.m
yt
Wu = 9.00 kN/m
Pu = 6.60 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL/2

Ma = 14.338 + 5.89
Ma = 20.23 kN.m
Ma < Mcr , Ie=Ig.

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 628.32 mm2 2 Ф 20 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
As' = 251.328
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 6283.2 mm2
(n-1)As' = 2262 mm2
nAs ● ●

z
nAs' ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
150.00 x z x z/2 + 2262 x ( z - 25 ) = 6283.2 ( 400.00 - z )
75.00 z2 + 8545.15 z -3E+06
z = 150.99 mm

## Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

bz ^3
Icr   (n  1) As ' ( z  d ' ' )^ 2  nAs (d  z )^ 2 = 5.23E+08 mm4
3

## Calculate the effective moment of inertia

Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie > Ig Not ok! 382750601 Ie=Ig.

Ie = 2E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 1.148E+09

(M300)+(I262-M300)*((U269/G277)^3)
Calculate deflection
WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 0.36 + 0.03 = 0.40 mm
 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 2.65 kN/m ,= 2.65 N/mm (Live load)
WL ^ 4
 LL  = defl. = 0.17 mm
8 EcIe

i = 0.56 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 12 mm , then, α = 1.57
As = 2- 20 mm
total = = 1.19 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
1900 / 480 = 3.96 mm > 1.19 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
Wu
9.39 kN/m
``

2.10 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 220 mm
Unit weight of b = 120 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Flooring height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 2.10 m
d.effective = 195 mm
Col.dim. = 300 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 0.30 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## 0.10 Leff. = 2.00 m

0.95 m

x x
2.00 m
0.48 m
x = 0.95 m , Loaded Area = 0.99 m2 - Area 1
Loaded Area = 0.99 m2 - Area 2
= 1.98 m2 - Total area

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 3.98 kN/m L/2x = 1.05 , α = 0.698 , β = 0.524
uniform live load = 1.99 kN/m
uniform live load = 1.99 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.65 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.00 m = hw

2.00
hw = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 0 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 0 kN/m

gb = 0.30 + 3.975 + 0.00 ,
gb = 4.28 kN/m 4.27544
gsh = 0.30 + 3.98 + 0.00
gsh = 4.28 kN/m 4.27544
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 1.99 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (none)

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 9.39 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

= 4.67391 + 0.00
= 4.67 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) T-section

Beff = 439.20 mm ● L2/10 + b
d = 195.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 9.451 > 4.85 ( The point is outside the C1-J Curve. )
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 195.00 = 24.375 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 19.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 140.3 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 127.235 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 182.326 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 35.1 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 12 mm Ф- bars Ad = 113.0976

As 140.3
N = = = 1.24009 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 12 mm Ф
120-2(25)-1(12) 58 mm > 12 mm OK!
S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 12 = 226.195
= 0Ф 12 = 0
Aschoosen = = 226.195 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 7.53804 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2 Ф 10 mm ) , As = 157.08 mm2 22.6195

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 3.11594 +

b = 120 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 6.051 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826
C = 0.125 x 195 = 24.375 mm
a = 0.8 x 24.375 = 19.5 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 93.5005 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 127.235 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 121.551 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 35.1 mm2
100
use: As = 127.235 mm2
using 12 mm Ф- bars Ad = 113.0976

As 127.24
N = = = 1.12501 say 2 pcs
N = = = 1.12501 say 2 pcs

## 120-2(25)-1(12) 58 mm > 12 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 226.195 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 5.54 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 9.86 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 7.54 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.322 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 46.40 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 23.1996 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## Ldbottom = 21.1166 say 23 Ф (Tension bars in bottom)

Ldtop = 27.4516 say 30 Ф (Tension bars in top)

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff Beff

A2 hf A2 A2
bf
a A1 hw A1

## y1 = 110 mm A1 = 26400 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 38304 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 80.4006 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 191516017 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 139.60 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 4.12 kN.m
yt
Wu = 6.26 kN/m ,
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = WuL^2)/8 + PL/4 Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

Ma = 3.11594 + 0.00
Ma = 3.12 kN.m
Ma < Mcr , Ie=Ig IF(G277>U269,">","<")
IF(U269>G277,"Ie=Ig.","Then calculate Ie")
Calculate the cracked section properties
As = 226.195 mm2 2 Ф 12 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 2262 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
439.20 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 195 - z)

## 219.6 z^2 + 2262 z -

441081 = 0
z = 40 < 120 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 63712997 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie > Ig Not ok! 166708267

Ie = 4E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 294511287
Use,
Ie = Ig , = 191516017 mm4 Since Mcr is greater than Ma
Calculate deflection
5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL   = 0.05 + 0.00 = 0.05 mm
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 1.99 kN/m ,= 1.99 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = 0.02 mm
384 EcIe

## Thus the immediate deflection equals:

i = 0.08 mm
Calculate long term deflection
 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 10 mm , then, α = 1.17
As = 2- 12 mm
total = = 0.14 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
2100 / 250 = 8.4 mm > 0.13541 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

Beff.
a
b
hf
hw
bf
alculate Ie")
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
19.76 kN/m
``

1.90 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 400 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 1.90 m
d.effective = 375 mm
Col.dim. = 200 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 1.05 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## -1.17 Leff. = 1.79 m

1.48 m

x x
1.79 m
x = 1.48 m , Loaded Area = 2.11 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 4.72 kN/m L/2x = 0.61 , α = 0.090 , β = 0.174
uniform live load = 2.36 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.51 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.26 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

## 2.10 m = wall Height

1.79
height of the wall = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 5.04 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 5.04 kN/m

gb = 1.05 + 4.720 + 5.04
gb = 10.81 kN/m 10.81
gsh = 1.05 + 4.72 + 5.04
gsh = 10.81 kN/m 10.81
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.36 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (none)

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 19.755 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL
= 31.4719 + 0.00
= 31.47 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 150.00 mm For Cantilever
d = 375.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.093 < 4.85 (The point is inside the curve take interpolation).
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.179
C = 0.179 x 375.00 = 67.125 mm , J = 0.807
a = 0.8 x C = 53.7 mm
Mu
As  = 502.6 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 305.854 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 653.434 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd
100
0.15
As  xbxd = 84.375 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 502.6
N = = = 2.49993 say 2 pcs additional bars 2 - 16 mm Ф

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 16 = 402.125
= 2Ф 16 = 402.125
Aschoosen = = 804.25 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 50.3566 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
30% of the main steel use 2 Ф 12 mm , 226.195 mm2 , 30%As = 241.275 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 5.24532 +

b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 10.03 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.17 , J = 0.813
C = 0.170 x 375 = 63.75 mm
a = 0.8 x 63.75 = 51 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 83.1553 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 305.854 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 108.102 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 84.375 mm2
100
0.15
As  xbxd
100
use: As = 305.854 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 305.85
N = = = 1.52119 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 6.9 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL = 37.53 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 31.85 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.566 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 58.00 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 29 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.266 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0  top  1 .3
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 292.80 mm
A2 hf a = 400.00 mm
bf b = 150.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 280.00 mm
bf = 142.80 mm <4hf 480
b

## y1 = 200 mm A1 = 60000 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 17136 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 168.899 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 1.082E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 168.90 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 19.22 kN.m
yt
Wu = 13.17 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL/4

Ma = 20.9813 + 0.00
Ma = 20.98 kN.m
Ma > Mcr , Then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 804.25 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
As' = 80.425
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 8042.5 mm2
(n-1)As' = 723.825 mm2
nAs ● ●

z
nAs' ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
150.00 x z x z/2 + 723.825 x ( z - 25 ) = 8042.5 ( 400.00 - z )
75.00 z2 + 8766.32 z -3E+06
z = 149.92 mm
292.80 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 375 - z)

## 146.4 z^2 + 8042.5 z -

3E+06 = 0
z = 85.19 < 120 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

bz ^3
Icr   (n  1) As ' ( z  d ' ' )^ 2  nAs (d  z )^ 2 = 5.87E+08 mm4
3

## Calculate the effective moment of inertia

Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -43526073 Then calculate Ie

Ie = 1E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 451072776

(M300)+(I262-M300)*((U269/G277)^3)
Calculate deflection

WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 0.77 + 0.00 = 0.77 mm
 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 2.36 kN/m ,= 2.36 N/mm (Live load)
WL ^ 4
 LL  = defl. = 0.17 mm
8 EcIe

i = 0.94 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 12 mm , then, α = 1.33
As = 2- 16 mm
total = = 1.96 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
1700 / 480 = 3.54 mm > 1.96069 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
en calculate Ie
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
14.51 kN/m
``

1.10 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 135 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 300 mm
Unit weight of b = 120 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Flooring Height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 1.10 m
d.effective = 275 mm
Col.dim. = 200 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 0.50 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.38 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## -0.66 Leff. = 0.95 m

0.80 m

x x
0.95 m
x = 0.80 m , Loaded Area = 1.36 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 6.3 kN/m L/2x = 0.59 , α = 0.044 , β = 0.153
uniform live load = 2.88 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.25 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.07 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.00 m = hw

0.95
hw = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 0 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 0 kN/m

gb = 0.50 + 6.300 + 0.00
gb = 6.80 kN/m 6.80
gsh = 0.50 + 6.30 + 0.00
gsh = 6.80 kN/m 6.80
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.88 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (Thru stairs beam and railings)

Wu = 2.6 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 1.3 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 14.5125 kN/m
Pu = 1.95 kN

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL
= 6.48 + 1.84
= 8.32 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 120.00 mm for cantilever
d = 275.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.221 > 4.85 ( The point is outside the C1-J Curve. )
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 275.00 = 34.375 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 27.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 177.1 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 179.435 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 230.217 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd
100
0.15
As  xbxd = 49.5 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 12 mm Ф- bars Ad = 113.0976

As 179.4
N = = = 1.58655 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 12 mm Ф

## 120-2(25)-1(12) 58 mm > 12 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 12 = 226.195
= 0Ф 12 = 0
Aschoosen = = 226.195 mm2

## Mr = Mu Aschoosen = 10.6306 kN.m 40% of the main steel

Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
40% of the main steel use 2 Ф 10 mm 157.08 mm2 40% As' = 90.4781 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 6.48001 +

b = 120 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.917 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.17 , J = 0.813
C = 0.170 x 275 = 46.75 mm
a = 0.8 x 46.75 = 37.4 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 140.085 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 179.435 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 182.111 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 49.5 mm2
100
0.15
As  xbxd
100
use: As = 179.435 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 179.43
N = = = 0.89243 say 2 pcs

## 120-2(25)-1(16) 54 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 14.5 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL = 17.91 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 14.47 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.438 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 46.40 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 23.1996 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0  top  1 .3
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 195.60 mm
A2 hf a = 300.00 mm
bf b = 120.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 135.00 mm
hw = 165.00 mm
bf = 75.60 mm <4hf 540
b concrete cover = 25 mm

## y1 = 150 mm A1 = 36000 mm2

y2 = 67.5 mm A2 = 10206 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 131.777 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 339621584 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 131.78 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 7.73 kN.m
yt
Wu = 9.68 kN/m
Pu = 1.30 kN

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL
Ma = 4.32001 + 1.23
Ma = 5.55 kN.m
Ma < Mcr , Ie=Ig.

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 226.195 mm2 2 Ф 12 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 2262 mm2

nAs ● ● z

● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
120.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 275.00 - z)

60 z^2 + 2262 z -
622037 = 0
z = 84 mm
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 121162572 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie > Ig Not ok! 372651051 Ie=Ig.

Ie = 7E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 591110063
Ie = Ig
Calculate deflection (M294)+(I256-M294)*((U263/

## WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 0.17 + 0.08 = 0.24 mm

 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 2.88 kN/m ,= 2.88 N/mm (Live load)
WL ^ 4
 LL  = defl. = 0.10 mm
8 EcIe
WL ^ 4
 LL 
8 EcIe

i = 0.35 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 10 mm , then, α = 2
As = 2- 12 mm
total = = 0.83 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
1100 / 480 = 2.29167 mm > 0.83416 The code limit is satisfied.
(Use 2Ф12 mm)
280
3

8
)+(I256-M294)*((U263/G271)^3)
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
15.49 kN/m
``

3.25 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 350 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 227 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 3.25 m
d.effective = 325 mm
Col.dim. = 300 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 0.94 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

1.48 m

x x
3.15 m
1.48 m

## x = 1.48 m , Loaded Area = 2.47 m2 - Area 1

Loaded Area = 2.48 m2 - Area 2
= 4.95 m2 - Total area

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 5.5 kN/m L/2x = 1.07 , α = 0.708 , β = 0.532
uniform live load = 3.14 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.05 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.57 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.00 m = hw

3.15
hw = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 0 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 0 kN/m

gb = 0.94 + 5.500 + 0.00 , 6.43708
gb = 7.18 kN/m
gsh = 0.94 + 5.50 + 0.00 6.43708
gsh = 6.27 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 3.14 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (none)

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 15.4851 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

= 19.2063 + 0.00
= 19.21 kN.m

Beff = 654.00 mm
d = 325.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 9.482 > 4.85 ( The point is outside the C1-J Curve. )
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 325.00 = 40.625 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 32.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 315.2 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd
fy
0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 241.602 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 409.73 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 73.125 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 315.2
N = = = 1.56756 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 16 mm Ф

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 16 = 402.125
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 24.5047 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2 Ф 10 mm ) , As = 157.08 mm2 40.2125 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 12.8042 +

b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.562 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.134 , J = 0.823
C = 0.134 x 325 = 43.55 mm
a = 0.8 x 43.55 = 34.84 mm

Mu
As  = 210.884 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 241.602 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 274.149 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 73.125 mm2
100
use: As = 241.602 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 241.60
N = = = 1.20163 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 21.3 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 25.16 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 20.32 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.417 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00176 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 52.86 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 26.4317 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 15.4454 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 20.079 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff

A2 hf
bf
a A1 hw

## y1 = 175 mm A1 = 52500 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 40000 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 120.946 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 932667230 mm4

## Calculate cracking moment

fctr  0 .6 fcu
fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2
yt = 229.05 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 12.22 kN.m
yt
Wu = 10.32 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 12.8042 + 0.00
Ma = 12.80 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 402.125 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 4021.25 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
654.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 325 - z)

## 327 z^2 + 4021.25 z -1E+06 = 0

z = 49.38 < 100 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 331728489 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -79140403

Ie = 9E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 521798338

Calculate deflection

5WL ^ 4 PL ^3
DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
5WL ^ 4 PL ^3 = 0.56 + 0.00 = 0.56 mm
DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 3.14 kN/m ,= 3.14 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = 0.24 mm
384EcIe

i = 0.80 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 10 mm , then, α = 2
As = 2- 16 mm
total = = 1.91 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
3250 / 250 = 13 mm > 1.90969 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

Beff.
a
b
hf
hw
bf
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
16.43 kN/m
``

3.25 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 350 mm
Unit weight of b = 170 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 227 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 3.25 m
d.effective = 325 mm
Col.dim. = 300 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 0.98 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## 0.22 Leff. = 3.17 m

1.48 m

x x
3.17 m
x = 1.48 m , Loaded Area = 2.5 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 3.15 kN/m L/2x = 1.07 , α = 0.711 , β = 0.535
uniform live load = 1.58 kN/m
uniform live load = 1.58 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.1 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

## 2.10 m = Height of the wall

3.17 m
Coeffecient method
L/2x = 1.41 , α = 0.832 , β = 0.645

gb = 0.98 + 3.15 + 5.24
gb = 9.37 kN/m 9.37 kN/m
gsh = 0.98 + 3.15 + 4.06 8.19 kN/m
gsh = 8.19 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 1.58 kN/m

Wu = 10.35 kN/m
Pu = 16.56 kN

## Reaction = 16.56 kN 80 % only, some loads will carry by the slab

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 16.4251 kN/m
Pu = 16.56 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

= 20.6318 + 13.12
= 33.76 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 423.60 mm ● L2/10 + b
d = 325.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.756 > 4.85 ( The point is outside the C1-J Curve. )
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 325.00 = 40.625 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 32.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 553.9 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd
fy
0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 273.816 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 720.112 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 82.875 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 553.9
N = = = 1.76322 say 2 pcs additional bars 2 - 20 mm Ф

## 170-2(25)-1(20) 100 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 20 = 628.32
= 2Ф 20 = 628.32
Aschoosen = = 1256.64 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 76.5773 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel use 2 Ф 10 mm = 157.08 mm2 , 10% of As = 125.664

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 13.7545 + 6.73
= 14.3374
b = 170 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.596 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826
C = 0.125 x 325 = 40.625 mm
a = 0.8 x 40.625 = 32.5 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 235.278 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 273.816 mm2
fy
0.225 fcu
As  xbxd
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 305.862 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 82.875 mm2
100
use: As = 273.816 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 273.82
N = = = 1.36185 say 2 pcs

## 170-2(25)-1(16) 104 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 21.1 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 26.69 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 21.56 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.390 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00176 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 59.91 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 29.9559 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'
Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 15.4454 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 20.079 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 423.60 mm
A2 hf a = 350.00 mm
bf b = 170.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 230.00 mm
bf = 253.60 mm <4hf 480
b

## y1 = 175 mm A1 = 59500 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 30432 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 136.085 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 910188312 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 213.91 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 12.76 kN.m
yt
Wu = 10.95 kN/m
Pu = 11.04 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 13.7545 + 8.75
Ma = 22.50 kN.m
Ma > Mcr , Then Calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 1256.64 mm2 2 Ф 20 mm
2 Ф 20 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 12566.4 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
423.60 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 350 - z)

## 211.8 z^2 + 12566.4 z - 4E+06 = 0

z = 85.72 < 120 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 808424942 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -83191171

Ie = 8E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 18572199

Calculate deflection
For Fixed end beam with uniform load

## 5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 0.75 + 0.43 = 1.18 mm

 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 1.58 kN/m ,= 1.58 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = 0.20 mm
384 EcIe

i = 1.38 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 10 mm , then, α = 2
As = 2- 20 mm
total = = 3.75 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
3250 / 250 = 13 mm > 3.74594 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
15.20 kN/m
``

3.25 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 300 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 227 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 3.25 m
d.effective = 275 mm
Col.dim. = 300 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 0.75 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

1.48 m

x x
3.15 m
1.48 m

## x = 1.48 m , Loaded Area = 2.47 m2 - Area 1

Loaded Area = 2.48 m2 - Area 2
= 4.95 m2 - Total area

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 5.5 kN/m L/2x = 1.07 , α = 0.708 , β = 0.532
uniform live load = 3.14 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.05 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.57 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.00 m = hw

3.15
hw = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 0 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 0 kN/m

gb = 0.75 + 5.500 + 0.00 , 6.24958
gb = 6.99 kN/m
gsh = 0.75 + 5.50 + 0.00 6.24958
gsh = 6.09 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 3.14 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (none)

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 15.2038 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

= 18.8575 + 0.00
= 18.86 kN.m

Beff = 654.00 mm
d = 275.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 8.097 > 4.85 ( The point is outside the C1-J Curve. )
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 275.00 = 34.375 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 27.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 365.7 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd
fy
0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 204.433 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 475.432 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 61.875 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 365.7
N = = = 1.81892 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 16 mm Ф

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 16 = 402.125
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 20.7348 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2 Ф 10 mm ) , As = 157.08 mm2 40.2125

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 12.5716 +

b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.75 < 4.85 The point is inside the Curve take linear Interpolation.
Take c/d = 0.134 , J = 0.823
C = 0.134 x 275 = 36.85 mm
a = 0.8 x 36.85 = 29.48 mm

Mu
As  = 244.7 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 204.433 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 318.11 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 61.875 mm2
100
use: As = 244.7 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 244.70
N = = = 1.21703 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 20.7 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 24.71 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 20.34 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.493 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00176 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 52.86 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 26.4317 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 15.4454 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 20.079 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff

A2 hf
bf
a A1 hw

## y1 = 150 mm A1 = 45000 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 40000 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 102.941 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 591264706 mm4

## Calculate cracking moment

fctr  0 .6 fcu
fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2
yt = 197.06 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 9.00 kN.m
yt
Wu = 10.14 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 12.5716 + 0.00
Ma = 12.57 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 402.125 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 4021.25 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
654.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 275 - z)

## 327 z^2 + 4021.25 z -

1E+06 = 0
z = 69 < 100 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 242260642 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -220896029

Ie = 4E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 128108035

Calculate deflection

5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 1.25 + 0.00 = 1.25 mm
 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 3.14 kN/m ,= 3.14 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = 0.56 mm
384 EcIe

i = 1.81 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 10 mm , then, α = 1.54
As = 2- 16 mm
total = = 3.73 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
3250 / 250 = 13 mm > 3.72714 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

Beff.
a
b
hf
hw
bf
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
18.16 kN/m
``

3.25 m

Data:

## Live load 3.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 0.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 350 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 227 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 3.25 m
deff = 325 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 0.94 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 3.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
1.05 Leff. = 3.15 m ● distance CL to CL between the support
1.05 m

x x
3.15 m
1.6 m

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 4.62 kN/m L/2x = 1.00 , α = 0.667 , β = 0.500
uniform live load = 4.62 kN/m
uniform live load = 1.58 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.1 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.73 m

## 2.10 m (height of the wall)

3.15
2.30 m = Flooring Height
Dead load , gw = 2.64 kN/m2 Reduction of 20% due to Window area

Coeffecient method
L/2x = 1.30 , α = 0.802 , β = 0.615
Wall load for bending , gwb = 4.45 kN/m
Wall load for sharing , gws = 3.41 kN/m

gb = 0.94 + 4.620 + 4.45
gb = 7.49 kN/m
gsh = 0.94 + 4.62 + 3.41
gsh = 5.92 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 4.62 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load () None

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 18.1596 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

= 22.5236 + 0.00
= 22.52 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) T-section

Beff = 654.00 mm ● L2/5 + b
d = 325.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 8.756 The point is inside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 325.00 = 40.625 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 32.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 369.6 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 241.602 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 480.497 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 73.125 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 369.6
N = = = 1.8383 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 16 mm Ф

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 16 = 402.125
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 24.5047 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel use 2 Ф 10 mm , As = 157.08 mm2 10%As = 40.2125 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 15.0157 +

b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.136 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826 Take minimum in C1-J curve.
C = 0.125 x 325 = 40.625 mm
a = 0.8 x 40.625 = 32.5 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 246.409 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd
fy
0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 241.602 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 320.332 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 73.125 mm2
100
use: As = 246.409 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 246.41
N = = = 1.22553 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 24.5 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 29.51 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + beam width/2}
Qu = 24.74 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.508 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00176 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 52.86 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 26.4317 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'
Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 15.4454 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 20.079 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 654.00 mm
A2 hf a = 350.00 mm
bf b = 150.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 100.00 mm
hw = 250.00 mm
bf = 400.00 mm <4hf 400
b

## y1 = 175 mm A1 = 52500 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 40000 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 120.946 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 932667230 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

fctr  0 .6 fcu
yt = 229.05 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 12.22 kN.m
yt
Wu = 12.11 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 15.0157 + 0.00
Ma = 15.02 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 402.125 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 16 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 4021.25 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
654.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 325 - z)

## 327 z^2 + 4021.25 z -

1E+06 = 0
z = 49.38 < 100 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 331728489 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -277402490

Ie = 7E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 323536250

Calculate deflection

## 5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 0.75 + 0.00 = 0.75 mm

 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 4.62 kN/m ,= 4.62 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = 0.47 mm
384 EcIe

i = 1.22 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 10 mm , then, α = 1.93
As = 5- 25 mm
total = = 2.68 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
3250 / 250 = 13 mm > 2.67597 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
22.74 kN/m
``

2.95 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 350 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 2.95 m
d.effective = 325 mm
Col.dim. = 300 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 0.94 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

0.95 m

x x
2.85 m
1.63 m

## x = 0.95 m , Loaded Area = 1.81 m2 - Area 1

Loaded Area = 3.09 m2 - Area 2
= 4.89 m2 - Total area

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 6.01 kN/m L/2x = 1.50 , α = 0.852 , β = 0.667
uniform live load = 3.43 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.89 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.24 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.43

## 2.10 m = Wall Height

2.85
hw = 2.30 m

L/2x = 1.17532 ,α = 0.759 , β = 0.575
Wall load for bending , gwb = 4.78 kN/m
Wall load for sharing , gws = 3.62 kN/m

gb = 0.94 + 6.008 + 4.78 , 11.7256
gb = 11.73 kN/m
gsh = 0.94 + 6.01 + 3.62 10.5657
gsh = 10.57 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 3.43 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (none)

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 22.74 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

= 24.7351 + 0.00
= 24.74 kN.m

Beff = 606.00 mm
d = 325.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 8.043 > 4.85 ( The point is outside the C1-J Curve. )
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 325.00 = 40.625 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 32.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 445.3 mm2
fyjd
Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 265.074 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 578.94 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 73.125 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 445.3
N = = = 2.21493 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 16 mm Ф

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 16 = 402.125
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 22.3349 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2 Ф 10 mm ) , As = 157.08 mm2 10%As = 40.2125

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 15.3911 +

b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.073 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826
C = 0.125 x 325 = 40.625 mm
a = 0.8 x 40.625 = 32.5 mm

Mu
As  = 277.105 mm2
fyjd
Mu
As 
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 265.074 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 360.237 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 73.125 mm2
100
use: As = 277.105 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 277.11
N = = = 1.37821 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 22.3 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 33.54 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 26.43 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.542 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 58.00 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 29 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff

A2 hf
bf
a A1 hw

## y1 = 175 mm A1 = 52500 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 40000 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 120.946 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 928667230 mm4
Calculate cracking moment

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 229.05 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 12.16 kN.m
yt
Wu = 15.16 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 16.4901 + 0.00
Ma = 16.49 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 402.125 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 4021.25 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
606.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 325 - z)

## 303 z^2 + 4021.25 z -1E+06 = 0

z = 51.07 < 100 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 328650967 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -359234201

Ie = 6E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 240782061

Calculate deflection

## 5WL ^ 4 PL ^3 = 0.92 + 0.00 = 0.92 mm

DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 3.43 kN/m ,= 3.43 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = 0.27 mm
384EcIe

i = 1.19 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 10 mm , then, α = 1.54
As = 2- 16 mm
total = = 2.61 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
2950 / 250 = 11.8 mm > 2.61465 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

Beff.
a
b
hf
hw
bf
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
26.12 kN/m
``

5.10 m

Data:

## Live load 3.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 0.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 500 mm
Unit weight of b = 200 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 5.10 m
deff = 475 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 2.00 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 3.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
1.80 Leff. = 5.00 m ●
1.60 m

x x
5.00 m

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 4.24 kN/m L/2x = 1.00 , α = 0.667 , β = 0.500
uniform live load = 4.24 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.4 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.2 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

2.58 m

## 2.10 m (height of the wall)

5.00
2.30 m = Flooring Height

Coeffecient method
L/2x = 2.06 , α = 0.917 , β = 0.750
Wall load for bending , gwb = 6.93 kN/m
Wall load for sharing , gws = 6.93 kN/m

gb = 2.00 + 4.24 + 6.93 13.17
gb = 13.17 kN/m
gsh = 2.00 + 4.24 + 6.93 13.17
gsh = 13.17 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 4.24 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load () Due to beam FB-3, CB-3

Wu = 16.769 kN/m Wu = 13.73 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN Pu = 14.44 kN

## Reaction = 23.42 kN Reaction = 13.03 + 14.44

= 16.48 kN
Total Concentrated load = 39.90 kN
Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 26.1246 kN/m
Pu = 39.90 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

= 84.9376 + 50.88
= 135.81 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 550.0 mm ●
d = 475.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.779 The point is inside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.162
C = 0.162 x 475.00 = 76.95 mm , J = 0.813
a = 0.8 x C = 61.56 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 1699.8 mm2
fyjd
Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 516.554 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 2209.73 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 142.5 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 1699.8
N = = = 5.41059 say 3 pcs additional bars 3 - 20 mm Ф

## 200-2(25)-2(20) 55 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
2

Choose As = 3Ф 20 = 942.48
= 3Ф 20 = 942.48
Aschoosen = = 1884.96 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 150.608 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel use 2 Ф 16 mm , As = 402.125 mm2 10%As = 188.496 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 54.4263 + 25.4375
= 39.9319 kN.m
b = 200 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.315 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.128 , J = 0.825 Take minimum in C1-J curve.
C = 0.128 x 475 = 60.8 mm
a = 0.8 x 60.8 = 48.64 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 492.506 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 516.554 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 640.258 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 142.5 mm2
100
use: As = 516.554 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 516.55 additional 0Ф 16 mm
N = = = 2.56912 say 3 pcs

## 200-2(25)-2(16) 59 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
2
Choose As = 3 Ф 16 = 603.187 mm2
= 0 Ф 16 = 0 mm2
Aschoosen = = 603.187 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 46.6 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 86.6 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + beam width/2}
Qu = 77.75 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.818 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98 Use minimum stirrups
c
qu < qcu Use minimum Stirrups

qsu = 0.33 N/mm2

## Shear stress carried by vertical stirrups

0 .4 = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
u min 
fy
Assume s = 200 mm
Ast(min) = umin x b x s
= 77.332 mm2
Area of one branch = 38.666 , choose Ф 10 mm = 78.54 mm2

Use 7 Ф m'

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 77.33 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 38.666 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 550.00 mm
A2 hf a = 500.00 mm
bf b = 200.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 100.00 mm
hw = 400.00 mm
bf = 350.00 mm <4hf 400
b

## y1 = 250 mm A1 = 100000 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 35000 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 198.148 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 3.15E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 301.85 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 31.30 kN.m
yt
Wu = 17.42 kN/m
Pu = 26.60 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 56.6251 + 33.92
Ma = 90.54 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 1884.96 mm2 3 Ф 20 mm
3 Ф 20 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 18849.6 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
550.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 475 - z)
275 z^2 + 18849.6 z -9E+06 = 0
z = 139.75 > 100 Outside Flange
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 2.619E+09 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -508680323

Ie = 3E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 21925392

Calculate deflection

## 5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 2.00 + 1.27 = 3.26 mm

 DL ` 
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 4.24 kN/m ,= 4.24 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = 1.05 mm
384 EcIe

i = 4.31 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 16 mm , then, α = 1.74
As = 6- 20 mm
total = = 10.00 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
5100 / 250 = 20.4 mm > 10.0036 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
21.12 kN/m
``

5.10 m

Data:

## Live load 3.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 0.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 450 mm
Unit weight of b = 220 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 5.10 m
deff = 425 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 1.93 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 3.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
1.80 Leff. = 5.00 m ●
1.60 m

x x
5.00 m

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 2.61 kN/m L/2x = 1.00 , α = 0.667 , β = 0.500
uniform live load = 2.61 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.4 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.2 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

2.58 m

## 2.10 m (height of the wall)

x x
5.00
x = 1.21

Coeffecient method
L/2x = 2.06 , α = 0.917 , β = 0.750
Wall load for bending , gwb = 6.93 kN/m
Wall load for sharing , gws = 6.93 kN/m

gb = 1.93 + 2.61 + 6.93 11.47
gb = 11.47 kN/m
gsh = 1.93 + 2.61 + 6.93 11.47
gsh = 11.47 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.61 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load () Due to beam FB-3,

Wu = 16.769 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 23.42 kN

## Total Concentrated load = 23.42 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 21.1161 kN/m
Pu = 23.42 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

= 68.6537 + 29.86
= 98.51 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 570.0 mm ●
d = 425.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.111 The point is inside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.148
C = 0.1482 x 425.00 = 62.985 mm , J = 0.8176
a = 0.8 x C = 50.388 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 1370.3 mm2
fyjd
Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 508.398 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 1781.36 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 140.25 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 1370.3
N = = = 4.36172 say 3 pcs additional bars 2 - 20 mm Ф

## 220-2(25)-2(20) 65 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
2

Choose As = 3Ф 20 = 942.48
= 2Ф 20 = 628.32
Aschoosen = = 1570.8 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 112.93 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel use 2 Ф 12 mm , As = 226.195 mm2 10%As = 157.08 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 43.9919 + 14.9303
= 41.2455 kN.m
b = 220 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.908 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.134 , J = 0.823 Take minimum in C1-J curve.
C = 0.134 x 425 = 56.95 mm
a = 0.8 x 56.95 = 45.56 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 569.937 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 508.398 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 740.919 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 140.25 mm2
100
use: As = 569.937 mm2
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 569.94 additional 0Ф 16 mm
N = = = 1.81416 say 2 pcs

## 220-2(25)-1(20) 150 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
1
Choose As = 2 Ф 20 = 628.32 mm2
= 0 Ф 16 = 0 mm2
Aschoosen = = 628.32 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 45.5 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 65.6 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + beam width/2}
Qu = 58.96 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.631 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98 Use minimum stirrups
c
qu < qcu Use minimum Stirrups

qsu = 0.14 N/mm2

## Shear stress carried by vertical stirrups

0 .4 = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
u min 
fy
Assume s = 200 mm
Ast(min) = umin x b x s
= 85.0652 mm2
Area of one branch = 42.5326 , choose Ф 10 mm = 78.54 mm2

Use 7 Ф m'

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 85.07 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 42.5326 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 570.00 mm
A2 hf a = 450.00 mm
bf b = 220.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 100.00 mm
hw = 350.00 mm
bf = 350.00 mm <4hf 400
b

## y1 = 225 mm A1 = 99000 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 35000 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 179.291 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 2.492E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 270.71 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 27.61 kN.m
yt
Wu = 14.08 kN/m
Pu = 15.61 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 45.7691 + 19.91
Ma = 65.68 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 1570.8 mm2 3 Ф 20 mm
2 Ф 20 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 15708 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
570.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 425 - z)
285 z^2 + 15708 z -
7E+06 = 0
z = 121.89 > 100 Outside Flange
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 1.787E+09 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -652082028

Ie = 2E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 52355497

Calculate deflection

## 5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 2.50 + 1.07 = 3.56 mm

 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 2.61 kN/m ,= 2.61 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^ 4
LL  = defl. = 0.81 mm
384 EcIe

i = 4.37 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 16 mm , then, α = 2
As = 5- 20 mm
total = = 11.50 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
5100 / 250 = 20.4 mm > 11.4966 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
22.93 kN/m
``

2.95 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 350 mm
Unit weight of b = 170 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 2.95 m
d.effective = 325 mm
Col.dim. = 300 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 1.06 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

0.95 m

x x
2.85 m
1.63 m

## x = 0.95 m , Loaded Area = 1.81 m2 - Area 1

Loaded Area = 3.09 m2 - Area 2
= 4.89 m2 - Total area

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 6.01 kN/m L/2x = 1.50 , α = 0.852 , β = 0.667
uniform live load = 3.43 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.89 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.24 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.43

## 2.10 m = Wall Height

2.85
hw = 2.30 m

L/2x = 1.17532 ,α = 0.759 , β = 0.575
Wall load for bending , gwb = 4.78 kN/m
Wall load for sharing , gws = 3.62 kN/m

gb = 1.06 + 6.008 + 4.78 , 11.8506
gb = 11.85 kN/m
gsh = 1.06 + 6.01 + 3.62 10.6907
gsh = 10.69 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 3.43 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (none)

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 22.93 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

= 24.9391 + 0.00
= 24.94 kN.m

Beff = 626.00 mm
d = 325.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 8.141 > 4.85 ( The point is outside the C1-J Curve. )
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 325.00 = 40.625 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 32.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 449.0 mm2
fyjd
Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 300.417 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 583.714 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 82.875 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 449.0
N = = = 1.42924 say 2 pcs additional bars 2 - 20 mm Ф

## 170-2(25)-1(20) 100 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 20 = 628.32
= 2Ф 20 = 628.32
Aschoosen = = 1256.64 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 69.7967 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2 Ф 10 mm ) , As = 157.08 mm2 10%As = 125.664

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 15.518 +

b = 170 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.378 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826
C = 0.125 x 325 = 40.625 mm
a = 0.8 x 40.625 = 32.5 mm

Mu
As  = 279.39 mm2
fyjd
Mu
As 
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 300.417 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 363.207 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 82.875 mm2
100
use: As = 300.417 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 300.42
N = = = 1.49415 say 2 pcs

## 170-2(25)-1(16) 104 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 20.8 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 33.82 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 26.65 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.482 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 65.73 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 32.8661 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff

A2 hf
bf
a A1 hw

## y1 = 175 mm A1 = 59500 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 40000 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 124.749 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 1.019E+09 mm4
Calculate cracking moment

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 225.25 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 13.57 kN.m
yt
Wu = 15.28 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 16.6261 + 0.00
Ma = 16.63 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 1256.64 mm2 2 Ф 20 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 12566.4 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
626.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 325 - z)

## 313 z^2 + 12566.4 z -4E+06 = 0

z = 73.77 < 100 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 876918103 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -64835943

Ie = 1E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 77385507

Calculate deflection

## 5WL ^ 4 PL ^3 = 0.56 + 0.00 = 0.56 mm

DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 3.43 kN/m ,= 3.43 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = 0.16 mm
384EcIe

i = 0.72 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 10 mm , then, α = 1.7
As = 2- 20 mm
total = = 1.66 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
2950 / 250 = 11.8 mm > 1.66414 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

Beff.
a
b
hf
hw
bf
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
14.87 kN/m
``

3.15 m

Data:

## Live load 3.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 0.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.30 m t = 300 mm
Unit weight of b = 150 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Flooring Height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 3.15 m
deff = 275 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 0.68 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 3.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
-0.18 Leff. = 3.07 m ● distance CL to CL between the support
1.63 m

x x
3.07 m 0.95
1.17
3.07 m

## x = 1.30 m , Loaded Area = Area1 = 2.3481 mm2

Area2 = 2.014 mm2
Total Area = 4.36 mm2
Area Method Coeffecient method
uniform dead load = 5.0 kN/m L/2x = 1.18 , α = 0.761 , β = 0.577
uniform live load = 4.26 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.81 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.71 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.00 m

3.07
hw = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 0 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 0 kN/m
gb = 0.68 + 4.973 + 0.00
gb = 5.65 kN/m
gsh = 0.68 + 4.97 + 0.00
gsh = 5.65 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 4.26 kN/m

3.25
Height of the wall = 0 m
gw = 3.3 kN/m2
L/2x = #DIV/0!

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 2.95 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 2.24 kN/m

## Reaction due to the Wall load = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 14.8662 kN/m
Pu = 1.50 x 0
= 0.00 kN

= 17.514 + 0
= 17.51 kN.m

Beff = 641.2 mm
d = 275.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 8.32 The point is outside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 275.00 = 34.375 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 27.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 372.7 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 224.293 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 484.457 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 61.875 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 372.7
N = = = 1.85 say 2 pcs additional 0 - 20 mm Ф

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 16 = 402.125
= 0Ф 20 = 0
Aschoosen = = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 18.8988 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2Ф10)

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 11.676 + 0.000
Mu(-ve) = 11.676 kN.m

b = 150 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.928
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826
C = 0.125 x 275 = 34.375 mm
a = 0.8 x 34.375 = 27.5 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 248.44 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 224.293 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 322.972 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 61.875 mm2
100
use: As = 248.44 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 248.44
N = = = 1.23563 say 2 pcs

## 150-2(25)-1(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 18.9 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 23.41 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + column width/2}
Qu = 19.14 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.464 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 58.00 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 29 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Cutailment check for bottom straight bars

At the cut-off location, codes requires the spacing between the stirrups
(s) should not be greater than d/8β
where: β = As(cut)/As(total) = 402.125 / 402.1248 = 1

`

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 641.2 mm
A2 A2 hf a = 300.00 mm
bf b = 150.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 180.00 mm
bf = 245.60 mm <4hf
b

## y1 = 150 mm A1 = 45000 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 58944 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 98.9633 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 614931484 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 201.04 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 9.18 kN.m
yt
Wu = 9.91
Pu =

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 11.676 + 0

Ma = 11.68 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 402.125 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 12 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 4021.25 mm2 `

z
nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
641.2 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 275 - z)

## 320.6 z^2 + 4021.25 z - 1E+06 = 0

z = 50 < 120 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 230292347 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -197919979

Ie = 4E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 186719158

Calculate deflection
5 WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL   = defl. = 0.79 mm
384 EcIe 48 EcIe

## Live load deflection Wu = 4.26 kN/m ,= 4.26 N/mm (Live load)

5WL ^4
LL  = defl. = 0.596 mm
384 EcIe

i = 1.38 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 0 then, α = 2
total = = 2.96 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
3150 / 250 = 12.6 mm > 2.96339 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
Live load 3 kN/m2 Total run length = 2.4
Width = 1.0
Width going = 0.3
Support width = 100
Unit weight of Concrete cover = 20
concrete = 25 kN/m3
f'c = 25 Mpa
fy = 227 Mpa
Covering material = 0.6 kNm2

## Asssume the riser height 180 mm

Using two flight with thread width of 300 mm
The slope of the stairs equals

Ф = tan^-1 (riser/run)
= 30.96 degree

## Assumed the slab thickness

ts = span/30 = 4000 / 30 = 133.33333 say 140 mm 1.5 kN/m is assumed at the
t* = ts / cos Ф = 140 / 0.8575267 = 163.26 mm
tavg. = t* + riser/2 = 253.26 mm
Stair Total Weight = tavg. x ‫ ץ‬c = 6.33 kN/m2
Wu = 1.4 wDL + 1.6 wLL
= 1.4 (weight load + covering material) + 1.6 wLL
Wu = 14.7841 kN/m2
Taking one meter strip
Wu = 14.7841 kN/m

An additional concentrated live load of (Pegde) of 1.5 kN/m is assumed at the free edge
Pu = 1.6 Pedge = 1.6 x 1.5 = 2.4 kN/m

Bending moments
The effective span is given by.
Leff. = 1.10 m

Bending Moments
Wu = wuL^2/2 = 8.94 kN.m
Pu = Pu*L = 2.64 kN.m
Mu = 11.58 kN.m
deff. = tavg.-concrete cover = 233.26023 mm
Recalling that we base the design on a strip of 1 meter b= 1000 mm

## Mu = 0.00852 , w = 0.0103 using R-w Curve

R
fcubd ^ 2
fc
As  w bd = 264.601 mm2
fy
0 .6
As min  bd = 616.547 mm2
fy
use:
As = 616.547 mm2
As/step = 184.964 mm2

## Choose = 2Ф 12 mm /step As = 226.195 ok!

Design of landing

## Thinkness of landing = 120 mm

effective depth = 100 mm
Landing welf weight = 3 kN/m2
Wul = 1.4 wDL + 1.6 wLL
= 1.4 (weight load + covering material) + 1.6 wLL
= 9.84 kN/m2
Taking strip of one meter = 9.84 kN/m

wl ^ 2
Mu  = 4.92 kN.m
2
Mu
R = 0.01968 , w = 0.024
fcubd ^ 2
fc
As  w bd = 264.317 mm2
fy

## Design the supporting beam

Length = 0.95 m
Beam dimension
depth = 250 mm
width = 100 mm
Own weight of the beam = 0.325 kN/m
Load transmitted to beam through slab (Landing)
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m^2
Live load, ps = 3.00 kN/m^2

uniform live load = 3.00 kN/m
pb = psh =
gb = 3.93 kN/m
gsh = 3.93 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 3.00 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load () due to stairs

Wu = 14.58 kN/m Total going length = 3.6 m
Pu = 0

Reaction = 26.244 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.4 wDL + 1.6 wLL
= 9.695 kN/m

= 5.87 + 14.43
= 20.30 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section () L-section

Beff = 130 mm (for cantilever)
d = 230 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 2.91 The point is inside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.395 , J = 0.732
C = 90.85
a = 0.8xC = 72.68
Mu
As  = 531.16 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 113.987 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 690.506 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 34.5 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required

## using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 531.2
N = = = 1.69073 say 2 pcs additional bars 2 - 0 mm Ф

## 100-2(20)-1(20) 40 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 20 = 628.32
= 2Ф 0 = 0
Aschoosen = = 628.32 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 24.013 kN.m
Asrequired
m
m
m
mm (Wall support)
mm

## Lclear + tavg. = 1.25 m

edge to C.L = 1.1 m
Leff. = 1.10 m
820.00 ● 6ts + b
188.0 ● L2/10 + b ,
900.0 ● C.L to edge beam

Mu = 2E+07 N.mm
fcuB = 3250

Mu
= 79.032
fcuB
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
21.52 kN/m
``

3.15 m

Data:

## Live load 3.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 0.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.30 m t = 400 mm
Unit weight of b = 170 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Flooring Height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 3.15 m
deff = 375 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 1.28 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 3.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
-0.20 Leff. = 3.05 m ● distance CL to CL between the support
1.63 m

x x
3.05 m 0.95
1.15
3.05 m

## x = 1.30 m , Loaded Area = Area1 = 4.6313 mm2

Area2 = mm2
Total Area = 4.63 mm2
Area Method Coeffecient method
uniform dead load = 4.6 kN/m L/2x = 1.17 , α = 0.758 , β = 0.574
uniform live load = 4.56 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.8 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.69 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

## 1.20 m Concrete Railing

x x
3.05
x = 0.75 m L/2x = 2.03 , α = 0.919 , β = 0.754

hw = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 3.96 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 3.96 kN/m

gb = 1.28 + 4.56 + 3.96
gb = 9.79 kN/m
gsh = 1.28 + 4.56 + 3.96
gsh = 9.79 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 4.56 kN/m

3.25
Height of the wall = 0 m
gw = 3.3 kN/m2
L/2x = #DIV/0!

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 2.95 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 2.24 kN/m

## Reaction due to the Wall load = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 21.5185 kN/m
Pu = 1.50 x 0
= 0.00 kN

= 25.022 + 0
= 25.02 kN.m

Beff = 414.0 mm
d = 375.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 7.627 The point is outside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 375.00 = 46.875 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 37.5 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 390.4 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 346.635 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 507.566 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 95.625 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 390.4
N = = = 1.24 say 2 pcs additional 0 - 20 mm Ф

## 170-2(25)-1(20) 100 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 20 = 628.32
= 0Ф 20 = 0
Aschoosen = = 628.32 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 40.2673 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel (Use 2Ф10)

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 16.6813 + 0.000
Mu(-ve) = 16.6813 kN.m

b = 170 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.986
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826
C = 0.125 x 375 = 46.875 mm
a = 0.8 x 46.875 = 37.5 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 260.29 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 346.635 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 338.378 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 95.625 mm2
100
use: As = 346.635 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 346.63
N = = = 1.72402 say 2 pcs

## 170-2(25)-1(16) 104 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 19.4 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 33.89 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + column width/2}
Qu = 26.63 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.418 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24
c
fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 65.73 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 32.8661 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Cutailment check for bottom straight bars

At the cut-off location, codes requires the spacing between the stirrups
(s) should not be greater than d/8β
where: β = As(cut)/As(total) = 402.125 / 628.32 = 0.64

`

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 414.0 mm
A2 A2 hf a = 400.00 mm
bf b = 170.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 100.00 mm
hw = 300.00 mm
bf = 122.00 mm <4hf
b

## y1 = 200 mm A1 = 68000 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 24400 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 160.39 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 1.331E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 239.61 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 16.66 kN.m
yt
Wu = 14.35
Pu =

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 16.6813 + 0

Ma = 16.68 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 628.32 mm2 2 Ф 20 mm
0 Ф 12 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 6283.2 mm2 `
z

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
414.0 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 375 - z)

## 207 z^2 + 6283.2 z -

2E+06 = 0
z = 84.28 < 100 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 613658055 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -2117564

Ie = 1E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 715250355

Calculate deflection
5 WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL   = defl. = 0.43 mm
384 EcIe 48 EcIe

## Live load deflection Wu = 4.56 kN/m ,= 4.56 N/mm (Live load)

5WL ^4
LL  = defl. = 0.200 mm
384 EcIe

i = 0.63 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 0 then, α = 2
total = = 1.49 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
3150 / 250 = 12.6 mm > 1.48765 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
8.03 kN/m
``

0.95 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 320 mm
Unit weight of b = 170 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Height of the wall = 1.00 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 0.95 m
d.effective = 295 mm
Col.dim. = 200 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 0.85 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## -0.71 Leff. = 0.79 m

0.75 m

x x
0.79 m
x = 0.75 m , Loaded Area = 0.59 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 3 kN/m L/2x = 0.53 , α = -0.209 , β = 0.048
uniform live load = 1.5 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.07 kN/m
uniform live load = -0.31 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

0.00 m = hw

0.79
hw = 1.00 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 0 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 0 kN/m

gb = 0.85 + 3.000 + 0.00
gb = 3.85 kN/m 3.85
gsh = 0.85 + 3.00 + 0.00
gsh = 3.85 kN/m 3.85
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 1.50 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (Thru stairs beam and railings)

Wu = 14.58 kN/m , Total going length = 3.6 m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 26.244 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 8.025 kN/m
Pu = 26.244 kN

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL
= 2.49 + 20.67
= 23.16 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 170.00 mm for cantilever
d = 295.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 3.997 < 4.85 The point is inside the curve take interpolation.
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.217
C = 0.2168 x 295.00 = 63.956 mm , J = 0.8074
a = 0.8 x C = 51.1648 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 469.9 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 272.686 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 610.839 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd
100
0.15
As  xbxd = 75.225 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 469.9
N = = = 2.33697 say 3 pcs additional bars 0 - 16 mm Ф

## 170-2(25)-2(16) 44 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
2

Choose As = 3Ф 16 = 603.187
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 603.187 mm2

## Mr = Mu Aschoosen = 29.7251 kN.m 40% of the main steel

Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
40% of the main steel use 2 Ф 10 mm 157.08 mm2 40% As' = 241.275 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 2.48838 +

b = 170 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 12.19 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.17 , J = 0.813
C = 0.170 x 295 = 50.15 mm
a = 0.8 x 50.15 = 40.12 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 50.1468 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 272.686 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 65.1908 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 75.225 mm2
100
0.15
As  xbxd
100
use: As = 272.686 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 272.69
N = = = 1.35623 say 2 pcs

## 170-2(25)-1(16) 104 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 3.67 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL = 33.87 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 31.88 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.636 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 65.73 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 32.8661 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0  top  1 .3
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 233.00 mm
A2 hf a = 320.00 mm
bf b = 170.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 100.00 mm
hw = 220.00 mm
bf = 63.00 mm <4hf 400
b concrete cover = 25 mm

## y1 = 160 mm A1 = 54400 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 6300 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 148.583 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 537781488 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 148.58 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 10.86 kN.m
yt
Wu = 5.35 kN/m
Pu = 17.50 kN

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL
Ma = 1.65892 + 13.78
Ma = 15.44 kN.m
Ma > Mcr , Then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 603.187 mm2 3 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 16 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 6031.87 mm2

nAs ● ● z

● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
170.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 295.00 - z)

## 85 z^2 + 6031.87 z -2E+06 = 0

z = 126.7 mm
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 286106510 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -164091531 Then calculate Ie

Ie = 4E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 87583447
Ie = Ig
Calculate deflection (M294)+(I256-M294)*((U263/

## WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 0.05 + 0.61 = 0.66 mm

 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 1.50 kN/m ,= 1.50 N/mm (Live load)
WL ^ 4
 LL  = defl. = 0.26 mm
8 EcIe
WL ^ 4
 LL 
8 EcIe

i = 0.91 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 16 mm , then, α = 2
As = 2- 16 mm
total = = 2.22 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for cantilever beams
950 / 450 = 2.11111 mm < 2.22321 Not Ok!
(Use 2Ф12 mm)
280
3

8
en calculate Ie

)+(I256-M294)*((U263/G271)^3)
DESIGN CHART FOR SECTIONS SUBJECTED TO SIMPLE BENDING
(R and T Sections)
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
19.97 kN/m
``

1.90 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 400 mm
Unit weight of b = 170 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 1.90 m
d.effective = 375 mm
Col.dim. = 200 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 1.19 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## -1.17 Leff. = 1.79 m

1.48 m

x x
1.79 m
x = 1.48 m , Loaded Area = 2.11 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 4.72 kN/m L/2x = 0.61 , α = 0.090 , β = 0.174
uniform live load = 2.36 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.51 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.26 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

## 2.10 m = wall Height

1.79
height of the wall = 2.30 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 5.04 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 5.04 kN/m

gb = 1.19 + 4.720 + 5.04
gb = 10.95 kN/m 10.95
gsh = 1.19 + 4.72 + 5.04
gsh = 10.95 kN/m 10.95
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.36 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (none)

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 19.965 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL
= 31.8065 + 0.00
= 31.81 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 170.00 mm For Cantilever
d = 375.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.335 < 4.85 (The point is inside the curve take interpolation).
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.160
C = 0.1596 x 375.00 = 59.85 mm , J = 0.8142
a = 0.8 x C = 47.88 mm
Mu
As  = 503.5 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 346.635 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 654.54 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd
100
0.15
As  xbxd = 95.625 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 503.5
N = = = 1.60266 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 20 mm Ф

## 170-2(25)-1(20) 100 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 20 = 628.32
= 0Ф 20 = 0
Aschoosen = = 628.32 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 39.6921 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
20% of the main steel (Use 2Ф12 mm)

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 5.30108 +

b = 170 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 10.62 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.17 , J = 0.813
C = 0.170 x 375 = 63.75 mm
a = 0.8 x 63.75 = 51 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 84.0393 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 346.635 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 109.251 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 95.625 mm2
100
0.15
As  xbxd
100
use: As = 346.635 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 346.63
N = = = 1.72402 say 2 pcs

## 170-2(25)-1(16) 104 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 6.15 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL = 37.93 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 32.19 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.505 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 65.73 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 32.8661 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.266 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0  top  1 .3
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 312.80 mm
A2 hf a = 400.00 mm
bf b = 170.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 280.00 mm
bf = 142.80 mm <4hf 480
b

## y1 = 200 mm A1 = 68000 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 17136 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 171.821 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 1.195E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 171.82 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 20.87 kN.m
yt
Wu = 13.31 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL/4

Ma = 21.2043 + 0.00
Ma = 21.20 kN.m
Ma > Mcr , Then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 628.32 mm2 2 Ф 20 mm
0 Ф 0 mm
As' = 62.832
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 6283.2 mm2
(n-1)As' = 565.488 mm2
nAs ● ●

z
nAs' ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
170.00 x z x z/2 + 565.488 x ( z - 25 ) = 6283.2 ( 400.00 - z )
85.00 z2 + 6848.69 z -3E+06
z = 125.24 mm
312.80 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 375 - z)

## 156.4 z^2 + 6283.2 z -

2E+06 = 0
z = 98 < 120 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

bz ^3
Icr   (n  1) As ' ( z  d ' ' )^ 2  nAs (d  z )^ 2 = 5.09E+08 mm4
3

## Calculate the effective moment of inertia

Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -2.01E+08 Then calculate Ie

Ie = 1E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 485481109

(M300)+(I262-M300)*((U269/G277)^3)
Calculate deflection

WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3
 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 0.82 + 0.00 = 0.82 mm
 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 2.36 kN/m ,= 2.36 N/mm (Live load)
WL ^ 4
 LL  = defl. = 0.18 mm
8 EcIe

i = 0.99 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 12 mm , then, α = 1.57
As = 2- 20 mm
total = = 2.27 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
1700 / 480 = 3.54 mm > 2.26955 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
en calculate Ie
r α β 1.02
1 0.35 0.35
1.1 0.4 0.29 match function offset funtion
1.2 0.45 0.25 1 1
1.3 0.5 0.21
1.4 0.55 0.18
1.5 0.6 0.16
1.6 0.65 0.14
1.7 0.7 0.12
1.8 0.75 0.11
1.9 0.8 0.09
2 0.85 0.08

## Design chart for section subjected to simple bending

(Table 4-1)

R1 w R1 w
0.015 0.018 0.01725 0.0207
0.020 0.024
0.025 0.030
0.030 0.036
0.035 0.042
0.040 0.048
0.045 0.055
0.050 0.061
0.055 0.068
0.060 0.074
0.065 0.081
0.070 0.088
0.075 0.095
0.080 0.102
0.085 0.109
0.090 0.117
0.095 0.124
0.100 0.132
0.105 0.140
0.110 0.148
0.115 0.156
0.120 0.164 R1max
0.125 0.173 fy'= 400
0.129 0.180 fy'= 360
0.139 0.198 fy'= 280
0.143 0.206 fy'= 240

## DESIGN CHART FOR SECTIONS SUBJECTED TO SIMPLE BENDING

(R and T Sections)

C1 J1 c/d
2.65 0.696 0.500 fy = 240 1 2.66
2.69 0.703 0.480 fy = 280
2.78 0.717 0.440 fy = 360
2.83 0.723 0.420 fy = 400
2.90 0.732 0.395
2.95 0.738 0.379
3.00 0.743 0.364
3.05 0.748 0.350
3.1 0.753 0.337
3.15 0.757 0.324
3.2 0.761 0.312
3.25 0.765 0.301
3.3 0.768 0.291
3.35 0.772 0.281
3.40 0.775 0.272
3.45 0.778 0.263
3.50 0.781 0.254
3.55 0.784 0.246
3.60 0.787 0.239
3.65 0.789 0.231
3.70 0.791 0.225
3.75 0.794 0.218
3.80 0.796 0.212
3.85 0.798 0.206
3.90 0.800 0.200
3.95 0.802 0.194
4.00 0.804 0.189
4.05 0.806 0.184
4.1 0.807 0.179
4.15 0.809 0.175
4.2 0.810 0.170
4.25 0.812 0.166
4.3 0.813 0.162
4.35 0.815 0.158
4.4 0.816 0.154
4.45 0.817 0.500
4.5 0.818 0.147
4.55 0.820 0.143
4.6 0.821 0.140
4.65 0.822 0.137
4.7 0.823 0.134
4.75 0.824 0.131
4.8 0.825 0.128
4.85 0.826 0.125

C1 J1 c/d 4.02
2.65 0.696 0.500 27
2.69 0.703 0.480
2.78 0.717 0.440
2.83 0.723 0.420
2.90 0.732 0.395
2.95 0.738 0.379
3.00 0.743 0.364
3.05 0.748 0.350
3.10 0.753 0.337
3.15 0.757 0.324
3.20 0.761 0.312
3.25 0.765 0.301
3.30 0.768 0.291
3.35 0.772 0.281
3.40 0.775 0.272
3.45 0.778 0.263
3.50 0.781 0.254
3.55 0.784 0.246
3.60 0.787 0.239
3.65 0.789 0.231
3.70 0.791 0.225
3.75 0.794 0.218
3.80 0.796 0.212
3.85 0.798 0.206
3.90 0.800 0.200
3.95 0.802 0.194
4.00 0.804 0.189
4.05 0.806 0.184
4.10 0.807 0.179
4.15 0.809 0.175
4.20 0.810 0.170
4.25 0.812 0.166
4.30 0.813 0.162
4.35 0.815 0.158
4.40 0.816 0.154
4.45 0.817 0.150
4.50 0.818 0.147
4.55 0.820 0.143
4.60 0.821 0.140
4.65 0.822 0.137
4.70 0.823 0.134
4.75 0.824 0.131
4.80 0.825 0.128
4.85 0.826 0.125
offset funtion Forecast function
0.36
0.338
0.69775 #DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
J1 c/d
0.8048 0.187
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
23.96 kN/m
``

5.50 m

Data:

## Live load 3.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 0.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 450 mm
Unit weight of b = 220 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 227 Mpa Concete cover = 30 mm
Length = 5.50 m
deff = 420 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 1.93 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 3.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
2.20 Leff. = 5.40 m ● distance CL to CL between the support
1.60 m

x x
5.40 m
m

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 4.05 kN/m L/2x = 1.00 , α = 0.667 , β = 0.500
uniform live load = 4.05 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.4 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.2 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

4.01 m

## 1.20 m (height of the wall)

5.40
2.30 m = Flooring Height

Coeffecient method
L/2x = 3.90 , α = 0.917 , β = 0.750
Wall load for bending , gwb = 5.94 kN/m
Wall load for sharing , gws = 5.94 kN/m

gb = 1.93 + 4.05 + 5.94 11.92
gb = 11.92 kN/m
gsh = 1.93 + 4.05 + 5.94 11.92
gsh = 11.92 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 4.05 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load () Due to beam IB1

Wu = 14.866 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 23.42 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 23.9575 kN/m
Pu = 23.42 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

= 87.3251 + 31.62
= 118.94 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 652.0 mm ● L2/5 + b
d = 420.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.917 The point is inside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x 420.00 = 52.5 mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = 42 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 1510.4 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 457.93 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 1963.47 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 138.6 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 1510.4
N = = = 4.80761 say 3 pcs additional bars 3 - 20 mm Ф

## 220-2(30)-2(20) 60 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
2

Choose As = 3Ф 20 = 942.48
= 3Ф 20 = 942.48
Aschoosen = = 1884.96 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 148.442 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel use 2 Ф 12 mm , As = 226.195 mm2 10%As = 188.496 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 58.2167 + 16.1013
= 37.159 kN.m
b = 220 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 5.11 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826 Take minimum in C1-J curve.
C = 0.125 x 420 = 52.5 mm
a = 0.8 x 52.5 = 42 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 739.252 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd
fy
0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 457.93 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 961.028 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 138.6 mm2
100
use: As = 739.252 mm2
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As 739.25 additional 0Ф 16 mm
N = = = 2.35311 say 3 pcs

## 220-2(30)-2(20) 60 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
2
Choose As = 3 Ф 20 = 942.48 mm2
= 0 Ф 16 = 0 mm2
Aschoosen = = 942.48 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 47.4 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 77.59 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + beam width/2}
Qu = 70.17 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.759 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00176 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 77.53 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 38.7665 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 15.4454 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 20.079 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 652.00 mm
A2 hf a = 450.00 mm
bf b = 220.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 100.00 mm
hw = 350.00 mm
bf = 400.00 mm <4hf 400
b 432.00

## y1 = 225 mm A1 = 99000 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 40000 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 174.64 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 2.579E+09 mm4

## Calculate cracking moment

fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2
yt = 275.36 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 28.10 kN.m
yt
Wu = 15.97 kN/m
Pu = 15.61 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 60.3929 + 21.47
Ma = 81.86 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 1884.96 mm2 3 Ф 20 mm
3 Ф 20 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 18849.6 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
652.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 420 - z)

## 326 z^2 + 18849.6 z -8E+06 = 0

z = 125.9 > 100 Outside Flange
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 2.064E+09 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -494172530

Ie = 2E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 20827824

Calculate deflection
5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 3.10 + 1.18 = 4.28 mm
 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 4.05 kN/m ,= 4.05 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = 1.45 mm
384EcIe

i = 5.73 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 16 mm , then, α = 2
As = 5- 20 mm
total = = 14.28 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
5500 / 250 = 22 mm > 14.2815 The code limit is satisfied.
280
3

8
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
9.88 kN/m
``

0.95 m

Data:

## Live load 2.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 120 mm

Flooring = 1.00 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 300 mm
Unit weight of b = 130 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.5 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Height of the wall = 1.00 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 0.95 m
d.effective = 275 mm
Col.dim. = 200 mm (Assumed)
n = 10

Own weight of the beam = 0.59 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 3.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 2.00 kN/m2

## -0.21 Leff. = 0.79 m

0.50 m

x x
0.79 m
x = 0.50 m , Loaded Area = 0.39 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 2 kN/m L/2x = 0.79 , α = 0.463 , β = 0.365
uniform live load = 1 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.37 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.46 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

1.00 m = hw

0.79
hw = 1.00 m

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 3 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 3 kN/m

gb = 0.59 + 2.000 + 3.00
gb = 5.59 kN/m 5.59
gsh = 0.59 + 2.00 + 3.00
gsh = 5.59 kN/m 5.59
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 1.00 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load. (Thru stairs beam and railings)

Wu = 0 kN/m , Total going length = 3.6 m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 9.8775 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL
= 3.06 + 0.00
= 3.06 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 130.00 mm for cantilever
d = 275.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 8.958 > 4.85 ( The point is outside the C1-J Curve. )
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.245
C = 0.2446 x 275.00 = 67.265 mm , J = 0.696
a = 0.8 x C = 53.812 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 77.3 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 194.387 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 100.545 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd
100
0.15
As  xbxd = 53.625 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 194.4
N = = = 0.9668 say 2 pcs additional bars 0 - 16 mm Ф

## 130-2(25)-1(16) 64 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1

Choose As = 2Ф 16 = 402.125
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 402.125 mm2

## Mr = Mu Aschoosen = 15.9244 kN.m 40% of the main steel

Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
40% of the main steel use 2 Ф 10 mm 157.08 mm2 40% As' = 160.85 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 3.0628 +

b = 130 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 8.958 > 4.85 The point is outside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.17 , J = 0.813
C = 0.170 x 275 = 46.75 mm
a = 0.8 x 46.75 = 37.4 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 66.2117 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 194.387 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 86.0752 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 53.625 mm2
100
0.15
As  xbxd
100
use: As = 194.387 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 194.39
N = = = 0.9668 say 2 pcs

## 130-2(25)-1(16) 64 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
1
Aschoosen = 402.125 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 6.34 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL = 9.38 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + half column width)
Qu = 7.04 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.197 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 50.27 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 25.1329 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose , 8 Ф mm = 50.2656 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0  top  1 .3
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 193.00 mm
A2 hf a = 300.00 mm
bf b = 130.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 120.00 mm
hw = 180.00 mm
bf = 63.00 mm <4hf 480
b concrete cover = 25 mm

## y1 = 150 mm A1 = 39000 mm2

y2 = 60 mm A2 = 7560 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 135.387 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 352865041 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 135.39 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 7.82 kN.m
yt
Wu = 6.59 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/2 + PL
Ma = 2.04186 + 0.00
Ma = 2.04 kN.m
Ma < Mcr , Ie=Ig.

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 402.125 mm2 2 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 16 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 4021.25 mm2

nAs ● ● z

● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
130.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 275.00 - z)

## 65 z^2 + 4021.25 z -1E+06 = 0

z = 138 mm
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 189357924 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie > Ig Not ok! 9.018E+09 Ie=Ig.

Ie = 9E+09 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 9.182E+09
Ie = Ig
Calculate deflection (M294)+(I256-M294)*((U263/

## WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 0.00 + 0.00 = 0.00 mm

 DL  
8 EcIe 3 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 1.00 kN/m ,= 1.00 N/mm (Live load)
WL ^ 4
 LL  = defl. = 0.00 mm
8 EcIe
WL ^ 4
 LL 
8 EcIe

i = 0.00 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 10 mm , then, α = 1.53
As = 2- 16 mm
total = = 0.01 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for cantilever beams
950 / 450 = 2.11111 mm > 0.00748 The code limit is satisfied.
(Use 2Ф12 mm)
280
3

8
)+(I256-M294)*((U263/G271)^3)
1.9 3.25

C C
2 2
°
S1 S2
2.95

C
2

Wu
20.94 kN/m
``

5.50 m

Data:

## Live load 3.00 kN/m2 Slab thick. = 100 mm

Flooring = 0.50 kN/m2 Beam Dimension
Flooring height = 2.70 m t = 360 mm
Unit weight of b = 250 mm
- brick wall = 25.0 kN/m3 Thickness of wall = 100 mm
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3 Plastering weight = 0.8 kN/m2
f'c = 25.0 Mpa Floor height = 2.30 m
fy = 207 Mpa Concete cover = 25 mm
Length = 5.50 m
deff = 335 mm
Calculation of loads Col.dim. = 300 mm
Own weight of the beam = 1.63 kN/m n = 10
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 2.50 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 3.00 kN/m2
Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
2.20 Leff. = 5.40 m ●
1.60 m

x x
5.40 m

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = 2.7 kN/m L/2x = 1.00 , α = 0.667 , β = 0.500
uniform live load = 2.7 kN/m
uniform live load = 2.4 kN/m
uniform live load = 3.2 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

2.98 m

## 2.10 m (height of the wall)

x x
5.40
x = 1.21

Coeffecient method
L/2x = 2.23 , α = 0.917 , β = 0.750
Wall load for bending , gwb = 6.93 kN/m
Wall load for sharing , gws = 6.93 kN/m

gb = 1.63 + 2.70 + 6.93 11.26
gb = 11.26 kN/m
gsh = 1.63 + 2.70 + 6.93 11.26
gsh = 11.26 kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 2.70 kN/m

Wu = 0 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 0 kN

## Total Concentrated load = 0.00 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= 20.9392 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

= 79.1762 + 0.00
= 79.18 kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 628.0 mm ●
d = 335.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.717 The point is inside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.141
C = 0.1412 x 335.00 = 47.302 mm , J = 0.8206
a = 0.8 x C = 37.8416 mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = 1392.1 mm2
fyjd
Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 455.383 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 1809.68 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 125.625 mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 1392.1
N = = = 6.92352 say 4 pcs additional bars 0 - 16 mm Ф

## 250-2(25)-3(16) 50.7 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
3

Choose As = 4Ф 16 = 804.25
= 0Ф 16 = 0
Aschoosen = = 804.25 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 45.7433 kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel use 2 Ф 12 mm , As = 226.195 mm2 10%As = 80.425 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= 50.8822 + 0
= 35.6175 kN.m
b = 250 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = 4.438 < 4.85 The point is inside the C1-J Curve.
Take c/d = 0.187 , J = 0.8048 Take linear Interpolation
C = 0.187 x 335 = 62.645 mm
a = 0.8 x 62.645 = 50.116 mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = 638.514 mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = 455.383 mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = 830.068 mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = 125.625 mm2
100
use: As = 638.514 mm2
using 16 mm Ф- bars Ad = 201.0624

As 638.51 additional 0Ф 16 mm
N = = = 3.1757 say 3 pcs

## 250-2(25)-2(16) 84 mm > 16 mm OK!

S = =
2
Choose As = 3 Ф 16 = 603.187 mm2
= 0 Ф 16 = 0 mm2
Aschoosen = = 603.187 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = 33.6 kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = 57.6 kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + beam width/2}
Qu = 51.98 kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = 0.621 N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 2.86 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 0.98 Use minimum stirrups
c
qu < qcu Use minimum Stirrups

qsu = 0.13 N/mm2

## Shear stress carried by vertical stirrups

0 .4 = 0.00193 (not less than 0.0015)
u min 
fy
Assume s = 200 mm
Ast(min) = umin x b x s
= 96.6651 mm2
Area of one branch = 48.3325 , choose Ф 10 mm = 78.54 mm2

Use 7 Ф m'

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 96.67 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 48.3325 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.22 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 14.0778 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 18.3011 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 628.00 mm
A2 hf a = 360.00 mm
bf b = 250.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 100.00 mm
hw = 260.00 mm
bf = 378.00 mm <4hf 400
b

## y1 = 180 mm A1 = 90000 mm2

y2 = 50 mm A2 = 37800 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 141.549 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 1.453E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.00 N/mm2

yt = 218.45 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 19.96 kN.m
yt
Wu = 13.96 kN/m
Pu = 0.00 kN

## Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4

Ma = 52.7841 + 0.00
Ma = 52.78 kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 804.25 mm2 4 Ф 16 mm
0 Ф 16 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 8042.5 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
628.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( 335 - z)
314 z^2 + 8042.5 z -
3E+06 = 0
z = 89 < 100 inside the flange as assumed.
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = 634273199 mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 22000.00 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie < Ig ok! -774814570

Ie = 7E+08 mm4 Ie > Icr ok! 44285470

Calculate deflection

## 5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = 8.98 + 0.00 = 8.98 mm

 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 2.70 kN/m ,= 2.70 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^ 4
LL  = defl. = 2.16 mm
384 EcIe

 i = 11.14 mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 16 mm , then, α = 2
As = 5- 20 mm
total = = 29.11 mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
5500 / 250 = 22 mm < 29.1113 Not Ok!
280
3

8
DESIGN OF BEAM
END 1 MISPAN END 2
V M M V M
from MDM 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL
from seismic Analysis EL 0
1.1 MDL + 1.3 MLL + 1.1 MEL 0 0 0

Given:
Wu = 18.2 kN/m
fc' = 27.6 Mpa
fy = 240 Mpa
f 5 0.9
b1 f 0.85 d= 250 mm
Es = 200000 Mpa

d= 250
b= 100
d' =
L= b = 100 mm

cover : 30 mm
using 10 mm f stirrups

Wu = 18.2 kN/m

MEL = 0 kN.m

0 kN

d=0.25 m
Shear Diagram

0 kN
0 kN.m
Moment Diagram

At End 1
Assume single reinforcement

## rmax = ( 0.75 )( 0.85 ) f1 fc' 600

fy x 600 + fy

= 0.045
(0.50)rmax = 0.022

As = rbd

0.67fcu b a As fy
=
1.5 1.15

a = 0.377 d
a/d = 0.377 > a/dmin (0.1) OK!

Calculate d

Mu = As fy/1.15 (d - a/2 )
#REF! kN/m
``

4.70 m

Data:

## Live load 1.00 kN/m2 BEAM

depth = 400 mm
Unit weight of width = 220 mm
- brick wall = 0.0 kN/m3 L center to center = 4.7
- concrete = 25.0 kN/m3
f'c = 35.0 Mpa COLUMN 0.30
fy = 227 Mpa with = 30 mm
depth = 5.50 m
Leff = 4.62

Assume Dimension

Own weight of the beam = 2.20 kN/m
Load transmitted to the beam through slab
Own weight of the slab = 0.00 kN/m2
Live load, ps = 1.00 kN/m2

Assumed width of the beam column 200 mm
2.10 Leff. = 5.30 m ● distance CL to CL between the support
1.60 m

x x
5.30 m
m
x = 1.60 m , Loaded Area = 7.1 m2

## Area Method Coeffecient method

uniform dead load = ### kN/m L/2x = 1.00 , α = 0.667 , β = 0.500
uniform live load = 1.34 kN/m
uniform live load = 0.8 kN/m
uniform live load = 1.07 kN/m

## Table 6.1 Coeffecients of equivalent uniform loads on beams

L/2x 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
α 0.67 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.853 0.87 0.89 0.897 0.908 0.917
β 0.50 0.554 0.582 0.615 0.642 0.667 0.688 0.71 0.722 0.737 0.750

3.91 m

## 1.20 m (height of the wall)

5.30
0.30 m = Flooring Height

Coeffecient method
L/2x = 3.82 , α = 0.917 , β = 0.750

## Wall load for bending , gwb = 0.00 kN/m

Wall load for sharing , gws = 0.00 kN/m

gb = 2.20 + #REF! + 0.00 #REF!
gb = #REF! kN/m
gsh = 2.20 + #REF! + 0.00 #REF!
gsh = #REF! kN/m
Equivalent live load for shear and bending
pb = psh = 1.34 kN/m

## Calculation of the concentrated load () Due to beam IB1

Wu = 14.866 kN/m
Pu = 0 kN

Reaction = 23.42 kN

Flexural Design
Wu = 1.50 x (DL + LL)
= #REF! kN/m
Pu = 23.42 kN

= #REF! + 31.03
= #REF! kN.m

## Design of Critical Section (mid-span) L-section

Beff = 0.0 mm ● L2/5 + b
d = 370.00 mm

## Assume that the N.A is inside the flange (a<ts)

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = #REF! The point is inside the C1-J Curve
Take c/d = (c/d)min. = 0.125
C = 0.125 x #REF! = #REF! mm , J = 0.826
a = 0.8 x C = #REF! mm < ts (as assumed)
Mu
As  = #REF! mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = #REF! mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = #REF! mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = #REF! mm2
100
Asmin. < As required
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16

As #REF!
N = = = #REF! say 3 pcs additional bars 3 - 20 mm Ф

## 220-2(30)-2(20) 60 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
2

Choose As = 3Ф 20 = 942.48
= 3Ф 20 = 942.48
Aschoosen = = 1884.96 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = #REF! kN.m
Asrequired

Stirrups Hangers: The minimum required area of steel used as stirrups hanger is
10% of the main steel use 2 Ф 12 mm , As = 226.195 mm2 10%As = 188.496 mm2

Maximum negative moment at the support (due to partial prevention of beam rotation)

## Mu(-ve) = (WuL^2)/12 + PL/8

= #REF! + 16.1013
= #REF! kN.m
b = 220 mm

Mu
d  C1
fcuB
C1 = #REF! ### 4.85 ###
Take c/d = 0.125 , J = 0.826 ###
C = 0.125 x #REF! = #REF! mm
a = 0.8 x #REF! = #REF! mm < ts (as assumed)

Mu
As  = #REF! mm2
fyjd

## Asmin. = the smaller of:

0.225 fcu
As  xbxd = #REF! mm2
fy

## 1.3 As(required) = #REF! mm2

but not less than
0.15
As  xbxd = #REF! mm2
100
use: As = #REF! mm2
using 20 mm Ф- bars Ad = 314.16
As #REF! additional 0Ф 16 mm
N = = = #REF! say 3 pcs

## 220-2(30)-2(20) 60 mm > 20 mm OK!

S = =
2
Choose As = 3 Ф 20 = 942.48 mm2
= 0 Ф 16 = 0 mm2
Aschoosen = = 942.48 mm2

Aschoosen
Mr = Mu = ### kN.m
Asrequired

## Design for shear force

Reaction at the support = WxL/2 = #REF! kN
Qu = Reaction - w x {d/2 + beam width/2}
Qu = #REF! kN

## Check adequacy of the concrete dimension of the section

qu = Qu/bd = #REF! N/mm2

fcu
qu max  0 .7 = 3.38 < 4 N/mm2
c
Since qu<qumax the concrete dimension of the section are adequate

## Shear stress carried by concrete

fcu
qcu  0 . 24 = 1.16
c
qu < qcu Use minimum stirrups
0 .4
u min  = 0.00176 (not less than 0.0015)
fy

Asmin. = ʋmin x b x s
Take s = 200 mm
Asmin. = 77.53 mm2 (for two branches)
Asmin. = 38.7665 mm2 (Area of one branch) , choose Ф8 = 50.3 mm2
Use 5 Ф 8 m'

## Calculation of the development length

fy
 ( ) fcu
s , fbu  0 . 3 = 1.45 N/mm2
Ld  { } c
4 fbu
 bottom  1 . 0 ,  top  1 .3
 bottom  1 . 0  top  1 .3
For bars in Tension:
  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0.75( Deformed .bars )

## For bars in compression:

  1 . 0 ( Straight .bars ) ,   0 .5( Deformed .bars ) 35
3
Ldbottom = 13.0537 , say 15 Ф 11.7

## Ldtop = 16.9699 , say 20 Ф

Check deflection
Calculate the uncracked section properties
Neglect the tension steel in calculating the gross moment of inertia
Since the section is not symmetrical, calculate the center of gravity (c.g)

Beff
Beff. = 0.00 mm
A2 hf a = 400.00 mm
bf b = 220.00 mm
a A1 hw hf = 0.00 mm
hw = 400.00 mm
bf = 400.00 mm <4hf 0
b -220.00

## y1 = 200 mm A1 = 88000 mm2

y2 = 0 mm A2 = 0 mm2
Ῡ = (A1 x y1)+(A2 x y2) = 200 mm
A1+A2
Ig = 1.173E+09 mm4

## fctr  0 .6 fcu , fctr = 3.55 N/mm2

yt = 200.00 mm
fctr * Ig
Mcr  , Mcr = 20.82 kN.m
yt
Wu = #REF! kN/m
Pu = 15.61 kN
Mu(+ve) = (WuL^2)/8 + PL/4
Ma = #REF! + 21.47
Ma = #REF! kN.m
Since Ma>Mcr then calculate Ie

## Calculate the cracked section properties

As = 1884.96 mm2 3 Ф 20 mm
3 Ф 20 mm
Assumed that the neutral axis is located at a distance z from the compression force.
transforming the steel reinforcement into equivalent area of concrete:
nAs = 0 mm2

nAs ● ● ●
Hence, assumed the c.g inside the flange, taking the first moment of area for the transomed section
0.00 x z x z/2 = nAs x( #REF! - z)

0 z^2 + 0#REF! =z - 0
z = 125.9 > 0 Outside Flange
Calculate cracked moment of inertia Icr

Bz^3
Icr  nAs(d  z)^2 = #REF! mm4
3
Calculate the effective moment of inertia
Ec  4400 fcu = 26030.75 N/mm2

## Ie  Icr  ( Ig  Icr)(Mcr / Ma)^3 Ie ### Ig ### #REF!

Ie = #REF! mm4 Ie ### Icr ### #REF!

Calculate deflection

## 5WL ^ 4 PL ^ 3 = #REF! + #REF! = #REF! mm

 DL  
384 EcIe 48 EcIe
Live load deflection Wu = 1.34 kN/m ,= 1.34 N/mm (Live load)
5WL^4
LL  = defl. = #REF! mm
384EcIe
Thus the immediate deflection equals:
 i = #REF! mm

## Calculate long term deflection

 total  (1   )  DL   LL , Since A's = 2- 16 mm , then, α = 2
As = 5- 20 mm
total = = #REF! mm

## Check the code requirements

● The code maximum limit for simple beams
5500 / 250 = 22 mm ### #REF! ###
280
3

8
RE-BARS

FOOTING F1 Total

## Concrete Splice Cut Length No.

Size Spacing Length Bend Type
Side Cover b c Required
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (m) (pcs)
50 16 @ 300 1300 ③ 0 #REF! 7
No. Of FOOTING 4 pcs
No. Required 2 pcs
Numbers dia length
pcs (mm) (m)
8 16 12 8

CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
STRUCTURES Volume No.pcs Total Unit Concrete Mixture Cement
FOUNDATION TO GROUND FLOOR Volume Class bags
FOOTING (F1) 0.7735 5 3.8675 m3 Class A 1:2:4 34.81
FOOTING (F2) 0.5915 10 5.915 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 53.24
FOOTING (F3) 0.35 2 0.7 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 6.30
TIE BEAM TB1 0.186 1 0.186 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.67
TIE BEAM TB2 0.315 1 0.315 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 2.84
TIE BEAM TB3 0.1614 1 0.1614 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.45
TIE BEAM TB4 0.3408 1 0.3408 m3 Class A 1:2:4 3.07
TIE BEAM TB5 0.0798 1 0.0798 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 0.72
TIE BEAM TB6 0.2442 1 0.2442 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 2.20
TIE BEAM TB8 0.3522 1 0.3522 m3 Class A 1:2:4 3.17
TIE BEAM TB9 0.3138 1 0.3138 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 2.82
TIE BEAM TB10 0.1896 1 0.1896 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.71
TIE BEAM TB11 0.18 1 0.18 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.62
TIE BEAM TB12 0.144 1 0.144 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.30
TIE BEAM TB13 0.1896 1 0.1896 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.71
TIE BEAM TB14 0.144 1 0.144 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.30
TIE BEAM TB15 0.1884 1 0.1884 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.70
TIE BEAM TB16 0.312 1 0.312 m3 Class A 1:2:4 2.81
TIE BEAM TB17 0.138 1 0.138 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.24
TIE BEAM TB18 0.18 1 0.18 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.62
TIE BEAM TB19 0.168 1 0.168 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.51
TIE BEAM TB20 0.246 1 0.246 m3 Class A 1:2:4 2.21
TIE BEAM TB21 0.09 1 0.09 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 0.81
TIE BEAM TB22 0.36 1 0.36 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 3.24
TIE BEAM TB23 0.1896 1 0.1896 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.71
TIE BEAM TB24 0.312 1 0.312 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 2.81
TIE BEAM TB25 0.168 1 0.168 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.51
TIE BEAM TB26 0.36 1 0.36 m3 Class A 1:2:4 3.24
COLUMN (C1) 0.315 7 2.205 m3 Class A 1:2:4 19.85
COLUMN (C2) 0.21875 10 2.1875 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 19.69
COLUMN (C3) 0.28 5 1.4 m3 Class A 1:2:4 12.60

## BEAM B1 0.204 1 0.204 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.84

BEAM B2 0.55 1 0.55 m3 Class A 1:2:4 4.95
BEAM B3 0.18 1 0.18 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.62
BEAM B4 0.6 1 0.6 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 5.40
BEAM B5 0.056 1 0.056 m3 Class A 1:2:4 0.50
BEAM B6 0.06 1 0.06 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 0.54
BEAM B7 0.352 1 0.352 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 3.17
BEAM B8 0.671 1 0.671 m3 Class A 1:2:4 6.04
BEAM B9 0.18 1 0.18 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.62
BEAM B10 0.6094 1 0.6094 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 5.48
BEAM B11 0.21 1 0.21 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.89
BEAM B12 0.198 1 0.198 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.78
BEAM B13 0.12 1 0.12 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.08
BEAM B14 0.085 1 0.085 m3 Class A 1:2:4 0.77
BEAM B15 0.204 1 0.204 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.84
BEAM B16 0.55 1 0.55 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 4.95
BEAM B17 0.18 1 0.18 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.62
BEAM B18 0.6 1 0.6 m3 Class A 1:2:4 5.40
BEAM B19 0.204 1 0.204 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.84
BEAM B20 0.12 1 0.12 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.08
BEAM B21 0.198 1 0.198 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.78
BEAM B22 0.245 1 0.245 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 2.21
BEAM B23 0.36 1 0.36 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 3.24
BEAM B24 0.6 1 0.6 m3 Class A 1:2:4 5.40
BEAM B25 0.6 1 0.6 m3 Class A 1:2:4 5.40
BEAM B26 0.06 1 0.06 m3 Class A 1:2:4 0.54
BEAM B27 0.6 1 0.6 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 5.40
BEAM B28 0.352 1 0.352 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 3.17
BEAM B29 0.088 1 0.088 m3 Class A 1:2:4 0.79
BEAM B30 0.088 1 0.088 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 0.79
BEAM B31 0.186 1 0.186 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.67
BEAM B32 0.6094 1 0.6094 m3 Class A 1:2:4 5.48
BEAM B33 0.671 1 0.671 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 6.04
INT.BEAM IB-1 0.352 1 0.352 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 3.17
INT.BEAM IB-2 0.6 1 0.6 m3 Class A 1:2:4 5.40
INT.BEAM IB-3 0.104 1 0.104 m3 Class A 1:2:4 0.94
INT.BEAM IB-4 0.104 1 0.104 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 0.94
INT.BEAM IB-5 0.6 1 0.6 m3 Class A 1:2:4 5.40
INT.BEAM IB-6 0.352 1 0.352 m3 Class A 1:2:4 3.17
CANTL.BEAM CB1 0.072 1 0.072 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 0.65
CANTL.BEAM CB2 0.072 1 0.072 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 0.65

## SLAB ALL 14.9383 1 14.9383 m3 Class A 1:2:4 134.44

STAIR S1 2.88 1 2.88 m3 Class A 1:2:4 25.92

2nd FLOOR
COLUMN (C2) 0.27 11 2.97 m3 Class A 1:2:4 26.73
COLUMN (C3) 0.24 6 1.44 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 12.96
COLUMN (C4) 0.12 2 0.24 m3 Class A 1:2:4 2.16

## BEAM B1 0.21 1 0.21 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.89

BEAM B2 0.336 1 0.336 m3 Class A 1:2:4 3.02
BEAM B3 0.21 1 0.21 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.89
BEAM B4 0.36 1 0.36 m3 Class A 1:2:4 3.24
BEAM B5 0.12 1 0.12 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.08
BEAM B6 0.108 1 0.108 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 0.97
BEAM B7 0.44 1 0.44 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 3.96
BEAM B8 0.6 1 0.6 m3 Class A 1:2:4 5.40
BEAM B9 0.186 1 0.186 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.67
BEAM B10 0.57 1 0.57 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 5.13
BEAM B11 0.21 1 0.21 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.89
BEAM B12 0.28 1 0.28 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 2.52
BEAM B13 0.3296 1 0.3296 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 2.97
BEAM B14 0.21 1 0.21 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.89
BEAM B15 0.3296 1 0.3296 m3 Class A 1:2:4 2.97
BEAM B16 0.336 1 0.336 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 3.02
BEAM B17 0.3296 1 0.3296 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 2.97
BEAM B18 0.24 1 0.24 m3 Class A 1:2:4 2.16
BEAM B19 0.36 1 0.36 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 3.24
BEAM B20 0.28 1 0.28 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 2.52
BEAM B21 0.28 1 0.28 m3 Class A 1:2:4 2.52
BEAM B22 0.21 1 0.21 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.89
BEAM B23 0.45 1 0.45 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 4.05
BEAM B26 0.132 1 0.132 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.19
BEAM B27 0.132 1 0.132 m3 Class A 1:2:4 1.19
BEAM B28 0.186 1 0.186 m 3
Class A 1:2:4 1.67
SLAB ALL 24.56745 1 24.56745 m3 Class A 1:2:4 221.11

WALL
GROUND FLOOR
FIREWALL AREA
14.31
9.45
15.66
8.37
16.2
4.32
4.32
12.15
6.21
24.786
HUMAN GATE
#REF! 151.52 #REF! Kg No Mark up included
not include mark up
Required Total Total Unit Weight
Variance
Length Actual Required Weight Actual Required
(m) (m) (m) (kg/m) (kg) (kg) (kg)
12 #REF! #REF! 12 1.58 #REF! 151.5206 #REF!

REBARS FORMWORKS

Sand Gravel
cubic cubic kg meter AREA
1.93 3.87 348.08 220.58
2.96 5.92 532.35 337.36
0.35 0.70 63 39.92
0.09 0.19 16.74 10.61
0.16 0.32 28.35 17.97
0.08 0.16 14.526 9.21
0.17 0.34 30.672 19.44
0.04 0.08 7.182 4.55
0.12 0.24 21.978 13.93
0.18 0.35 31.698 20.09
0.16 0.31 28.242 17.90
0.09 0.19 17.064 10.81
0.09 0.18 16.2 10.27
0.07 0.14 12.96 8.21
0.09 0.19 17.064 10.81
0.07 0.14 12.96 8.21
0.09 0.19 16.956 10.75
0.16 0.31 28.08 17.79
0.07 0.14 12.42 7.87
0.09 0.18 16.2 10.27
0.08 0.17 15.12 9.58
0.12 0.25 22.14 14.03
0.05 0.09 8.1 5.13
0.18 0.36 32.4 20.53
0.09 0.19 17.064 10.81
0.16 0.31 28.08 17.79
0.08 0.17 15.12 9.58
0.18 0.36 32.4 20.53
1.10 2.21 198.45 125.76
1.09 2.19 196.88 124.76
0.70 1.40 126 79.85

## 0.10 0.20 18.36 11.63

0.28 0.55 49.5 31.37
0.09 0.18 16.2 10.27
0.30 0.60 54 34.22
0.03 0.06 5.04 3.19
0.03 0.06 5.4 3.42
0.18 0.35 31.68 20.08
0.34 0.67 60.39 38.27
0.09 0.18 16.2 10.27
0.30 0.61 54.846 34.76
0.11 0.21 18.9 11.98
0.10 0.20 17.82 11.29
0.06 0.12 10.8 6.84
0.04 0.09 7.65 4.85
0.10 0.20 18.36 11.63
0.28 0.55 49.5 31.37
0.09 0.18 16.2 10.27
0.30 0.60 54 34.22
0.10 0.20 18.36 11.63
0.06 0.12 10.8 6.84
0.10 0.20 17.82 11.29
0.12 0.25 22.05 13.97
0.18 0.36 32.4 20.53
0.30 0.60 54 34.22
0.30 0.60 54 34.22
0.03 0.06 5.4 3.42
0.30 0.60 54 34.22
0.18 0.35 31.68 20.08
0.04 0.09 7.92 5.02
0.04 0.09 7.92 5.02
0.09 0.19 16.74 10.61
0.30 0.61 54.846 34.76
0.34 0.67 60.39 38.27
0.18 0.35 31.68 20.08
0.30 0.60 54 34.22
0.05 0.10 9.36 5.93
0.05 0.10 9.36 5.93
0.30 0.60 54 34.22
0.18 0.35 31.68 20.08
0.04 0.07 6.48 4.11
0.04 0.07 6.48 4.11

## 7.47 14.94 1344.4 1514.02

1.44 2.88 259.2 164.26

## 1.49 2.97 267.3 169.39

0.72 1.44 129.6 82.13
0.12 0.24 21.6 13.69

## 0.11 0.21 17.85 11.31

0.17 0.34 28.56 18.10
0.11 0.21 17.85 11.31
0.18 0.36 30.6 19.39
0.06 0.12 10.2 6.46
0.05 0.11 9.18 5.82
0.22 0.44 37.4 23.70
0.30 0.60 51 32.32
0.09 0.19 15.81 10.02
0.29 0.57 48.45 30.70
0.11 0.21 17.85 11.31
0.14 0.28 23.8 15.08
0.16 0.33 28.016 17.75
0.11 0.21 17.85 11.31
0.16 0.33 28.016 17.75
0.17 0.34 28.56 18.10
0.16 0.33 28.016 17.75
0.12 0.24 20.4 12.93
0.18 0.36 30.6 19.39
0.14 0.28 23.8 15.08
0.14 0.28 23.8 15.08
0.11 0.21 17.85 11.31
0.23 0.45 38.25 24.24
0.07 0.13 11.22 7.11
0.07 0.13 11.22 7.11
0.09 0.19 15.81 10.02
12.28 24.57 2088.2 2351.61

Assumptions 6 meters
12 mm dia. 3865.63 645.00 pcs 156735
16 mm dia. 2807.56 468.00 pcs 202176
Bar Ø Wt. (Kg/m)
12 0.888
16 1.578
20 2.466
25 3.853
28 4.834
32 6.313
36 7.99
STRUCTURAL
DIMENSION No. of
FOUNDATION Designated
FOOTING L W D H PCS

## F1 0.8 0.8 0.3 16

F2 0.5 0.5 0.3 5
GROUND FLOOR
COLUMN C1 0.25 0.25 2.8 19
C2 0.2 0.3 2.8 2

1
2
Area of Slab Perimeter
SLAB ON GRADE 95.55 42.12 0.15 1

SUSPENDED SLAB
ROOF BEAM A, 3-4 B1 2.64 0.18 0.25 1
A, 4-5 B1 3.48 0.18 0.25 1
B, 1-2 B1 2.64 0.18 0.25 1
B,2-3 B1 2.88 0.18 0.25 1
B,3-4 B1 2.4 0.18 0.25 1
B,4-5 B1 3.48 0.18 0.25 1
C,1-2 B1 2.64 0.18 0.25 1
C,2-3 B1 2.88 0.18 0.25 1
C,3-4 B2 2.4 0.2 0.3 1
C,4-5 B2 3.48 0.2 0.3 1
E,1-2 B1 2.64 0.18 0.25 1
E,2-3 B1 2.88 0.18 0.25 1
F,3-4 B1 1.55 0.18 0.25 1
F,4-5 B1 3.48 0.18 0.25 1
C,5-6 B1 1.21 0.18 0.25 1
F,5-6 B1 1.21 0.18 0.25 1

## 1,B-C B1 2.79 0.18 0.25 1

1,C-E B2 4.53 0.2 0.3 1
2,B-C B1 2.79 0.18 0.25 1
2,C-E B2 4.53 0.2 0.3 1
3,A-B B1 2.67 0.18 0.25 1
3,B-C B1 2.79 0.18 0.25 1
3,C-E B2 4.53 0.2 0.3 1
4,A-B B1 2.67 0.18 0.25 1
4,B-C B2 2.79 0.2 0.3 1
4,C-F B3 5.04 0.2 0.4 1
5, A-B B1 2.67 0.18 0.25 1
5, B-C B3 4.04 0.2 0.4 1
5, C-F B2 3.79 0.2 0.3 1
SUB-TOTAL

MASONRY
GROUND FLOOR
WALL EXTERIOR WALL 26.34 2.8
INTERIOR WALL 6.5 2.8
2ND FLOOR
WALL EXTERIOR WALL 26.34 2.5
INTERIOR WALL 7.8 2.5
CONCRETE CLASS A
No. of AREA VOLUME
CEMENT SAND GRAVEL
MIXTURE
PCS (m2) (m3) bags cubic cubic

## 16 15.36 3.072 1:2:4 27.648 1.536 3.072

5 3 0.375 1:2:4 3.375 0.1875 0.375

## 19 26.600 3.325 1:2:4 29.925 1.663 3.325

2 2.800 0.336 1:2:4 3.024 0.168 0.336
0.000 0.000 1:2:4 0.000 0.000 0.000

## 1 0.000 0.000 1:2:4 0.000 0.000 0.000

2 0.000 0.000 1:2:4 0.000 0.000 0.000

## 31.13 4.670 1:2:4 42.026 2.335 4.670

1 1.7952 0.119 1:2:4 1.069 0.059 0.119
1 2.3664 0.157 1:2:4 1.409 0.078 0.157
1 1.7952 0.119 1:2:4 1.069 0.059 0.119
1 1.9584 0.130 1:2:4 1.166 0.065 0.130
1 1.632 0.108 1:2:4 0.972 0.054 0.108
1 2.3664 0.157 1:2:4 1.409 0.078 0.157
1 1.7952 0.119 1:2:4 1.069 0.059 0.119
1 1.9584 0.130 1:2:4 1.166 0.065 0.130
1 1.92 0.144 1:2:4 1.296 0.072 0.144
1 2.784 0.209 1:2:4 1.879 0.104 0.209
1 1.7952 0.119 1:2:4 1.069 0.059 0.119
1 1.9584 0.130 1:2:4 1.166 0.065 0.130
1 1.054 0.070 1:2:4 0.628 0.035 0.070
1 2.3664 0.157 1:2:4 1.409 0.078 0.157
1 0.8228 0.054 1:2:4 0.490 0.027 0.054
1 0.8228 0.054 1:2:4 0.490 0.027 0.054

## 1 1.8972 0.126 1:2:4 1.130 0.063 0.126

1 3.624 0.272 1:2:4 2.446 0.136 0.272
1 1.8972 0.126 1:2:4 1.130 0.063 0.126
1 3.624 0.272 1:2:4 2.446 0.136 0.272
1 1.8156 0.120 1:2:4 1.081 0.060 0.120
1 1.8972 0.126 1:2:4 1.130 0.063 0.126
1 3.624 0.272 1:2:4 2.446 0.136 0.272
1 1.8156 0.120 1:2:4 1.081 0.060 0.120
1 2.232 0.167 1:2:4 1.507 0.084 0.167
1 5.04 0.403 1:2:4 3.629 0.202 0.403
1 1.8156 0.120 1:2:4 1.081 0.060 0.120
1 4.04 0.323 1:2:4 2.909 0.162 0.323
1 3.032 0.227 1:2:4 2.047 0.114 0.227
264.56 14.70 29.40

## CLASS B (RATIO 1:3), 12mm thick.

MORTAR FILLER AND LAYING PLASTERING
CHB 4"
CEMENT SAND CEMENT
pcs bags cubic bags
44.2512 553.14 45.05 3.73 12.74
14.56 182.00 14.82 1.23 4.19

## 39.51 493.88 40.22 3.33 11.38

15.6 195.00 15.88 1.32 4.49
12mm thick.
PLASTERING
SAND
cubic
5.31
1.75

4.74
1.87