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Nineteenth Edition

Edited by John Musgrove

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Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
John Tarn
Peter Willis

Assistant Editor
Jane Farron


485. Jain Bhawan. BholaNatb Nagar
Shahdara. DelhHI0032 (India)

Under the tenns Mthe Will of Sir Banister Fletcher, the:. ~~:'~_>;';;':'F__
.. Royal Institute of British Architects and the UniyerSit#l~;~J·';~.c..
London became the joint beneficiaries of a Trust,furid. of ,:- .'
which one of the principal assets is the copyright in "', . ~
A History ofArchitecture. The income from this Fund,
which is shared bytbe Institute and the University, is to be
devoted to the furtherance of architectural teaching and
appreciation in accordance with the various intentions
expressed by Sir Banister Fletcher in his Will.

First published 1896

Secondedition 1896
Third edition 1897
Fourth edition 1901

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Fifth edition 1905
Reprinted 1910,1911,1914,1917,1919,1920
Sixth edition 1921 .
Seventh edition 1924
Eighth edition 1928
Reprinted 1929
Ninth edition 1931
'Tenth ed.ition 1938
Reprinted 1940
Eleventh edition 1943
Twelfth edition 1945
Thirteenth (Jubilee) edition 1946
Fourteenth edition 1948
Fiftt!enth edition 1950
Sixteenth edition 1954
Reprinted 1956,1959
Seventeenth edition 1961
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Reprinted 1963
Eighteenth edition 1975
Nineteenth edition 1987
Reprimed 1987

First Indian Reprint: 1992

CJ 1987 The Royal Institute of British Architects
and The University of London
This edition has been publistied in India by arrangement
with Butter-worth Heinemann Lid. London' (U.K.)
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced
in ar.y form or by means, eleclronic or mechanical. including
photocopy, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Published by S.K. Jain for CBS Publishers & Distributors
485. Jain Shawan, Bbota Nath Nagar. Shahdara.
Delhi-110032 (India)
This edition is authorised for Sale only in : INDIA
Printed at Nu Tech Photolithographers 10/1&28' Block
Jhiimil Tahirpur. Shahdra. Delhi-110032. (India)

ISBN 61-239-0106-9



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The many innovationS of content and farm in this interest in the work and has found and implemented
edition are described in the Introduction (itself an elegant solutions to complex organisational prob-
innovation), and lf my distinguished predecessor, lems; Sir Andrew Derbyshire and Dr Patrick NUll-
James Palmes, was justified in describing some ofthe gens in the earlier months of the project, and Dr
changes he himself made to the book as 'controver- Derek Linstrum and Peter Murray more recently,
sial' (Preface to the eighteenth edition), I can only have all listened patiently on behalf of the Royal
hope mine will not find criticism in harsher terms. Be Institute of British Architects to my reports, and
that as it may, the Trustees of the Banister Fletcher invariably have backed collaborative editorial judge-
bequest wished the work to continue as a world his- ments with helpful advice and action when it was
tory of architecture in a single volume; after much niost needed. Also serving the Joint Steering Com-
deliberation it was concluded that this implied shift- mittee have been Jan van der Wateren. RIBA Libra-
ing the balance of the book's contents-solidly estab- rian, and Jennifer Harvey, of London University's
lished though it had been for many years with twelve administrative staff, who, as secretary to the commit-
chapters OD European architecture (about twenty- tee, cared about its success and continuous!y fostered
five Digitized
per .cent of by VKN
the total in BPO Pvt Limited,
the seventeenth and www.vknbpo.com
its efficacy, . 97894 60001
eighteenth editions) between the Byzantine Empire Presenting so extensive a work in a new form has
~_ and the Renaissance, This number has been reduced required the collective efforts of numerous people,
...........~ to two: Romanesque has been revised and compiled amongst whom pride of place goes to the authors and
_ from the chapters of the earlier edition, Gothic com- revisers whose names the .Trustees have agreed
pletely rewritten and considerably shortened, When should be separately listed in the title pages of the
the European story is taken up again, it is after deal- book alongside the elements for which they were
ing with other. pre-Renaissance ~rchitecture world- responsible. I am grateful for all their work and for
wide. The Renaissance in Europe is-then presented in their forbearance in the circumstances of tight sche-
a more Concentrated series of chapters, also rewritten duling demanded by the programme. For the rest,
and reclassified: Growing architectural interest in the including the compilation of the background chapters
adaptation and creative use of various Renaissance, (generally from material provided by the authors and
nco-Classical and other reVival styles in the countries revisers). I am responsible, though always with
occupied or colonised by Europeans is reflected in advice and guidance from the consultant editors, Pro-
the penultimate part of the book and the twentieth- fessor John Tam and Dr Peter Willis, with whom I
-century chapters are wholly new. The revised format have been privileged to work over a period of three
speaks for itself; I will say only that it is designed to years.
Diake the book more comfortable to handle. as well Single-handed, Jane Farron, my assistant editor,
as to ob,tain more words per page "Nith the same type has prepared the book for publication from edited
siie-the larger page gives a bonus of slightly larger and re-edited copy; she has keyed and coded the text
reproduCtions of the study sheet drawings which have for direct automatic typesetting and has co-ordinated·
been rephotographed from tile originals for this edi- the illustrations, not to mention running a busy edi-
tion. torial office with enviaple equanimity and poise
This edition of the book would not have been through two and a half years. She has my sincere
possible without the .consistent and continuous en- thanks imd appreciation of the dedication and profes-
couragement and support of the Banister Fletcher sionalism she has brought to bear upon the work.
Trustees, chaired throughout by Sir Michael My thanks are due also to many advisers, some
". aapham whose wise advice, unfailingly followed up approached formally, others informally, from whom
1 with practical help, commands my personal admira- verbal or written advice was received at various
tion and gratitude; the Principal of London Univer- stages of the work. including the all-important period
'~ty. Peter Holwell. has maintained an unflagging when authors and revisers were being selected and
commis5ioned They include Professor Stanford Geoffrey Fisher of tile Courtauld Institute of Art,
Anderson of MIT, Cambridge, USA, Mosette Andrew HiggoU of the Architectural Association,
Glaser Broderick, University of New York. Dr Jim and Pat Katterhorn and Fran Clement of the India
Coulton, The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Profes- Office Library, Dr Ian Cullen, ofthe Bartlett School.'
sor Eric Fernie, University of Edinburgh, Professor
Bruno Flierl, Humboldt University, Berlin, Profes~
of Architecture and Planning, devised the typo-
graphic coding systems and helped with many hard- ,
sor Sir John Hale of University College London, ware problems. And we have had much generous
Professor Thomas Hines, UCLA, Dr Moriaka Hiro- help from our librarian colleagues at the RJBA lib-
hara, Kyoto Prefectural University, Fredenco de rary and the Llewelyn-Davies Library at tl)e Bartlett:
Holanda, University of Brasilia, Professor Peter I would like to express special thanks to librarians
Johnson, University of Sydney, Professor George Ruth Kamen at the RIBA and Ruth Dal and Anna
Kubler, Yale University, Dr Joseph Needham, Uni- Piet at the Bartlett.
versity of Cambridge, Dr Edward Sekler, Harvard I am grateful to Sir James Lighthill, Provost of
University, Ge Shouqin, Counsellor for Education, University College London, for permitting the
Embassy of the People's Republic of China, London, editorial office to be set up at the Bart:ett and for

For Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam’s Private use only, www.pmu.edu

and Dr Christopher Tadgell, Canterbury College of giving its editor 'houseroom' for so long after retire-
Art, ment. My thanks also for the unstinting help at an
Professor John White of University College !,-on, administrative level of Bev Nutt at the inception of
don and Dr Mary Lightbown, the curator of the the work and lately of Margo Goldspink and Janet
College's drawings collection, gave valuable advice Senyshyn of the Academic Services Unit.
upon the treatment of the Banister Fletcher drawings And last but by no means least, I thank my wife
archive, and Richard and Helen Leacroft generously Terry and other members of my family who have
·offered us their delightful drawings should we wish to been unbelievably tolerant arad supportive of an in-
:lse them. For help in seeking and selecting photo- creasingly preoccupied figure\.in their midst.
graphs for reproduction we tender our thanks to
John Musgrove

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Sources of Illustrations ix 23 South Asia 745
introduction 'xvii 24 South·east Asia 785
Chronological Tables xxvi
Colour Plates following xxxii Part 5 Tbe Arcbitecture of the Renaissance
and Post-Renaissance in Europe and
. Part 1 Tbe Architecture of Egypt, tbe Ancient Russia
Near East, Greece and the Hellenistic
Background 805
Italy 841
1 Background 3 France, Spain and Portugal 922
2 Prehistoric 24 Austria, Germany and Central
3 Egypt 34 Europe 975
4 The Ancient Near East 66 29 The Low Countries and Britain 1000
5 Greece by 95 VKN• BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894
30 Russia and Scandinavia 60001
6 The Hellenistic Kingdoms 142 31 Post-Renaissance Europe 1093

--), Part 2 Tbe Architecture of Europe and the Part 6 The Architecture oUhe Colonial and
Mediterranean to the Renaissance Post-colonial Periods outside Europe
7 Backgroun\! 157 32 Background 1173
8 Prehistoric - 194 33 Africa 1184
9 Rome and the Roman Empire 210 34 The Americas 1206
10 The Byzantine Empire 268 35 China . 1233
11 Early Mediaeval and Romanesque 307 36 Japan 1244
12 Gothic 387 37 South and South-east Asia 1256
38 Australasia 1284
Part 3 The Architecture of Islam and Early
Russia Part 7 The Architecture of the Twentieth
13. Background 527
14 Early Asian Cultures 545 39 Background 1319
15 Early Islam 552 40 Western Europe 1323
16 Early Russia 581 41 Eastern Europe and f<.ussia 1365
17 The Later Islamic Empires 605 42 Africa 1384
43 The Americas 1397
44 China 1450
Part 4 The Architecture of the Pre-colonial 45 Japan 1468
Cultures outside Europe 46 South and South-east Asia 1482
18 Background 635 47 Oceania 1501
Africa 665
The Americas 671 Glossary 1527
21 China 693
22 Japan 714 Index. 1545

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The publishers wish to express their thanks to the
47B. from G. Jequier. Les Temples memphiles el thehains
great numbe.r of institutions, commercial firms and des origines a la XVllle dynastie, 1920.
private persons who have supplied photographs forSlAt after H. Ricke, Beitriige zur Aegyptischen Boufor-
use in this book or who have given permission for schung und Altertumskunde, 1950. and Baedeker, Egypt
and the Sudan, 1908.
copyright material to be used in the preparation of
SIB, after A.-M. Calverley. The Temple of King Sethos I at
plans and drawings': Abydos, 1933, by permission of the Egypt Exploration
Where acknowledgement is made to published Society and the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago.
works mentioned in the bibliographies at the end of
51 C-F. after Baedeker, Egypt and the Sudan, 1908 and 1929
the chapters the d~te of the publication is given. editions.
5IG. after Lange and Hirmer.
54A, Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, bequest of
ABBREVIATIONS Levi Hale Willard, 1883.
54B. 6OB, Lehnen·and Landrock, Cairo.
RCHME The Royal Commistion on the· Historical
S5A, from Lange and Hinner.
Monuments of England
56B, Courtauld Institute of An.
by VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com
Royal Institute of British Architects
. 97894 60001
58B,C, 59B, 61B, A. F. Ker>ting.
6OA. Oriental Institute, Univenity of Chicago.
62. from Emery, 1965.
7A, from St6bart, 1964.
7B. from D. Stronach. 1978. CHAPTER 4
20A,C, from A. K. Orlando" 1966. 68A, after (il Parrot, 1946, (ti) Frankfon, 1954, (iii) Nol-
20B, from R. S. Yo,:"og, Three Great Early Tumuli, 1981. deke el al., Vorliiufiger Beri.cht aber die Awgrabungen in
Uruk-Warka, 1937.
68B, after Parrot, 1946 and Sir Leonard WooUey, Ur Ex-
CHAPTER 3 <ovations V, The ZiggurllJ IVId iIr Surroundinp, 1939.
41A. after Emery, 1939. 68C, R. Ghirshman.
41B. after J. Garstang, MaJuuna and Bel Khalldf. 1902. 71A, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, reconstruc-
41C~ after A. Badawy, A History of Egyptian Architecture, tion by Hamiltoo Darby.
vol. i, 1954. 71B, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, reconstruc-
41D, after (i) F. Benoit. L'Architecturt d'antiquill, 1911. tion ·by H. D. Hill.
(ii) A. Rowe. Museum Journal of the University of Phi/- 72A,B, 73A,B, after Mallowan, 1966.
adelphia, xxii. No; I, 1931. (iii) A. Schaff. Handbuch der 73C, from D. Oates, Iraq XXIX, 1967.
Archaeologie, Aegypten, 1939. 76C, after Loud, by pennission of the Oriental Institute,
41G. after Lange an~:Hirmer, 1968. University of Chicago.
41H, after_ L. Borchardt. Die Enstehung der Pyramide an 77F, after Luschan et aI..
der Baugeschichte· der Pyramide bei Mejdum Mch- nG, after Mitteilungen aIlS thn Ori.entalischen Samm-
gewiesen, 1928. lungen, Heft XXV; Ausgrabungen in Sendschirli IV,
4IJ, after Reisner. K6nigiiches Museum. Berlin. 1911.
4IK.L. after (i) D. Holscher, Das Grabdenknulldes Konigs 79A. Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, by permission of
Chepllren, 1912, (ii) A. Badawy, (iii) Edwards, 1961. Generalverwrutung der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin.
41N. after L. Borchardt. Das Grobdenlcmal des Konigs 79B, from Mallowan, 1966.
Sahu·Rt, 1910-13, .. d Edwards. 79C. from Loud. by permission of the Oriental Institute.
42. drawings and reconstructions by J. P. Lauer. University of Chicago.
43. after E. Droton. J. P. Lauer, C. M. Firth and J. E. BOA, after Seton Lloyd, Early AIUJl<>Iia, 1956, and Puch-
Quibell. stein.
46F. in part after Edwards. SOB. after Gurney and Pucbstein.
47A, SSA, Aerofilms Ltd. SOC, Oriental Institute. University of Chicago.

SOD, after K. Bittel. R. Naumann. H. Otto. Yozilikaya, 163B, Alinari.

1941. 163C. Giraudon.
8OE, after K. Bittel, Die Ru;nen von Bogazkov, 1937. 172. from' Conant. 1959 ed,
85A, courtesy of Altan Cilingiroglu. .
SSB, C. Burney.
86A. from B. B. Piotrovskii, Urartu: the ~ir:gdom.of Van CHAPTER 8
andil4art.1967. . '202A. ('r(\wn Cop'yright. reprod~ced by' Pe'fr~issi~n of the
86B, flom C. Nylander, 197!. . Scottish DevelopmenrDept. " .' ,
86C, from C. P. E. Haspels, 1971. 202~.
Nationid Museum of ArchaeC?logy, Malta.
87A; from T. Ozgiic, The Urartian Architecture on t~e 205, A. F. Harding.
Summit of Altintepe', Anotoliu VII. 1963.
87B, from AMlo/ian Studies XVI.
87C. from E. Bilgilj and B. Ogun, 'Excavations at Kefkalesi. CHAPTER 9
1964', Anatolia VIII. 1964. 216A, 250. from Boethius and Ward-Perkins, Istituto di

For Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam’s Private use only, www.pmu.edu

9OC. after Schmidt, by permission of the Oriental InstitUle. EtruscoJogia e di Antichita Italiche, Rome University.
University of Chicago. 216B, 21BA, 224B. 233B, 244C, 249C, 253A, Alinari. "
91A,B. OrientaUnstitute. University of Chicago. 21BB.C, 220A; 224A, 229A,B,·233A. 237B,C, 241A-F.
91C, from Ghirsham, 1954. 249A.B, 252A, 255B, 256A,B,C, 25BB, 261A, 262",·,
91D. David Stronach. 262B, 265A-E. R. ,Mainstone.
2I9A.e, Alterocca. Temi.
220B. Josephine PowelL
22ge, 236B,C. 244B. 252B, Fototeca Unione, Rome.
97A. after Sir Arthur Evans. Palace of Minos at Knosso$. 236A, Leonard von Matt.
,1928. .
244A, 261B, A. F.Kersting:
978; after Pendlebury. 255A.• from D. S. Robertson, by permission of Staatsbib:
99<:, 115C, 135A,B, William Taylor. liothek Bildarchiv, Berlin.
lOlA,S; after Dinsmoor. and Piet de 10'1g. 258A. from Wheeler. 1964, drawing by William Suddaby.
tOOC', 121A, after Lawrence, 1957 ed.
102F. after Dinsmoor.
I07A.B. after Dinsmoor, and W. J. Anderson and R. P. CHAPTER 10 '
Spiers. Architecture of Ancient Greece aird Rome, 1907. 277A, 280B,C,E, 2B4B,C, 287';', 290A,B; 29BA, 299A,B,
Digitized by VKN BPO
115A,B. USA, Agora Excavations, American School o(
Classical Studies/photo Alison Frantz. Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com
301A-D. . 97894 60001.
302A; 304A,B, R ..'Mainstone.
278A. Fototeca Unione. Rome.
119A, 125A,N. Hiscock. .' 278B, 2828. Alinari.
119B. A. F. Kersting. 280A. Foto Marburg.
119C. 136C. Agora Excavations. American School ofOas- 284A; G. H. Forsyth, Kelsey Museum;-'University of Michi·
sicaJ Studies. Athens. gan/reproduced courtesy of 'the . Mi~higan-Princeton~ ,
121B, I22A. 122B, after Berve, Gruben and Hinner. by Alexandria Expedition 'to Mount -Sinai " '
pennission of Hirmer Verlag Munchen. . 287B. from D. -Talbot Rice, The Art of Byzantium';' 1959.
124E, 125B, after A. Furtwangler el '01. Aegina:'dllS Heilig- 288. from Fossati.
tum der Aphaia, 1906. ' 291, from M. Hllrlimann. Istanbul, 1958.
12S;, in 'part 'after Dinsmcior. 298B. Foto Marburg.
129B ,C, in part after Lawrence. 1957 ed, ; and F. Krischen, 299C. Antonellq, . Perissinotto.
Die Griechische Stadt, 1938. 3028, Testolini.
130, in part after Dirisinoor, and T. Wiegand;'~'chter l,Ior-
laufiger Bencht Uber die 1,10'1 den Staatlichen Museen in
Milet und Dtdyma unternommenen'Ausgrabungen. 1924.
136A, from Berve, Gruben and Hirmer. CHAPTER 11
1368, Trustees of the British MU5eu&t. 316A,C, 317A-C, 3208, 321A-C,323A: Alinari.
3168. Courtauld Institute of Art.
320A. Omniafoto. Turin.
CHAPTER 6 322, Fototeca Unione. Rome.
I45N. after T. Wiegand "(as 130). 329A, Combier Imp. MAcon'.
146A. R. A. Tomlinson. 329B, Giraudon.
146B, 150A, William Taylor. 334A. Archives photographiques. Paris.
146C. from T. Wiegand. et al.; Milet: Die Ergebnisse der 334B. Courtauld Insti~ute of ArtIphoto G. ~. Druce. ',.'
Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen, 1906. ' 334D, 33BB,C, 348B, 362111 S. Heywood.
15OB, from Martin. 334E, 349A,B, 35OB, 355B,D, 363, A. F. Kersting.
152. after T. Homolle. et al., ExplQration'archeologique de 338A,D. Foto Marburg. '
/Ulos, 1902. by pennission 'of the Ecole fran~aise. 345A. after K. J. Conant. The Early ArchitectUral HiStory-of.
Athens. and Editions Boccard. Pans. the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, copyright 1926 .
by the President and Fellows of Harvard Collegell954: by .
Kenneth J. Conant. . 1 , ,. ' •. ,
CHAPTER 7 345B,D,E. after Bevan. 1938. -
163A. Museum of-Antiquities, University and Society of 345C. after Oapham.
~ Antiquaries, Newcaslle upon Tyne. . 347A,C, 348A,C-E, 349C,D, 3SOA, Foto Mas.

'347B, Courtauld Institute of Art. 558A, 565B.C. 569B,C. 571, 572A.B. 577A. A. F. Ker·
355A, H. E. Stutchbury. sting.
355C, 368B-E, 369A.C, Aeroiilms Ltd. 572C.O, Foto Mas.
360C,E-G, after Webb. 5758, Thames and Hudson/photo Roger Wood, London.
362A. photograph by J. R. H. WeaveI'. 575C, 578A, Yolande Crowe.
368A. Thomas H. Mason and Sons Ltd. 577C,D, Office of the Press Counsellor, Turkish Emhasw.
369B, Crown Copyright, RCHME. London. .
374A. Royal Norwegian Embassy. London. 578B, Novasti Press Agency.
3748, Swedish Tourist Traffic Association, Stockholm.
374C,D, 376C, Riksantikvaren. CHAPTER 16
375A. The Danish Tourist Board, London.
375B, Refot. 585A, Courtauld Institute of Art.
585B, 586A. courtesy The Byzantine Collection/photo C.
37M,B, after Clapham.
Mango, copyright Dumba.rton Oaks. TmsteesofHarvard
3760. after Paulssen.

For Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam’s Private use only, www.pmu.edu

586B-D. 588A-C. 589, 59IA-C. 597. 598A-D. 6OIA-D.
CHAPTER 12 602A,B. 6()3A-D, Klaus G. Beyer.
594, after H. Faensen and V. Ivanov. 1975.
391A-C, 395A,B, 405B-D, 406C,D, 409A, 41OB.
4l1A,C,D, 412A,B, 440B, 457A,B, 458A-D, 462A.
468A,B, 474A-E, 476A,C, 477A,B, 489A,B,D, 492C, CHAPTER 17
493A-D, 494A-C, 502B, 504B, 520B,C, Courtauld In- 607 A, Novosti Press Agency.
stitute of Art. 607B, 619A-C, 620C, 623C. 627B. A. F. Kersting.
393, 406A, 420B, 423B, 430, 432A, 433A, 437C, 438B,C, 609A, Yolande Crowe.
44OC, 482D, 490A,B, 502A, 514B,C, 515A,B, A. F. 6098, 620A,. 623A. Douglas Dickins.
Kersting. 609C, Roger Wood, London.
395C,D, 397C, 457C,D, 462B,C, 467, 468C,D, Foto Mar- 61OA. 612C, Office of the Press Counsellor, Turkish
burg. Embassy, London.
403, Roger-VioUet. 6108, Godfrey' Goodwin.
405A, 489C, Foto Mas. 61OC, 612A.B, 614, 615A-C, 623B, 628A.B, 629B. J.
409C, J. Austin. Warren.
4118, 415A, Archives photographiques, Paris. 629A. from F. Stark, The Southern Gates of Arabia, 1971.
Digitized by VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
419A. 4200, School of Architf':cture. University of Man-
419B, 434A-O, 435A, 437B, 438A, 44OA, 44lB, 443A,B, CHAPTER 18
<l5IA,C, Crown Copyright, RCHME 648A, 663C,E, 1. Musgrove.
420A. from Braun, 1970. 658A,B, from M. Meister, Vol. 1, 1983.
423A, 424A,B, 432B, 437A, 443C, 445A,B, 446A, Aero- 658C, after Liang Ssu Cheng.. 1984.
films Ltd. 663A, Lou Qingxi.
4358, Gordon Fraser Gallery/Photo Edwin Smith. 663B,D,6488, Dept. of Architecture, Tsinghua University.
441A, Perfecta Publications/photo S. Newberg.
445C, Crown Copyright, reproduced by permission of HM
Stationery Officel Alan Sorrell reconstruction drawing. CHAPTER 20
. 446B, from 1. Nash, The Mansions of England in the Olden 673, 675. 677A, 678A-O, 68IA.B, 682A.B, 683A,~,
T~, 1839. 684B,C, 686A,B. 687A, 689A,B. 690A, 691A. H. Stan-
448H, after Gamer and Stratton. ley Loten,
4518, F. C. Morgan. 6778, from T. Proskouriakoff, 1963.
4768,D, 479A, Rijksdienst voor de Monumentenzorg. 684A, Unesco/photo R. Garraud.
4nC, 479B, copyright ACL Brusseis. 6878. Douglas Dickins.
482A,B, 492B. Courtauld Institute of ArtlC. Welander. 6908, Victor Kennett.
502C, 504A,C,. 505A,B, 507A, 514A, 515A, 516A-C, 690C, Grace Line Inc ..
518B, 520A, Alinan. 690D, L. Herve.
6918, Courtauld Institute of Alt.

528A,B, I. Musgrove. 695A. 70lA, 703A,C. 704D. 707A, 709ft-C, 7!oA-C,
540A-D, from R. E. M. Wheeler, 1968. 711A,D, Dept. of Architecture, Tsinghua University.
54OE. 541. 542B, from G. Michell, 1978. 695B,C, 703B. 704C, 708B,C, Oaiheng Guo.
542A, from R. Lewcock and Z. Freeth, 1978. 6950, 696A,B,697A-D.698A,B, 70lB, 702.'1.,B,O, 7030.
542C, from C. Mango. 1974. 704A,B, 708A, 711B,C. Lou Qingxi.
702C, 7078, Chinese Photograph Agency.
501A-C, 557B, 558B,C, 565A, 569A,D. 575A, 5778, J.
557A, Middle East Archive. London.
716-8, 720, Kim Choung Ki. aki.
723,725-8,731,732,734,737,738. 741-3. Eizo Inagi

CHAPTER 23 946B, 957B. 969A, A. F. Kersting.

748B, 758A, Christopher Woodward.
753A, 763C, Douglas Dickins.
7538, Unesco/photo Cart.
947A. after Ward, 1926.
947B, after Blonde!.
953B. French Government Tourist Office.
753C, 755A. 766A-C, Archaeological Department, Gov- 957A, Country Life.
ernment of Sri Lanka. 962A-C, 963A.B, 965A,C.D, 969B,C,D, 970A.B. Foto
753D, Unesco/photo A. Leune. Mas.
7548,7678.769,772. A. F. Kersting. 966, after Prentice.
754C. 760C, 766B, 771C, Department of Archaeology, 973A, Alvao, Oporto.
Government of India. 9738, Mario Novaes.
755B, 758!l,C,D,E, 759A-C, 760A,B, 763A, 765A-E, J.
7638, from G. E. Mitton, 1928. CHAPTER 28
766C, 767A, 77IA,B,D. 773A. 775A. 78OA. from P. 979A,B. 992A,B, ('-ourtauld Institute of Art.

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Brown, 1959. 979C, 985A,C, 987A.C, 988B, 99IA,B, 995A,C, 996A.C.
768A, 78IA,C. 782B.C, from E. B. Haven, 1915. 997 A, Foto Marburg.
7688, 771E, 779D. 7818, 782A, from 1. Fergusson. Vol. 2, 985B, 988A, Bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna/photo Eva
1910. Frodl-Kraft.
773C, 775B,C. 776B, 777A-C. 779A.C.E. 78OB. from M. 987B, C. N. P. Powell.
MLister. Vol. 2, 1983. 988C, 997B, Deutsche Fotothek Dresden.
776A, Victor Kennett. 989, 992C, 995B. A. F. Kmting.
9968, Deutsche Fotothek Dresden/photo Handrick.

789A; 790A, 7998, from Hugo Munsterberg, Art of Iridin CHAPTER 29
and Southeast Asia, 1970. lOO3A;B, l004A,B, l006A,C, copyright ACL Brussels.
789B, copyright RIBA. l003C, Press Bureau, Belgian Embassy.
789C. 79OB. 79IA-C, 793A,B, 795C, 798B-D, 799C, from 1004C, 1006B.D, l008A-t, Rijksdienst voor de
J. Fergusson, Vol. 2, 1910. Monumentenzorg.
793C. 7958, 796A. Unesco/photo C. Baugey. 1006E, Rijksmuseum. Amsterdam.
7948, 795A, 7968, 798A. Douglas Dickins. 1015B. 1021A:, 1029C, 100IC. 1049A, I06OE, Courtauld
Digitized by VKN
799A,D, Unesco/photo D. Davies.
799E. Unesco/photo Cart. BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
Institute of Art.
1015C, 1022C-E.I029A,B, 1045A.I046A, 1054A. 10558.
10578, 105~A-C, 1060A,C, Crown Copyright.
1017A, I022A.B, 1033A, 10000C, 1001B, 1045B.C, 1046C.
813A,B, Alinari. 1049B, 1057A, I06OD, 106IA. I064A.B,D, A. F. Ker-
8168, A. F. Kersting. sting. .
1001B. 1024B, 1052A.B, 10570. Coun"y Life.
CHAPTER 26 1024A, Crown Copyright, reproduced by permission of the
852A,B,D, 856B,C,E, 857C, 861, 86JC, 868B, 877A,B, Controller of HM Stationery Office.
885B,C. 889A,B, 890A-C. 897A-C, 899A,C, 9OOA.B, 1040B, Birmingham Post and Mail Ltd.
902A-C, 903A,D, 906A.B.D, 909A,B, 911B, 912A-C, 10468. J. B. Price.
9I6A, 9I7A,B, Alinari. 1048A, Raphael Tuck and Sons Ltd.
852C, Chnstopher Wilson. I048B, B. T. Batsford Ltd.
856A, A. F. Kersting. . 1048C, Aerofilms Ltd.
856D, 857A,B, 863A,B. 868A, 885A, 889C, 899B, 900C, 1049C. 1062A. Christopher Wilson.
906C, 908A,B, 911C.D, 916B, 917C, 918B, Courtauld 1054B, 105SA, Judges Ltd, Hastings.
Institute of An. I060B, Francis Milsom.
868C. Courtauld Institute of ArtlPiranesi. 10618, Radio Times Hulton Picture-Library.
870E,F, after P. M. Letarouilly, The Valjean, 1.1953. 1061C, British Museum.
SSOA,E,G-J, after Haupt. 1062B. from A. E. Richardson, Monumenlal Classical Ar-
913. from Archileuura, 6, 1960. chitecture in Great Britain, 1914.
914. from Archueltura, 7,1961. l064C, NBRJphoto Gerald Cobb.

928A, 936A, 941C. 950A. 957C, Giraudon. 1069A. 1073C, 1074B, Bernard Cox.
932B, ~36B, 939A, 941A, 942A. 950B, 952C,D. 954A, 1069B,C, 1074A,C, Novosti Press Agency.
971A,B,C, 972, 973C. Courtauld Institute of Art. 107IA,B, 1072A-C, Alia. Braham.
933B. Archives photographiques. Paris. 1073A,B. 1082B, Courtauld Institute of Art.
936C, 937B, 939B. 942B. 95OC. 952A,B, 953A, Foto Mar- I077A, 1079A, 1082C, 1088A,B, Nationalmuseet.
burg. Copenhagen. '
9l7A, Roger-VioUet. 1077B. Nationalhistoriske Museum. F~ederiksborg.
945B. Aero-photo. 1079B, 1080B, I08IA,B, Refo!.

1080A, Stockholms Stadsmuseum. 1143B, from Howarth.

10SOC, I082A, 1083, 1087A,B. Ronald Sheridan. 1144A, Swedish Tourist Traffic Association/pholO Wig-
1085.1\.8, Norsk Folkemuseum. Oslo. fusson.
108Se, Eric de Mare. 1145A, Rheinisches Bildarchiv. Colollne.
1088C. tOS9A,B, Riksantikvaren. 1147C. John Archer/photo G. Wheel'er.
1089C, 1090A,C. 1091A, Finnish Embassy. London. 1148B. Netherlands Government Information Servi,. ~1
10908. A. F. Kersting. photo E. M. van Ojen.
115IA. Netherlands Government Information Service.
115]8, Birmingham Post and Mail Ltd.
CHAPTER 31 1151C. David Wrightson.
1099A. 1157A.B. 1168A.B. S. Mu,hes;us. 1151D, Rupert Roddam.
10998, Thorwaldsen Museum. Copenhagen. 1152A. Sellers Collectil~n, b\' courtesv of Norman H. Sel·
I099C.ll00B.. IIOIA.B.1I05A.II06A.B. 11I5A, 1120B, lers. .-
1119B. 1123C, 1125A,e. 1130A, 1133, 1\35A. 1138B, 11528. Foto Marburg.

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1I47A,B, 1154e.1I62A, 1164A. A. F. Ker.;t;ng. 1152C, Kodak Ltd.
I JOOA, Periklis Papaha!zidakis. Athens. 1154B, 1164B, 1165B,C, Foto Mas.
11OOe, after Barry. 1154D, Robert Roskrow Photography.
1104A. 11258. 1139A, Alinari. 1155C.D. Swedish Tourist Traffic A!:>sociation/photos
1I00B, 1I05e. 1106C, 1135B, C. WakeHng. Heurlin.
II04e, from SurIJeyo! London, vol. XXX, 1960. by permis- 1160A. after Girouard.
sion of London County Council. 1160B. after Hitchcock. 3rd ed., ]970.
I104D, after Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal, Dec. 1161A. from The British Architect, vol. 30. 18&8.
1840. 1161B. RIBA Library. by permission ore. Cowles·Voysey.
1105B, 1112B, 1113A. 1116A.B, 112IA,C, 1129B, 1132B, 1165A, from Pevsner. 1960.
I 134B, 1141. ·1143A. liSSA, 1159B, 116IC, Crown 11678. John Archer.
Copyr;ght, RCHME. •
1I08A. 1127A, 1129A, 1132C, 1149A, Arch;ves pho'o·
graphiques, Paris. CHAPTER 32
11088. by permission of the British Transport Commission. 1178A. from A Brit:f History of Chinese Archilecrure, Book
1109A, from W. H, Pyoe, The History o/the Royal Resi- Two, 1962.
dences. "'01. iii. 1819. 1178B. by permissiQn of the British Library.
Digitized by VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
11099. J. Austin.
I109C. 1124A, 1145B, Bulloz.
ll11A. 11l5C. 1166A. 1159A, Country Life. CHAPTER 33
1111B. Sir)ohn Summerson.
1112C, after A. W. Pugin. The Present Stateo! Ecclesiastical 1186A. Ro\'al Commonwealth Society.
Architecture in England. IR43. 1186B. Courtauld Institute of Art.
1113B, Fox Photos Ltd. 119IA.E, IIY2B. 119;A-c' 1196A-D. 1199A-E,
1115B. Staatliche Landcsbildstelle Hamburg. . 1200B.C. 12OlA-C. 1203A-E. D. Linstrum.
11l6C, 1136B, Roger-Viollet. 11918, John Linstrum.
1117A, 1139B, 1. Allan Cash. 1191C. II92C. T. N. Watson.
1119A. Leeds Metropolitan District Council. 11910, 1l92A, Flemming Aalund.
1119C. 1148A. copyright ACL Brussels. 1200A, 1204A,B, SATOUR.
1120A, Manchester Central Library.
1120C. 11558, Elsam, Mann and Cooper.
1123B, from J. Guadet, Elements et Theorie de l'Architec· CHAPTER 34
lure, 1901-4. 1208A-C. 1209A.B, 1214B,D.E, 1215A,B, 1219B.C,
1124B.C, 1128A. 1148C, 1149B,C, IIS4A, 1156, Chevojonf 1220A.B. 1222A. 1223A. 12248. 1227B. 1229B. Wayne
copyright by SPADEM. Paris; Andrews.
1121B, 1142A-C, 11300, T. and R. Annan. 1209C. from Kelemen.
ll27C, 1157C.D, Eric de Mare. 1209D. 1210A. 1213B. from T. E. Sanford. The Story of
1128B,C. from Giedion. 1954. Archilecrure in Mexico. 1947.
1129C, from P. Lavedan, Architecture jranfaise, 1944. 1209E. G. E. Kidder Smith.
1130C, 1167C, Austrian Embassy, London. 12108. Sawders from Cushing.
1132Ai 'from Eastlake. 1213A,C, Brazilian Embassy, London.
1134A, from Pevsner. 1214A. Library of Congress.
1134C, after M. H. and C. H. B. Quennell, A History of 1214C, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
Everyday Things in England, 1934. 1216. 1222D,E. City of Philadelphia.
1135C, 1159C, 1162B, RIBA, Drawings Collection. 1219A, photo by Abbie Rowe. courtesy National Park Ser-
1136A, Crown Copyright, Victoria and Albert Museum. vice.
12228, The J. Clarence Davies Collection. Museum of the
, 1136C. Austri!'ln Embassy, London/photo Bildarchiv d.
Oest. Nalionalbibliothek. City of New York.
1222C. courtesy Supreme Council 33". Southern Jurisdic-
l 1 138A. Netherlands Government Information Service/
aero-photo Nederland. tion. Washington, DC.
1142D, from H. Muthesius, Die Englische BaukurlSt der 12238. from Kimball.
Gegenwart, 1900. 1224A. Public Archi .... es of Canada.

1227A,C, 1228B,C. 1229A, Chicago Archileclural Photo '1326B, 1353A-D, 1355A-D, 1359C, 1360B,C, 1362A,
Co. D. Dunster.
1228A, US Department of the Interior. 1330A,B,D, 133lB, 1334A, I360D, Chevojonlcopyright by
1229C, from A. Bush-Brown, Louis Sullivan, 1960. SPADEM. Paris.
1230, Hedrich-Blessing. 133OC, 1356A,B, 1360A.B, L. Herve.
1331 C, from Pevsner.
13348. Dyckerhoff and Widmann.
CHAPTER 35 1335D, Architectural Re~'iewlphoto Newbery.
1235A. from Landscape of Peking. 1930. 1335E, Daily ~press.
1235B, 1236A, Lou Qingxi. 1338A, The Field.
1235C, 1236D, 1237B. 1238B,E, 1240A, 124IA,B, Edito· 1338B, 1339B. 1344C. 1346A, Architectural Review/photo
rial Board of Chinese Architectural History (EBCAH). Dell and Wainwright.
1235D, 1236C, 1240B, I242C , from A Brief History of 1339A. Skinner and Bailey.
Chinese Architecture, Book Two, 1962. 13418, London Transport.

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1235E, 1236B, 1238C,D, Wu Guang·zu. 1341C, from Survey oj London, vol. xxx, 1960, by permis-
1237A. Wu Jiang. sion of the Archives Department, Westminster City-lib-
1238A. Deng Qing-yao. rary.
1342A, Manchester Central Library.
1343A, I344A, RCHME/copyright The Architect.
CHAPTER 36 13438, Fry Drew and Partners/copyright Architeclural Re-
1247-1251. Eizo Inagaki. view.
1253. Kim Choung Ki. 13448, RIBA Press Office/photo Kennetp Praler.
13468, R. D. L. Felton.
1346C, Netherlands Government Information Service!
photo E. M. van Ojeri.
1258A.B. from Marg. vol. XXXV. No.3. 1347 A, Slriiwing.
1258C, 1275A,B,D, 1276A,B,D, 128IB,E, J, Musgrove. 1347B, Finnish Embassy, London/photo G. Welin.
1258D,E. I 260C, 1262B,C, 1263A,C-F, 1264A,B, 1347C, Stockholms Siadsmuseum.
1267A,B, 126M,B, I269A-C, 127IA-C, 1272A,B, 1350A. 1359B, Radio Times Hulton Picture Library.
1273A-D, 1275C, 1276C, 1277A,B, 1278B, 1279A-C, by 1350B, Landesbildstelle Berlin.
pennission of the British Library. 1353B, 1360E, J. Musgrove.
1260A.B. Digitized by VKN
from W. A. Nelson, BPO
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Lanka. www.vknbpo.com
1355E, Archilectural Review/photo .Peter
97894 60001
1984. 1359A, Architectural Review/photo de Burgh Galwey.
1260D,E, 1262A. Derek Linstrum. 1362B, Architectural Review/photo Bill Toomey.
1263B. 1268C. India Office, London.
1278A. Country Life.
1281A. Kouo Shang Wei. CHAPTER 41
1281C, from Architectural Review, March 1955. 1367, 1368, 1371-3, 1375, 1376, 1378-81, O. Mace!.
1281D. Ian Lloyd.
CHAPTER 38 1387A, 1388A-D, SATOUR.
1286A,B, 1297A-E, 1298A-D, 1302A,B, 1303A,B, 1387B,C, MIMARlphoto Brian Brace Taylor.
13lOA.C, Max Dupain. 1387D,E, 1394C, D. Linstrom.
1288A, Archives, AlexanderTurnbull Library, Wellington. 1388E, Architectural Review.
1288B, 1314A. Archives, Auckland Institute and Museum. 1391A,C, 13928-D, Udo Kultermann.
1293A, I3IIA,D, Fox. 1391B, 1392A. Architectural Press.
1293B,C, 1305D, 13lOB, 1311B,C,E, D. Saunders. I392E, Abdelhalim Seray.
1300A, John Stacpooleiphoto Clifton Firth Ltd. 1394A,B. courtesy Aga Khan Award for Architecture.
I300B, drawing by Neil Harrap and Margaret Alinglon. 1394D, Aga Khan Award for Architecture/photo C. Ave-
1302C, 1304, 130SA.B, 13068, Richard Stringer. dissian/Concept Media Pte and Architectural Press.
l305e, Richard Stringer, after Pearson.
1306A, Australian Information Service, London.
1313A. John Stacpoole/photo Mannering and Associates
Ltd, Christchurch. 1398A, 14IOB,C, 1421C, 1428A,1430B, 1434B-D,
1313B,C. John Fields. 1435B,C, R. Longstreth.
1314B, Archives. 1398B, American Architect and Building News. 23 August
1315A, Archives. Otago Early Settlers Association. 1902. .
13158, John Stacpoole. 1398C.D. Brown Brothers.
1315C. John Stacpoolefphoto John Fields. 1401A, David Hyde, Kahnbach Publishing Co.
1401B, courtesy William Middleton.
1402A. Charles Phelps Cushing.
CHAPTER 40 1402B. Museum of Moo:Iem Art, New York.
132SA, The Architects Collaborative Inc. 1402C, Byron Harmon, Whyte Museum -of the Canadian
132SB. Kunstgewerbemuseum, Zurich. Rockies.
t326A, copyright ACL Brussels. 1404. irving Underhill. Museum of City of New York.
\ y

140SA. Chicago Architectural Photographjng . C.cy . ' The_alTe 1444B, 1446B, 1447E,F, M. L. Celto. 1961.

--',, Historical Society. 1447A, Brazilian Embassy.

, 14058, D. R. GofUOuicksilver Photography.~ou"rtesy .Col- 1447B-D, Souvenir Brasilia Ltda.
umbus Association for the Performing Arts.
1407A, Monograph a/the Work of Charles A. Platt.
1407B~ Athenaeum of Philadelphia. CHAPTER 44
"'I 1407C. Architectural AssociationIFelio A[kinson. 1452A-C, 1453A.B. 14>1C,D, 1458A,B, 1461A,B,
1407D. Philip Turner for the Hi,storie American Buildings 1462A.B. 1463B. 1464A-C. 1465B, 146M, Wu Guang·
Survey. '.
1407E. 1426B,C, 1438B, ,Wayne Andrews.
• zu.
1453~, 14580, 1459B, Editorial Board of Chinese Archi·
1408A, after Pencil Points, Aug ,1938 . tectural History (EBCAH).
14088. after Mellor, Meigs and Howe. An American Coun- 1453D,E, Chen Hao·kai.
lry House. 1454A,B. 1464D, Zhang Shao-yuan.
1408D, after Donald Hoffmann. Frank Lloyd Wright's 1454C, from A Londscape of Peking. 1930.

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Robie House. 1457A. Zhou Jing-ping.
1408E, after H.-R Hitchcock. In the Nature of Materials. 1457B, 1459A. from A Brief History of Chinese Architec·
1408F, after W. Boesiger, Richard Neutra. Buildings and ture, Book Two.
Projects. 1458C, Wu Jiang.
1409, Chicago Architectural Photographing Co. 1463A, from Ten Years of Architectural Design.
1410A, 1414c' courtesy David Gebhard. 1465A, Mo Bo-zhi.
14100, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. 1466B. Public Relations Dept., Great Wall Hotel.
1413A, St..tte Historical Society of Nebraska. 1466C, East China Institute of Architectural Design.
1413B, courtesy Tennessee Valley Authority.
1414A, Architectural Association/Andrew Holmes.
14148, Empire State Building Corporation. CHAPTER 45
1415A, Thomas Airviews. 1469A.B,D, from V. Lampugnani (Ed.), 1986.
1415B, courtesy Rockefeller Center. 1469C,E, 1472B. from E. Tempel. 1969.
1417A, Hedrich-Blessing, courtesy Albert Kahn Associ· 1470A,1471A-C,1472A,C,1473A,B,1475A,B,1476C.D,
ates. 1477A-C, 1478A-C, 1479A-C, from H. Suzuki, R.
1 1417B, courtesy Dione Neutra. Banham and K. Kobayashi; 1985.
I 1418A, copyright Julius Shulman.
141SB. by VKN
Roger Sturtc\'ant, BPO
courtesy PvtBernardi
Wurster, Limited,
1470B, 14750, from R. Boyd, 1968.
www.vknbpo.com . 97894
1475C, 1476A,B, K. Kurokawa. 60001
Metabolism in Archilec-
Emmons. lure. 1977.
]41SC. 1422A, Hedrich-Ble-ssing.
1420A. after Archirecture Aujollrd'hui, Jan 1967.
1420B, after Goff. CHAPTER 46
142OC,D, after Monograph of the Work ofCharies A. Platt. 1484A. 1495D, 1497B, 1498A,C, [rom Process Archirectur?
1420E. after Kokusai-Kenkitu. Jan 1965. No. 20, 1980.
1420F. after American Architect. Oct 1934. 1484B. J. Musgrove.
1421A, Joe Price, courtesy Shin'en Kan. Inc. 1485. 1487B. 1492C, 1496C, from J. M. Richards, 1961.
1421B. Architectural Forum, Jan 1935. 1487A. 14S8A.B. 1492B. 1493A, from Le Corbusier.
1421D, Architectural AS~l>ciation/Geoffrey Smythe. Oeuvres Completes, 1952-1957.
1422B, Architectural Association/Hazel Cook. 1488c' 1496A, 14970, J. Musgrove.
1425A. Architectural Forum, Sept IY41. 14880, 1489A.B. 149m, from S. Nilsson, 1973.
1425B, courtesy Texaco. Inc. 1489C. 1491A, from MIMAR 6Iphotos B. Taytor.
1425C, Architectural Association/Michael Manser. 1491C,D. 1492A. 1493C, from R. Giurgola and J. Mehta,
14250, courtesy Gruen Associates. 1975.
1426A, Museum of the City of New York. 1493B, from MIMAR 2.
14260,E, Cervin Robinson. 1493D, from MIMAR 6Iphoto Timothy Hursley.
1427. copyright Ezra Stoller. 1495A, from MIMAR 21photo courtesy Lari Associates.
1428B, Ezra Stoller. 1495B, from MIMAR 14/photo courtesy Ranjit Sabikhi and
1430A, Architectural Association/Jackie Lynfield. Ajoy Choudhury. The Design Group.
1431A, courtesy Scarborough College. 1495C. from MIMAR 17/photo Charles Correa.
1431B. copyright Morley Baer. courtesy William Turnbull 1496B, from B. B. Taylor/photo Hassan-Uddin Khan, Con-
Associates. cept Media Pte and Architectural Press.
1434A. copyright Morley Baer, courtesy Sprankle, Lynd 1497C, from B. B. Taylor/photo Mitsuo Matsuoka, Con--
and Sprague. cept Media Pte and Architectural Press.
1435A, courtesy Frank O. Gehry and Associates. 1497 A, from MIMAR I5/photo c.curtesy of William S. Lim.
1438A. Black Star/Carl Frank. 1498B, Architectural Record, April 1980.
143SC, 1442C, 1443A,C, 1444C.D, 1446A. from H.-R. 14980. 1499, Foster Associates/photo Ian Lambot.
Hitchcock. 1955.
1439A, Black Star/Armin Haab.
1439B.C, 1442B, 1443B, 1444A.E. 1446C, Rollie CHAPTER 47
McKenna. 1504A, 1511B, Richard Stringer.
1441A.B, 1446D, J. Musgrove. 1504B, 1511A, 1516A, Wolfgang Sievers.
1441C. 1442A, Punto 59.1Paolo Gasparini. 1505A, 151OB, 15t..JA,B, 1515A,B, 1516C, Max Dupain.

1505B, 1508A,C, 1517A, David Moore. 152JC. Marie Allen.

1505C, Fritz Kos. 15230, Kevin Murray.
15050. Adrian Boddington. 15248,C, Peter Johnson.
1507B, 15080, 1511C, 1516B, 1521B, 1522A, 1523B, 15240, Neville Quarry.
1524A, 1. Taylor.
1508B, John Dabron/photo courtesy of Ross Thorne.
1510A, John GoUings. COLOUR PLATES
1513B, photo courtesy of Sydney Opera House. Plate 8, Professor Andronikos.
1520A,C, 152!A, Profimage. Plates 9,10, J. Warren.
15208, photo by Clifton Firth, courtesy of Melva Firth. Plates 11, 12, 15. 17, J. Musgrove.
1521C,D, Euan Sorginson. Plates 13, 14, C. Woodward.
1522B,C, Gillian Chaplin. Plate 16, C. Wakcling.
1523A, drawing by Wallace Ruff, courtesy of the: artist. Plate 18, Bovis Ltd.

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Digitized by VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001


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Four major changes in the Nineteenth Edition make retained up to and including the Seventeenth Edition
necessary a brief introduction. They are: extended (1961) edited by Professor R. A. Cordingley, in
coverage, new classification of the contents, a new which Parts I and II were renamed Ancient Architec-
page- format, a~d most important of all-new auth- ture and the Western Succession, and Architecture in
orships. The innovations are outlined below in the the East, respectively.
context of the earlier development of the book However, the internal divisions in Part I t?ecame
through eighteen editions. less evident in the Cordingley edition, and in the
Eighteenth Edition (1975) James Palmes e""hewed
ali broad classifications and o.pted for a straiglh run of
forty chapters. He added some new and some' revised
Content and Classification chapters on the architecture of south-east Asia and
the Far East, all of them still quite brief. These cov-
From the First Edition of 1896, published under the ered mestly ancient 'indigeneus' buildings and were
son, by VKN
Banister Flight BPO
Fletcher (laterPvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com
joint names of Professor Banister Fletcher and his
Sir Banister), . 97894 60001
placed !lear the beginning of the book immediately
after the chapters on Egypt and the ancient Near
there was a degree of broad classification of the con- East. Palmes also reclassified by chapter the post-
tents of the book. There it was achieved by inserting a Renaissance period and introduced a much expanded
'General Introduction' at the beginning of each series final chapter, 'International Architecture since
of chapters dealing with one style. For example there 1914'.
is a chapter called 'Renaissance Architecture in Early in the preparation of the Nineteenth Edition
Europe: General Introduction', and one each for it was decided to extend the internatio.nal coverage
• Romanesque, Gothic, etc.; the chapters dealing with (see below). Taking this into account, and having
each style, country-by-country, follow. The introduc- established that Sir Banister himself had begun to
tions served to divide up the book, which, in addition move towards general divisions, it seemed necessary
to the ancient.world and the Classical period, co.vered to devise a workable classification of chapters in pre-
mainly the traditionally accepted western European ference to the undifferentiated run of the Eighteenth
styles. A~ter the death of Professor Fletcher, Banis- Edition.
ter fils revised and extended ~he book for the Fourth But although on the evidence of the development
Editien ef 1901. He divided it into two. Parts. The of the book it can be argued that Sir Banister would
first, containing all the material frem earlier editions, have supported reclassification, there remains the
he called the Historical Styles, and he added a new, ethical questien as to how far it may be permissible to
much shorter seco.nd Part, called the Non-Historical depart from the intentions of the original author
Styles, comprising '.. the Indian, Chinese, which, if we are to. judge from the book, were pri-
Japanese and Saracenic ... '. keeping them ' .. marily the provision of descriptive material about
apart from the Historical Styles with which they are buildings against their historical and physical back-
but little connected, as they cannot be said to form ground.
part of the evolution of Western Architecture. Sir Banister's own definition of architecture casts
Nevertheless, a history of architecture as a whele is so.me light upon his intentions:
bound to. take account ef these Eastern styles, whose
interrelationships and individual characteristics are 'Essentially a human art as well as an affair of mat-
of no little interest.' (Preface to the Feurth Edition, erial, Architecture is governed and limited by many
p. vi.) The new Part amounted to abo.ut 15 per cent of practical requirements which do not apply to. the
the book at that stage. but the proportien (if not the work of painters, sculptors and musicians. It also.
cov~rage in real terms) diminished through the edi- provides a key to the habits, thoughts and aspirations
tions which followed: the separation of Part II was of the people, and witheut a knowledge of this art the

history of any period lacks that human interest with new order of life. '. all ... fall within a span of
which it should be invested: ... The study of Archi- three thousand years or so. . some of them racing
tecture opens up the enjoyment of buildings with an ahead to great achievements while others dectined
appreciation of their purpose, meaning and charm and even, in some cases. seemed to disappear ...
. ' (Preface to the Tenth Edition. 1938. pp. viii and overall they determined much of the cultural map of
ix.) the world down to this day because of the power of
the traditions which sprang from them.' (J. M.
This definition describes quite accurately in general Roberts. The Pelican History of the World, 1980 .
terms the content of the book and suggests for it a p.54.) Parts 1. 2. 3 and 4 of the Nineteenth Edition
more ubiquitous role in the late 1980s and 1990s as have been related to these several beginnings, and
concern grows for the world'5 diminishing architec- each covers the prehistoric architecture of the region
tural heritage. The vital contribution of architecture concerned.

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to individual cultures is now widely recognised, and Part 1 includes the architecture of Greece and its
not only argues for expanded coverage, but alsq ac- empire as well as that of Egypt and the ancient Near
centuates the need for a classification of the book's East. This does not denigrate· the vital nature of the
contents in which 'significant buildings of every cul~ influence of Greece upon the development of Roman
ture may be accommodated. A start has been made culture. but draws attention to the Greek achieve-
on this. and a framework has been devised for its ment as the culmination of early western Asiatic and
further development along these ,lines in the fu(u~e. eastern Mediterranean cultures. It has to be remem-
No justification is needed for this other than the bered that, in terms of architectural influence, Ale·x-
great sweep of architectural description already re~ ander the Great's eastern empire (established within
corded in the book over more than half a century by a century of the end of the Peloponnesian wars)
this typically industrious Edwardian professional .stretched from Macedonia to the Indus. And as late
man (there are twenty-two of Sir Banister's sketch as the end of the Punic wars. the Hellenistic world
books in the RIBA Drawings Collection in London) reached to the Caspian Sea. and the Graeco-Bactrian
with a most untypical acadeJ!lic vision of the import- Kingdom from the Ox us to modern Pakistan. Of
ance of architectural description. course, the forms of Hellenistic architecture frain the
own seminal byattempts
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to the second century BC influenced 'both
through the introductory chapters provided a starti ng Etruscan and Roman architecture, the latter espe-
point for Professor Cordingley, who began tentative~ cially from the end of the third century BC with the
ly to develop the process in the Seventeenth Edition. active involvement of Rome with the Hellenistic j....
See, for example, his version of Chapter XIX (Re- world. In a sense, however, Rome provides the vigor-
naissance Architecture in Europe). Now a compre- ous and obvious models from which stemmed the
hensive classification has been attempted for the first development of European architecture for the next
time. Its character will become apparent as it is de- fifteen hundred years.
scribed sequentially below; it will be seen from the In Part 2 the e"arly European settlements precede
Contents page that whilst the broad intention of the the beginnings of significant architectural develop-
classification is chronological, other factors are over- ment in central Italy, the Roman ascendancy and the
laid upon it, but only those which affect the character growth of the Roman empire throughout Europe and
of the architecture in any given location at any time. the Mediterranean. In Europe and the Mediterra-
This general pattern and its extension within Parts is nean basin there was a clear line of development from
affected significantly, of course, by the nature and Rome through e~rly Christian and Byzantine to
volume of the existing material. Romanesque and Gothic architecture. The last two
The book is divided into seven Parts, each of which of these have been presented in two chapters only,
begins with a Background chapter containing all not in twelve chapters as in previous editions; all are
those elements. previously included in each chapter included in Part 2, which runs to the end of the
individually under the sub-heading 'Influences'. It mediaeval period, the emergence of European
should also be noted that the coverage is extended humanism, and the return to earlier models. The
backwards in time and deals with prehistoric build- direct I.ines of development engendered by Roman
ings. This gives new substance to a brief chapter conquest and colonisation provide many remarkable
included in all previous editions up to and including examples of the radical changes wrought upon the
the Seventeenth, and eliminated from the Eight- future character of architecture in the countries con-
eenth, presumably on the grounds of its inadequacy. cerned: Eventually such influences also determined
Recent scholarship suggests there were it number the styles of architecture exported to those area·s of
of distinctly separate starts to civilisation: 'It (civilisa- the world colonised by Europeans .right up to the 1
tion) began at least seven times, says One historian, beginIJing of the twentieth century. The incidence of
meaning by that he can distinguish at least seven major colonisations induced by voyages of discovery ,,'
occasions on which particular mixes of human skills for purposes of trade or conquest forms the basis of
and natural facts came together to make possible a the new classification of the book, and it will be

evident also, within chapters, how vital to the ebb-

and flow of cultures, and thus to the nature of archi-
Palmes's final single chapter on 'International
Architecture' of the twentieth century has four main

tecture, were even comparatively minor movements subdivisions-Europe, the Americas, Britain, and
of people with power to influence the course of the fourth, without geographical limit, called Con-
events. tinuation, covering mostly (though not exclusively)
Another of Roberts's distinct 'starts' is the earliest post-1960 buildings. This is now replaced by Part 7, in
civilisation of Part 3. The Indus Valley civilisation; which twentieth~century architecture is covered in a
discovered in the 1920s, originated about 2500 BC, number of separate chapters, classified by country or
and whilst the name is retained here, recent research region as for historically earlier periods. Here, of
has uncovered settlements as far west as the Makran course, not only-,has the stage been reached when the
_coast and eastwards into Jumna. This was a settled volume of architecture has become sO great that sig-
socit:ty considerably larger than its contemporaries in nificant buildings illevitably must be omitted, but

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Egypt and the ancient Near East. To the south of the also the selection of examples and presentation of
Indus other settlements were formed during the material gave to authors much greater freedom with-
period up to the end of the fifth century BC, a little in the framework to determine how best to describe
before Alexander the Great crossed into northern twentieth-century architectural development in areas
Pakistan. for which they were responsible. Thus diversity in the
In China the Shang had given way to a more settled attitudes of authOrs is probablY more evident in Part 7
state under the Zhou by ·the middle of the eighth than elsewhere in the book.
century BC, and from the excavated sites it is possible Up to and including the Seventeenth Edition, the
to get an indication of the achievements of the Shang title of the book was A History of Architecture 011 the
and Zhou from their fortifications and the remains of Comparative Method. The method was devised for
their cities. Part 3 has for its main theme, however, the First Edition, from which a facsimile of the orig-
the parallel developments of Islamic architecture and inal Diagram Table is reproduced (p.xx). For the
the architecture of early Russia alongside those co- Eighteenth Edition, Section 4 of the table (renamed
vered in Parts 2 and 4 before and after the Mongol by Sir Banister Comparative Analysis as early as the
invasions, to which early Chinese history is relevant. Sixth Edition) was omitted from each chapter and
Part 4 contains most of what appears in the Eight- reference to the Comparative Method was omitted
eenthDigitized by the
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from the title of the book.. Palmes
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asserted that the
headings, but it is extended to ipclude all the signifi- Comparative Analysis section in the 'majority of
cant cultures which,predated the earliest European chapters' repeated matters dealt with under the sub-
settlements worldwide, including Africa and the heading Architectural Character, and as he wished to
Americas as well as feudal China and Japan. It brings extend the geographical coverage of the book, he
the remainder of the world civilisations up to approx- needed to reduce tbe length of the existing text if it
imately the same date as that reached for Europe, the was to retain its single volume format.
Mediterranean, western Asia and the Levant in Parts But merely to remove Section 4 from the standard
1,2 and 3. chapter sub-headings does not automatically elimin-
From Part 5 onwards the book moves into periods. ate the Comparative Method, and indeed a good deal
when the volume of building began to increase ex- of the comparative material remains in the Eight-
ponentially, first in Europe and later elsewhere in the eenth Edition, including all the standard chapter sub-
world (Part 6), and cultural traditions were subjected headings other than that mentioned above. Whilst
to more and more diverse influences. In Part 5 the Section 4 was important to the original system. the
Renaissance in Europe is dealt with in a somewhat repetition of chapter sub-headings contributed to the
more integrated way than in earlier editions of the comparative method, and most of these remained in
book. It includes also the- post-Renaissance period. the Eighteenth Edition. In this new edition, howev-
industrial architecture, the introduction of new build- er, a start has been made on an arrangemem which it
ing techniques, and the fin de sieele transitional styles is hoped will develop the idea in a different way which
and links to the Modern Movement. nevertheless avoids repetition.
Part 6 extends the Renaissance and post- A framework has been devised in which contextual
Renaissance coverage during the period of European and technological information may be collected for
colonial dominance worldwide. As the European each Part of the book whilst the description of archi-
powers settled in areas all over the world either to tectural character or some other form of introductory
exploit resources or for political or military advan- analysis remains with the examples in each of the
tage, they took with them European architectural substantive chapters.
models, and reproduced them as they remembered The Background chapters for each Part follow a
• them, from New England to Singapore and from series of standardised sub-headings which can be
.'-_ Buenos Aires to Shanghai. They have become sub- read separately: they relate historical and socio-
jects of increasing architectural interest over the last cultural context to the human and physical resources
few years. and technological processes by means of which build-


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I. Influences.
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2. Architectural Character.

3· Examples.

i: 4· Comparative Table.

5· Reference Books.
I --~--.--.--, . .- --------


ings are realised. These headings, listed below, form lar belief, the book's appearance has been altered
a new basis for the comparative analysis of all those frequently since it was first published. The First Edi-
factors which affect and contribute to the develop- tion of the book (1896) had a small page size, approx-
ment of architecture as described and explained in imately 180mm x 120mm, which had been increased
the substantive chapters themselves. to 210 mm x 140 mm by the time the Fourth Edition
Extended Description gives a more detailed de- appeared in 1901. It remained at this size forthe Fifth
scription of the Part and explains its formation as a Edition and until after World War I: the next edition
division of the book. appeared in 1921 when the size again increased to
Physical Characteristics covers the climate, 230mm x l40mm. When the Tenth Edition (also a
topography and geology of the region. long-running version of the book) was published in
History includes social, political and economic his- 1938, the page size had grown again to 240 mm x
tory with the emphasis placed where it most clearly 150 mm, and there it remained until the Eighteenth

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illuminates the architectural development of the Edition (1975) when it was reduced slightly to about
period or place. 220mm x 145mm. The new page size (245mm x
Culture places architecture within the cultural de- 190mm).and double-column layout of this edition
velopment of the society generally. have been designed to allow a significant increase in
Resources covers the availability of those human the contents of the book, whilst retaining the single
and material resources which have a marked effect volume format.
upon the character and morphology of buildings. Although the layout of the book is an important
Human resources relate to the level of social and element in establishing its image, it is the character
technological de~elopment of the society which, in and style ofthe illustrations which have always deter-
turn, determines the ability to locate and process mined its visual impact. The First Edition of 1896
naturally-occurring materials such as clay, timber, contained 159 illustrations in a total of 293 pages.
sand and gravel, and metal ores. With the exception of a few of the smaller line draw-
Building Techniques and Processes also relates to ings which were set within text pages, all the illustra-
the availability of resources, which is reciprocally tions covered a full page of the book. The photo-
linked to the <;Ievelopment of skills in the society in graphic illustrations were collotypes of remarkable
response byneeds
to human VKN and BPO PvtV.Limited,
aspirations. Gordon www.vknbpo.com
quality. The proportion .of97894 60001 was
text to illustrations
Childe's proposed definition of technology is appo- established from the beginning, although the book
site to the analysis of these factors: has gradually shed the character of a late Victorian
textbook which it first assumed- even to the point of
'Technology should mean the study of those activi- pubJishinga photograph of the lecture room at King's
ties, directed to the satisfaction of human needs, College, London, where both authors were teachers
which produce alterations in the_ material world .. at the time of publication (Plate 32, facing p.49 of the
Any technology in this sense, like human life itself, First Edition).
involves the regular and habitual co-operation of But it is the development of the 'study-sheet' line
members of a human group, of society. The character illustrations which above all indicates the changing
of the co-operating group is profoundly affected at image and character of the book. Taking as an exam-
any time by its size, by the needs that are socially ple the signed drawing of the Erechtheion doorway
recognised, and by the relations between its mem- from the First Edition (p.xxii), the original measured
ben;: (Early Forms of Society, in Oxford History of drawing was partly redrawn and completely rear-
Technology, Vol. I, 1956, p.38.) ranged to be combined with a drawing of the Panth-
eon doorway for comparison in the Fourth Edition
It should be stressed that the standard arrangement (1901), for which the drawings were captioned and
of the Background chapters is· no more than a annotated with mannered freehand lettering (p.xxiii)
framework (see above). When appropriate. only throughout the book. For the Sixth Edition twenty
some elements may be selected; for example in Chap- years later (1921) the Erechtheion drawing, with all
ter 25 a section dealing with architectural education the others. was again revised in both character and
follows those on resources and techniques. In other content: the mannered lettering was largely re-
chapters the headings may be abandoned in part or as moved, and the more familiar outline Roman titles
a whole, except as aguide to coverage. where some of appeared for the first time (p.xxiv) and have been
the elements have already been dealt with in earlier retained ever since. although the example used above
chapters, or for other editorial reasons. was cut in half for the Eighteenth Edition and the
drawing of the Erechtheion doorway was combined
l on the same page with halftones. Sir Banister,
ti. Format and Character however. apparently saw nothing sacrosanct about
either the character or the specific arrangements of
For this edition of the boOk, a major change has been the drawings, even those which carried his own signa-
made in its appearance. although, contrary to popu- ture.

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.. ...,Ji

, 1 0'

(@~~~~~iWf tx~Ui[B @~~flEKJJmJ~~@l0l~lM oo@tWAllil

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/"'\C=:--:::~~~i",'-'-- ®DETAlL5 1 ENTABLATURE

For this new edition,-with its larger-page size, the vised,:introductory or Background material has' been
drawings have been reproduced to a -targer size than completely rewritten.
ever before. With few exceptions, they have been All of this necessitated a different approach to the
fe-photographed fro~m the originals: A substantial publication of author"credits. This is the third revised
number of new drawings have.been made and many edition since Sir Banister died in August 1953 (just
more revised for this edition; new halftones have before the publication of the Sixteenth Edition which
been introduced in support of new and revised chap- he had re"sed himself). Both Cordingley and Palmes
ters. Colour plates appear for the first time. These acknowledged their au~hors and re.visers in their pre-
include a series of coloured maps indicating the geo- faces, and for this edition, so subst;'lntially rewritten,
graphicaiareas to which Paits 1 to 60fthe book refer. the Banister Fletcher Trustees -have consented to
Chronological tables are placed at the end of this formal listing of authors with specific credits for au-
introduction; they consist of an outline general thorship or ·revision. Two consulting editors were

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chronology and a small number of specialised tables appointed to advise the editor and assistant editor.
for periods and dynasties with which readers may be The greater freedom for authors to determine atti-
unfamiliar, tudes has been mentioned above with reference to
Part 7, but of course the decision to collect Back-
ground material in one Chapter for each Part made it
possible to give authors and revisers a g~eater degree
Authors and Editors of freedom to handle the material as they wished in
other chapters also. Some authors have taken more
The newly written and revised_ elements will be evi- advantage of this than others, and a greater variety of
dent from the contents list, but a word needs to be treatment, within the framework, will be found in
said about it here. A major proportion of the tradi- this edition, as might be expected in what is now a
tional central portions of the book has been entirely multi-author work.
rewritten-Roman, Byzantine, Islamic, Gothic and Among the .many reference works consulted in
the whole of the Renaissance. A long list of new editing. this revised edition, the following have been
chapters ranges from the four on prehistoric architec- of special value:
ture to no less than three new chapters each on China
Digitized by Korea,
and Japan (with VKNwhoseBPO Pvt Limited,
architecture is closely www.vknbpo.com
BARRACLOUGH, G. The Times . 97894 60001
Concise Arfas oj- World His-
linked with that of Japan), two on Africa, two on tory. London, 1982.
Australia and New Zealand, one on Early Russia, Gazetteer. maps and historical bibliographies in Cham-
and all the remaining chapters in Part 7 on twentieth- bers's Encyclopaedia. 15 vols. Oxford, 1966.
~tcEVEDY, c. and JONES, R. Aelas of World Population His-
century architecture. The book's coverage of pre-
tory. Harmondsworth, 1980.
Renaissance architecture outside Europe .is greatly PLACZEK, A. K. (Ed.) Macmillan Encyclopaedia of
extended. Authors at:Id revisers have also provided Architects. 4 vols. London, 1982.
the bulk of the material included in the Background ROBERTS, J. M. The Pelican History of the World. Harmonds-
chapters; in some cases, where the chapters are re- worth, 1980.


Chronological Tobie 1: Northern Europ21lwd MediterraJlean - general archaeology and economy, and key
Archaeology/economy/geology Key buildings Key 10 tables

BC9000 t Paleolithic

Pleistocene ends --.J

8000 fMesolithiC rHolocene
, begins

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. Hunters. fishermen.
6000 collectors
Catal Hiiyiik (c. 6250-5400)


4000 Digitized by VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001

Step Pyramid, Sakkara (2778) Egypt and ancient
Great Pyramids, Cai."r0i'-,,--_ _ _, Near East (Cn)
Uf. Royal Tombs Indus
2000 Harappa Persia and Greece (CT2)

.Bronzeage ~China (CT4)


Birth of Confucius (550)

Birth of Buddha (560) The Parthenon (432)
Great Stupa, Sanchi (first century)
AD 0 Birth of Christ ,-Japan (CT5)

rIronAge s. Sophia, Constantinople (532-7)

t Birth of Mohammed (570)
1000 Great Temple, Tanjore (l(XXI)
S. Denis. Paris (1135-44)
S. Peter, Rome (1506-1626)


.-i . Chronological Table 2: Persia alld Greete

Penia Greece .

Dynastiesfruiers Periods, etc.

BC 2000


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1600 ,"Iooan

Palace of Minos
1400 (destroyed c .1400)
. Mycenaean

Lion Gate (c.1250)


'Dark Age'

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Jc.. 600
Medes ---------------

Cyrus's victory Persian wars

over Medes (550) Cyrus (550-530)
Persian Darius (522-486) Peloponnesian wars (431-404)
400 Xerxes (450-465)
Hellenic The Parthenon (432)
Death of Alexander
the Great (323)
200 Hellenistic Temple of Athena Polias, Priene (334)
Siege of Corinth:
Roman control of Greece (147)
0 Parthian (247BC-226AD)

AD 200

400 Sassanian (226'-651)




Chronological Table 3: Egypt and the ancient Near East

.. -.. "
"-.,,' '.
Egypt Southern Mesopotamia

Period Dynasty/rulers Periodldynasrylrule"rs

. ... - ....
Menes (c. 3200)

Archaic I-II

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2600 Senefcru Kish (Mesilim)

Cheops Ur (Messanipada)

2400 Old Kingdom Ill-VI

Sargon I (2371)

Lagash (Gudra, 2230-2113)

2000 First Intennediate VII-XI Vr (Third Dynasty) (2113-2006)


1800 Middle Kingdom XII

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Babylon (First Dynasty) 60001
Second Intermediate Hammurabi (1792-1750)

Thotmes I (1530)
KassUe rule
1400 .

Kurigalzu II (1345-13"24")
New Kingdom XVIll-XX Ramesesn (1304-1237)

Nebuchadnezzar I (1124 1103)



600 XXVI (Saite) End of Assyrian rule (626)
Persian conquest (539)
Persian conquest (525)

Alexander the Great (336-323)


() Ptolemies
Roman province


Assyria HauilUrartu Israel Judah

Rulers Rulers

BC3200 .


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2600 -.




1800 Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1781)

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1600 ..

1400 Shuppiluliumash I
Matlusilish III } Haiti
Tudhaliyash IV
Shalmaneser I (l274-1245)
Tiglath- Pileser (1115- 1(77)

1000 David
SOlomon (965-931)
Ashurnasirp~' II (883-859) Jeroboam I (931-910)
Shalmaneser II (858-824) Arame (?85R-8-14) Ahah (874-852) Jehosophat(876-848)
800 Tiglath- Pileser IJI (745-727) Menua (810-786). Urartu
Sacson II (721-705) Sarduri II (764-735)
Sennacherib (705-681) Rusa II (680-640) Josiah (?-609)
600 Fall of Nineveh (6~2) Exile (586)
Seleucid Empire (312-64)
West of .Euphrates only. after 140.

Roman conquest

AD 200


Chronological Table 4: China

Social system Main period

Be Primitive society


1800 Xia (2100-1600)

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Shang (1600-1028)
Slave socieiy


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1000 -I<-

Western Zhou (1027-771)


Zhou Spring and Autumn Period

6QO (770-476)

Eastern Zhou (770-256)

400 Warring States Period

(475-221 )

Oin 221 206)

Western Han (206 Be-AD 8)

Feudal society

0 Feudal society Xin (9-25)

Eastern Han (25:-220)

200 Wei (220-265) I Shu (221-263) I Wu (220-280)

I Western Jin (265 316)
Sixteen Kingdoms
Eastern Jin (317-420) (304-439)

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400 Song(420 479) Northern Wei
I J (368-534)
I Oi (479 502) Northern Dynasties

Southern Dynasties Liang (502 557) 1 2
I Chen (557-589) 3 4
600 I 5

.. Tang (618-907)

f 800

Five Dynasties (907-960)I Ten Kingdoms (891-979) -------

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j .. XiXia

Southern Song
(1127 1279)
I 1in(1115 1234) 1 (1032-1227)

Yuan (1271-1368)


Ming (1368-1644)


1800 Oing (1644-1911)

Semi-colonial and
semi-feudal society
Republic of China (1911-1949)

Socialism society People's Republic· of China (1949- )

1 Eastern Wei (534-550) 4 Northern Zhou (557-581)
2 Western Wei (535-556) 5 Sui (581-618)
3 Nonhern Oi (550-557)

Chronological Table 5: Japan

Jomon . c.1O.000-300 BC
YaVOI 300 BC-AD 30{)
Turnulus (Kofun) AD 300-538/552
Asuka 552-645
Early Nara (Hakuho) 645-710
Late Nara (Tcmpyo) .710-785
Heian 785-1185
Kamakura 1185-1333

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Namnokucho 1333-1392
Muromachi 1392-1568
Momoyama 1568-1615
Edo (Tokugawa) 1615-1867
Modern 1868-present

Chronological Table 6: Islam

INDIAN rM:~:':'='==========J


Umavyad Samanld
OmEn I0 1::apital:
Mongol Timprid
:·:.:·.II Independ~nl Kbanales

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(Rival) ~ Uma,)'ad Nasrids
SPAIN I - ,- InRutllce of Almoravids ! -__ 1'0 _".' A' •• Location of Caliphale J:f.
Capitals: Cordoba & (North Africa) Granada
Medina al·Zahra

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Plate 2
The Roman and Byzantine Empires; Mediaeval Europe. See Part 2

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Plate 4
Empires and Kingdoms in Africa, the Americas and Asia before European colonisation. See Part 4
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European Colonies (eighteenth century). See Part 6



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Europea n Colonies (mneteenth
- century). See Part 6

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Plate 8
Tomb of Philip II, Macedon
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- ;'i:i,~~-

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Plate 9
.J- Mosque of Sheikh Lutfullah. Ispahan




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Plate 10
romb of Humavun. Delhi .1

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Plate 11 Plate 12
Hindu Temple, Singapore Relic House, Dalada Maligawa. Kandy

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Plate 13
Ninomaru (Gate),
N;jo Castle, Kyoto

Plate 14
j, Kasugataisha Shrine,
Nara, entrance gate
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Plate 15
Palazzo Pubblico, Siena
Plate 16
Caffe Pedrocchi, Padua

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Bimural by Fernand Uger,
~ City University of Caracas
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Plate 18
New Uoyd's building, London
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Part One

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'-f The Architecture of Egypt, the Ancient Near East, Greece and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

Chapter 1


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in some parts of the Near East, much less in other
Extended Description parts. The ancient Near East, with Egypt, provides
much of the background to western civilisation. The
Egypt and the AncienfNear East term 'Near East' is here used to cover the Arab
states, Israel, Cyprus, Turkey, Iran and the Trans-
Archaeological sites from the late Pleistocene (c. Caucasian republicsofthe USSR (Georgia, Armenia
20,000--16,000 BC) show the region to have been and Azerbaijan), as well as Egypt. This part of the
inhabited by bands of hunter-gatherers. But little of book comprehends also the Aegean region, closely
'architectural interest predated the beginnings of agri- hnked at first with the Levant and later with the
culture about 9000 BC, when the first buildings Phoenicians and with the far-flung Persian empire
appeared with the.,more settled communities of the (see Plate 1).
Natufian culture. It stretched from southern Turkey From walled Jericho, Calal Htiyiik with its painted
to the Nile delta. The transition to permanent agri- shrines, and the seasonal communities of the first
cultural by aVKN
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settlers in the Zagros highlands 60001
of western Iran to the
place between 7500 BC and 6000 BC, and by the gradual emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia, the
- I latter date south-west Asia was dotted with thou- construction of city temples and palaces and the rise
"\ sands of these villages. The Neolithic period in Ana- of the first empires, the story of the ancient Near East
, tolia and the Levant produced some of the largest, should not be over-simplified.
and architecturhlly the most impressive, towns. The Standing in some sense on one side was Egypt,
period 6000-3500:Be was a formative one, marked relatively isolated by geography, though less so than
by a succession of cultures; Hassuna (c. 6000-4500 some specialists have seemed to imply_ Its precise
BC), Samarran (c. 5500 BC), Halafian (c. 5000 BC), relations with the rest of the Near East are initially
Eridu (c. 54ooBC) and Ubaid (c. 4500-3500 BC). By obscure, and not known in detail before the mid~
the end of the period, in Mesopotamia there were the second millennium BC. The panorama of Egyptian
beginnings of small, irldependent city-states ruled by state, society and civilisation extends, however, over
councils and assemblies. more· than three thousand years until its absorption
The Nile valley was occupied from the late Pleis- into the Graeco-Roman world, beginning with the
tocene Age, but early evidence of occupation has meteoric career of Alexander the Great.
been buried under deep deposits of silt. A proto~
agricultural economy developed in some .areas as
early as 12,000 BC but, for the most part, hunting and
gathering were the basis of human existence in Lower Greece and the Greek Empire
Egypt until about 6000 BC, and in Upper Egypt until
4000 Be. In the fifth millennium distinct settled The first major civilisation in Europe developed
cultural groups appeared, but the local Neolithic around the Aegean Sea and has proved to be a great
period began much later, around 3000 Be. Lower influence on all subsequent European civilisation.
Egypt produced the Faiyum (c. 5000 BC) and Mer- The architecture of ancient Greece was the essential
mida (c. 4000 BC) cultures, and Upper Egypt the origin of European architecture, through its influ~
Badarian (c. 4000 BC), Amratian (c. 3800 BC) and ence on the architecture of the Roman Empire and
Genean (c. 3600 BC) cultures. Around 3200 BC so, indirectly, of mediaeval Europe,
' _unification was achieved under the god~king, and the Greek architecture itself did not develop in isola-
.) : - historical ( dynastic) period began. tion, In the more remote prehistoric period distinct
The e~rliest villages, towns and cities of the world, regional vernacular styles are discernible, in the east
with the developments therefrom, are in themselves and north Aegean, on the mainland, and in the south-
of great significance, spanning nearly five millennia ern Aegean islands, especially Crete, The geography

of the Aegean area stimulated navigation. Seafaring the Levant are typically Mediterranean, once for-
traders from the eastern Mediterranean were attract- ested but now largely denuded of trees. A heavily t
ed to the Aegean by way of the southern coasts of forested belt stretches along the Pontic coast, the
Asia Minor, and brought knowledge of Near Eastern south Black Sea littoral, the south coast of the Cas-
and Egyptian forms. An important civilisation de- pian Sea being subtropical in vegetation. To the
veloped on the island of Crete, and in its tum spread north the Caucasus range forms a clearly defined
to the mainland, stimulating the communities adJa- frontier of the Near East, both environmentally and·
cent to the Aegean. By the fourteenth century BC the culturally.
centre of power and influence had shifted to the The environment of Egypt was uniquely favour-
Greek-speaking mainland, only to collapse in dis- able to early settlement and the development and
array and poverty by the end ofthe twelfth century survival of a centralised state, comprising as it did the
Be. During this period Greeks had migrated from long, narrow valley of the Nile, its rich alluvial soil
the mainland, across the Aegean to the coastal re- bounded on each side by the arid desert, beginning

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gions of Asia Minor, and to Cyprus; in the period of either with a gentle slope or with a marked escarp-
revival which followed, a more extensive movement ment. Whatever the precise local topography, the
overseas took the Greeks to North Africa (Cyre- line between the 'Black Land' of the valley and the
naica), to the coasts of the Black Sea, and above all to extensive delta and the 'Red Land' of the desert was
southern Italy and Sicily_ These communities contri- sharp and clear. The reason for this was the lack of
buted to the development of Classical Greek archi- any other water supply than that provided by the
tecture, often forming distinctive regional variations, Nile, a majestic, slow-flowing river, supremely reli-
that of Sicily and Italy being in its tum influential on able from one year to the next, yet carrying only
the forms developed in Italy in the Etruscan cities one-fifth of the volume of silt brought down in a good
and, eventually, Rome. Subsequently, the establish- year by the River Tigris. One outcome of the distinc-
. ment of Macedonian supremacy over Aegean Greece tive form of the settled zone of Egypt was that towns
by Philip II and the conquest by his son, Alexander, and villages were strung out over long distances,
of the Persian Empire greatly extended the area of comprising loosely connected compounds. Physical
Greek political-and thus intellectual and artistic environment and political security alik_e rendered
-domination. Greek architecture, stimulated by densely concentrated, walled cities, characteristic of
Egypt andDigitized by
the Near East, VKN
was itselfBPO Pvt Limited,
the stimulator
Roman and later European architecture. To aU the
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inappropriate. Outside the 60001
Nile delta
(Lower Egypt) these never developed significantly,
arts, to literature, and to science, the Greeks brought while evidence of early periods of occupation in the
to bear remarkable qualities of intellect and aesthetic delta lies buried beneath later deposits. Indeed the ).
judgement; the architecture of ancient Greece fully record of ancient Egypt is overwhelmingly that of the •
demonstrates the levels of their achievement. long Nile valley (Upper Egypt), the two regions re-
taining the memory of their prehistoric existence as
separate political entities. In antiquity Egypt proper
ended at the First Cataract, where the Nile descends
Physical Characteristics over a band of granite at Aswani upstream lay Lower
Nubia, as far as the Second Cataract, a far more
formidable natural barrier and a readily defensible
Egypt and the Near East frontier, the present-day border between Egypt and
the Sudan .
Three broad zones comprise the greater part of the . The climate of the Near East, the Aegean region
Near East. To the south lies the Arabian peninsula, and Egypt can largely be described in terms of pre-
with its desert extending northwards into Syria, sent-day conditions, as changes over the past five
though with fertile highlands in its southernmost re- millennia ot so have been for the most part localised.
gion, the Yemeni in a great arc stretching from the In the closing phases of the Pleistocene era and fol-
Mediterranean coastal plain and the hill country of lowing the last glaciation the Near East was, on the
Palestine through north Syria and Iraq to the head of evidence provided by analyses of pollen traces in
the Gulf, lies the zone of grasslands, steppes, the sedimentary deposits, rather colder and drier than
Piedmont (foothills) and alluvial river plains known today and the tree line was at a lower altitude. In the
as the Fertile Crescent; and for 2400km (1500 miles) Levant, sheltered from the effects of the glaciation,
from west to east extends a chain of mountains and thriving stands of trees survived.
plateaux from the Taurus range and central plateau There are indications of a climatic optimum in
of Anatolia through the mountains and lakes of east- western Iran and Mesopotamia, if not throughout the
ern Turkey and north-western Iran to the parallel Near East, round about the middle of the fourth
ranges of the Zagros highlands, dividing the wide
Iranian plateau from the plains of Mesopotamia. The
milldennium BCd' Condition~ bec~md e rd~th~rbw~rmerf ,.
an more huml ,encouragmg WI er lstn utlon 0
coastal regions of the Aegean, southern Turkey and settlements. The level of the Persian Gulf. and thus

by implication general sea levels, rose to about one irrigation was required for agricultural production.
metre above present-day levels. The tree cover in The heat and humidity were suitable for a wide range
highland areas rapidly extended: To what degree, if of plants. The deserts were rich in natural building
any, this can be seen as a factor directly favouring the stone and minerals and shielded Egypt from external
rise of towns and cities in southern Mesopotamia is influences, but the river was an efficient means of
perhaps still a matter for speculation. Rather would internal communication. Settlement took place
such a climatic improvement have stimulated wider around the head of the delta, and along the river
distribution of settlements, not ~heir concentration in banks in the less hospitable environment of Upper
larger but fewer communities;, in other words, the Egypt.
growth of villages rather than towns. In fact such a Unlike Egypt, Mesopotamia lacks natural defen-
development is discernible slightly earlier in Mesopo- sive boundaries: on the west it shades gradually into
tamia, during the fifth millennium BC, preceding the the undulating steppes of the Arabian desert, while

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so-called Urban Revolution. on the east the valleys and foothills of the Zagros
Much of the Near East is balanced on a knife-edge ranges were fertile enough to nurture neighbouring
between adequate and insufficient rainfall: in the peoples watchfully envious of the richer living
highland regions this is supplemented by snow, offered by the Mesopotamian plains. After the melt-
occurring as far south as the hills above Petra, in ing of the snows in the highlands to the north, the
southern Jordan. Tigris, though not always reliable, floods in the
Natural regeneration of forests has been curtailed spring and the Euphrates a few weeks later, in May.
as a result of over-grazing over a long period. Slash- The-gentler current of the Euphrates made an easier
and-bum agriculture, so common in tropical Mrica, means of communication and trade and a more
was probably never significant in the Near East. The favourable setting for the early rise of urban com-
worst destruction of forests has of COurse occurred munities. The two great rivers deposited their silt
with the felling of timber for building or shipbuilding over the flat plain, forming natural banks or levees
purposes, a process hardly extensive enough to have and frequently changing their courses: thus a net-
had significant effects before Classical times. work of watercourses divided the plain. It was these
The development of a settled way oflife took place secondary channels which were tapped as sources for
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appeared on the foothills of the Piedmont, where
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the mid-sixth millennium BC onwards, but which
irrigation in the earliest periods of settlement from

rainfall was adequate and the grazing good. Human steadily decreased as the main riveD' were progres-
occupation of the Zagros and Taurus regions was sively brought under control by the cities and towns.
sparse, but their natural resources played a major From about the same time the Gulf ceased its rel-
role in early agricultural economies. In the northern atively rapid expansion northward and a slower re-
MesopotamiHIl plains the climate was more arid, and treat began, leaving a fringe of marshes round the
rainfall was not sufficient for crop-growing without head of the Gulf.
irrigation except between the Euphrates and the Tig- Between the early city-states with their fertile agri-
ris. But it was on the southern Mesopotamian allu- cultural lands lay barren stretches of steppe, provid-
vium, inhospitable though fertile if irrigated, that the ing natural frontiers: not all the land represented on
first complex societies of south-west Asia evolved. maps as low-lying in Mesopotamia is necessarily fer-
Habitation in the Epipaleolithic (20,000-10,000 tile, or ever has been. Conditions range from those
BC) was in caves and impermanent open campsites. akin to the Aegt'-3n region, as in western Anatolia, to
Most structures were of a perishable nature. The the harsh continental extremes of eastern Anatolia
Natufians of the Mesolithic period moved seasonally and to the arid interior of Iran, its mountain ranges
to exploit a wide range of natural resources. Certain enclosing two deserts. Centres of population tended
sites served as more permanent bases for recurrent to be concentrated in certain more fertile plains,
visits over many years-_and it was here that more including that of Erevan in the Araxes valley, the
pennanent buildings were developed. Neolithic set- river now fonning the frontier between Turkey and
tlements prior to 5000 Be were located with regard to the Armenian SSR.
the availability of local resources. Syria was open to influences from all directions in
Predynastic Egypt was shaped by its more stable that it had access to the maritime trade across the
climate and the dominance of the Nile. The Nile Mediterranean; it was also on the highway from the
valley, a narrow strip of alluvial plain bordered by Anatolian plateau to Egypt and lay athwart the mid-
desert, was one of the world's richest ecological dle reaches of the Euphrates, thus being accessible to
niches. Above Cairo, the strip varied from 3 km to and from the cities of Mesopotamia. Much of Syria is
22 km (2-14 miles) across, with a sharp division be- very fertile, along the coast and inland, east of the
l-· extended
tween the desert and the alluvium. North of Cairo
the delta, 165 km to 25Qkm (103-155 miles)
mountain ranges of Lebanon, Anti-Lebanon and
Amanus; but further east the landscape shades into
across, lush, well-watered and fertile. Temperatures desert, green only briefly after seasonal rains.
rarely exceeded 38°C, but rainfall was sparse, and Until our own century the annual inundation of the

Nile from July to October enriched the black land, as and severe periods limited i:f1 duration though more :::¥-_
the ancient Egyptians called the valley and delta, extreme in the mountains fof central Greece,' the 7
with fresh deposits of silt, maintaining the quality of north Aegean, Thrace and the Black Sea. Rainfall is
the soil. In recent years dams have undoubtedly generally adequate, and oocurs in' autumn, winter
affected local climate. Just as the disappearance mil- and spring, often in heavy st\)rms-the summers are
lennia ago of extensive inland lakes, as from the hot and dry so that the resulling clear air and intense
Konya plain of Anatolia, must have reduced annual summer sunshine made it possible to appreciate the
precipitation, the creation of artificial lakes in the fine details of Greek buildings, enhanced by carving
form of reservoirs on the whole has the opposite and colour. The interiors of buildings were designed
effect. to provide relief from the intense light and heat of
Agricultural activities based on the longer perspec- summer; temples received light only through their
tive are generally beneficial to the environment, as doors, while in other buildings windows were gener-

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exemplified by the terrace-building so characteristic ally small, and normally opened not to the street but
of much of Syria and Palestine from Canaanite and onto inner courtyards which were frequently sur-
Phoenician times onwards. It prevented erosion, rounded by roofed porticoes. Much public activity
which has so widely stripped the hillsides down to the took place in the open air, even in the winter months.
bedrock, rendering them useless for food- Shade from the summer sun, shelter from the winter
production. rains were desirable but not essential, and the struc-
Egypt was uniquely protected from foreign incur- tures which provided them were'luxuries, and de-
sions, with but one route from the Red Sea and veloped late. Nevertheless, if the temple was the
another into the eastern delta. Successive Pharaohs building for which Greek archit~tural forms were
organised expeditions to exploit the mineral re- originally developed, it was the extended roofed por-
sources (copper and gold) of the Sinai peninsula and tico or stoa which became the most widespread and
the eastern desert. . numerous by the end of the Oassical period, and
The geology of the Near East is immensely varied, particularly during the final Hellenistic period.
having a far-reaching effect both on the vegetation The Greek lands are mountainous, and prone to
cover and on the character of public and even ver- earthquake. The present geography was formed by
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nacular architecture, through the availability or abs-
ence of suitable building stone. Limestone dominates
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the sinking of the Aegean hasin through earth move-
the islands of the Aegean most often,
the landscape of northern Egypt, much of the Levant formed from the tops of submerged mountains. The
and parts of the highland zone, where, for example,' mainland is indented by long inlets of the sea, parti- \ -
the citadel of Van is built on a mile-long ridge of hard cularly the substantial eastward.-facing Gulfs of
crystalline limestone. In Upper Egypt sandstone pre- Argos and the Saronikos (Saronic); the latter is sepa-
dominates. Basalt formations extend over wide areas rated only by the narrow Isthmus of Corinth from the
of Jordan and also of easter.. Anatolia, resulting in long westward-facing Gulf of Corinth, which pro-
extensive tracts of stony desert or barren uplands. vides sheltered navigation for a considerable dis-
Recent volcanoes have occurred across the Anato- tance, and certainly stimulated the development of·
lian plateau as far east as Mount Ararat. The Van western trade, so that the city of Corinth flourished as
region _exemplifies the great variety of geological a result. There are few substantial rivers, and these
formations in Anatolia, with andesite, limestone, are not navigable; their benefit is rather for irriga-
schist, basalt and red volcanic tuff. Across northern tion. In southern Greece, south of the Isthmus of
Anatolia, from east to west, extends a zone aU too Corinth (the Peloponnese), the important rivers are
often liable to suffer severe earthquakes. Regions of the Eurotas and the Alpheius, which rise in the cen-
inland drainage create salt pans and heavily salty tral plateau of Arcadia and flow, respectively, to the
lakes, notably the Dead Sea, Lake Vrmia in north- south, throu~h the district of Laconia and past the
western Iran and the Salt Lake in central Anatolia, city of Sparta, and to the west, through Elis and past
while the Dasht-i-Lut (Salt Desert) and the Dasht-i- the sanctuary of Olympia (p.7). North of the Isthmus
Kavir (Great Desert) extend over much of the in- the'important rivers are in the west (the Momos and
terior of central and eastern Iran. Perhaps the Achelous) and to the north: the Peneus, which drains
greatest impact of local geology on human settlement the plain of Thessaly and then flows through the
in the Near East is an indirect one related to the spectacular gorge, the 'Vale' of Tempe; and the large
location of water supplies, especially springs. rivers of Macedonia and Thrace, the Haliacmon, the
Axius and the Strymon. The valleys of the last two
give access to the Balkan peninsula. The eastern
Greek settlements were on the coast of Anatolia,
Greece and the Greek Empire mostly where the substantial rivers flowing from the J.,
Anatolian plateau to the Aegean, the Caicus, the
The climate enjoyed by most Greek cities is, of Hermus and the Maeander, broaden out into wide,
course, that of the Mediterranean. Winters are short, rich alluvial valleys. The homelands of the Greeks


. '"

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~-:'(, ~.,-~:.'


"'0 ~'..
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. .:J.... , . , .'
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Pasargadae: detail of west facade. See P~2~


are divided by inlets of the sea and mountain barriers the northern capital at Buto and the southern capital
into distinctive regions. each with its own area 'Of at Hierakonpolis. The kingdoms were virtually
cultivable plain which provided the basic livelihood autonomous politically and administratively. To-
for the inhabitants. The size and importance of the wards the end of the predynastic period, however,
community depended firstly on the area of its cultiv- there were moves towards political unity brought
able land, secondly on the ease with which adjacent about by the development of the institution of king-
communties could amalgamate into larger units. ship. There is evidence that artefacts and craft techni-
(The important city-states of the Classical period ques were imported from Egypt and the Near East.
were all amalgamations of this type). In their over- Although it was in the Nile valley that the oldest
seas settlements the Greeks most naturally selected a major continuing and highly centralised monarchy
region of similar geography, and, until the conquests emerged around 3200 BC to be ruled by the Pharaohs
of Alexander, never at any distance from the sea. of Egypt for nearly three millennia, it was in the cities
of southern MesoIXltamia in Sumer in the middle of

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the fourth millennium BC that writing first seems to
have been developed and that the longest historical
records can be found. The archaeological evidence
History suggests that the Sumerians had been occupying the
land from the first settlement of Eridu, by historical
tradition the oldest city of Sumer, for two millennia
Egypt and the Ancient Near East before the earliest writing appeared. With the seizure
of political control by Sargon of Agade (c. 2340 BC),
The scale of society in the Mesolithic age was small. the Akkadian dynasty was established, ruling over
Natufians lived in groups of three or four households, indigenous Sumerians and incoming Semitic Akka-
with no marked differentiations in wealth or status. dians alike. Three new developments occurred: first,
They engaged in small-scale trade or barter for luxury political unity was imposed by force on the warring
items like shell ornaments and obsidian for salt. The citY-states; second, the status of the ruler was deliber-
wide distribution of the culture was not mirrored by ately exalted, the king claiming divinity in his lifetime
political unity. In the Neolithic period there were and provincial governors being appointed and styling
Digitized by self-sufficient,
VKN BPOand Pvtpoliti-
villages with populations numbered in hundreds, but
village life was still largely Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
themselves 'slaves of the god'; third, trade beyond
the confines of Mesopotamia-first developed in the
cally and economically independent. The lack of a later fourth millennium BC (Late Uruk period)-
public architecture has been taken as evidence of the was revived by expeditions led by the king, their
absence of a centralised polity. During the. period p~rpose as much economic as military. Moreover,
8000-6000 BC, population densities increased. The the Akkadian language steadily extended its hold on
settling of nomadic populations may have played Mesopotamia and in due course became the language
some part, but the absolute increase in numbers was of diplomacy as far afield as Egypt until the rise of
also due to increased agricultural productivity. The Aramaic in the last century of the Assyrian empire.
period 6000-3500 BC was a formative one, during The Sumerian language and literature left a wide-
which population densities again increased; pottery spread legacy: for example, the links with the seribal
and other artefacts emerged, and trade prospered. schools of Mesopotamia apparent in the archives of
The colonisation of the southern Mesopotamian the burnt palace of Ebla in northern Syria. There was
alluvium after 5300 BC, with the need for irrigation, a final revival of Sumerian ciVilisation in its homeland
may have led to increased social complexity in this under the powerful Third Dynasty of Ur, at the end
region and to the creation of greater surpluses and of the third millennium Be.
greater occupational specialisation. At any rate, by Contemporary archives from the age of Hammur-
4500 Be public architecture and cities characteristic abi of Babylon (1792-1750 BC) have been recovered
of more complex civilisations had arrived. The Ubaid in enough cities to demonstrate the brief pheno-
period produced a unifonn architecture over most of menon of an international balance of power, recog-
the alluvium, and its influence extended throughout nised as such at the time. The famous code of Ham-
the surrounding regions. Settlements were located on murabi sheds light on the rules governing trade, land
reliable watercourses and almost all were at' least tenure, feudal service, taxation, slavery and the orga-
10 ha (25 acres) in extent. The temples of the Ubaid nisation of labour, and emphasises the growth of the
period were evidence of increasing-cultural complex- power of the secular ruler or palace in relation to that
ity in the diversion of resources into public architec- of the temples, whose role in_ trade was also in de-
ture, and by the close of the prehistoric period some cline. Restoration of older buildings rather than con-
towns were approaching the status of city-states; struction of new ones was typical of this, the Old
In Egypt, the proto-agricultural period of 12,500- Babylonian period. Of the city of Babylon itself at .1
. ,
9500 BC did not lead to agriculture. To all intents and this time little is known: its political supremacy was
purposes Egypt was two independent kingdoms, with quite short-lived, control of the marshes at the head

of the Gulf, and thus of access to the lucrative mari- BC, with the invasion of the 'Sea Peoples'-known
time trade, being lost soon after the death of Ham- principally from the reliefs and inscriptions on the
murabi. Meanwhile two groups of newcomers, the temple of Rameses III at Medinet Habu, Thehes-
Hurrians and Kassites, were becoming prominent in the Philistines, who occupied much of the fertile
northern and central Mesopotamia respectively, un- coastal plain of the land which has ever since retained
til the latter took over political control in the Meso- their name, Palestine. Many cities then destroyed,
potamian plain. Kassite rule lasted over four centur- including the great mercantile centre ofUgarit on the
ies (c. 1595-1155 BC). Syrian coast, were never rebuilt, and .the Hittite state
Egypt witnessed its greatest prosperity, military vanished.
aggrandisement and territorial expansion, both in The resulting vacuum in the power politics of the
Asia and in the African hinterland of Nubia, under ancient Near East lasted some three centuries until
the New Kingdom, approximately contemporary the rise of the Late Assyrian state. In Syria several
with Kassite rule in Mesopotamia. With the expul- great cities rose to prosperity, most notably Car-

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sion of the Hyksos invaders following their occupa- chemish and Hamath, culturally the heirs of Hatti.
tion of Egypt (c. 1674-1567 BC), the land of Egypt There was an admixture of influence from the Aram-
had reverted to the. crown. But with the subsequent aean groups which had been penetrating the settled
progressive reversal of this process, imperial expedi- lands from the pastoral fringes of the desert zone for
tions became a necessity. These were abandoned in some time-at least from the twelfth century Be. To
the reign of the hooiry-Ioving Amenbotep III (c. the south the united kingdom of Israel flourished
1417-1379 BC), when vassal lands in Asia were left to under David and Solomon. After the division of the
their fate. The ensuing religious innovation, personi- kingdom, there was a revival of prosperity in the-
fied by the king Akhenaten and his family and sym- northern kingdom of Israel under Ahab (c. 874-85,
bolised by the sun disc of his god Aten, was a political BC), and the building of a new capital at Samaria by
move designed to destroy the power of the priests of his father Omri (c. 880 BC). A religious reaction
the orthodox cult of Amun-Ra. After the brief reign under Jehu led to military and cultural decline.
of the young king Tutankhamun, far more famous in From the late tenth century BC the Assyrians,
death than ever he was in life, orthodoxy was res- whose small but tenacious population was only partly
tored to the Egyptian court, and with it the military Semitic, re-emerged from the domination of their
tradition of by VKNNew
the earlier BPO Pvt Limited,
Kingdom. Attempts tewww.vknbpo.com
homeland by Aramaean . 97894
tribes. 60001
Babylon had de-
regain control of Syria and Palestine were, however, clined likewise, under pressure from Chaldaean
less successful: most of Syria feU under Hittite rule tribes. Not until the reign of Ashurnasirpal II (883-
after the indecisive battle of Kadesh (1299 BC), when 859 BC) was there time for major building activity,
Rameses II (1304-1237 BC) narrowly escaped disas- with the removal of the seals of government up the
ter. Sixteen years later a treaty between Egypt and Tigris, from Ashur to Nimrud (Kalhu). The Assyrian
Hatti (the Hittite kingdom centred on the Anatolian kings showed great energy in scientific and literary
plateau) established an international peace which pursuits, culminating in the establishment of a library
was to last a fuli century. The complex, unsettled in the final capital at Nineveh. After another period
political climate of the Arnarna period-in the ear- of decline, the throne was seized by Tigiath-Pileser
lier fourteenth century Be, in the reign of Akhe- III (745-727 BC), an outstanding campaigner and
naten-gave way to a tripartite division of power, administrative reformer who transfonned the Assy-
between Egypt, Hatti and the growing power of rian territories from a ring of vassal principalities
Assyria, a kingdom whose origins dated back into the around the homeland in the upper Tigris valley into
third millennium Be. A fourth power, the kingdom an efficiently controlled empire under governors
of Mitanni, in the Khabur valley of north-eastern appointed by the king: regular taxes replaced tribute.
Syria, ruled by an Indo-Aryan dynasty with a ciass of The army came to depend upon regular units backed
knights (maryannu), lacked naturally defensible up by auxiliaries reunited from the conquered peo-
frontiers, and inevitably vanished. ples. Sennacherib (705-681 BC), who rebuilt
The plateau of Iran was overrun from the mid- Nineveh, curbed Egyptian intrigues in Asia by his
second millennium Be onwards by Iranian newcom- campaign against Hezekiah of Judah by laying siege
ers, most probably arriving from their old homeland to Jerusalem and Lachish (700 BC) and endeavoured
in north-eastern Iran and another group perhaps (with limited success) to solve the complexities of
coming via the Caucasus. These were the ancestors of Babylonian politics in the face of interference by
the Medes and Persians of the historical period, and Elam, the ancient state in south-west Iran. Sen~
from the beginning may have introduced the essen- nacherib eventually lost patience with the hitherto
tials of the Zoroastrian religion, now thought to ante- respected city of Babylon and destroyed it (689
date the lifetime of Zoroaster himself. BC)-an act whose repercussions led to his assas-
The end of the established order of the Bronze Age sination (681 BC). Assyria overreached herself in the
in Anatolia and the Levant, as far as the border of short-lived annexation of Egypt by Esarhaddon
Egypt, came abruptly in the early twelfth century (681-669 BC). Early in the reign of Ashurbanipal

(668-'627 BC) Egypt reasserted its incMjJendence secured by the defeat of Croesus, the king of Lydia,
under Dynasty XXVI (663-525 BC), the so-called and the capiure of Sardis (546 BC). Babylon fell
Saite Period, during which the rulers originated in the without resistance, and with it the Babylonian pos-
city of Sais in the Nile delta. Loss of control of the sessions in the Levant. Eastward expansion proved
north-eastem frontier and a costly civil war with harder, however, and Cyrus died in battle beyond the
Babylon left the way open to the new and formidable River Oxus. Preparations for the conquest of Egypt
coalition of the Medes, and reduced the manpower of had to be carried through by Cambyses II (525 BC).
the Assyrian army. Babylonia had been too populous It seems that the impression produced by the build-
ever to be effectively subjugated; and the sack of ings of Memphis and Thebes, perhaps even more
Susa (c. 640 BC), though for ever eliminating Elam, than'the sight of the Greek cities of the Ionian coast,
removed a buffer state. The major cities of Assyria popularised columnar architecture among the Pe.r-
had become artificially extended, supported by the sians. After the civil war Darius I (522-486 BC) buIlt
dues paid from the countryside and the conquered the network of arterial roads and reorganised the

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lands. Once the machinery of state collapsed, as it did empire into satrapies or provinces, twenty in all, each
very suddenly in the years leading up to the destruc- under a satrap or governor. The Persian empire, the
tion of Nineveh (612 BC), the cities withered and the widest in the ancient world, then extended from the
countryside was abandoned. Thus Assyria dis- Danube to the Indus. Persian rule was not harsh; the
appeared almost immediately and without trace, customs and cults of the conquered peoples were
bringing an era to an end. respected. The first serious reverses were suffered in
Among the contempories of Assyria, the highland efforts to conquer Greece, which met wit~ final fail-
kingdom of Urartu, founded in the ninth century BC ure under Xerxes at the battles of Salamis and Pla-
but with its roots in earlier tribal confederacies, was taea, on sea and land respectively (480-479 BC).
centred on Van. Urartu reached its zenith in the early Persian gold was later more effective in manipulating.
eighth century BC; suffered defeats at the hand of the rival Greek cities.
Assyria; enjoyed a renaissance in the early seventh After the rise of Macedon under Philip and his
century BC under Rusa II (c. 685-645 BC); and subjugation of the Greek cities, the way lay open to
survived a few years after the fall of Assyria, ulti- his son Alexander the Great (336-323 BC) to carry
mately succumbing to the Medes. Phrygia, which the war into Asia, where his name is still remem-
wide if ratherby VKN power
short-lived BPOunder
Pvt Mita
Limited, www.vknbpo.com
bered. The empire founded by. Cyrus
97894 60001
the Great thus
(Midas) in the eighth century BC, had its capital at fell into Alexander's hands and Greek civilisation
Gordion in north-western Anatolia. Gordion fell to began to spread its influence even to Bactria (Afgha-
attack by northern nomads from the plains of south- nistan) and the Indus valley.
ern Russia, the Cimmerians (c. 696 BC), who went While Egypt fell to the Ptolemies with the partition
on to assault the more west~rly kingdom of Lydia and oftbe vast empire after Alexander's death in Babylon
its capital of Sardis (652 BC). (323 BC), the gods and temples of Egypt were lavish-
The Phoenician cities of the east Mediterranean ly endowed, with new temples built to the traditional
seaboard, which lived by trade and industry, survived design. The centre of Greek culture was the new city
relatively unscathed until the advent of the heir to the of Alexandria. But the greater part of Alexander'S
Assyrian empire, the Neo-Babylonian state (c. 626- empire was under the Seleucid dynasty, including
539 BC). The brief history of the latter Was marked Iran (312-247 BC), which later passed successively
by a deliberate cultural archaism, manifested in the under the Parthian (247 BC-AD 226) and Sassanian
restoration of the Sumerian city of Ur: this trend was (AD 226-561) dynasties, and was finally conquered
paralleled at. the same time in Egypt, where Saite by the armies of Islam. From the first century BC
sculptors looked back to the Old Kingdom for their onwards the Mediterranean lands of the Near East,
inspiration. Under Nebuchadnezzar II (605-563 BC) as well as Anatolia as far as the upper Euphrates,
Babylon was rebuilt on a far grander scale than be- came by stages under the grip of Rome.
fore and economic factors led to westward expansion
which led to the destruction of the small kingdom of
Judah (587 BC) and of the island city of Tyre (572
BC). Nabonidus, last of the Neo-Babylonian kings,
suffered the hatred of the established priesthood of Greece and the Greek Empire
the national god Marduk for his devotion to the moon
god Sin and contributed to the ease with which Cyrus The civilisation of Greece and tbe Aegean can be
the Persian occupied Babylon (539 BC). divided, broadly, into the prehistoric, of the seoond
The defeat by Cyrus king of the Persians of the king millennium BC and earlier, and the historical or Clas-
of the Medes (his own grandfather, Astyages) sical, which emerged after a period of poverty and
marked the foundation of the Persian empire, called retrogression around 1000 Be. At neither period is 1
Achaemenid after the ancestor of the royal house the area a political or historical unity. The_ earliest
(550 BC). The westward expansion of the empire was phases are certainly pre-Greek, that is, the people of

these times spoke languages which are not Greek in .people from the mainland. The archaeology of the
form. The most important early phase centres on the mainland communities is distinctiv).,. though linked
island of Crete; its discovery is the work of modern to that of Crete and the islands; the modem, conven-
archaeologists, in particular the excavator of Knos· tional term used to describe it is Helladic. The early .
50S, Sir Arthur Evans, who gave this civilisation the Bronze Age is probably pre-Greek, Greek settlers
conventional name of Minoan (after Minos, who in arriving towards the end of the third millennium BC
Greek legend was King at Knossos). It is divided, in (there were still areas where pre-Greek languages
accordance with the development of pottery styles, were spoken even in the historical period, and these
into Early Minoan (roughly third millennium BC), have left their traces in the place-names, many of
Middle (early second millennium) and Late (the which, such as Athens or Corinth, have no sensible
second half of the seCond millennium); more signifi- meaning in Greek). Early Bronze Age settlements
cant, perhaps, is the architectural division into pre- are small, though few have been excavated, and the
palatial, down to the early second millennium, and important ones were in places where extensive subse-

For Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam’s Private use only, www.pmu.edu

palatial, characterised by architecturally complex quent occupation makes the recovery of the early
administrative centres ('palaces'), again typified by settlements plans difficult. There are distinct signs of
that at Knossos (p.97) and influenced by east chaos and disintegration towards the end of the early
Mediterranean political concepts, though it must be Bronze Age, which may be coincidental with the
emphasised that the development of architectural arrival of Greek-speaking peoples.
forms is local and continuous, from pre-palatial to' The mainland developed particularly in the Late
palatial. The palatial period was literate, using, at Bronze Age. The major settlements are character-
least for record purposes, a linear syllabic script, of ised by the possession of citadels, more and more
which there are two versions, the earlier (Linear A) strongly fortified, and enclosing palaces clearly influ-
being used for the (undeciphered) Cretan language, enced by those of Crete, but not Cretan in plan and
. the later (Linear B) for an early form of Greek. arrangement (p.99A) .
The palaces of Bronze Age Crete were more than The social organisation of the mainland communi-
the residences of the rulers. Besides the recognisable ./ ties seems to have followed that of Crete; there is
domestic quarters they included on their ground clear evidence for a ruling class, the kings, who were
floors substantial areas for storage, as well as work buried in particularly sumptuous tombs, with wealthy
rooms. Later byGreek
tradition Pvt Limited,
a memory www.vknbpo.com
of King grave goods, much. more 97894lavish60001
th.an the forms of
Minos's fleet controlling the Aegean (much in the burial found in Crete. They were an aggressive peo-
way that in historical times the Athenian fleet domin- ple, extending their influence in the Aegean more by
ated the seas) but this may be something of an raiding, plundering and, eventually, SUbjugation,
anachronism or distortion; overseas contacts seem to than by trade: Late Bronze Age pottery of the main-
be much more a matter of trade than of empire, and land is finely made, and is found Widely distributed
there is no evidence for executive Minoan domina- through the Mediterranean, i·ndicating that the main-
tion of the mainland. There is little evidence for the land Greeks took over the trade which previously had
social and political structure, beyond the undoubted been centred on the Minoan palaces. It was probably
hierarchic and presumably autocratic element. Each at mainland-occupied.Knossos that the Linear A syl-
palace (the size varies from large to small, depending labary was adapted (Linear B) to the writing of
on t,he size of the community) must have represented Greek; Linear B tablets (but not Linear A) have been
a separate centre of administration; whether the found on the mainland.
smaller were in any way subordinate to the larger, or, Around 1200 BC this flourishing civilisation en-
in the late Minoan periOd at least, to the largest of tered into a period of severe decline. During this
them all, at Knossos, is quite uncertain. The general Dark Age, Greece underwent some depopulation,
impression is of peacefulness. There are no fortifica- whole groups of people moving across or even out of
tions of any note, and the prosperity of the palace the Aegean altogether, either as sea-raiders or set-
communities is demonstrated by their size, and the tlers. In turn, other Greeks from the mountains and
luxuriousness of building construction and appurte- from less prosperous northern regions took advan-
nances. Smaller but still substantial houses or villas tage of weakness and depopulation in the south to
suggest the extension of wealth through the urban migrate to these more fertile regions. These Dark
community, at least. Women are frequently depicted Age movements formed the basis for the principal
in the art of the palaces, participating in or observing dialect divisions of Greek. Central Peloponnese
the religious rituals .. Representation of priestesses is (Arcadia) was unscathed by these movements, and
frequent, but, ag:lin, it is difficult to build a secure continued the form of Greek spoken in the Bronze
interpretation of the general status of women from Age; but another branch of the same dialect is found
thiii, and the existence of an exploited rural popula- in Cyprus, indicating a common origin for peoples
tion may lurk behind the brilliance of the palace completely separate in the historical period. The
forms. n~rthem migrants brought with them the dialect
Around 1400 BC the Cretans were overcome by known as Dorian, spoken in Messenia, Laconia, the

. "'"

Argolid, Corinthia and adjacent areas as well as from a borrowed (Asiatic) word meaning king. Their
Crete and Rhodes. Migrants to the eastern Aegean regimes were, at this time, usually beneficent; only
spoke Ionian Greek, which, in a variant form, sur- later, as their power was challenged, did they become
vived on the mainland as the Athenian dialect. Other harsher and thus warrant the change in the meaning
forms of northern Greek (Aeolic) were spoken on of the word. The arts were most greatly stimulated by
the mainland north of Athens, and in the northern aristocratic or tyrant patronage. The movement.of
parts of the Asia Minorcoast. These dialect terms are Greeks to colonies overseas (Italy, Sicily, North Afri-
also equated with the principal geographical divi- ca, the Black Sea), for the encouragement of trade
sions, and so (Ionic, Doric, Aeolic) with the charac- and to relieve pressure of population, was caused as
teristic architectural forms which evolved in them. It much by readjustment of the economy in favour of
is important to note that these geographical and ar- the ruling families, as by natural population growth.
chitectural divisions did not precisely coincide with This development was challenged by the rise of

For Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam’s Private use only, www.pmu.edu

the dialect divisions. Doric, for example, is the essen- major states in the east. Asia Minor passed to the
tial style of the entire mainland, even Athens. dynasty of Gyges and his successors, who were based
The revival of the Greek world was fitful. Poverty on Sardis in Lydia. This dominion seems not to have
was exacerbated by virtual isolation from the rest of been oppressive and the Greeks benefited from the
the Mediterranean world. Some communities, such support of the Lydian kings, particularly the last of
as Athens, flourished earlier than others, but the real them, Croesus, whose financial contributions made
revival did not begin until the eighth century BC, possible the grandiose temple of Artemis at Ephesus.
when there is evidence of the renewal of overseas In 546 BC, however, the Lydian kingdom was over-
trading contacts. Not all Greek communities traded, whelmed by the rising power of Persia which rapidly
but those that did grew richer, and, by amalgamating extended to include the whole of the Near East and
forcibly or voluntarily with their neighbours, formed Egypt, as well as the Iranian plateau. Some Greek
larger states, the polis (city-state) being the natural cities came under immediate Persian control (those
and desirable political entity in the ensuing Classical on the mainland of Asia Minor); the offshore islands
period. Early examp'l~s 3re Athens, Corinth, Argos were conquered later. Persian authority extended
and Sparta, on the :Greek mainland, while in the into the Balkans, and a rebellion of the Ionian
eastern Aegean byos,VKN
Samos, Chi Smyrna, BPO PvtandLimited,
Miletus also grew (the last three. being on the main-
Greeks, www.vknbpo.com . 97894
though supported by Athens, 60001
failed. Miletus
was destroyed, together with the temple of Apollo at
land of Asia Minor rather than islands, were not Didyma; the free Greek cities saw the threat that was
confined, and came to control extended regions inha- developing, and prepared for resistance. A seaborne
bited largely by people of non-Greek origin). During expedition to Athens, where the Persians hoped to
this period, the 'Archaic', which extended from the install a co-operative tyrant, was heroically defeated
eighth to the sixth century BC, Greek artists broke at Marathon in 490 BC; the subsequent death of the
away from the abstract, geometric forms which had Persian king, Darius, and the rebellion of Egypt put
been inherited from the Late Bronze Age, and intro- off the expected retribution until 480 BC, when the
duced oriental motifs, decorative patterns and repre- invasion was led by the new Persian king Xerxes. By
sentations of animals and human beings which were now the Greeks were ready. Sinking their differ-
all parts of the common repertoire in the Levant ences, they formed a grand alliance under the lead-
communities. The Levantine origin of what is termed ership of aristocratic Sparta. Athens, which had de-
the 'orientalising' phase of Greek art is emphasised veloped a truly democratic constitution late in the
by the development of the new, alphabetic system of sixth century, built a large fleet, and the Persian
writing adapted from the Phoenician script, Linear B invasion was comprehensively repulsed in 479 Be.
having disappeared during the Dark Age except in a The alliance had to be maintained, however, if the
modified form in Cyprus. Persian empire were not to pick off the Greek cities
Each city-state was jealous of its autonomy and piecemeal; Sparta had turned her back on naval
independence. Even so the Greeks were conscious of activity, which gave political muscle to the poorer
a degree of unity, fostered by a unity of language sections of the population, and the Greeks of the
which was recognised above the variant dialect Aegean turned to Athens for leadership. Gradually
forms, and particularly by shared religious concepts, the alliance was transformed into an empire, though
belief in the same gods who thus acquired both local the Persians were successfully kept at bay, and the
(city) and universal (Greek) significance. Politically, Athenians, under the leadership of Pericies, felt jus-
this archaic phase of Classical Greece was dominated tified in turning the defence revenue into temples as
by the leading aristocratic families in each city, either thank-offerings to the gods for victory. Athens thus
acting in concert ot squabbling amongst themselves reached the height of her power and prosperity, but
for supremacy. At tinies individual aristocrats, taking all. this was thrown away in a senseless war with
advantage of popular dissatisfaction, and putting Sparta, which ·dNlgged .on fitfully until Athens lost
themselves forward as leaders, managed to seize au- her fleet and was starved into submission. The strug-
thoritarian power. Such rulers were called tyrants, gle was essentially between the democratic, revolu-

tionary spirit of Athens, supreme in the arts of peace to the control and policies of the ruling kings. Greeks
+ but unfitted for the control of a major war, and
aristocratic, reactionary Sparta, less brilliant in the
migrated to the cities founded in the new territories,
of which the most llnportant and durable were Alex-
arts and architecture, but militarily far more suc- andria-by-Egypt, founded by Alexander, and Anti-
cessful. och in Syria, founded by Seleucus. These attained
Greece gradually slipped into political chaos, so levels of wealth unprecedented in earlier, Classical
that the weakened Persian empire was able to dictate Greece. There was considerable expenditure on
terms, and this was accompanied by a marked, ephemeral show (particularly religious processions),
though not catastrophic, economic decline. Sculp- but the arts and architecture also flourished. Al-
ture still flourished, particularly at Athens, but less though the' concept of Graeco-Macedonian supre-
money was now available for building. Few temples macy (which grew weaker as a result of bickering
were built (though of course most important sanc- between the kingdoms during the third century BC)
tuaries were now well enough endowed with tem- ensured the introduction of Greek architectural con-

For Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam’s Private use only, www.pmu.edu

ples). but there was some development in the con- cepts in the new cities, and prevented the direct and
struction of buildings for more ordinary human use. wholesale copying of local art and architecture by Ibe
There was some revival of architecture at Athens at Greeks, the majority of the population in these
about the middle of the fourth century BC, which kingdoms was not Greek but, for example, Egyptian
may indicate the existence of Persian support. If so, it or Syrian, and for them the old styles and tastes
was aimed at countering the new rising power of and religious beliefs continued. Influences between
Macedon in the north. This had been a backward and groups are discernible; as far as the Greeks -were
largely negligible border state in the fifth century, concerned, this was largely a matter of taste or
and in the early fourth was no less chaotic than the fashion rather than deliberate adoption of the local
rest of Greece. The transformation of Macedon was forms, but there can be no doubt that this had some
due largely to the efforts of one man, Philip, who modifying effect on the architecture. In the end, the
• became king on the death of his brother in 359 Be. eastern areas, the Iranian plateau and most of Meso-
Relying on the fighting skills of the Macedonians, potamia were lost to the resurgent oriental kingdom
coupled with his own brilliance as soldier and diplo- of the Parthians. Egypt, Syria and Hellenistic Asia
mat, he rapidly extended Macedonian power and Minor were rescued by the Romans, who gradually
weallb, until by
at theVKN BPO
battIe of Pvt Limited,
Chaeronea in 338 BC hewww.vknbpo.com . 97894
took over responsibility for them,60001
receiving Perga-
defeated a coalition of the major Greek cities, mum by the bequest of its ruler Attalus III in 133 BC,
Athens and Thebes, and created a new federation of and, finally, Egypt on the death of Cleopatra VII in
all the Greeks, theoretically free, but in practice 30 Be.
controlled by Philip as its appointed leader. To
achieve a unity of purpose he proclaimed a crusade
against the Persians, originally proposed many years
previously by Isocrates; and though he was assassin- Culture
ated before he could do more than make the pre-
liminary moves, his son and heir, Alexander, carried
through the crusade with complete success and estab- Egypt and the Ancient Near East
lished himself as the ruler of the former Persian
empire. Sickles, querns, mortars, pestles, pounders and other
Alexander's short life was almost entirely taken up ground stone tools have been found in abundance at
with campaigns, and at his death in 323 BC he had not Natufian sites in the Near East. Vessels made of
achieved the permanent organisation of his empire or limestone and marble have been recovered but there
made proper provision for the succession. In default is no evidence of pottery. Carved figurines of animals
of an effective heir, the empire was divided amongst and women occur at many sites, and cave paintings of
the Macedonian generals, who carved out of it sep- the period have been found. Burials were in simple
arate kingdoms for themselves. Those of Ptolemy in graves set in the floors of houses. Grave goods were
Egypt and of Seleucus in the Near East were the more infrequent and took the form of decorative objects.
important and durable. Macedon passed to a new At some sites, cemeteries suggested more protracted
dynasty, that of Antigonus. The Greek cities estab- periods of habitation.
lished their freedom for the Achaean and Aetolian In the Neolithic period, stone tools, mainly flint,
confederations. Asia Minor reverted to its traditional were supplemented by artefacts made of bone. Art
pattern of local dynasts, those of Pergamum making took the form of decoration on beads, carved animal
an especial contribution to the architecture of the heads on knife handles and stone carvings. Small
) During this period, the Hellenistic age, Greek
ornaments were produced in turquoise, marble and
alabaster. Burials were frequently under floors, but
forms of art and civic life were transplanted into the hoards of human skulls have been recovered wilb
newly conquered areas, though always subordinated faces modelled in plaster and eyes indicated by shells.

Pottery was produced widely from about 6500 Be. It ruling elite and of its growing attachment to cultural
appears to have had multiple places of origin; md the traditions. This conservatism was reinforced by the
technique spread rapidly throughout south-west introduction ot writing, making it possible to refer
Asia. The first sophisticated and uniform pottery back to precedents. The Mesopotamian temple, at
styles appeared about 5500 BC ;"ith Samarran and first relatively -accessible to the populace, as time
Halafian wares. Pots were hand made, fired at high passed, seems t() have become more a palace for the
temperatures and decorated in polychrome geomet- sovereign protector of the city, than the house of the
ric designs. The- pottery Neolithic period in Anatolia patron god or goddess. As the secular influence of the
was· marked by a richness in material goods, and temple declined (partly as the result of growing liter-
developments in the sphere of art and religion: acy in the mercantile class), access to the temples was
shrine-rooms were decorated with paintings and re- mOre and more restricted to the priesthood.
liefs representing women and the heads and horns of In Egypt the close connection between religion and

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bulls. The numbers· and size of these rooms 3re sug- architecture is everywhere manifest; the priesthood
gestive of domestic rituals. The Ubaid period pro- was powerful and equipped with all the learning of
duced both hand-made and wheel-turned pots, and the age. Egyptian religious rights were mysterious
copper tools supplemented the older lithic techno- and virtually unchangeable, characteristics reflected
logy. The growing importance of religious practices faithfully in the architecture of tombs and temples.
was indicated by developments in building temples, Egyptian mythology was in effect polytheistic and
some of the facades of which were decorated with complicated by the multiplicity oflocal gods in differ-
friezes. One of these depicted dairying scenes. ent places. The royal cult was essentially that of the
Some of the most striking products of the material sun, while the worship of Osiris, god of death and
culture of the Neolithic Age in predynastic Egypt are resurrection to eternal life , became ever more popu-
the rock paintings and engravings at Tassili in the lar as the centuries passed. Elaborate preparations
Sahara_Desert. Faiynmi sites have yielded flint and were made for the preservation of the body after
,h9ne tools, coarse pottery and a variety of woven death. The earthly dwelling-house was regarded as •
artefacts including textiles, mats and baskets. Mermi- the temporary lodging and the tomb as the perma-
.dan sites differed only in that the dead were buried nent abode: hence the enduring pyramid tombs of the
among the dwellings. The Badarians made advances Old Kingdom and the description of the duration of
in stoneworking, by VKN
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of personal www.vknbpo.com
the royal . 97894
rock-cut tombs of the kings 60001
west of Thebes ,
adornment including stone beads,)J.ecklaces, girdles in the New Kingdom, as 'of millions of years'. The
and cosmetics. Copper appeared- in the form of kings of Egypt were both gods and priests, while the
heads. Thin-walled, burnished pottery was produced gods themselves were invested with superhuman and
by the Badarians, and the Amratians made a red, therefore with inventive powers, as when the art of
bumished ware , line-decorated with white slip. Stone writing was regarded as the invention of the god
vases, a characteristic product of ancient Egypt, date Thoth. The gods were often associated in triads: thus
from this period. Gerzean pottery developed from Amun the sun-god, Mut his wife, the mother of all
Amratian ware. A greater range of vessel types was things, and Khans their son, the moon-god, were the
produced, and decorative motifs included stylised great triad of Thebes; while Ptah, a creator and
animals, humans, and scenes from everyday life, as craftsman, Sekhmet, goddess of war, and Nefertum,
well as geometric designs. Faience was produced, their son, formed the triad of Memphis. These and
copper came into widespread use, and hieroglyphic many hundreds more divinities occur singly or in
writing also dates from this period. It is possible that combination. Much was added to the religion of
mud-brick architecture was introduced at this time Egypt: nothing was ever taken away.
from abroad. Burial in cemetery sites became more Spatial analysis, in the sense of detection of an
elaborate, with an increasing differentiation of the overall layout of buildings in relation one to another,
structure and contents of graves, pointing to an in- is seldom possible in the ancient Near East, for one of
creasing emphasis on the after-life. two reasons. Either the city grew over successive
Religion is more clearly reflected in the architec- generations or excavations do not reveal the whole
ture of the ancient Near East than social structure layout. On the whole the dominant tradition in the
and development, if only because of the dispropor- architecture of the Near East was that of the inward-
tionate ratio of religious to secular buildings among looking plan, with rooms opening off one or more
those excavated. In the Neolithic period the cellular courtyards, allowing for light and air, but likewise
layout of houses and shrines at Catal Hiiyiik, on the privacy and security: this applied to palaces and town
AnatolIan plateau, may reflect the growth of exten- houses alike, especially in Mesopotamia. But a very
ded families; but not enough of the site has been different tradition becomes evident at Pasargadae,
uncovered for definitive conclusions to be drawn.
From around 5000 BC the temple, first discernible
the earliest Achaemenid Persian royal residence,
wher~ buildings were dotted about the highland plain
at Eridu, emerged as the outward and visible sign of like the scattered tents of a great army.
the cohesion of the Sumerian city, of its control by a Religion reflected the peculiarities of each wne of

the Near East, perhaps being least dominant in the were under the protection of the gods, who were
commercial and industrial ethos of the Phoenician regarded as all·powerful, but similar to ordinary hu·
homeland and colonies, though the old Canaanite mans in their passions, desires and appetites. The
cults survived and were exported to Carthage, from origins of Greek religion are lost in the remoteness of
its traditional foundation date (814 BC). The clashes prehistory, though it is clear that there is no single
between the austere religion of Yahveh, with_ its de- line of development. Despite hostility toward in-
sert background, and"the priests ofBa'al are familiar novation, religious belief ~as constantly changing
from the Old Testament. Priest and prophet were and developing, reflecting changes in human cir-
uneasy partners: both Zadok the priest and Nathan cumstances. New cults were introduced from time to
the prophet officiated at Solomon's coronation. It is time, so 10ng as they did not challenge the essential
the priestly legacy which is more relevant to the polytheistic, anthropomorphic nature of religious be-
history of art and- architecture, however, than the lief, while existing cults developed or changed their

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prophetic. emphasis in response to human needs.
The Hittite kings, as chief priests, spent much of The essential concept in religious practice was that
their time in peregrinations from one shrine or sacred of contract, of obligation and the paying of obliga·
cjty to the next. The origins of their status lay in their tions. Humans-primarily as a community-called
Indo-European ancestry; but contact with the older on the gods for protection, and made offerings to the
civilisations of the Near East in the last two centuries gods to secure this. Foremost was the-regular ritual of
of the Hittite kingdom brought its kingship more sacrifice, the offering of food, and religious practices
closely in line with oriental charisma. The Hittite centred on this. Sacrifices took place throughout the
king became 'The Sun' ; the winged sun disc of Egyp. year, but there was always one principal annual cere-
tian origin hovering over his head. mony or festival for each god in every community, in
In his famous rock inscription of Bisitun (Behis- the sanctuary set aside lor that (;ult. The offering
tun), Darius the Grt?at emphasised his adherence to a included animals, which were brought to the sanctu-
simple ethical code,. to cling to the Truth and to ary and slaughtered. Those parts-generally the less
abjure the Lie, and to be a good horseman. Whether edible-offered to the god were burned on an altar;
or not Darius was an adherent, the religion of the remaining meat was cooked, rather than burned,
Zoroaster, asby VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com
well as the associated cult of
beginnings well back 'in early Iranian history.
tire, had its and distributed to human. 97894 60001who con-
sumed it in the sanctuary (there was frequently a
prohibition on the removal of sacrificial meat from
the sanctuary). Other offerings comprised durable
Greece and the Greek Empire objects, essentially those whose a(;quisition was de-
sirable in ordinary life. Statues commemorating
The ritual of prehistoric religion in Greece cannot be periods of service to the gods, as priest or priestess,
properly reconstructed on the archaeological evi- might be set up; not only did they commemorate
dence, and modern interpretations are inevitably former service, but continued it, the statue constitut-
controversial. In Crete there was a contrast between ing a perpetual servant. The sanctuary was the estate
ritual in the palaces, which included processions and of the gOd: he required a house where he might live
bull-leaping in the courtyards, and ritual in the rural and keep his belongings safe.
shrines, on mountain tops and, above all, associated Thus a Greek sanctuary comprised essentially an
with sacred caves. Figurines have been identified as open space, marked off as the god's property but not
goddesses, while representations of bulls and bUlI- necessarily closed off from the outside world by a
leaping, together with later Greek legends of the physical barrier. There was an entran(;e, so that one \
Minotaur, emphasise the place that animals had in knew the point at which one left the mundane world
Cretan cults. and entered the god's property. There had to be
On the mainland, shrines and cult rooms have been enough space to accommodate the worshippers at the
identified at Mycenae, Tiryns and elsewhere. Small festival. Some cults had limited support, but the chief
shrines outside the palace areas, and often in the protecting deities of the city-state might attract the
vicinity of the gates, suggest a protecting role. It is entire population, so large sanctuaries were needed.
quite uncertain whether or not, amongst the main Cult focused on the open-air altar, at which the sacri-
rooms of the palace, the megaron and its hearth fice was made. This was the only real essential. The
served a religious function (despite the superficial god was represented in the sanctuary by an image
similarity in plan to the later temples of the Classical (which by the Classical period generally meant a
period). realistic, representational statue); this might be
In Classical Greece, the polis, the city-state com- wooden (the earliest images seem to have been in-
munity, was of paramount importance and the indi- variably of wood) or of stone or bronze, while the
vidual was subordinated to it. Maintenance of the most expensive were made from plaques of gold and
community depended on' the maintenance of the ivory attached to a wooden frame. Some shelter was
families, the households (oikoi), All aspects of life necessary, partkularly for wooden and gold and ivory

images. Whether this reached a level of architectural was built as an offering to the god and was designed
interest depended on various factors-the import- to be admired from outside. Its architectural interest
ance of the cult, the availability of funds in the wor- is therefore concentrated on the exterior. The second
shipping community and so forth. Buildings were is that of building around a space or courtyard-an
themselves offerings, and there was therefore pres- architectural effect which can be appreciated only
sure on the worshipping community to provide them, from within the court. The enclosing structures need
as magnificently.executed and decorated as possible, not be continuous-a series of separate buildings,
in order to please the god. It was this that led to the perhaps-but very often they were given porticoes
building of temples, rather than any functional pur- on the side that faced the court, "the tendency being to
pose as congregational buildings. The earliest sanc- run porticoes or colonnades continuously along each
tuaries had none-they were merely places for festiv- side of the court, with only occasional gaps or, even-
al and sacrifice, and even the altar need be no more tually, with no gaps at all. These enclosed, colon-

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than the pile of ashes left by former sacrifice. In the naded courts are a particular feature of Hellenistic
Dark Age, shrine or temple buildings were virtually cities.
non-existent (there is one temple-like building at
Lefkandi on the island ofEuboea, of about 1000 BC,
but this is an embellishment of a grave, not a struc- Resources
ture, it would seem, dedicated to a god). Otherwise
the building of temples is first securely attested in the Egypt and the Ancient Near East
eighth century BC, at the period when east Medi-
terranean influences were making themselves felt on Only truly local materials were available for building
Greek society and its artistic achievement. purposes in the Near East, including Egypt, from
Other categories of building responded to the par- prehistoric times until the stage (at varying dates in
ticular conventions of Greek society. Political sys- each region) when the necessary political advances
tems depended on gatherings. This idea developed at had occurred so that long-distance trade and the
village level, and a place had to be provided" where extraction of resources became possible. The labour
the citizen body might be gathered together, if neces- for construction must be assumed to have been local
Digitized bybe VKN BPO but Pvtwith
sary, to make the vital decisions on war and peace.
The gathering place might a field outside, Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
except for documented instances when foreign crafts-
men -are known to have been brought in to execute
the groWth of organised towns, the central gathering the work.
place or agora was an essential element in the town In the alluvial plains of the Tigris and EUJ;>hrates
plan (and had to be large enough to accommodate, in stone and timber suitable for building were rare or
theory at least, all the adult male population). The unobtainable unless imported. There was, however,
agora was essentially a space, not a building, though a plentiful supply of soil which, mixed with water Into
the structures required for the functioning of the polis mud, poured into moulds and either sun-dried or
might be placed at its edge. Such buildings did not kiln-fired, provided bricks for every kind of struc-
have to be as magnificent as the temples, or as solidly ture. Kiln-fired bricks were used only for drains,
constructed. In the wealthier cities stone buildings pavements and the facing of certain rna jar buildings,
were put up, but even Athens in the fifth century such as the ziggurat at Ur; it was not until the Neo-
constructed buildings of unbaked mud brick in it~ Babylonian period, in the sixth century BC, that
agora. kiln-fired brick became the standard building mat-
Public life was for the male citizens. Women lived a erial in Mesopotamia. The Assyrian kings were much
more secluded life, mostly in the privacy of the home concerned to receive reports of the harvest, partly
(though they attended the religious festivals). If any- because of its direct effect on the royal building pro-
thing, restrictions on their lives seem to have become gramme for the coming year, since without enough
more severe in the historical period, and the forms of straw to mix with the mud, bricks could not be made,
domestic architecture reflect this. Houses turned as the Hebrews pointed out in their well-known com-
their backs on the outside world, looking inward to plaint to Pharaoh. The Assyrians were masters ofthe
the enclosed courtyard. Even inside the house, there; art of deploying large labour forces to build new
was a division between the men's room (andron) ! palaces, temples and defensive walls or to repair old
where male guests participated in dinner and drink- ones: it has been estimated that mud bricks could be
ing parties, and the women's quarters, to which the laid at the rate of one hundred per man per day. Mud
female members of the family were banished on these brick is the most important of ancient Near Eastern
occasions. building materials, because of its ubiquity. Many
These circumstances created the essential architec- sites in the highland zone might seem to have been
tural principles which are discernible in the arrange- built only of stone but excavation often reveals
ments of a Qassical Greek city. The first, the temple remains of mud-brick superstructure above the
principle, is that the simple rectangular, roofed struc- masonry, as in the Urartian fortresses. The precise
ture-in essence an embellished and improved hut- measurements of mud bricks tended to become stan-

clardised for each region in a given period, the limit platform of the new 'Palace Without a Rival', to
on size being the weight readily handled by one man, empty their baskets of earth and rubble, watched
as is still tbe case today. over by the royal guard. A clay tablet found in a
Reeds, papyrus (a plant now almost extinct) and palace of Darius at Susa mentions masons from Ionia
palm-branch ribs, plastered over with clay, were "and Sardis and woodworkers also from Sardis, mak-
tractable materials readily available in the Nile val- ing inlays; the Babylonians were still the most ;killed
ley, where they were used in the buildings of pre- workers in mud brick. Cambyses is said to have de-
dynastic Egypt. A roughly comparable tradition ported many craftsmen from Egypt.
flourished in Mesopotamia, particularlY in the Sum-
erian sO!lth, where it is perpetuated to this day by the
Marsh Arabs, who construct large halls of reeds and Greece and the Greek Empire
live on low platforms very close to water level, much
as depicted in the palace at Nineveh in reliefs of The Greek world in general has abundant sources of

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Sennacherib's largely abortive campaign into the high quality building stone, particularly limestone
marshes near the head of the Gulf. Reed matting was and marble, which can be quarried without undue
used between mud-brick courses as reinforcement in difficulty. There are good sources of clay. In much of
Mesopotamia and Egypt alike. the Greek mainland timber is by comparison scarce
One material available in Mesopotamia and the or stunted in growth. The characteristic trees are pine
neighbouring plain of Susa (in due course the heart of and cypress; substantial hardwoods are not available.
the kingdom of Elam) was bitumen, which was There is thus a severe restriction on building imposed
obtainable from natural springs. It was first used in by the difficulty of roofing wide spaces. The greatest
Neolithic times as a mastic, especially for setting flint width that can be spanned without intermediate sup-
sickle-blades into hafts of bone. Eventually its water- port is about 10m (33ft); only the most important
proofing qualities were realised, and it was employed buildings, for which timber could be imported, such
for lining drains and to reduce the erosion of mud- as the Parthenon, exceed this, and even then only by
brick walls. one or two metres. The shortage of timber for firing
In Egypt abundant labour was available for the meant also that bricks were of !mbaked clay: fired
transportation of stone blocks from quarry to build- terracotta was employed only for tiles (Which might
Digitized byon VKN
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also be made of marble. On 97894 60001
important buildings) and
from the river bank, especially in the summer season the decorative revetments.
of the annual inundation, without resort to slavery. The volcanic activity in the Aegean (Santorini),
Egypt shared with Mesopotamia a lack of timber Sicily (Etna), and southern Italy (Vesuvius) indicates
for major building work, though the date palm could the presence of metamorphic rocks; the other con-
be used for houses, largely for roofing. From the tributory geological factor is that of sedimentary de-
earliest dynasties the Egyptian kings imported cedar- position. Thus, much of Greece is hard limestone or
wood by ship from Byblos, the ancient port just north marble, in various forms, though there are other
of Beirut, for- building purposes, coffins and some areas (noticeably Olympia) where the rock is a poor
ship-building, though papyrus was the local material. quality conglomerate. In general it was the hard
The cedar forests of the Lebanon mountains were limestones and marbles which were exploited for
thus exploited for the Egyptian market, while the building purposes, and created the distinctive ap-
rulers of Mesopotamia from the middle of the third pearance of Greek architecture. There are manv
millennium BC onwards obtained their cedar from types-of marble, generally variegated and often coi-
the Amanus range, close to the north-east corner of oured. Coloured marble was used for the architec-
the Mf;diterranean. The Assyrian kings listed with ture of the mainland in the prehistoric period, and
pride and in considerable detail the materials used for was again much appreciated by Roman architects, by
the construction, embellishment and furnishing of whom it was exported over a wide area; Classical
their palaces and temples: cedar and fir were fav- Greek architecture preferred, almost exclusively, the
oured for roof beams and doors. Cedar was used by white marbles, that of the islands of Paros and Naxos
Darius the Great and his successors in roofing the being first exploited in the seventh and sixth centuries
columned halls of Parsa (Persepolis). BC for both architecture and sculpture. (As the quar-
Foreign peoples might be employed, more or less ries are close to the sea it was easily transported to
forcibly, by an imperial power for the construction of other parts of Greece.) In the fifth century BC the
great public buildings, especially since Near Eastern Athenians developed the quarries of Mount Penteli-
kings were always anxious to complete their temples kos (Pentelic marble). There are numerous other
or tombs in their own lifetime. The Assyrian king sources of white marble, especially in Asia Minor.
Sennacherib recounts his removal of over 200,000 Proconesian marble from the Propontis (Sea of
people from Judah: the fate of such deportees is Marmara) was exported widely; other types tended
vividly portrayed at Nineveh in the relief showing to be used more in their immediate locality. Gypsum
workmen toiling up the steep side of the foundation was quarried in Crete and used, in the form of saw-

tively· the clay was used as a plastic material by build-

cut blocks, for walls in the buildings of the prehistoric
The western Greek communities in Sicily and Ita-
ing up wet mud in courses and allowing each to dry
before adding the next. Fixed features such as storage
ly, and those in Cyrenaica, did not have marble, and bins, platforms, hearths and seats were modelled in
their architecture is invariably created in limestone; situ. Occasionally the mud was mixed with straw, and
even in Aeg~an Greece limestone is more commonly foundations were sometimes of stone to ensure that
used than marble, particularly for the more mundane the building did not stand on a wet base. Roofs were
structures. Limestone was also burnt to prOvide mOf- generally flat, and made of timber beams covered
tar, though in most parts of Greece the relative short- with matting plastered with clay. Thatched roofs
age of timber made this an expensive process, and its were used sometimes and walls buttressed to support
use was limited to providing a fine finish (mixed with the roof timbers. Doorways were lined with timber
marble dust) for limestone buildings of importance. reveals and thresholds. Plastered floors and walls
It was used also as a hydraulic cement, for submerged were common, Mud or lime plaster was finished in a

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works and industrial structures. There are good variety of ways including painting, burnishing or set-
sources of clay which were exploited for unbaked ting with terrazzo.
brick, and for terracotta for tiles and decorative re- Egypt made the transition from insubstantial
vetments. vegetable materials like reeds, papyrus, palm fronds
Skilled architects and craftsmen were in demand, and matting to the tectonic forms of mud brick and
and frequently travelled from state to state. Systems stone in Late Gerzean times, possibly influenced by
of employment and methods of payment in the early contact with Mesopotamia, Timber and matting lin-
period are uncertain; coined money was not de- ings were used in grave construction.
veloped until the sixth century BC, but by the fifth In each region techniques and processes developed
century there are records giving the wages or piece- through a blend of local resources. Care was often
work rates for builders. Financial resources thus be- lavished more on decoration and finish than on struc-
came an important factor in building, whether pro- ture: this is especially true of Egypt, where metal-
vided by the state, the sanctuaries themselves, or lurgy lagged behind that of Asia-bronze did not
private individuals. Architects and craftsmen usually appear until the Middle Kingdom. In a sense, Egypt
were free men, though not necessarily citizens of the also lagged behind in building technology. For exam-
in whichby theyVKN BPOwork.
undertook PvtSlave
ple,www.vknbpo.com . 97894
although in the roughly finished 60001of
labour was employed and there is evidence in the the Royal Cemetery at Ur the true arch and vault
building records of the Erechtheion at Athens of appeared, they seem to have been unknown to the \.--
payments to slave owners for the work done. It is stonemasons of Egypt of the same period. However,
wrong to give this undue emphasis and there is no there is no denying the superior stone-dressing and
evidence for the corvee, or forced labour, in Classical sheer mass of the contemporary pyramids of Gizeh.
Greek building, though it may have been used in the In predynastic Egypt there is evidence that bundles
prehistoric period. of reeds were set vertically side by side and lashed to
An important factor in Greek building was the part bundles placed horizontally near the top, to make
played by the financial guarantor, who came between walls or fences. Alternatively, palm-leaf ribs were
the employer (the state, or religious officials) and the planted in the ground at short intervals, with others
builder. This role was regarded as a duty to be under- laced in a diagonal network across them and secured
taken on behalf of the community by its wealthy to a horizontal member near the top, the whole being
members. It was their responsibility to see that the finally daubed with mud. The pressure of flat reed-
work contracted for in all aspects of building, from and-mud roofs against the tops of the wall reeds may
the quarrying and gathering of material to the have produced the characteristic Egyptian 'gorge'
finishing touches, was properly carried out; the cornice, while the 'kheker' cresting less frequently
guarantor, not the contractor or craftsmen, paid any appearing in later architecture may have originated
penalty for inadequate work, in the terminal tufts of a papyrus-stalk wall (p.36B).
The horizontal binders and angle bundles survived in
the roll moulding of stone cornices and wall angles of
the historical period (p.36J).
Building Techniques and Processes Dearth of pictorial representations as much as
meagreness of archaeological evidence in the form of
Egypt and the Ancient Near East building remains makes it harder to describe with any
certainty the earliest building techniques of the Near
The Natufians used simple drystone techniques to a East outside Egypt, The round houses of Pre-Pottery
limited extent, but building was predOminantly in 'Neolithic A' Jericho, three millennia older than the . I
mud brick. After careful selection and preparation of earliest village remains in the Nile valley, doubtless _...,
the clay, the main bricks were formed by hand or had flimsy domica1 roofs_ At Catal Huyiik a typical
occasionally moulded and then sun-dried; alterna- Near Eastern conservatism is in evidence. The origin-

aI purely timber construction survived in the timber- two or more arched rings arranged concentrically,
frame houses and shrines revealed by the excava- the one lying upon the other.
tions, and only in the latest levels was it supplanted by Many of the building techniques and processes
construction entirely in mud brick. used by the stonemasons of the Old Kingdom in
The essentially arcuated architecture ofMesopota- Egypt were demonstrated in the construction of the
mia was the outcome of the constraints imposed by royal pyramids. They were built on the bedrock
the structural demands of brick vaulting. Rooms had which was levelled to receive them, and the sides
to be Darrow in relation to their length, with massive- scrupulously oriented with the cardinal points. Pyra-
ly thick walls: a similar constraint applif.j in the mids were built in a series of concentric sloping slices
Assyrian palaces as a result of the use of cedar beams or layers around a steep pyramidal core: this methnd
for roof-construction. The true arch with radiating of ensuring downward, centripetal thrust achieved
voussoirs was known by the third millennium Be. the stability essential for these massive structures,

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For want of stone of the right quality and size, free- although apparently not before at least one serious
standing columns were not much used, although very mishap. The whole mass of the pyramid was first
massive examples occurred as early as the Late Uruk constructed in step-like tiers, until the true pyramidal
period (mid-fourth millennium BC) in the Pillar Hall form was completed. The steps were then filled with
of Eanna IV, the main sacred and governmental packing blocks and brought to their ultimate shape
precinct of Warka (Uruk), in the Sumerian home- with finely dressed facings, placed at the chosen angle
land; and there are a few examples in Late Assyrian of inclination. The final meticulous dressing of the
and Neo-Babylonian work. Even in prehistoric times finished faces was inevitably from top to bottom. The
in the Near East some temples were built with quite blocks of the Great Pyramid of Cheops at Gizeh, near
thin mud-brick walls, reinforced by buttresses, some- Cairo, weighing on average 2500kg (2'12 tons), are
times of elaborately recessed design, allowing sha- thickly bedded in lime mortar, used as a lubricant
dows to break up the harsh glare of the sun. This during fixing rather than as an adhesive. Corbelling
architectural tradition in mud brick was somehow and flat stone beams were used to cover the interior
transmitted, by a route as yet unknown, to Egypt at chambers and in no two pyramids were the same.
the beginning of dynastic times, when there are other The Egyptians did Dot know of the pulley: their
parallels by Uruk-period
with Late VKN BPO Pvt Limited,
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principal tool for raising and 60001
turning stone blocks was
form the prototype of the serekh (palace) facade of the lever. To transport blocks overland, wooden
the tombs of the Archaic period (Dynasties I-II), and sledges were used, with or without the aid of rollers.
thus also the public buildings in the Nile valley, un- Blocks of stone for the pyramids were hauled up
fortunately no longer preserved. great broad-topped sloping ramps of sand or earlb,
In Egypt, sun-dried mud-brick walling never went reinforced with crude brick walls. The Egyptian
out of use; it was only for the finest buildings of mason had at his disposal copper chisels with flanged
religious character that cut stone became normal. blades and saws which were work-hardened and
Even palaces remained relatively frail. For stability, therefore brittle: neither bronze nor iron tools were
walls of Egyptian buildings diminished course by available.
course towards the top, chiefly because of the alter- In the temples of the New Kingdom, with their
nate shrinkage and expansion of the soil caused by pylons and columned halis, there is considerable evi-
the annual inundations. Since the inner face of the dence of haste, especially from the time of Rameses
walls had to be vertical for ordinary convenience, it II onwards; less care was taken with foundations and
was the outer face only which showed this inward with finishing than in earlier times. Perhaps the most
inclination, or 'batter', which remained one of the vivid evidence of sheer effort is in the obelisks-vast
principal characteristics of Egyptian architecture granite monoliths laboriously quarried at Aswan by
whether in brick or stone. Sometimes fibre or reed the patient use of wedges, pounders and fire. Sand-
mats were placed between the brick courses at inter- stone from the quarries at Gebel Silsileh was the
vals up the walls to reinforce them, particularly at the standard building material for the temples of Upper
angles; and a late development was the use of sagging Egypt. It was less suitable for relief-carving than
concave courses, for alternate lengths of a long wail, limestone but capable of spanning greater widths for
built in advance of the intervening stretches. This roofing- purposes. The influence of the less durable.
allowed the drying out of the inner brickwork of walls forms of Egyptian architecture is clearly demonstra-
such as those round the great temple enclosures ted both by the imitation of corner and cross-poles in
which were between 9m (30ft) and 24.5m (80ft) the pylons and by their cornices-, derived from the
thick. Though the true arch was never used in Egyp- bending of palm leaves above the cross-pole, meta-
-; -tian monumental stonework, the principle became morphosed into the taros moulding. Egyptian col-
, known and there are brick vaults as early as the umns likewise have vegetable origins, their shafts
beginning of the Third Dynastyc Frequently the arch indicative of bundles of plant stems, gathered in at the
rings were built in sloping courses, so that no tempor- base, and with capitals seemingly derived from the
ary support centering was needed; usually there were lotus bud (p.36G), the papyrus flower (p.36C) or the


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Various forms of clamp-iron set in lead, except top left. Tumulus MM: isometric view of tomb chamber, from NW.
which is generally of wood. See p.22 See p.2l

Levering blocks into position,

prior to dowelling and
clamping. See p.22

ubiquitous palm. As an economy of material and The background to Achaemenid Persian columnar
labour, no doubt, the massive roofing slabs oftheNew architecture is now believed to be in Median sites and
Kingdom temples, at first laid on edge for maximum even earlier and further north at Hasanlu in the Iron
strength, came to be laid flat. By the reign of Rameses II period (c. 1100-800 BC). Wider horizons are also
II, the elegant columns had become bulbous mo-nstro· evident at Pasargadae, where foreign stonemasons
sities covered with inscriptions which detracted tTOIT! were undoubtedly employed by Cyrus the Great and
their essential form. his immediate successors. Rusticated masonry is a
The Canaanites and their Phoenician descendants feature of the great terrace of the citadel (Takht-i-
in the Levant were skilled stonemasons. whose care- Suleiman), and another characteristic of Achaeme-
fully dressed and finely-jointed masonry laid in even, nid construction was the use of swallowtail clamps of
horizontal courses is first manifest on a large scale in lead and iron, as structurally superfluous reinforce-
the thirteenth-century BC palace at Ugarit IRas ment for the great bloch, accurately cut, smoothly
Shamra), the prosperous commercial city on the Syr- dressed and laid without mortar. At least two tech-

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ian coast. The same fine quality of masonry occurs at nical features of the stonework at Pasargadae point to
Samaria in its first two phases at the time of Omri and Greek inspiration (p.7). There are traces, on the
Ahab (e. 880--852 BC). early works at Pasargadae, of the use of chisels with
The Anatolian tradition of building was radically plain cutting edges; but thereafter, from the acces-
different from those of Mesopotamia and the Levant, sion oi Darius the Great (552 BC), the multi-toothed
largely owing to the ample supplies of timber lengths chisel left its imprint on the masonry of Pasargadae
and girths no longer available today after centuries of and likewise at Persepolis, having first appeared in
deforestation. Stone was used for footings, timber for Greece some fifty years earlier.
reinforcement or to build a structural framework,
and mud brick for walls in one and the same building.
An echo of vanished wooden structures is discernible
in the massive tomb chambers of the burial mounds Greece and the Greek Empire
of the city of Gordion, capital of the Phrygian king-
dom. The double-pitched roof of the chamber of the Cut stone was used in the prehistoric period, in Crete
great Tumulus MM (p.20) was supported by three (where soft gypsum, which can be sawn to shape, was
gables, one in by VKNand
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often preferred) and on.the97894
for important
planks carefully squared and mortised. The walls of buildings, palaces and substantial houses, and the
this tomb chamber were· enclosed in an outer casing built 'tholos' tombs. Timber frameworks were nor-
of juniper logs, two feet square in section, with a mal. In the Dark Age all knowledge of sophisticated
" \
layer of rubble outside the logs supported by a strong building technique appears to have been lost, and the
retainihg wall. A capping of stones and a massive few buildings discovered have unworked stone foot-
~umulus mound of clay were superimposed and sur- ings with mud-brick superstructures and simple
viv.ed till excavated: this, the largest of ove-r seventy wooden posts supporting roofs which were probably
tuniuli at Gordian, stood about 50m (166ft) high. covered with reed thatch. Similar techniques were
The workmanship was native Phrygian or north-west used in the earliest temples of the eighth century. But
Anatolian of the Iron Age (c. 700 BC) but the tradi- development in building technique was considerable
tion of burial in tumuli derived from south Russia. during the seventh century. Quarried and shaped
The standard of dressing of masonry in Urartu stone was used in substantial buildings (for example,
?varied widely, the finest ashlar being almost entirely the Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia, built before the
limited to temples, built most often of basalt, which middle of the seventh century), and terracotta tiles
W2:S favoured also for inscriptions and reliefs. At least and revetments were developed. In the second half of
on~ temple retains its complete stone footings but the century the Greeks secured direct access to
none of the mud-brick superstructures survive. One Egypt, and thus acquired knowledge of Egyptian
distinctive technique widespread in Urartu was the stone-working techniques. It became possible to
cutting of foundation ledges, resembling steps, in the quarry large pieces of stone for monolithic columns,
steep rock hillsides, to provide a firm foundation for and to turn the blocks on a lathe to secure a truly
the masonry. The construction of massive terraces circular section.
was an essential part of the building of Urartian By the Classical period the processes of design and
fortresses and citadels, and demanded a large labour construction had become traditional and fixed. It is
force. Even in the best-quality works fortress walls doubtful whether drawings were made in detail.
were built with slightly irregular courses, each block Papyrus was limited in size, and expensive, while
being individually cut to fit its neighbours. No doubt scaled measuring instruments were not known. It
iron tools were employed: chisel marks are to be seen might have been possible to make general drawings
) over much of Van citadel. There are, moreover, and plans on waxed board, but since buildings were
Assyrian references to cutting channels through the traditional in type these were not really necessary. It
Jock with iron picks. is more likely that the design was created in situ. by

measuring out the foundations from which the re- Parthenon. Walls were usually constructed of single
maining dimensions could be calculated, in accord- blocks giving the required thickness, but in Hellenis-
ance with traditional proportions, though it is clear tic times the architects of Pergamum constructed
these were gradually modified_ More intricate details waUs with inner and outer faces, leaving a space
would be executed on full-scale models_ from which between them which was filled with dry rubble. Sin-
the measurements would be taken (by dividers rather gle walls were normally formed in Classical temples
than rulers) for repetition during construction. from ashlar blocks of regular height (isodomic), but
Blocks of stone were ordered from the quarry, to varied patterns, particularly alternating high and low
be delivered trimmed to size and, where possible, courses (pseudisodomic), are known: for example,
shape (the function of the blocks having been speci- the temple of Poseidon at Sounion. In their rubble-
fied). Columns, which had been made with mono- filled walls Pergamene architects usually alternated
lithic shafts in the sixth century, were built up from the upright pairs of facing stones with low through-
the separate drums dowelled together (except for stones (headers).

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small-scale work) in the fifth and subsequent centur- Roofs normally depended on wooden beams and
ies. In the quarries at Agrileza which supplied the rafters, which were·cut to square sections. There are
temple of Poseidon at Saunion it can be seen that a few buildings with roofs of wide span (the fourth
column drums were cut to their circular section dur- temple of Athena at Delphi, the large dining rooms in
ing the quarrying, rather than turned. Sudaces were the palace at Vergina in Macedon), where beams
left rough (hammer faced) to avoid damage in transit. were made from two long timbers fixed side by side to
The blocks were given their final preparation at the each other. The ridge beam and other longitudinal
building site, where the resulting chippings are often beams were supported either on props or on the walls
found. Contact surfaces were given final and accurate or colonnades, and there is no evidence for the use of
treatment before being placed in position. Overall fixed, triangular trusses. Roofs may have been fully
dimensions of the building and its elements were boarded. Tiles were not nailed in position, but rested
worked to a fine degree of accuracy, but there are under their own weight; it follows that roof pitches
va~ations in the measurements of constituent parts; were always low, usually about 13-17 degrees.
for example, blocks in a wall course may vary from The ceilings of temples were constructed over the
each other in length, but not height or width. Non- horizontal crass beams. In major temples the cella
surfaces werebyleft VKN
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preliminary Limited, www.vknbpo.com
ceilings were invariably wooden . 97894 60001
and are totally lost,
only, except for vital guidelines for future reference but that between walls and outer colonnade would be
which were fully finished. Concealed vertical sur- stone, with coffer grids resting on stone beams,
facos (between blocks in a course) were slightly hol- apparantly recalling wooden forms. Exceptionally,
lowed on their central parts (anathyrosis) to reduce the halls of the gateway building (Propylaea) to the
the cost of making an accurate, smoothed contact Athenian Acropolis had stone beams and ceilings.
face. Here the span and weight were so great that iron
Blocks were relatively large and retained their reinforcing beams were set in the marble. but this is
position by their own mass and weight; it was not unique.
necessary to fix them together in any way, and, in Only after the roof was complete would the
general, foundations· and stepped bases were not finishing processes be applied. Some carved decora-
fixed. Above the base, in important buildings such as tion (pediment groups or metope panels in Doric
temples, it was usual to fix the blocks to each other, to buildings, for example) would be carved on the
guard against the dangers of earthquake, though the ground, and incorporated in the structure when
systems employed would never guarantee safety finished. Other elements, such as decorative mould-
against major tremors. Blocks in wall courses were ings, were only roughed out during construction, and
clamped together with iron clamps set in lead (which finished off in situ. Finally, the non-contact surfaces
was poured round them) (p.20). Generally there was on walls and bases, which had been left with a pro-
one clamp at each end,· though larger blocks might be tecting unfinished surface during construction, were
given pairs of clamps. Courses were dowelled to each carved and polished to the final surfaces and levels
other with rectangular dowels, placed at the centre of indicated by the guidelines. Thus an important Greek
the block in the lower course, and at the junction of building, such as a major temple, was carved into its
two blocks in the upper. Column drums (and the final form. Stone was selected for the quality it would
capitals) were fixed together with metal dowels set in give to the final finish of the building, and for this
wood, or leaded in. Blocks were lifted by cranes and purpose marble was preferred. Stone ofinferior qual-
pulleys, and then levered into their final positions ity was finished in stucco in imitation of polished
with crowbars (p.20). Some entablatures, particular- marble, and stucco was also used to conceal unbaked
ly 10 the larger temples, were of considerable dimen- mud brick.
sion and were often made from double stonework, a Gassical, fifth-century Greek architects preferred
facer and a backer, or even three blocks, with an to work their blocks so finely thatthe hairline jointing
additional block between facer and backer, as in the between them was hardly· visible: the impression de-

sired was that walls appeared to be made out of solid Eleusis to give a contrast to the white of the Pentelic
single slabs of stone. In contrast, individual blocks marble: in the Erechtheion it formed the background
might be emphasised by drafting their edges, perhaps of the continuous frieze, to which were attached
leaving the inner section with a less finely worked carved figures in white marble.
surface. Later architecture took this fonn of decora- In the Hellenistic period greater importance was
tion to extremes by leaving the main field of the block attached to the decoration of interior walls. In some
quite rusticated. The lower courses of a wall, the Classical buildings, such as the various temples at
dado, orthostates and covering courses, had surfaces Epidaurus, interior colonnades were placed against
projecting slightly from the plane formed by the re- walls to serve decorative rather than structural pur-
mainder of the wall, an echo of the contrast between poses, though the walls themselves were left plain, or
stone footing and mud brick. served as backgrounds for attached panel paintings.
Colour work rarely survives. Traces of it wen~ More complex schemes of decorative painting

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noted on the Parthenon in the ninetee-flth century, evolved for walls, enhancing moulded, stucco work.
though the colour tones were faded and distorted; This is found, for example, in the houses at Delos,
perfectly preserved colour work survives more con- and is similar to the decorative forms on the painted
siderably in the Macedonian tombs (Plate 8). The walls of Pompeii, Some walls in Hellenistic Alexan-
colours-washes of simple, rather harsh tones or in dria, in the tombs, had patterns which stemmed from
detailed patterns-were not applied to the total sur- Egyptian architecture. Another Hellenistic develop-
face, but only to emphasise details, such as mould- ment was the attachment to walls built in cruder stone
ings, friezes, and the separate rhythm of triglyph and of thin veneer panels of polished stone, often with
metope in Doric architecture. In Doric it was the patterning or made of alabaster or coloured marbles.
entablature which was painted. The taenia and reg- This technique was taken up by Roman architects.
ulae of the architrave were painted red; triglyphs An important technical innovation, developed in
.were generally blue. Mouldings, which in Ionic were the fourth century Be, was the keystone tunnel vault .
given carved patterns, in Doric had similar patterns There are occasional examples in Egyptian architec-
in paint. The band over the frieze in the Macedonian ture of vaults which approach the true keystone tech-
tombs was picked out with a golden-yellow meander. nique (see above), but where the crucial upper sec-
This paintwork serves to emphasise the articulation tions remain corbelled. The keystone arch and vault
the differentby VKN
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were adopted (behind facades 60001the forms
this, terracotta revetments, particularly the gutters of conventional Greek architecture) for the Macedo-
(simas), provided a strong contrast to the lighter nian royal tombs at Aegeae, including that which
tones of the stonework. It must be remembered that almost certainly was the burial place built by Alexan-
this colour work, though now lost from most build- der the Great for his father, Philip II, in 336 Be.
ings, was a vital ingredient in Classical design. It These early Macedonian vaults antedate any proven
occasionally passed into the stonework itself. The use of vaulting in Etruscan Italy. They were subse-
Propylaea and the Erechtheion on the Athenian quently employed in fortifications, and, by Perga-
acropolis made use of a dark grey limestone from mene architects, to strengthen terrace walls.
The Architecture of Egypt, the Ancient Near East, Greece and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

Chapter 2

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Architectural Character mud brick; through the emergence of non-residential
buildings for work, storage and ritual purposes, cul-
Permanent buildings in predynastic Egypt and the minating in the monumental temple architecture of
ancient Near East were of two kinds, possibly derived the Ubaid period in Mesopotamia; through more
from earlier temporary shelters. They were either of open forms of village layout, including streets; and
the single-cell type, beehive-shaped, round or oval in through th"e more widespread construction of walls
plan, or multi-celled collections of rectangular rooms. for many purposes, including defence.
.Early housing of the Natufian (middle Mesolithic) By the end of the Ubaid period (c. 4000 BC) the
period was circular in plan and was widely distributed numbers of villages had increased dramatically in
!hroughout south-west Asia, where the transition to many areas, and there was great regional diversity in
houses with rectangular rooms took place between the layout and spatial forms of domestic buildings.
9000 and 7000 Be. In most regions. evolution was The trend everywhere was to larger townships, many
Digitized by drystone
from semi-subterranean VKN BPO Pvt
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apsidal www.vknbpo.com
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houses in mud or stone, and finally to rectangular Storage buildings often consisted of rectangular
houses in tauf or mud brick. The development of rooms disposed on either side of a central corridor.
moulded mud bricks encouraged precision of con- By contrast, shrines were planned with rOoms in
struction and the use of features such as external sequence and occasionally followed a megaron-like
buttresses for visual effect. In Egypt the transition plan. Both types of building tended towards regular
took place much later (c. 3400 BC). and symmetrical layouts. At first, specialised build-
Architectural character in the Neolithic period in ings were contiguous with houses within the settle-
the Near East derives from houses of similar size ment but later they were freestanding. Occasionally·
superimrosed one above the other. They were con- temples or storage blocks were grouped around
structed of mud, and rebuilt by each generation, the three sides of a courtyard.
earlier buildings being absorbed into settlement The most striking monuments of the Neolithic per-
mounds or tells. iod in the Near East were the temples of the Ubaid.
Early tells were simply organised with no palaces, They were rectangular mud-brick building~rectP..d­
rich houses or non-residential buildings. In the anci- on platforms of clay or imp'?!led_-o£t-one~fo-rerunners
ent Near East (c. 8000-6000 BC) small communities of the Sumerian ziggur-ats:-;:'-As in houses, a central
were composed of single-roomed houses with flat rectanguiaccharfioer was flanked on the long sides
roofs. built of mud and stone, with walls and floors by __srna-II-cells, but temples were larger and more
buttressed and mud-plastered internally and painted elaborately decorated. A flight of stairs to a door
in a variety of earth colours. - in the long side led to a room about 10m (33ft) long
Most villages consisted of contiguous--dwellings, with a broad platform at one end and a table or small
with access by way of the roofs, buesome villages had altar at the other. Ladders in the smaller rooms
narrow alleys and courtyards. With the exception of occasionally gave access to an upper floor or to the
Catal Hiiyiik (p.31G-K), where large numbers of roof. Buttresses were designed to articulate patterns
elaborate shrines were found, architecture was usu- of light and shade. Terracotta scale models appear to
ally limited to fortification-walls within which settle- have been used as aids to design. Late temples had
ments were housed, as at Jericho (p.31A), or to stone friezes decorated with coloured ceramic cones and
pavements, as at Munhata. bitumen.
During the Neolithic period, the character of In Egypt, the transition to rectangular, mud-built
these simple villages changed in four ways: through town houses took place in late Gerzean times, at the
improvements in construction and planning which end of the Mesolithic period. These were constructed
resulted in multi-roomed. thin-walled houses of from '~Iattle and daub, occasionally on rough stone

Black Sea


.Karim Shahir

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Mediterranean .Tepe Sarab
Sea- Mallah •• . ama
• Tepe Asiab

~ Natu • -Jericho
.Ali Kosh,Tepe Sabz


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miles 500

The Prehistoric Near East

foundations. Houses were two-Toomed, with walled were dug into the-bank on the upper side to a depth
open courts adjoining the street. Graves became of about 1.3m (4ft), and the entrances were loca-
increasingly elaborate. ted on the lower side. Some of the huts had stone-
paved floors, and one had walls finished with lime
plaster painted with Ted ochre. The settlement had a
pOPlJ1ation of between two and three hundred, Simi-
Examples lar huts were found at Wadi Fallah and Nahal
Oren, and at Beidha (p.27A) in southern Jordan.
The Khirokitia culture, of the aceramic Neolithic
The Late Mesolithic and Early period in Cyprus (c. 5650 Be), built round houses
Neolithic Periods 3m to 8m (10ft to 26ft) in diameter. The village
of Kbirokitia (p.27e) comprised about a thousand
Natufian dwellings were of two types: flimsy brush- houses, and was approached by a stone-paved road.
wood shelters or windbreaks built in front of caves The lower parts of the walls were made of local
on stone pavements, or more frequently round or limestone, and the domed superstructure of pi~ or
oval drystone huts built in open settlements near mud brick. Some houses had double walls, the outer
water sources in the limestone uplands. The trans- leaf acting as a retaining wall. Some examples had
ition to rectangular, mud-brick houses also began in lofts supported on stone pillars, and a number of
this period and continued into the Neolithic period. outbuildings used for grinding com, storage, cook·
At Aln MaUaba, near Lake Hulen, Israel (c. 9000- ing and workshops, Most houses gave onto walled
8000 Be) (p.27D), there were about fifty drystone courtyards.
huts on an open site ofsome 2000sq m (21,500sq ft), Beehive-shaped tholoi were built in the Mesopota-
}- most of them circular, semi-subterranean and rock-
lined, from 3 m (10ft) to 9m (30ft) in diameter. The
mian lowlands during the Halaf period (Neolithic).
At Arpacbiyah (c. 5000 Be) (p.27E) dwellings which
beehive forms were constructed of reeds or matting were keyhole-shaped in plan had walls up to 2 m (7 ft)
and were probably supported on posts. The huts thick. Rectangular anterooms were up to 19m (62ft)

long and the domed chambers up to 10m (33ft)

across. The walls were of plastered tauf, occasionally
been found. At the beginning of the sixth millen-
nium, however, many of these early pre-pottery
painted red, and roofs were thatched. townships were deserted and, within the ceramic
Houses of the Shulaveri culture at Imiris Gora Neolithic period, Anatolian and Mesopotamian
(c. 4660-3955 BC) (p.27B), in Transcaucasia, were architecture became more significant.
round or oval, 3 m to 4.5 m (10ft to 15 ft) in diameter,
and were built of mud brick on stone foundations. As RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
in Natufian dwellings. many were semi-subterra- Many round and oval houses spreading over 4 ha
nean. Several of the houses had keyhole-shaped (10 acres) were found in the lowest Neolithic levels of
plans, with internal buttresses to take the thrust Jericho (c. 8350-7350 BC). Each was about 5m
where the domes abutted, and others had out-houses (16 ft) in diameter and had evolved from the Natufian
arranged round courtyards. Later in the period, drystone tradition, but they were built of loaf-shaped

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two-roomed houses evolved with buttressed walls mud-bricks with indentations on the convex face to
and flat roofs supported on timber posts. The village give a key to the clay mortar. The bricks supported
had a population estimated at 200--250. domed superstructures of branches covered with
At Faiyum (c. 6000--5000 BC), in Lower Egypt, clay.
only storage pits have survived, but at Merimde (c. The round houses at Jericho lay under a pre-
4500 BC) a century or so later, on the western edge of pottery Neolithic township (c. 7350 BC) encircled
the Delta in Lower Egypt, there is evidence of a by a stone wall 3m (10ft) thick, 4m (13ft) high and
village of huts which were oval or horseshoe on plan, over 700m (2300ft) in circumference. The fortifica-
5 m to 6m (16ft to 20ft) across. They were construc- tions underwent a complex sequence of rebuilding,
ted from '1 framework of posts and covered with including the erection of cisterns and storage cham-
reed matting. The huts were aligned in rows and bers with roof entry set against the base of an apsidal
some of them may have had fenced yards. watch-tower. Here the houses were of cigar-shaped
Badarian and Amratian sites in Upper Egypt are mud bricks with thumb-print keys on the upper sur-
also known to have had beehive-shaped huts of grass face. They had solid walls and wide doorways with
and reeds. The Badarian site of Hammamiya (c. 4000 rounded jambs; some had stone foundations and
BC) consisted of a number of hut circles which in- some may have had upper floors made of timber.
cluded storage by rooms
and living VKNupBPO to 2 mPvt(7 ft)Limited,
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diameter, and sunk into the ground to a depth of intercommunicated through screen walls and court-
about 1 m (3ft). Naqada (c. 3600 BC), an Amratian yards. They had highly burnished lime plaster floors
site in Upper Egypt, consisted of a similar group of laid on gravel and stained red, pink or orange, and
mud and reed huts. plastered walls with red-painted dados. Some of the
The early Neolithic period (c. 7500-6000 BC) was walls were also decorated with geometric designs.
marked almost everywhere by a change from round Similar houses dating from the same period have
to rectangular buildings built of mud. Rectangular been found at Munhata, further up the lordan Valley.
houses were sometimes built on top of earlier round At Mureybet in north Syria the first two levels (c.
drystone buildings. Speed and mode of construction 8640 BC and c. 8142 BC) consisted of round or oval
varied profoundly from region to region, and cul- huts with red clay walls supporting a light timber
turally distinct areas have been identified in the superstructure. In level three (c. 7954-7542 BC)
Levant, Anatolia, the Zargos region, the Transcas- there were rectangular houses as well as round huts.
pian lowlands, and Transcaucasia, Mesopotamia and Both were constructed from loaf-shaped pieces of
Egypt. These are dealt with separately below. Where soft limestone laid in a clay and pebble mortar. By the
shrine-like buildings emerged early in the evolution- end of the period, the plan had evolved to include
ary sequence they were usually planned in the same multi-roomed houses, possibly with access through
way as dwellings, but were made larger and were the roofs. A wall-painting showing a zigzag pattern in
more elaborately decorated. By the end of the Neo- black on a buff ground was found in one of the houses
lithic period these shrines had evolved as precur- at Mureybet.
sors of Mesopotamian temple architecture. In Egypt, Similar houses have been discovered nearby at Tell
the design of tombs had become more elaborate, Abu Hureyra, on the southern bank of the Euphrates
and already possessed many of the essential features in north Syria. Natufian remains were covered in the
of later monumental funerary architecture. aceramic Neolithic period (late eighth and early
seventh millennium BC) by rectangular mud-brick
and tauf houses. Floors were made of stamped earth
The Levant
The architecture of the Levant during the early pre-
finished with red or black burnished plaster and walls
of wbite plaster decorated with red lines.
The first huts at Beidha (c. 7000-6000 BC), in
.• (
pottery Neolithic period was primarily domestic, but southern Jordan, were curvilinear in the Natufian
shrines, workshops and storage buildings have also tradition. They were semi-subterranean. and up to

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., ~~
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4 m (13 ft) in diameter. The dwellings and storerooms At Munhata (c. 7000 BC), there is a vast circular
were grouped in clusters within walled courtyards, structure over 300 sq m in area, the function of which
and the whole village was surrounded by a stone wall. is not known. It cORSists of a platform of large basalt
Later, in the aceramic Neolithic period, this post- blocks carved with water channels at the centre and
house style was accompanied at Beidha by free- surrounded by a zone of paved basins. open areas,
standing polygonal houses with rounded corners. plaster floors and hearths.
These were followed by rectangular stone houses, Cayonu (c. 7000 BC) had asbrine-like building 9 m
and finally by clusters of stone-built houses and x 10m (30ft x 33 ft) with internally buttressed stone
workshops. Each house had one room measuring walls. The highly burnished tessellated floor was
7m x 9m (23ft x 30ft), with floor and walls of paved with salmon-pink pebbles between 100 mm
white burnished plaster decorated with a red stripe at (4in) and 300mm (12in) long, set in red mortar.
floor level. Outside was an L shaped, walled court- Across each side of the room were areas of white

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yard and each had several workshops about 8 m marble pebbles 500mm (20in) wide and 4m (13ft)
(26ft) long, clustered together (p.27F). long.
The lowest levels of the site for which .floor plans
could be reconstructed at Cayonu (c. 7500-68ooBC),
in northern Syria, contained substantial rectangular Anatolia
stone buildings 5m x 10m (16ft x 33ft) in area. A
multi-roomed building with a hall and a square room, Some of the most remarkable architectural evidence
with two flanking rows of three cubicles, and plas- pointing to the evolution of a highly complex society
tered floors, had grid-like foundations which may has come from Neolithic sites in Anatolia. The
have supported a suspended, timber-joisted floor. dwellings, particularly at Catal HiiyUk, displayed an
The top levels of Cayonu yielded a workshop unusual degree of standardisation, and the inhabi-
measuring 5 m x 8 m (16ft x 26ft) overall, made up tan~s seem to have taken part in highly organised
of six or seven small cubicles, each containing a set of rituals. Late in the period, many settlements were
tools. The first mud-brick buildings were of similar heavily fortified, and at least one fortress has been
date and were simple square or rectangular one- . identified.
roomed houses measuring about 5 m x 9 m (16 ft x
30ft). A model byatVKN
recovered CayonuBPO Pvtthat
indicated Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
houses had doorways with curved jambs located at RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
the narrow end and were flat-roofed. . In the aceramic Neolithic period at Hacilar (c.
At Tell Ramad (c. 6000 BC), south-west of 750()-60oo BC) in Anatolia, rectangular dwellings
Damascus, round or oval semi-subterranean houses were built of mud bricks on stone foundations, No
were superseded late in - the aceramic Neolithic complete house plans have survived, but they appear
period by rectangular one-roomed houses of mud to have been multi-roomed, plastered internally and
brick on stone foundations, which were separated by painted in cream and red bands. The dwellings were
narrow alleys. close-packed with access by way of the roofs.
Later in the period at Hacilar (c. 5400 BC) more
substantial rectangular mud-brick houses 10 m x 4 m
SHRINES (33ft x 13 ft) were built with walls over a metre thick
A number of shrine-like buldings were found at (p.27G). Some houses had vestibules flanked by
Jericho (c. 7000 BC) (p.31A). A small room, with a
niche in which was placed a standing stone, may have
lean-to brushwood and plaster cooking areas. Door-
ways were normally in the centre of the long sides, ..
been a cult room. Another had a portico, which led to and had timber thresholds and jambs designed to
a vestibule and inner chamber containing a pair of take wooden double doors. Cupboards were let into
stone pillars symmetrically disposed about the axis of the walls, and lightweight partitions of sticks and
entry. plaster screened off the storage area. Ceilings of stout
Outside the village at Beidha (c. 7000 BC) there timber beams were supported on a pair of centre
was a group of three buildings approached by a paved posts and were reinforced at the corners by cross-
path. The earliest was round, with a door facing east, bracing. The posts may have carried a lightweight
and a flagstone floor; a flat slab of white sandstone upper storey of wood and plaster, consisting of a
was set outside, against the east wall. This was verandah and a row of small rooms.
followed by an oval building 6m x 3.5 m (20 ft x In its final stages (c. 5400-5000 BC), Hacilar was
11 ft) with a paved floor, in the centre of which was a fortified with a stone wall, which enclosed an area
large flat sandstone block, and another large slab 70m x 35m (230ft x 115ft) (p.27N). Within it the
with a parapet was placed against the south wall. A settlement consisted of houses, a granary, a
third block lay outside the building, against the guard-house, potters' workshops, and shrines. Be-
north-west corner of the waU, and to the south lay a fore it was abandoned in c. 4800 BC, Hacilar was
basin 3.8m x 2.65m x 0.25m (12ft x 9ft x Win). heavily fortified and its central courtyard was ringed

by blocks of two-storey houses, with roof access and RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

separated from each other by small fenced yards. At Ali Kosb (c. 8000-6500 Be) in the KhuZistan
At Can Hasan (p.27K), at AsikH and at Suberde plain, small single·storey, thin-walled houses of
'(7500-6000 Be) in Anatolia during the aceramic rectangular plan were built from local red clay bricks
period the houses were close-packed and square or roughly 250 mm x 150 mm x 100 mm (10 in x 6 in x
rectangular in plan. Later buildings (c. 4950 Be) 4in). Larger, muhi~roomed houses came later and
were thick-walled and built of mud brick reinforced had rooms up to 3m x 3m (10ft x 10ft) and walls
with timber. Here also some houses had lightweight built of untempered clay slabs 400 nun x 250 mm x
upper storeys. 100mm (16in x lOin x 4in). There were open
The city of Catal Hiiyiik (p.31G-K), at the foot of courtyards, and alleys separated the houses.
the Taurus Mountains in Anatolia (6250-5400 Be), At Gal\idareh (c. 7289-7000 Be) in western Iran, a
was continuously occupied. It extended over 13 ha substantial mud-brick';illage was built, with walls of

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(32acres) and supported a population of 4000-6000 tauf (loaf-shaped bricks of mud and straw). The
people. Some 138 buildings have been excavated, houses were made up of small rectangular rooms,
and they are mainly rectangular single-roomed close-packed and with r.oof access. Roofs were made
houses, each about 25 sq m (270sq ft), with plastered of beams supporting reeds daubed with clay, and
walls and floors. They were densely packed and walls and floors were finished internally with mud
contiguous, with occasional open courtyards, but plaster.
each house had its own walls. The floors were Tepe GurBO (c. 6500-5500 Be) in Luristan began
covered with straw mats and the walls were decorated as a winter camp of wooden huts, each with two or
with simple geometric designs. Access was by ladder three small rooms. Later (c. 6200 Be) similar houses
from the roof. were constructed in mud brick and contained built-in
The fortress of Mersin (c. 4500-4200 Be) (p.27P), mud benches and tables. Hoors and walls were fin-
in the plain of Cilicia, was entered by a tiered ished with white or red plaster, courtyards with ter-
gateway with projecting towers. The garrison's razzo made from white felspar cbippings set in red
quarters, which surrounded a central open court- clay.
yard, had flat roofs, and comprised rows of barrack- Jarmo (c. 6000-5000 Be) (p.27H), in the Zagros
like rooms by VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com
which abutted the defensive walls at the
rear and had small walled yards to the front. Origin-
Mountains, . 97894
had a population 60001
of about 150 people and
was made up of 20-30 small, rectangular mud bou-
ally intercommunicating but later self-contained, ses. The lower levels of occupation dating from 6500-
the rooms had slit windows, and contained grind- 6000 BC were built of tauf with mud floors laid on
stones, mud platforms and hearths. To the right of reeds. Each house had an open courtyard measuring
the main gate was a larger and more elaborate roughly 3m x 4m (10ft x 13ft) and compri;ed sev·
house for the commander of the garrison. eral small rectangular rooms, packed into a space
about 5m x 6m (16ft x 20ft).
At Tal·i·lblis (c. 4000 Be) (p.27Q) in the Zagros,
SHRINES houses were built with thick-walled, heavily buttres-
Excavations at Catal Hiiyiik (c. 6250-5400 Be) sed storerooms grouped at the centre, and sur-
revealed richly furnished and decorated buildings rounded by larger living rooms with red plaster
which seem to have been shrines (p.31G). They were floors. One of the houses had an elaborate arch, and
laid out in the same way as the residences, and were contained infant burials. Similar houses were found
intermingled with them, but differed in that they at Tepe Yahya.
were decorated with paintings, reliefs and engravings At Siyalik (c. 5500 Be), south of Kashan, light
on themes connected with fertility and death. structures of branches, mud and reeds were super-
The shrines at Hacilar (c. 5400 Be) were usually seded by houses with tauf walls and mud floors, and
simple square rooms with niches containing standing then by rectangular tauf structures on mud brick
stones, in front of which were libation holes, but one foundations.
was planned like a megaron with a porch and
anteroom. Here, too, shrines were decorated with
geometric wall paintings. Transcaspian and Transcaucasian Regions
These regions produced simple. standardised one-
Zagros roomed houses, and larger shrine-like buildings
decorated with wall-paintings. Of particular interest
The Zagros region has yielded evidence of early set- is the variety of village layouts ranging from open,
tlement from the Shanidar Cave and other asso- irregular freestanding groups, to contiguous clumps
ciated prehistoric sites such as Zawi Chemi (c. 9000 (each with a shrine, and separated from the others by
Be). This region did not produce shrines, aithough street·like spaces), and finally to walled settlements
large, multi-roomed dwellings were found. containing blocks of dwellings and shrines.

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS There was a more elaborate shrine at Yasa Depe (c.
Houses atDjeitun (c. 5600BC), on the margins of the 5000 BC) (p.3lB) in the foothills of the Kopet Dagh.
Kara-kan Desert in Turkemainia, were built in mud This was larger and had two rooms. The outer room
and sun-dried brick tempered with straw (p.27R). was decorated with wall-paintings and contained a
The village had about thirty households and a ritual hearth. The inner room had colonnades of
population of about 150 people. Houses were rect- wooden pillars on the flank walls. The doorway was
angular in plan, each with one room ~bout 5 m x 6m opposite the altar, which was decorated with geo-
(16ft x 20ft). Some houses had plain interiors with metric waIl paintings in brown, red and white. The
a hearth located centrally on one wall, whilst others shrine at Dashliji Depe (c. 5000 BC) (p.31D) was also
were more elaborate. The walls were coated with painted in black and red.
mud plaster and were occasionally painted red or
black. Each house had a courtyard and outbuildings,

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sometimes shared with a neighbour. In the open
space of the village there were timber grain-drying Mesopotamia
platforms supported on parallel mud brick walls.
There were also shrine-like buildings in Djeitun. In the region between the rivers there was a
The village of Hlliji Fruz (c. 5319-4959 BC) in the succession of cultures, Hassuna, Samarra, Halaf,
province of Azerbaijan in the north-west corner of Eridu and Ubaid; there was even an earlier occu-
modern Iran. was an open village of single-roomed pation of the region at Umm Dabaghiya which
detached houses separated by lanes and courtyards. pre-dated the first of these. Mud-brick dwellings of
The yards contained outbuildings constructed of the Hassuna and Samarra periods were large and
packed mud. Houses were 6.5 m x 4m (21 ft x 13 ft) rectangular, with several rooms. Those of the Halaf
and built of mud brick and mortar. Internal mud period reverted to a tholos-like design. Settlements
brick buttresses and wooden posts supported a roof of the Eridu and Ubaid periods in tbe southern
of beams, reeds and clay which may have been of Mesopotamian alluvium have yielded little direct
pitched shape. There were similar houses at Yanki evidence of dwelling types, however. Representa-
Tepe in the same province. tions on cylinder-seals depict reed-built structures
MonjukliDigitized by VKN BPO Pvt Limited,
Depe (c. 5000 BC) had houses with
interiors in the Djeitun tradition, but the buildings
characteristic . 97894 60001
of later southern Mesopotamian
By contrast, ritual buildings of the period were

were separated by a lane into two groups. The executed in a simple but dignified mud-brick style.
houses, unlike those at Djeitun, were contiguous. Temple buildings of the Ubaid period are in the
The village of Chakmaldi Depe of similar date was direct line of development of the monumental temple
also divided by a lane into two groups. The houses architecture of the Sumerian dynasties.
were made of large mud bricks. 200 mm x 500 mm x
loomm (8in x 20in x 4in). The houses had two
rooms-small kitchens and larger living rooms in RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
sequence-and in each group of dwellings there was At Umm Dabaghiya, where evidence was found of
one with red walls and floors which may have served the earliest culture (c. 5500 BC) west of the Tigris,
as a shrine. there was a pre-Hassuna mound 100 m x 85 m (330ft
Dashliji Depe (c. 5000 BC), in the Geoksyur oasis, x 280ft) by 4m (13ft) high in the northern plain of
was a fortified settlement 45m x 38m (148ft x Iraq. Occupation passed through the evolutionary
124ft) in which stood small mud-brick houses like stages of small, oval temporary shelters and storage
those at Djeitun, and a larger shrine-like structure. pits, tauf-built houses, houses and storage blocks
The n~arby site of Yalangacb Depe (c. 4500 BC) was ranged around central courtyards, and finally
enclosed by a massive defensive wall with round unplastered storage cubicles with roof access, linked
towers. In the north-west corner of the township was internally by corridors. The domestic architecture of
an arrangement of houses surrounding a central, Umm Dabaghiyah (p.27J) was exceptionally neat.
larger space, possibly a shrine. MuUaIi Depe, in the Houses were oriented north-south, and were close-
same oasis, was also walled and had round towers, packed, although each had its own walls. Each house
and a shrine at its centre. comprised a living room, kitchen and one or two
further rooms 1.2 m to 2 m (4 ft to 7 ft) square,
constructed in tauf without stone foundations. The
SHRINES walls were buttressed internally and some houses had
A shrine-like building, similar in layout but" twice as access from the roof. Usually one room was divided
large as the houses, was found at Djeitun (c. 5600 BC) by an arch spanning its width, one of the earliest uses
(p.31F), and there were similar houses and shrines at of this fonn of construction. Houses were decorated
Pessejik, where the floors and walls were decorated internally with plaster and red paint, and wall-
with polychrome paintings of animals, and with paintings in black, red and yellow showed hunting
geometric motifs. scenes. At a later stage, storage blocks were built


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around open U-shaped courtyards (p.27M). The Eridu (c. 5400 BC)(p.3IE) is the oldest known
buildings were single-storey, with roofs of branches settlement on the southern Mesopotamian alluvium.
and reeds covered in plaster and furnished with Seventeen temples have survived and are superim-
trapdoors. The small-scale construction may have posed one upon another, thus raising the later
been necessitated by the lack of timber locally. buildings to a considerable height. The earliest of
There was a mound 200 m x 150 m (660 ft x 490 ft) these was a small room, about 3 m (10ft) square,
with many levels of buildings at Tell Hassona (c. constructed of sun-dried bricks; it contained a
5500-5000 BC) south-west of Mosu!. Round struc- cult-niche and a central offering-table. Temple XV
tures 2.5m to 6m (8ft to 20ft) across, and was approached by a ramp, and was a small, nearly
rectangular dwellings 10 m x 2.5 m (33 ft x 8 ft) in square room about 3.5 m x 4.5 m (11 ft x 15 ft). An
plan, were found together in the lowest levels of the altar in a niche in the rear wall faced the entrance,
site (p.27L). More recent levels yielded larger and and a pedestal at the centre served as an offering
more sophisticated buildings in which passages and place. In Temples XI to IX this scheme evolved into a

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courtyards finished with gypsum plaster separated tripartite plan, with a central cella and projecting
large, single-st. ,.ey, multi-roomed houses with flat lateral wings. The remainder of the Ubaid period was
roofs and interior courtyards. notable for the development of more sophisticated
Yarim Tepe, also dated to the Hassuna period in buildings, with central cellae, entered via vestibules
Sinjar, comprised some 60 to 70 houses with an flanked by rows of small rooms.
estimated population of about 400. The mud-brick In the Ubaid period, Tepe Gawra (c. 3600 BC)
houses were uniform in shape, size and character, (p·.31C) also boasted an important sequence of
and were arranged in parallel rows. temple buildings similar to those at Eridu. There was
The Samarran settlement ofTell-es-SawwaD on the also a round building 18 m (59 ft) in diameter
east bank ofthe Tigris covered an area 220 m x 110 m containing seventeen rooms within its outer walls,
(720ft x 360ft). The lowest levels of the site, from which were over a metre thick. Its purpose is not
about 5600--5300 BC, showed Tell-es-Sawwan to known, but it had possibly been used for rituals in a
have been a farming village of several hundred local tradition which existed alongside those of the
people. The residential character differed from Ubaid, who raised a group of three temples' round a
villages of similar date in that the houses had stone large courtyard, onto which other minor buildings
foundations. by uniform
They were VKN BPO in size Pvt Limited,
and were www.vknbpo.com
faced. The eastern shrine was. 97894 60001
the earliest of the
constructed of moulded mud bricks (p.27S). Walls group. The temples were similar in plan to those of
and floors were coated in mud plaster, and were Eridu XI to IX but lacked ritual objects. Later
externally buttressed to take beams supporting a roof temples had rectangular sanctuaries, and were
of reeds and clay. '-The village was surrounded by a entered by way of open porticoes, usually with two
large ditch or moat. which cut into the bedrock on lateral chambers on either side.
which the village was built.
Choga Mami (c. 5500 Be) was enclosed by
buttressed walls. Houses were rectangular and
multicellular: for example, one of them had twelve Egypt
rooms packed into an areaof9 m x 7m(30ft x 23ft).
The construction was similar to that used at Tell- Evidence of dwellings in pre.dynastic
. Egypt is sparse,
es-Sawwan. and graves and cemeteries are the main architectural
A1'Ubaid (c. 4500-4200 BC), set on a low mound remains. Flimsy, insubstantial reed and timber
of river silt in the Euphrates valley, consisted of dwellings were replaced in late Gerzean times by new
dwellings with flat roofs and walls formed of reed ones built in mud.
mats suspended between palm stems and plastered
with mud, and partly of houses with roofs formed by
bending bundles of reeds to form arches. The RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
dwellings were reminiscent of modern Marsh Arab Houses at EI-Badari and Hierakonpolis (c. 3200 BC)
guest-houses. . had two rooms, facing open-walled courtyards, and
larger inner living-rooms about 2 m square. A pottery
model of a town-house from the late Gerzean period
TEMPLES shows a substantial, rectangular, wattle and daub
At Tell-es-Sawwan (c. 5300 BC), a large T-shaped structure with battered walls and a roof of thatch and
building with fourteen rooms was discovered im- mud.
mediately overlying a cemetery. Several rooms
contained alabaster idols. Although architectUrally
similar to other buildings on the site, it contained no FUNERARY ARCHITECTURE
domestic artefacts, and may have been a small The cemetery at Hadari contains several hundred
temple. burials grouped in dense clusters. No superstructures

survive to mark the graves, but they are thought to ANATI, E. Palestine Before the Hebrews. London, 1963
have been marked originally by cairns. BAUMGARTEL, E. 1. The Cultures of Prehistoric Egypt.
Early tombs at Naqada resembled those at Badari, Oxford, 1955
BURNEY, C. The Ancien&-Near East. New York, 1977
but later Naqada II tombs were more substantial.
CHIWE, v. G. New Light on the Most Ancient East. London,
The walls of graves were strengthened by sticks and 1958 (reprinted)
matting, or wood-panelled chambers we~e con- DA\olD, R. The Ancient Egyptians: relil!ious beliefs and
structed. Some chambers had an upper compart- practices. London, 1982
ment, designed to carry grave goods. Both types of HAYES, w. c. Most Ancient Egypt. Chicago, 1964
structure were roofed with mud-plastered sticks and LAMPL, P. Cities and Planning in the Ancient Near East.
matting or planks. These were the precursors of the London, 1970
wood-panelled central chambers found at the Royal LWYD, s. The Archaeology of Mesopotamia. London, 1978

Tombs at Abydos, and the Sakkaran mastaba tombs. - . Early Highland Peoples of Anatolia. London, 1967
MELLAART, I. The Earliest Civilisations of the Near Easl.
One of these tombs h~d a stone superstructure in the

For Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam’s Private use only, www.pmu.edu

London, 1965
form of a four-tiered step pyramid, on a.square base - . Catal Huyuk. London, 1967
over 20m x 20m (66ft x 66ft) in area. The stones - . The Neolithic of the Near East. London, 1975
were undressed and roughly coursed, and beneath MOOREY, P. R. S. XSF2THE ORIGINS OF CMUSATION. Oxford,
the pyramid a pit had been dug into the sand to hold 1979
the corpse and grave goods. OATES, D. and OATES, 1. The Rise of Civilisation. Oxford,
REDMAN, Co L. The Rise of qliilisation. San Francisco, 1978
TRIGGER, B. G. Ancient Egypt: a social history. Cambridge,
Bibliography UCKO, P. 1. Mall, SeIllement and Urbanism. London, 1972
ALDRED, c. Egypt to the end of the Old Kingdom. London,

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The A rchitecture ofEgypt, the Ancient Near East, Greece and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

.Chapter 3

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Architectural Character their effects on matured art ~nd architecture, and
apart from timber, which had become scarce by dyn-
The primitive architecture in the valley of the Nile astic times, never entirely weIIt out of use.
consisted of readily available tractable materials like Stone was not much employed before the Third
reeds, papyrus (now practically extinct) and palm- Dynasty, except as rubole and as a stiffening or
branch ribs, plastered over with clay. With bundles of foundation to solid mud walls. Sun-dried mud-brick
stems placed vertically side by side and lashed to a walling never ceased to be employed, for it was only
bundle placed horizontally near the top, walls or for the firiest buildings of religious.character that cut
fences could be made. Alternatively, palm-leaf ribs stone became normal. Even palaces remained always
were planted in the ground at short intervals, with relatively frail. Made of Nile mud and mixed with
others laced in a diagonal network across them and chopped straw or sand, anathOroughly matured by
secured to a horizontal member near the top, the exposure to the sun, the mud bricks were very long
whole being daubed v.fth mud afterwards. Buildings lasting, and large, about 356mm (14in) long, 178 mm
with circular plans could have domical coverings of (7in) wide·and l02mm (4in) thick. For stability,
similar construction, or, if rectangular, could have awalls diminished course by course towards the top,
tunnel-shaped byorVKN
covering BPO
a flat roof. The Pvt Limited,
pressure of www.vknbpo.com
chiefly because of the alternate. shrinkage
97894 and 60001
the flat reed-and-mud roofs against the tops of the sion of the soil caused by the annual inundation. As
wall reeds may have produced the characteristic the inner face of the walls had to be vertical for \---'.
Egyptian 'gorge' cornice (p.36J), while the 'kheker' ordinary convenience, it was the outer face only
cresting less frequently appearing in later archi- which showed this inward inclination, or 'batter',
tectQre may have originated in the terminal tufts of a which remained throughout one of the principal char-
papyrus-stalk wall (p.36B). The horizontal binders acteristics of Egyptian architecture whether in brick
and angle bundles survived in the roll moulding of or stone. Sometimes fibre or reed mats were placed
stone cornices and wall angles of the historic period between the brick courses at intervals up the walls, to
(p.36J). reinforce them, particularly at a building's angles;
A type of pavilion or kiosk which came to have and a late development was the use of sagging con-
a special religious significance in connectio~With the cave courses, for alternate lengths of a long wall, built
'Heb-sed' or jubilee festivals of the _Pharaohs- in advance of the intervening stretches, to allow the
though originally commonly used on Nile boats as drying out of the inner brickwork, since walls such as
well as on land-consisted of a light, rectangular those around the great temple enclosures were very
structure. open-fronted and with a porch carried on thick, between 9m (30ft) and 24.5m (80ft).
two slender angle-shafts and having a slab-like roof Though the true arch was never used in monumen-
arching from the back to the front. In the Heb-sed tal stonework, the principle was ~mown very early on:
ceremony, held at definite intervals of years in the there are brick vaults as early as the beginning of the
king's reign~ the Pharaoh seated himself on a throne Third Dynasty. Frequently, the arch rings were built
beneath such an awning, raised on a high podium and in sloping courses, so that no 'centering' or tempor-
approached by a flight of steps at the front. ary support was needed, and usually there were two
Timber, once quite plentiful, was used for the bet- or more arched rings arranged concentrically, the
ter buildings, in square, heavy vertical plates, lapping one lying upon the other. The Romans adopted the
one in front of the other and producing an effect of. method of building arches in concentric, superposed
composite buttresses joined at the head and enfram- rings, though they did not slope them but used
iog narrow panels, in the upper parts of which win- centering in the normal way.
dow-vents_ might occur. Palm logs, rounded on the The surface decoration of the masonry walls is held
underside, were sometimes used for roofs. to have been derived from the practice of scratching
_All these various forms of construction produced pictures on the early mud-plaster walls, which man-

Alexandria OF GIZEH

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Tombs of
Kings: -:t
Tombs of

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'.:.: Tombs '.:"/4
1 Temple of Mont _

o, miles 100 ,
3 Temple of Khons
4 Temple of Mut
2 Great Temple of Ammon-
~ "'Great Temple

Ancient Egypt; the Great Pyramids; Thebes

ifestly did not lena themselves to modelled or pro- pressive aVenues of sphinxes-mythical monsters,
jecting ornament, though their flat and windowless each with the body of a lion and the head of a man,
surfaces were eminently suitable for incised relief and hawk, ram 01" woman-possess in their massiv.e
explanatory hieroglyphs (pp.37, 38)-a method of pylons, great courts, hypostyle halls, inner sanc-
popular teaching which has its parallel in the sculp- tuaries and dim, secret rooms, a special character; for
tured facades and stained-glass windows of mediaev- typically, temples grew by accretion or replacement
al cathedrals. according to the increasing requirements of a power-
Egyptian columns (p.36) have. distinctive charac- ful priesthood, or to satisfy the pious ambition of
ter, and a very large proportion of them plainly ad- successive kings. Greek temples were each planned
vertise their vegetable origin. their shafts indicative as one homogeneous whole, and the component
of bundles of plant stems, gathered in a little at the parts were all essential to the complete design, while
. base, and with capitals seemingly derived from the some of the greatest Egyptian temples were but a
lotus bud (p.36G), the papyrus flower (p.36C), or the string of successive buildings diminishing ip height
ubiquitous palm. behind their imposing pylons (p.50E).
Egyptian monumental architecture, which is es- Egyptian architecture persistently maintained its
sentially a columnar and trabeated style, is expressed traditions·, and when necessity dictated a change in
mainly in pyramids and other tombs and in temples, methods of construction or in the materials uSed, the
in contrast to the Near Eastern, its nearest in age, in traditional forms, hallowed by long use; were per-
which tombs are insignificant and spacious palaces petuated in spite of novel conditions. It is impressive
assume an importance rivalling that of temple struc- because of its solemnity and gloom as well as its
ture. Egyptian temples (p.50), approached by im- ponderous solidity, which suggests that the buildings


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A. Wall sculptures, Temple of Hatshepsut, D~r el-Bahari (c. 1520 BC). See p.53
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B. Wall sculptures, Temple ofSeti I, Abydos (c. 1312 BC). Seep.57


were intended to last eternally. The idea is not with- tecture of Mesopotamia in the Uruk and Jemdet N asr
·~. out foundation when we reruize that the avowed pur- periods; Mesopotamian influences on Egyptian civi-
pose of the pyramids was not only to preserve the lisation, then in its forma1ive phase, have long been
mummy of the Pharaoh for the return of the soul in recognised. Frequently these facades were painted in
the infinite hereafter, but also to be the centre of the bright colours, represented by splashes of paint on
cult of the royal dead, and :is a consequence, the the plinths at their base and hinted at by the decora-
dominant element of the vast monumental complex. tion of later wooden coffins. Such tombs· are nowa-
days known as n,tastabas, from their resemblance to
the low benches built outside the modem Egyptian
house. Closely surrounding them was an enclosure
Examples wal1. Subsequent changes in the design of the masta-
ba may be summarised '3.s the attempt to achieve

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greater security for the body of the dead owner and
Tomb Architecture the goods buried with him by concentrating resources
on cutting even deeper into the rock, abandoning the·
The tombs were of three main types: mastabas, royal elaborate layout of rooms in the superstructure found
pyramids and rock-hewn tombs. in the First Dynasty tombs.
Typical of the Second and ·Third Dynasties is the
'stairway' mastaba, the tomb chamber, with its atten-
Mastabas dant magazines, having been sunk much deeper and
cut in the rock below (p.4IB). Normally, the main
Since the Ancient Egyptians believed so strongly in axis of the tomb lay north and south, and steps and
an after-life, they did their utmost, each according to ramps led from the north end of the top of the masta-
his means, to build lasting tombs, to preserve the ba to connect with a shaft which descended to the
body, and to bury with it the finest commodities that level of the tomb chamber. After the burial, heavy
might be needed for the sustenance and eternal en- stone portcullises were dropped across the approach
joyment of the deceased. As early as the First Dynas- from slots built to receive them, and this was then
ty bands of linen were used to wrap round the limbs of filled in and all surface traces removed. Externally,
the byits preservation,
body, to aid VKN BPOthough Pvt Limited,
embalming www.vknbpo.com
the imitation of panelling. 97894 60001
was usually abandoned in
was not fully developed until the New Kingdom. In favour of the plain battered sides, except that there
the Archaic period (Dynasties I-II) the king and were two well-spaced recesses on the long east side:
• other leading personages normally had two tombs, This wa~ the front towards the Nile. The south-
one in Lower Egypt and the other in Upper Egypt, ernmost olthe two recesses was a false door (p.4IE),
the two kingdoms united by Menes, the first of the allowing the spirit of the deceased to enter or leave at
Pharaohs. Only one tomb, of course, could take the will, and in front of it was a table for the daily offer-
real burial, the other being a cenotaph. The royal ings of fresh food.
cemetery was at SakkAra, overlooking the capital It was here that about the Fourth Dynasty a small
Memphis, the cenotaphs being far to the south at offering chapel developed, tacked on to the mastaba,
Abydos. Until the closing years olthe First Dynasty or an offering room was constructed within the mas-
these tombs and cenotaphs were surrounded by rows taba itself (p.4IC). Tomb chambers were sunk more
of burials, evidently those of retainers sacrificed to deeply still, approached by a short horizontal passage
accompany their masters: this custom soon died out from a vertical shaft sunk from the north end of the
in Egypt proper. top of the superstructure. There are many such 'shaft'
By the First Dynasty, the more elaborate gr~ves mastabas at Gizeh (p.41D). By this time the majority
had come to simulate house plans of several small of the mastabas were of limestone, which had been
rooms, a central one containing the sarcophagus and used only sparingly for floors and wall linings in the
others surrounding it to receive the abundant funer- finest of the brick mastabas of early dynastic times.
ary offerings (p.4IA). The whole was constructed in With the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties the offering room
a broad pit below ground, the- wooden roof being or chapel at ground level tended to become in-
supported by wooden posts or crude brick pillars, and creasingly elaborate (p.41F,G). In the most sump-
the entire area cov.ered by a rectangular, flat-topped tuous examples, there might be a group of rooms,
mound of the spoil from the excavation, retained in within or adjacent to the mastaba mound, including a
place by very thick brick walls. The outer faces were columned hall, the walls lined with vividly-coloured
either serrated with alternate buttress-like projec- reliefs, depicting scenes from the daily life of the
tions and narrow recesses-the so-called 'palace deceased. Important among the rooms was the 'ser-
facade' arrangement-or plain, and sloped back- dab'-sometimes there was more than one-com-
wards at an angle of about 75 degrees. The 'palace pletely enclosed except for .«lot opposite the head of
facade' design, perhaps derived from timber panel- a statue of the deceased cOntained within. In the
lin~ equally had its origins in the mud-brick archi- offering room was a 'stele', an upright stone slab

inscribed with the name of the deceased, funerary were the primary part of a complex of buildings. They
texts and relief carvings intended to serve in the event were surrounded by a walled encIosure and had an
offailure in the supply of daily offerings. An offering- offering chapel, with a stele, usually abutting the east
table stood at its foot. side of the pyramid but occasionally on the north; a
The Mastaba K.la. Deit Khallaf (p.4IB) is a mas- mortuary temple for the worship of the dead and
sive 'stairway' tomb of crude brick, typical of the deified Pharaoh, on the north side in Zoser's complex
Third Dynasty. The stairs and ramp, guarded by five but normally projecting from the encIosure on the
stone portcullises, lead to a rock-cut, stone-lined east side; and a raised and enclosed causeway leading
tomb chamber surrounded by a knot of magazines for to the nearer, western edge of the cultivation where
the funerary offerings. Above ground, the mastaba is there stood a 'Valley Building' in which embalmment
plain and virtually solid. was carried out and interment rites performed·; A
The Mastabas Glzeh, mostly of the Fourth and canal was built to connect the Valley Building with

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Fifth Dynasties, number two or three hundred, the Nile, by which the funeral cortege magnificently
arranged in orderly ranks, and adjoin the famous arrived.
pyramids there (pp.4IC,D, 47A). Fourth Dynasty Pyramids were built with immense outlay in labour
examples illustrate, on the one hand, the develop- and material, in the lifetime of the Pharaohs con-
ment of the offering chapel (p.41C), and on the cerned, to secure the preservation of the body after
other, the typical 'shaft' mastaba (p.4ID) with deep, death tiII that time should have passed when, accord-
underground tomb chambers and a sloping-sided su- ing to their belief in immortality, the soul would once
perstructure having two widely spaced recesses on more return to the body. Infinite pains were taken to
the long east side, the southern one of which served conceal and protect the tomb chamber and its con-
as a false door (p.4IE) and for offerings. tents, as well as the approach passages, but all pre-
The Mastaba orThi, Sakkira (p.41G), a high dig- cautions proved to be vain, for they were sur.cessively
nitary of the Fifth Dynasty, has all the elaboration of rifled first in the period of chaos which followed the
its time. A large pillared court is attached to the north Sixth Dynasty and again in the Persian, Roman and
end of the east side, approached from the north by a Arab periOds. Pyramids were founded on the living
portico which has a serdab alongside. A passage con- rock, levelJed to receive them, and were of limestone
nects the court with a small chamber and an offering- quarried in their locality, faced with the finer lime-
room, withDigitized
two pillars,by
lyingVKN BPO
inside the Pvtitself.
mastaba Limited, www.vknbpo.com
stone coming from Tura on the . 97894
This is equipped with two stelae and an offering-table side of the Nile. Granite, in limited use for such as the
against the west wall; and south of it is a second linings of the chambers and passages, was brought
serdab, with three slots through the intervening wall from up-river at Aswan. Tomb chambers and their
corresponding to the three duplicate statues of Thi approaches were either cut in the rock below the
enclosed there. The low-relief sculptures of this tomb monument or were in its constructed core. Entrances
are among the finest and most interesting in Egypt normally were from the north side, and the sides were
(p.4IF). The actuaI'iomb chamber is below the south scrupulously oriented with the cardinal points.
end of the mastaba, behind the west wall of the offer- In all known cases, pyramids were built in a series
ing-room but at a much lower level. Itis reached from of concentric sloping slices or layers around a steep
a passage slanting diagonally to connect with a stair- pyramidal core, so that the whole mass first appeared
way emerging in the centre of the court. in step-like tiers, until, in the case of the true pyra-
midal form, the steps had been filled in with packing
blocks and brought with finely finished facings to
Royal Pyramids their ultimate shape, at the chosen angle of inclina-
tion. Nevertheless, all the inner layers were built
The great pyramids of the Third to Sixth Dynasties more or less at the same time, course by course, so
are on sites distributed intermittentiy along the west that as work proceeded the top was always approx-
side of the Nile for about fifty miles southward of the imately level The final meticulous dressing of the
apex of the Delta, standing on the rocky shelf clear of finished faces was from top to bottom, and the apex
the cultivated land. Early royal tombs were of the stone probably was gilGed.
mastaba type, from which the true pyramid evolved, The Egyptians did not know of the pulley, and
the most important stages being demo~strated by the their principal tool for raising and turning stone
early Third Dynasty 'Step' pyramid of the Pharaoh blocks was the lever. To transport them overland,
Zoser at Sakkiira (pp.42-43). Further stages of de- wooden sledges were used, with or without the aid of
velopment are marked by one at Meydum and by two rollers dropped in tum in front of a sledge and picked
at Dabshur by Seneferu, first king of the Fourth up again behind. Blocks for the pyramids were
Dynasty, including the so-called 'Bent' pyramid. The hauled up great broad-topped, sloping ramps of sand
finest true pyramids are the famous three at Gizeh, or earth, reinforced with crude brick walls, such
built by the Fourth Dynasty successors of Seneferu. ramps being placed at right angles to the most conve-
Pyramids did not stand in solitary isolation but nient of the faces.

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Step Pyramid of Zoser,
Sakkara (2778 BC).
See p.44

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A. (above)
Restored view of the
pyramid and enclosure
from the flooded Nile
B. (left) Aerial view pf the

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The Step Pyramid or Zoser. Sakksr. (2778 BC, maze of corridors and many rooms, the buildings
beginning of Third Dynasty) (pp.42-43) is remark- inside the enclosure show some relation to earlier
able as being the world's first large-scale monument developments of the mastaba; but these two build-
in stonc. King Zoser's architect, Imhotep, was great- ings abut the north face of the pyramid, instead of the
ly revered both in his own and later times, and in the east as was to be the common practice, and all the rest
Twenty-sixth Dynasty was deified. The pyramid itself of the structures are quite exceptional and unique' to
shows no less than five changes of plan in the course this complex. They are dummy representations of the
of building. !t began as a complete mastaba, 7.9m palace of Zoser and the buildings used in connection
(26 ft) high, unusual in having a square plan, with with the celebration of his jubilee in his lifetime.
sidesof63 m (207ft). !twas then twice extended, first Most ofthem therefore are solid, or almost so, com-
by a regular addition of 4.3 m (14 ft) to each of its prised of earth or debris faced with Tura limestone.

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sloping sides and next by an extension eastwards of They are grouped around courts.
8.5 m (28ft). At this stage the whole was used as a The entrance to the great enclosure leads to a long
basis for a four-stepped pyramid, made up of layers processional corridor lined with reeded columns-
inclined against a steep-sided core, and again en- this site provides the only known instances of the
larged at the same time so that its plan became a type-which bore architraves and a roof of long
rectangle of about 83m x 75m (272ft x 244ft). A stones shaped on the underside like timber logs
further enormous addition on the north and west, (p.42). At the inner end of the corridor is a pillared
followed by a comparatively slight one all round, hall, with reeded columns attached in pairs, beyond
brought it to its final dimensions of 125m (410ft) which is the Great Court (p.42), where there are two
from east to west by 109m (358ft) wide and 60m low B-shaped pedestals, used in the royal ceremO-
(200 ft)high, and added two more steps to the height, nial, an altar near the pyramid south face and, on the
making six in all. In this stepped form it remained. south side of the court, a mastaba, unusually aligned
Usually, underground tomb chambers were finished east-west. Just inside the enclosure entrance a nar-
before the superstructure had been begun, but here row corridor runs deviously northwards to the Heb-
there were two stages owing to the successive en- sed Court, the principal scene of this festival, lined
largements above. A pit of 7.3m (24ft) side and with sham chapels, each with its small forecourt,
8.5 m (28 Digitized
It) deep was by VKN BPO
the counterpart Pvtfirst
of the Limited,
those www.vknbpo.com . 97894
on the western side representing 60001
the provinces
mastaba, approached by a horizontal tunnel emerg- or 'nomes' of Upper Egypt and those on the eastern,
ing' at th.e north side in an open ramp. This pit was of Lower Egypt. These virtually solid structures had
deepened to 28m (92ft) at the pyramid stage of segmental-arched roofs, as also had two similarly
development, and had an Aswan granite tomb cham- solid large halls of unequal size farther north, each
ber at the bottom, above which was a limestone- facing southwards into its own court; the halls might
walled room containing a granite plug to stop a hole have symbolised the two kingdoms. The facades of all
at the top of the tomb chamber when the burial had of them, chapels and halls, bore three slender,
been completed. The approach tunnel too was attached columns. Near to the Heb-sed Court, to the
deepened and converted to a ramp entering the pit at west, is the so-called 'Royal Pavilion', within which
a point some 2!.5m (70ft) above its base. From the are three fluted, attached columns. In Zaser's com-
bottom of the pit four corridors extend irregularly plex as a whole, the masonry technique and the
towards the four cardinal points, connecting to gal- almost total absence of free-standing columns, to-
leries running approximately parallel with the four gether with the small spans of the stone beam roofs,
sides of the pyramid, and having spur galleries thrust- indicates the novelty of stone as a building materi~1 at
ing from them. Independent of the main subterra- this time. The architectural forms show clearly their -.,
nean system is a series of eleven separate pits. 32m derivation from earlier structures in reeds, timber or
(106 ft) deep, on the east side of the original mastaba. . sun-dried brick.
These were tombs of members of the royal family. The Pyramid at Meydum (p.41H) is attributed to
The tomb entrances were sealed by the third exten- Huni, last king of the Third Dynasty. Though even-
sion of the mastaba. tually completed as a true pyramid, at one stage it was
Surrounding the pyramid was a vast rectangular a seven-stepped structure, contrived by building six
enclosure, 547m (179Oft) from north to south and thick layers of masonry, each faced with Tura lime-
278 m (912 ft) wide, with a massive Tura limestone stone, against a nucleus with sides sloping steeply at
wall, 1O.7m (35ft) high, indented in the manner of 75 degrees; there was then an addition of a fresh layer
the earlier mastaba facades. Around the walls were all round, raising the number of steps to eight. These
bastions, fourteen in all, and each had stone false again were faced with Tura limestone, dressed only
doors. The only entrance was in a broader bastion where the faces showed. Thus both the seven- and the
near the southern end of the eastern face. In the fact eight-step pyramids had at the time been regarded as
that there is a small offering chapel (with stelae, finished. But there was yet a further development, in
offering table and a statue of Zoser) and a well- which the steps were packed out and the sides made
developed mortuary temple, containing two courts, a smooth with finely-dressed Tura stone. Of this ulti-

mate true pyramid, 144.5m (474ft) square on base cardinal points, are nearly equilateral 'triangles and
and 90m (295ft) high, with sides sloping at 51 de- make an angle of 51 degrees 52 minutes with the
grees, the lower portion still survives, but the upper ground. There are three separate internal chambers,
part has been oddly denuded into a shouldered, due to changes of plan in the course of building. The
tower-like structure. The simple, corbel-roofed tomb subterranean chamber and the so-called 'Queen's
chamber was at ground-level in the heart of the Chamber' are discarded projects, abandoned in turn
masonry. Around the pyramid was a stone enclosure in favour of the 'King's Chamber' where the granite
wall, 233 m (764 ft) from north to south, by 209 m sarcophagus is located. The entrance is 7.3 m (24ft)
(686ft), within which were'a small pyramid on the off-centre on the north side, and 17m (55ft) above
south side and a mastaba on the north. Abutting the ground level, measured vertically, leading to a corri-
centre of the east face of the pyramid was a small dor descending at about 26 degrees to the original
offering-chapel, with an offering-table, flanked by rock-cut chamber. In this descending corridor, after

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two stelae, in its inner small court. There was no the first change of plan, an ascending corridor was cut
mortuary temple, but a causeway from the eastern in the ceiling, about 18.3 m (60ft) along, rising to
wall led to the Valley Building, now submerged. some 21 m (70 ft) above ground, at which level the
The Bent or South Pyramid of Seneferu, Dahshur Queen's Chamber was constructed. But before it was
(2723 BC) (p.411) has the peculiarities, firstly, that the entirely completed, the approach was sealed ofl and
angle of inclination of the sides changes about half- the ascending corridor extended into what is/, now
way up from 54 degrees 15 minutes in the lower part to known as the Grand Gallery (p.46D), a passage 2.1 m
43 degrees in the upper, where it shows hasty comple- (7ft) wide and 2.3m (7ft 6in) high, covered by a
tion; and secondly that it has two entirely independent ramped, corbelled vault of seven great courses, rising
tomb chambers, reached one from the north side and to a height of 8.5 m (28 It) vertically from the floor,
one from the west. The change in slope had the object where the surviving span of 1.1 m (3 ft 6 in) is closed
of lightening the weight of the upper masonry, as the by stone slabs. At the top, the Grand Gallery gave on
walls of chambers and passages began to show fis~ to the King's Chamber, 5.2m (17ft 2in) from north
sures. The plan is square, 187 m (620ft), and the to south, 10.5 m (34 ft 4 in) long and 5.8 m (19 ft)
height about 102m (335ft), the materials being the high, which like its vestibule is lin~d in granite. In the
Digitized by with
usual local stone VKN TuraBPO Pvt facing,
limestone Limited,well- www.vknbpo.com . 97894
vestibule there were originally 60001
three massive granite
preserved. The tomb-chambers are covered by cor- slabs, let down in slots in the side walls to seal the
belled roofs with gradually in-stepping courses from chamber after the burial. The covering of the cham-
all four sides, that over the lower chamber concluding ber is most elaborate. Five tiers of great stone beams,
with a 305 mm (12 in) span some 24 m (80 ft) above the nine to a tier and together weighing about 406 tonnes
floor. Corbelling, as instanced here and at Meydum, is (4OOtoos), are ranged one above the otheF:""with a
thus one of the earliest experimental devices for con- void space between the layers. Above them all is
structing a stone vault. Around the pyramid there was an embryonic vault of pairs of great stones inclined
a double-walled rectangular enclosure, an offering against one another. This latter device occurs also
chapel and a mortuary temple on' the east side and a over the Queen's Chamber and again over the pyra- .
causeway leading to the Valley Building. The subsidi- mid entrance, where just within the former casing
ary structures here probably provide the first instance there are pairs of inclined stones superposed in two
of what was to be the customary complement and tiers (p.46C). Two shafts, 203 mm X 152 mm (8 in x
arrangement. 6in), leading from the King's Chamber to the outer
The North Pyramid of Seneferu, Dahsbiir, made face of the pyramid, may have been for ventilation-or
after the abandonment of the Bent Pyramid, was the to allow the free passage of the Ka or spirit of the
actual place of burial of Seneferu, for nearby are dead king. There are _similar shafts from the Queen's,
tombs of the royal family and officiating priests; it Chamber, left incomplete like the chamber itself.
was designed and completed as a true pyraPlid, the Built solidly of.local stone, the pyramid originally
earliest known. The pitch of its sides, however, is was cased in finely-dressed Tura limestone blocks and
unusually low: 43 degrees 36 minutes, instead of the the apex stone'perhaps gilded, but only a few casing
usual 52 degrees or so, and thus very similar to that of stones at the base now survive. The averCige weight of
~he upper part of the Bent Pyramid. For the rest the blocks is 2500 kg (2'12 tons); they are bedded in a thin
pyramid is norm-al. lime-mortar, used as a lubricant during fixing rather
The Great Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu), near Cairo than as an adhesive, and are laid with amazingly fine
(pp.46A-E, 47A). Cheops was the son of Seneferu, joints. Little trace of the pyramid enclosure wall now
and the second king olthe Fourth Dynasty. His pyra- exists, nor does much remain of the customary atten-
mid,largest of the famous three on this site, was orig~ ~nt buildings. The offering chapel abutted the centre
inally 146.4 m (480ft) high and 230.6m (756ft) square of the pyramid east face, and the mortuary temple
on plan, with an area of about 13 acres, or more than stood axially in front of it, joined by a causeway which
twice that of S. Peter, Rome. The four sides, which, led askew eastwards towards the Valley Building.
as in all periods with only a minor exception, face the Flanking the temple on east and west are two boat-


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A. The Pyramids, Gizeh: aerial view from SE, with the Sphinx and Valley Building of Chephren in the middle foreground
(c. 2723-2563 BC). See p.4S

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B. Tombs at Beni Hasan (2130-1785 BC). See p.49


shaped pits cut in the rock, and there is a third along- three chambers in two tiers, while on the opposite
side the north flank of the causeway. Whether these flank an alabaster stair turns through angles to the
actually contained wooden boats for the king's trans- roof, cutting across the approach to the causeway in
port in his afterlife is not definitely known. In 1954 two the process.
more pits were discovered adjacent to the south side of A little to the north-west of the Valley Building is
the pyramid, covered with stone beams as originally the Great Sphinx ofChephren (p.47A), the colossal
the others had been, in which wooden boats, 35.5 m enigmatic monster carved from a spur of rock left by
(115 ft) long, were disclosed intact and in a remarkably Cheops' quarry-masons. It bears the head of Cheph-
fine state of preservation. At a little distance south- ren, wearing the royal head-dress, false beard and
east of the east face of the pyramid are three subsidiary cobra brow ornament, and has the body of a recum-
pyramids, with chapels on their own east sides, tombs bent lion. The sculpture is 73.2 m (240ft) long and
of Cheops' queens. 20m (66ft) maximum height, the face being 4.1 m

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The Pyramid or Chephren (Khafra) (Fourth (13 ft 6 in) across. Deficiencies in the rock were made
Dynasty) (pp.4IK,L, 47A) is the second of the three good in stonework. Between the forepaws is a large,
at Gizeh and only a little less large than the Great inscribed granite stele, recording a restoration_made
Pyramid, 216m (708ft) side and 143m (470ft) high, hy Thothmes IV (1425 BC), of the Eighteenth
but has a steeper slope (52 degrees 20 minutes). Dynasty.
There is only one chamber at the core, partly in the The Pyramid of Mykerinos (Menkaura) (Fourth
rock and partly built-up, but two approaches to it Dynasty) (pp,4IM, 47A) is much smaller than its two
from the north: one through the aoneworlc and the predecessors at Gizeh, 109m (356ft) square and
other subterranean, these joining'halfway. Near the 66.5 m (218ft) high, with sides sloping at 51 degrees.
apex of"the pyramid much of the original limestone Much of the casing is preserved, and is mainly Tura
casing is preserved, and there are fragments to show limestone but includes sixteen base courses in gra-
that the two base courses of the facing were of gra- nite.
nite. The remaining buildings of the complex, too, The principal pyramids of the Fifth and Sixth
ate better preserved than in other cases. The offering Dynasties (2563-2263 BC), all built at Abusir and
chapel and the mortuary temple were in the normal. Sakkara, were inferior in size and construction to
axial on the by
east VKN BPO
face. The latter,Pvt113.3mLimited, www.vknbpo.com
those of the previous dynasty, .and
97894 60001
tomb chambers
(372ft) from east to west and 41.2m (155ft) wide, and their corridors were simpler and more sterotyped
WilS of limestone, lined internally on the Jl2!1J:1.; It was in arrangement.
extremely solid and barren of features externally. To The Pyramid of Sahura, Abusir (Fifth Dynasty) \-.-,
the west of a great open court, with twelve statues (p.4IN), is remarkable for the triple series of enor-
against the piers between the many openings leading mous paired-stone false arches which cover its tomb
to a surrounding corridor, were fiy.e. <!_~p chambers chamber. It is representative of Fifth and Sixth
for statues of the Pharaoh, the central one wider than Dynasty practice in several important particulars. Its
the rest, whilst behind them were corresponding complex still has the old elements of valley building,
stores, serdabs, and the only entrance to the pyramid causeway and mortuary temple, but the offering
enclosure. East of the court was a fore-temple, very chapel is now incorporated in the temple. A subSidi-
similar in plante the Valley Building, with two pil- ary small pyramid is included in the south-east angle
lared halls and long serdabs on the wings. From an of the enclosure; this was not a burial place for a
entrance corridor there opened in the ~~-eaJJ cor- queen but had a ritual significance. Relative to the
ner of the block a series of four rooms in alabaster, Fourth Dynasty, there is a considerable increase in
where there were alabaster chests containing ele- the number of store-chambers, which tend to enlarge
ments of the viscera, and in the south-east comer and complicate the plan of the mortuary temple. In
were two rooms in granite which rereivc7r the two decoration, wall reliefs are profuse-a feature which
royal crowns. Despite the essential symmetry of the applies also to contemporary mastabas, for example
plan, the entrance was insignificant and off-Centre, the Mastaba of Thi (p.4IF). Particularly important
leading aslant iOUie causeway from the Valley Build- architecturally was the use now of granite, free-
ing, which survives substantially intact. standing columns, with reeded or plain shafts, and
The Valley Building (p,4IL) is 44.8m (147ft) lotus, papyrus or palm capitals, replacing the wholly
square and battered outside and vertical within. In plain and square pillars of Fourth Dynasty buildings.
this building and on its roof, various ceremonies
of purification, mummification and 'opening of the
mouth' were conducted. Dual entrances lead from a Rock-hewn Tombs
.landing place to a transverse vestibule, and thence to
a T-shaped granite-pillared hall, around which were These are rare before the Middle Kingdom, and even
ranged twenty-three statues of the king, the hall at that time they served for the nobility rather than
being lit by slots in the angle of the wall and ceiling (as royalty; pyramids, though of indifferent construc-
p.52E). Off the southern arm of the hall, there are tion, remained the principal form of royal tomb.
EGYYf 49

, The Tombs, Bent Hasan, numbering thirty-nine, an emblem of the deity. Inside the further end of the
..'i are of the Eleventh and Twelfth Dynasties (2130- court was a pavilion, comprising vestibule and sanc-
1785 BC) and belonged to a provincial great family. tuary. Owing to successive rebuildings upon these
They are wholly rock-hewn; each consists of a cham- ancient sites, the stages of development are difficult
ber behind a porticoed facade plainly imitating to trace. Apparently, little but the sanctuary and
wooden construction in the character of the eight- or attendant apartments was being built in stone at the
sixteen-sided, slightly-fluted and tapered columns, opening of the Eighteenth Dynasty, but somewhat
their trabeation and the rafter ends above (pp.46G- later in the New Kingaom, the influx of wealth and
K, 47B). Some tombs, like that ofKhnemhetep, have universal spread of favoured cults brought the cult
slightly-vaulted rock ceilings, supported on fluted or temples into full flower.
reeded columns, and walls in general were lightly By this time, mortuary and cult temples had most
stuccoed and painted with pastoral, domestic and features in common, yet still bore a resemblance of
other scenes. arrangement to the most venerable shrines. Along a

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The Tombs or the Kings, Thebes (p.46L-Q) are in main axis, not specifically oriented, there was a waI-
the arid mountains on the west side of the Nile. They led open court, with colonnades around, leading to a
witness a complete abandonment of the royal pyra- covered structure, comprising a transverse columned.
mid tomb during the New Kingdom in favour of a vestibule or 'hypostyle hall' and a sanctuary beyond
corridor type, in which stairs, passages and chambers (or more than one if the temple had a multiple de-
extend as much as 210m (690ft) into the mountain dication) attended by chapels and other rooms
side and up to %m (315ft) below the valley floor. needed by the priesthood. An impressive axial gate-
The sarcophagus usually lay in a concluding rock- way to the court was traditional; it now was extended
columned hall, and the walls were elaborately paint- across the whole width of the court to form a tower-
ed with ceremonial funerary scenes and religious ing, sloping-sided pair of pylons, with tall portal be-
texts. The most important tombs are those of Seti I tween, equipped with pennon-masts, gorge cornice
and Rameses III, IV and IX. The tombs served only and roll-moulded outer angles. Temple services were
for the sarcophagus and funerary deposits; the held thrice daily, with none but the priesthood admit-
mortuary temples stood completely detached (for ted to them, though privileged persons might some-
example the Ramesseum, that at Medinet-Habu and times be admitted to the conrt for certain ceremdn-
Queen by temple
Hatshepsut's VKN atBPO Pvt Limited,
Der el-Bahari), sited www.vknbpo.com . 97894 were
ies. In the cult temples, processions 60001a feature,
in the necropolis adjacent to the western, cultivated particularly during the periodic festivals, so free ·cir-
land, where there were sionilar but smaller tombs of culation was required through or around the sanctu-
high-ranking persons. The temple of Mimtuhetep II ary. Numerous festivals were celebrated during the
at Der el-Bahari (Middle Kingdom) is transitional, year, some of which might last for days; at times,
being conjoined with the rock-cut tomb, whilst also shrines of the gods were carried by land or water to
having a small pyramid in its confines. other temples or sacred sites in the neighbourhood,
and it was anlyon such occasions that the populace in
general took any kind of part. The whole temple itself
stood within a great enclosure, and about it were
Temples houses of the priests, official buildings, stores, gra-
naries and a sacred pool or lake (p.60A) .
Temples were of two main classes; the mortuary
.A The Temple or Khans, Karnak (1198 BC)
temples, for ministrations to deified Pharaohs; and (pp.50E-H, 52A) , a cult temple, maybe taken as the
the cult temples, for the popular worship of the usual type, characterised by entrance pylons, court
ancient and mysterious gods. The mortuary temples hypostyle hall, sanctuary, and various chapels, all
developed from the offering chapels of the royal enclosed by a high girdle wall. The entrance pylons,
mastabas and pyramids, assuming early permanence fronted by obeliskS, were approached through an
and ever greater importance. In the Middle King- imposing avenue of sphinxes. The portal gave on to
dom, when royal burials began to be made in the the open court, surrounded on three sides by a dou-
hillside, they became architecturally the more impor- ble colonnade and leading to the hypostyle hall, to
tant of the two elements; and in the New Kingdom which light was admitted by a clerestory, formed by
they stood quite detached from the then-customary the increased height of the columns of the central
corridor tombs. Thereafter, their special character aisle. Beyond was the sanctuary, with openings front
tended increasingly· to merge into that of the cult and rear and a circulating passage around, and
temples, and distinction between the two types was beyond this again was a four-columned hall. The
eventually lost. . smaller rooms flanking the sanctuary and at its rear
Cult temples began in the worship of multifarious were mostly chapels or served for purposes of the
local deities. The original essentials were a rectangu- ritual. The temple was protected by a great wall of the
lar palisaded ~ourt, entered from a narrow end flank- same height as the halls themselves, and like them the
ed by pennon-poles and having centrally within them wall decreased in height towards the sanctuary end.
50 EGYYf
MAMMlIS] TEMPLE: llSlANlDl ~ ELEPlHlANTill\l[ ~-


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The examples which follow are arranged in ap- modest shrine constructed early in the Middle King-
proximate chronological order. dom, about 2000 Be; the first considerable enlarge-
ment was made by Thothmes! (1530 Be). It occupies
a site of 366m x 110m (1200ft x 360ft), and is
Middle Kingdom (2130-1580 BC) placed in an immense enclosure along with other
temples and a sacred lake, surrounded by a girdle
The Temple of Mentuhetep, Der el-Bahan, Thebes wall 6.1 m to 9 m (20 ft to 30 ft) thick, whlle it was
(2065 Be) (p.46F) is exceptional in that it is a mortu- connected by an avenue of sphinxes with the temple
ary temple directly related to a corridor tomb. It is at Luxor. The temple bad six pairs of pylons, added
terraced in two main levels, at the base of steep cliffs. by successive rulers, and consists of various courts
The upper terrace, faced with double colonn<ades, is and halls leading to the sanctuary; and a large cere-
approached from a tree-planted forecourt by an in- monial hall by ThothmesIlI in the rear. A great
clined way. On the upper terrace a small, completely court, 103m x 84m (33Sft x 275ft) deep, gives

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solid pyramid, raised aloft on a high podium, is whol- entrance to the ·vast hypostyle hall, by Seti I and
ly surrounded by a walled, hypostyle hall which has Rameses II, some 103m x 52m (33Sft x 170ft)
further double colonnades outside it. The pyramid is internally. The roof of enormous slabs of stone is
really a cenotaph, for in the rock below it is a dummy supported by 134 columns in sixteen rows; the central
burial chamber, approacbed by an irregular passage avenues are about 24m (7Sft) in height and have
from the forecourt. In the rear of the temple is an- columns 21m (69ft) high and 3.6m (11ft 9in) in
other pillared hall, recessed into the rock face, prece- diameter, with capitals of the papyrus-flower or bell
ded by an open court from the centre of which a ramp type, while, in order to admit light through the clere-
leads down to Mentuhetep's 152.5m (500ft) long story, the side avenues are lower, with columns 13 m
corridor tomb. Like the Old Kingdom pyramids, this (42 ft 6 in) high and 2.7 m (8 ft 9 in) in diameter, with
temple had a causeway, shielded by walls, leading papyrus-bud capitals (pp.52B-F, 54A)...,-a method
down to a V~lley Building three-quarters of a mile of clerestory lighting more fully developed during the
away. Gothic period in Europe. The effect produced by this
forest of columns is most awe-inspiring; the eye is led
from the smaller columns of the side avenues, which
New Kingdom by (1580-332
VKN BPO Be)Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
gradually vanish into semi-darkness and give an idea
of unlimited extent, to the larger columns of the
The Temple of Hatshepsut, Der el-Bahari, Thebes central avenues. Incised inscriptions and reliefs in
(1520 Be) (pp.51A, 55A) was built by her architect, colour, which cover the walls, column shafts and
Senmut, alongside that of Mentuhetep, of 500 years architraves, give the names and exploits of the royal
previously. It is terraced similarly, but her place" of personages who contributed to its grandeur, and
burial lay far away in a corridor tomb in the moun- praise the gods to whom it was dedicated. In these
tains beyond, and this was solely a mortuary temple, ancient carvings we find the germ of the idea which,
dedicated to Amun and other gods. A processional centuries later, led in Christian churches to the em-
way of sphinxes connected the temple with the valley. ployment of coloured mosaics and frescos, stained-
The terraces, approached by ramps, are in three glass windows and mural statues to record incidents
levels, mcanting towards the base of the cliffs, their of-Bible history and the lives of saints and heroes.
faces lined with double colonnades. The upper ter- The Temple at Luxor, Thebes (140S-1300 Be)'
race is a walled court, lined with a further double (p.55B), though founded on an older sanctuary and,
oolonnade, flanked on the left by the queen's mortu- like most temples, altered and repaired subsequent-
ary chapel and on the right by a minor court contain- ly, is substantially the work of AmenophisIlI, apart
ing an"enonnous altar to the sun god Ra. The chief from a great forecourt, with pylons, added b{Ram-
sanctuary lies axially in the rear of the upper court, esesII. It was dedicated to the Theban triad, Amun,
cut deep in the rock. To right and left of the face of Mut and Khans. The illustration shows re"mains of
the middle- terrace are sanctuaries of Rathor and the forecourt, with papyrus-bud capitals and a seated
Anubis. The wall reliefs in this temple are excep- colossus of Rameses, connected by twin colonnades,
tionally fine, and include representations of the 53 m (174ft) long, to a lesser court byAmenophis in
queen's trade expedition to Punt (p.3S), and of her the distance" The twin colonnades of bell-capital col-
allegedly divine birth. Many pillars are of the eight- umns, 12.Sm (42ft) high, were the only part ever
or sixteen-sided types reminiscent of the Greek built of a grand hypostyle hall projected by Amen-
Doric. ophis, or by the last king of his dynasty, Horemheb.

•• The Great Temple of Amun, Kanlak," Thebes

(1530-323 Be) (pp.52, 54A,B), the gtandest of all
Egyptian temples, was not built upon one
plan, but owes its size, disposition and magnificence
to the work of many kings. Originally it consisted of a
Amenophis III also built a mortuary temple on the
west bank at Thebes, but little survives except tbe
twin seated statues of himself, originally 20.Sm
(68ft) high, famous from ancient time as the ColoSsi
of Memnon. "

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;1 .

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A. Great Temple of Amun, Karnak: Hypostyle HaU (restored model) (c. 1312-1301 Be). Seep.53

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B. Great Temple of Amun, Karnak: view across C. Temple ofSeti, Abydos: second Hypostyle Hall
Hypostyle Hall (c. 1312 BC). See p.57


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A. Great Temple, Abu-Simbel (c.13Ol Be). See p.57



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B. Great Temple, Abu-Simbel C. Small Temple, Abu-Simbel (e, 1301 Bq, See p,57

The Temple, Island of Elephantine (1408 BC)' this place commanded by the indefatigable Ram-
-'\ (p.50), destroyed in 1922, was one of the small so- eses II, and quite the most stupendous and impres-
called Mammisi temples or Birth Houses which often sive of its class. An entrance forecourt leads to the
stood in the outer enclosures of large temples and imposing facade, 36m (119ft) wide and 32m (105 ft)
were subsidiary to them. They were sanctuaries per- high, formed as a pylon, immediately in front of
petuating the tradition of the divine birth of a Phar- which are four rock-cut seated colossal statues of
aoh from a union of the god Horus and a mortal Rameses, over 20m (65ft) high. The hall beyond,
mother, and Hathor, the mother-goddess, or the god 9 m (30 ft) high, has eight Osiris pillars and vividly-
Bes, protector of the newly born, usually attended coloured wall reliefs. Eight smaller chambers open
the event. The Birth Houses comprise a single room, off asymmetrically to right and left, while on the main
or little more, surrounded by a portico of pillars or axis is a smaller haH with four pillars, leading to a
columns and sometimes stand on a raised podium, vestibule serving three apartments, the central one

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approached by a flight of steps from one end. Design being the sanctuary and containing four statues of
for external effect is not typical of Egyptian build- gods and a support for a sacred boat. The temple has
ings, but there are instances from the early Eight- been moved from its original site on the Nile to a
eenth Dynasty onwards, and the tendency increases higher level. .
in the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. The Small Temple, Abu-Simbel (c.1301 BC)
The Temple ofSetil, Abydos (1312 BC) (pp.38B, (p.56C), by Rameses II, close to the Great Temple,
51B, 54C) has two pylons, two forecourts and two was dedicated to his deified Queen, Nefertari, and
hypostyle halls, and is unique in having seven sanc- the goddess Hathor. The facade here is 27.4 m (90 ft)
tuaries side by side. each roofed with stone, corbelled wide and 12.2 m (40ft) high, and comprises six niches
courses cut in the shape of a segmental arch on the recessed in the face of the rock and containing six
underside. Another unusual feature of the temple is a colossal statues, 10 m (33 ft) high; two represent
wing of chambers projecting at right angles to the Rameses and one N efertari on each side of the portal,
main structure, following the shape of the eminence which leads to a vestibule and a hall, 10.4 m x K2 m
on which the temple stands. The reliefs on the walls (34ft x 27ft), with six pillars bearing the sculptured
of close-grained limestone are among the finest in 'head of Hathor.
Egypt (p.38B). Seti I built a second mortuary temple • The Rock-cut Temple at Gerf Hoseln (c. 1301 BC)
on the west bybankVKN BPOhisPvt
at Thebes; Limited,
successor, Ram-www.vknbpo.com
(p.51C) is yet another.example
97894due60001to RameseslI. It
eses II, added the finishing touches to both. is of interest in that it retains a considerable portion
The Ramesseum, Thebes (1301 Be) (pp.37H, 5ID) of its forecourt, the walls of which are in part rock-
by RameseslI, is as typical of New Kingdom mortu- cut.
ary temples as that of Khans, Karnak, is of the cult
type, though the differences of principle are not very
great. In such temples the Pharaoh was worshipped Ptolemaic and Roman Periods
and offerings were made, while his tomb lay far in (332 Be-first century AD)
the mountains behind. The front pylons were 67 m
(220ft) wide, and led to two columned courts, the The Temple of Isis, on the Island of PhOae (pp.37J,
second having Osiris pillars on the front and rear 58-59) marks an ancient sacred site. Minor parts of
walls; and so to a grand hypostyle hall, succeeded by the surviving buildings belong to the Thirtieth Dyna.-
three smaller columned halls, which preceded the ty (378-341 BC) but most are by the Ptolemies II-
sanctuary at the far end of the building. There are no XIII (283-47 BC). The irregularities of the plan are
,. arrangements for processional circulation around the due to piecemeal building. The principle of arrange-
sanctuaries of mortuary temples. The hypostyle hall ment, however, remains much the same as at the
is much smaller than that at Karnak. 30 m x 60 m height ofthe New Kingdom period, a thousand years
(98ft x 196ft), possessing only forty-eight columns, earlier-a progressive concentration of effect from
including twelve with bell capitals, but like it had an outer and inner courts and pylons to the ultimate
elevated roof over the three axial avenues and an sanctuary in the temple nucleus. Such changes as
equally well-developed clerestory. Around the tem- there are, largely concern details. Column capitals
ple, ruins of the temenos walls and the brick-built are coarser and more ornate, varied in design from
priests' houses, granaries, stores, etc., still survive. column to column, and have very deep abacus
There are fragmentary remains of another mortuary blocks; colonnades appear more frequently on the
temple by Rameses II at Abydos; and one by exterior of buildings, their columns linked.by screen
Rameses III (1198 BC) at Medinet-lInbu which close- walls reaching about half-way up (p.58B). Such char-

ly resembles the Ramesseum, and similarly still has acteristics are notable in the 'Birth House' or Mam-
evidences of its temenos and brick-built subsidiary misi temple on tIJ.e west side of the inner court, and
buildings surviving (p.60A). also in a pavilion known as the 'Kiosk' or 'Pharaoh's
The Great Temple, Abu-Simbel (c.1301 BC) Bed'. standing on the east side of the fsland, though
(pp.51E, 56A,B) is one of two rock-hewn temples at this is of Roman date (c.96) (pp.58A, 59A). The



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A. Island of Philae, aerial view from E when not submerged: Kiosk in foreground (c. 96); pylons. Temple of Isis and
Digitized by VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
Mammisi TempJe on further side of island (283-47 BC). See p.57

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B. Temple of Isis, Philae: columns


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A. Temple of Isis, Philae (283-47 Be), with Kiosk (c. 96) partly submerged. See p.57
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I- B. Temple of Isis, Philae:.entrance court, showing pylons


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B. Temple of Hathor, Dendera (l 10 Be-AD 68). See p.63




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A. Fortress of Buhen (2130-1580 Be): west fortification of the inner stronghold. See p.64
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C. Buhen Fortress: west fortification

B. Fortress of Buhen: reconstruction of West Gate D. Buhen Fortress: looohoies of the lower ramparts

Kiosk is roofless, and has four columns on the ends on plan and tapering to an electrum-capped pyrami-
and five on the flanks. The two portals axial on the dian at the summit, which was the sacred part. They
short sides are designed without a central part to the have a height of nine or ten times the diameter at the
lintels, so as to permit the passage of banners and base, and the four sides are cut with hieroglyphs. The
effigies carried in procession. The whole island is now granite for obelisks was quarried by the very lab-
submerged during part of each year, and the temple orious method of pounding trenches around the
has been relocated at a higher level. tremendous block with balls of dolerite, a very hard
The Temple or Horus, Edru (237-57 Be) (pp. 51 G, stone, as the more normal method of splitting from
61A,B), is a fine, well-preserved example of the the parent rock by means of timber wedges, which
period. It was built in three stages, with protracted expanded after soaking, was too hazardous for so
intervals between: first the temple proper by long a unit. Mural reliell; show that obelisks were
Ptolemy III, then the outer hypostyle hall (140-124 transported on sledges and river-barges, and erected
Be), and finally the perimeter wall and pylons. It is on their foundations by hauling them up earthen

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plainly a processional cult temple. There is a passage ramps, and then tilting them into position. Many
surrounding the sanctuary, which serves also to give were removed from Egypt by the Roman Emperors,
access to thirteen small chapels, and another com· and there are at least twelve in Rome alone.
pleting the entire circuit of the enclosing wall. All the The Obelisk in the Piazza of S. Giovanni in Later-
inner rooms were completely dark and windowless. ana was brought to Rome from the Temple of Amun
The grand pylons are some 62.6m (205 ft) across and at Karnak, Thebes (q.v.), where it was originally
30.5m (100ft) high. Though in the main the temple erected Dy Thothmes III, and is the largest known. It
demonstrates the tenacity of the ancient traditions, is a monolith ofred granite from Aswan, 32 m (105 ft)
there are here again those distinguishing features of high without the added pedestal, 2.7m (9ft) square
the period, particularly notable in the main hypostyle althe base and 1.9m (6ft 2 in) atthe top, and weighs
hall: the foliated or palm capitals, varying in design in about 230 tons.
pairs astride the axis, the deep abaci, the screen walls 'Cleopatra's Needle', the obelisk on the Thames
between the columns, and the 'broken' lintel of the Embankment, London, originally at Heliopolis, was
central portal. brought to England from Alexandria in 1878. It bears
The Mammlsi Temple, Edfu (116 Be), standing in inscriptions of ThothmesIII and RamesesII. It is
the by ofVKN
outer enclosure BPOof Pvt
the Temple Horus,Limited,
is typical www.vknbpo.com . 97894
20.9 m (68ft 6in) high, 2.4m x 2.3m60001
(8ft x 7ft 6in)
of all externally-Colonnaded birth·houses, and simi· at the base, and weighs 180tons.
lar to others at Elephantine, Philae (see above) and
Dendera, where there are two, one Ptolemaic and
the other Roman.
The Temple or Hathor, Dendera (110 BC-AD 68) Dwellings
(p.60B) is most imposing, standing in a brick-walled
temenos 290m (951 ft) by 280m (918ft) wide. Except Clay models deposited in tombs indicate that ordin-
in lacking pylons, it closely resembles that at Edfu, ary dwellings were of crude brick, one or two storeys
and, as there, the hypostyle hall was added to the high, with flat or arched ceilings and a parapeted roof
Ptolemaic nucleus in Roman times, along with the partly occupied by a loggia. Rooms looked towards a
peripheral wall, which stands sufficiently clear of the north~facing court. Remains of barrack·1ike dwell·
temple to allow a complete processional circuit. The ings for workers exist at the pyramid sites of Cbeph-
four-sided, Hathor-headed capitals of the hyposlyle reri at Gizeh (Fourth Dynasty) and of Sesostris II at
hall, carrying a conventional representation of the Kahun (Twelfth Dynasty) on the eastern edge of the
birth·house on the deep abaci above, are typical of Fayum; and again at Tell el-Amama, where the Phar-
the period. Many narrow chambers are concealed in aoh Akhnaten (Eighteenth Dynasty) built his eph-
the thickness of the massive outer walls, and stairs emeral new town, occupied only for about fifteen
lead to the roof, where ceremonies took place. years (c.1366-1351 Be). Each workers' establish-
The Temple of Sebek and Haroeris at K6m Ombo ment constituted a considerable village, laid out on
(145 BC-AD 14) (p.51F) is peculiar in having a rigidly formal lines. More freely planned was a village
double approach to its twin sanctuaries and twC" at Der el·Medina, which was constructed for those
peripheral, processional circuits. engaged upon the Theban roYal-corridor-tombs. and
which endured for four centuries.
Though in the towns even the better houses were
on constricted plots and therefore might be three or
Obelisks four storeys high, where space allowed mansions
,l stood in their own grounds, laid out formally with
The obelisks, originating in the sacred symbol of the groves, gardens, pools and minor structures sur·
sun god of Heliopolis, usually stood in pairs astride rounding the rectangular, crude-brick dwelling, this
temple entrances. They are huge monoliths, square having its door and window openings dressed around

in stone. Columns and beams, doors and window Buhen (pp.62A-D). The best preserved of the ar-
frames were made from precious timber. Typically, chitectural monuments of the Twelftb Dynasty, the
Ibere was a central hall or living-room, raised suffi- Middle Kingdom, are not in Egypt proper but in
ciently high with tbe help of columns to allow clere- Nubia. Here great fortresses were built by successive
story light on one or more sides, for first floors were kings, especially Senusret III, in whose reign Egyp-
only partial. Regularly Ibere were three fundamental tian control of Lower Nubia, between the First and
parts: a reception suite, on the cooler. north side of Second Cataracts, was finally made secure. Most of
the house; service; and private quarters. the fortresses were on the west bank of the Nile or on
Archaic palaces were faced with overlapping ver- the islands. There was close communication between
tical timbers, giving tbe so-called 'palace facade' one fortress and the next, with the headquarters at
effect which left its decorative impress upon funerary Buhen, the largest stronghold.
stone architecture for some time. The 'white walls' of The military architecture revealed here and at the
Memphis, famed in later records, were perhaps more other fortresses shows an astonishing sophistication.

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probably of mud brick faced with mud plaster and At Buhen the main wall stood 4.8m (15 ft 8 in) thick
whitewashed, altbough the long tradition of stone- and 11 m (36 ft) high, reinforced along its exterior
working at Memphis may suggest tbey were of lime- by projecting rectangular towers. At wider intervals
stone, thus being glaring white in the strong Egyptian along the revetment of the paved rampart beneath
sun. the main wall there were semicircular bastions, hav-
Relatively little is known of later dynastic palaces, ing triple loopholes with single embrasures, through
of which the most impressive was perhaps that of which archers could cover the ditch below them by
AmenhotepIlI at Malkata, on Ibe west bank of cross-fire (p.62D). This ditch was dry, with a scarp,
Thebes and south of the temple of Medinet-Habu. and about 9m (30ft) wide by 7 m (23 ft) deep. On the
The whole complex comprised a number of large, outer side of the ditch was a counterscarp surmoun-
rambling buildings facing on to wide courts or parade ted by a narrow covered way of brickwork, beyond
grounds, without any easily discernible plan for the which was a glacis sloping down to the natural ground
whole: stone was used only sparingly, for column- level. The great West Gate (p.62B), facing the desert
bases, door-sills and the flooring of baths; mud brick and the long roads leading to the mines and quarries,
was the material used for walls, with wood for col- was especially strongly fortified. The use of the scarp
umns and Digitized
roofing beams.by Tomb
BPO Pvt revealLimited,
the or www.vknbpo.com . 97894
glaciS must have been primarily to 60001
hinder the
gorgeously canopied thrones in the audience halls of advance of an attacking force, and also to prevent
this period; and at Malkata lavish use was made of undermining of the massive walls. There is no ques-
painted decoration, including plants and water birds tion of its being designed against chariotry, since the
around a rectangular pool, on the floors, and likewise horse was not introduced into Egypt from Asia until
on the walls and ceilings. The central palace at Arnar- the Hyksos conquest in the seventeenth century Be.
Da shows development in the reign of Akhnaten from The organisation and skill of the local tribes must
his father'S palace at Malkata, being laid out on a have been formidable, to necessitate such fortresses.
more monumental scale and with greater use of stone After the collapse of Egyptian rule in Nubia in the
in the state rooms. It is, however, significant that in period following the Twelfth Dynasty, control was
the reign of Amenhotep III, at the height of the re-established without much difficulty in the early
Eighteenth Dynasty, the king's chief palace was of Eighteenth Dynasty. The fortifications of Buhen,
brick rather than stone. The pictures at Tell cl- once again probably the military and governmental
Amama of the royal palace and temples provide very headquarters of Nubia, were rebuilt on a larger scale
useful evidence for correlation with the excavated but of irregular shape, with wide salients, the largest
remains. Later New Kingdom palaces include those being on the west side. Within them was a great
of Memeptah at MemphiS and the modest palace of gatehouse with a rock-cut causeway across the ditch,
Rameses III within his mortuary temple complex at the main entrance to the fortress, facing the desert.
Medinet-Habu, at a time when the chief centre of The fortress on Uronarti Island had a gate at each
government had been moved from Thebes to Lower end, with an administrative building with store-
Egypt. rooms inside each, and there were houses for the
garrison and their families. The best use was made of
the restricted space, and little change took place with
the reoccupation in the new Kingdom.
Egyptian penetration of Nubia is now known,
through excavations carried out before the comple- Bibliography
tion of the High Dam at Aswan, to have begun by the
Fourtb Dynasty, a town site of Ibe Old Kingdom ALDRED, c. The Developmenl of Egyptian Arl. London,
having been excavated near the later Fortress of 1952.

BADAWY, ALEXANDER. A History of Egyptian Architecture. 3 'Les grandes decouvertes archeologiques de 1954', La Re-
vols_ Giza (VoU) and Berkeley, 1954-1968_ vue de Caire, vol. xxxiii, no. 175, Numero Special.
BREASTED,l. H. A History of Egypt. New York, 1905. IVERSEN, I. The Canon and Proportion in Egyptian Art. 2nd
BRITISH MUSEUM. An Introduction to Ancient Egypt (Guide ed. Wanninster, 1975.
to Collections). London, 1979. LANGE, K. and HIRMER, M., trans. Boothroyd, R. H. Egypt.
CARTER, H. and MACE, A. C. The Tomb of Tut-aT,kh-Amen. 3 London, 1956; revised 4th ed., 1968.
vols. London, 1923-33. NAVILLE, E. and CLARKE. G. SOMERS. The Xlth Dynasty Tern·
Description de J'Egypte (known as 'Napoleon's Egypt'). 23 pie at Deir el-Bahari. Parts I and II. London, 1907,1910.
vols. Paris, 1809-22. PETRIE, w. M. FLINDERS. Egyptian Architecture. London,
DRIOTON, E. and LAUER, J. P. Sakkarah. The Monuments of 1938_
2oser. Cairo, 1939. PORTER. B. and MOSS, R. L. B. Topographical Bibliography uf
DRiOTON, E. and VANDlER, 1. Les Peuples de [,orient Ancient ~gyptian Hieroglyphic TexIS, Reliefs, and Paint-
medite"aneen (J'Egypte). Paris, 1952. ing. 7 vols. Oxford, 1927-51; amplified 2nd ed., 1960-4.
~DWARDS, 1. E. s. The Pyramids of Egypt. Harmondsworth. REISNER, G. A. The Development of the Egyptian Tomb down

For Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam’s Private use only, www.pmu.edu

1947; revised ed., 1%1. to the accession of Cheops. Cambridge, Mass., and Lon·
EMERY, w. B. and others. Great Tombs of the First Dynasty. 3 don, 1935_
vals. London, 1949-58. SETON-WILLIAMS, VERONICA and STOCKS, PETER. Blue Guide-
FAIRMAN, H. w. 'Town Planning in Pharaonic Egypt', Town Egypt. London, 1983.
Planning Review, vo1. xx, no. 1. 1949. SMITH, W. STEVENSON. The History of Egyptian Sculpture and
- . 'Worship and Festivals in an Egyptian Temple', Bulletin Painting in the Old Kingdom. London, 1946; 2nd ed.,
of the John Rylands Library, vol. 37, no. L 1954. 1949. I

FAKHRY, AHMED. The Pyramids. Chicago, 1969. - . The Art ~nd Architecture of Ancient Egypt. Harmonds-
FIRm, C_ M., QUIBELL, J. E. and LAUER, J. P. The Step Pyra- worth, 1958_ Revised by W. K Simpson, 1981.
mid. Cairo, 1935. STEINDORFF; "G. and SEELE, K. c. When Egypt ruled the East.
GARDINER, A. H. The Temple of King Sethos I at Abydos. . Chicago, 1942;!revised ed., 1957.
Vols. i-iii. London and Chicago, 1933-8. II : WOLDERlSG, I. Egypt: the Art of the Pharaohs (Art of the
World series). London, 1963.

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The Architecture ofEgypt, the Ancient Near East, Greece and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

. Chapter 4

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Architectural Character The architecture of the Persians was columnar, and
thus vastly different from the massive arcuated ar-
In the alluvial plains of the Tigris and Euphrates chitecture of the Mesopotamian peoples they con-
stone and timber suitable for building were rare Of quered. Aat timber roofs rather than vaults served
unobtainable except by importation. There was, for coverings, which allowed columns to be slender
however, an abundance of clay which, compressed in and graceful, while with their help rooms could be
moulds and either dried in the sun or kiln-fired, large where necessary, and of square proportions
provided bricks for every kind of structure. Besides rather than elongated as the Mesopotamian brick
massive, towered fortifications, the outstanding con- vaults demanded. For ceilings, wooden brackets and
structions were temple-complexes or palaces, tem- beams carried by the columns supported a covering
ples being typical of Babylonian architecture and of clay on a bedding of reeds on logs or planks (p.90).
palaces 9f Assyrian. Buildings were raised on mud- The use of double mud-brick walls for stability, as at
brick platforms, and the chief temples had sacred Persepolis, may have allowed small windows.just
'ziggurats' (p.68), artificial mountains ma~ up of J below ceiling level without their appearing 'on 'the
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sites, but used sparingly. 97894 60001
tiered, rectangular stages which rose in number from severe external facades. Stone was plentiful on the
one to seven in the course of Mesopotamian history. ll:pland for such puTP,oses.as
Apart from the fortifications and the ziggurats, build- fire-temples and palace platforms, door and \;ndow
ings of all types ,,:,ere arranged round'large and small surrounds, and for richly ornate columns and relief,
courts, the rooms narrow and thick-walled, carrying sculpture, often with figures on a modest scale. The
brick barrel vaults and sometimes domes. The roofs Persians were at first relatively inexperienced crafts-
were usually flat outside, except where domes pro- men, and drew upon the superior skills ofthe·peoples
truded. Alternatively, in early or commonplace of their empire; many of the usages and features
buildings, palm logs supported rushes and packed demonstrate derivation from Egyptian, :Mesopota-
clay served forcovetings, or, for the best work, cedar mian, Syrian, Ionian, Greek and other sources.
and other fine timber was laboI:iously imported. It would be accurate to claim that the architectural
Burnt brick was used sparingly for facings or where character of the major buildings erected during many
special ~tress was expected. Walls were whitewashed centuries in Mesopotamia, and during the Achaeme-
or, as with the developed ziggurat, painted in colour. nian period in Iran, exemplify the two main traditions
Essentially, architecture was arcuated, the true of the Near East as a whole, that of the alluvial river
arch with radiating voussoirs having been known by plains and that of the whole highland zone respective-
the third millennium Be. For want of stone, columns ly. These were the traditions of clay and wood.
were not used, excepnn a few in~nces in late Assy-
rian Neo-Babylonian work. Towers or flat buttress
strips were commonly vertically panelled and fin-
ished in stepped battlements above and stone ~inths Examples
below, with colossal winged bulls guarding the chief
portals; in palaces the alabaste-r plinths or dadoes of The architecture of the ancient Near East is consi-
state courts and chambers bore low-relief carving, dered under the following headings:
the walls above them being painted internally with
bands of continuous friezes on the thin plaster cover- Early Mesopotamian (fifth to second millennia BC)
ings. Facing with pOlychrome glazed bricks, intro- Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian (c. 1859-539 BC)
duced by the Assyrians,..was another mode of decora- Early Anatolian and Hittite (c. 3250-c. 1170 BC)
tion, especially favoured by the Neo-E!abylonians in Canaanite, Phoenician and Israelite (c. 3250-587
Jieu of sculptured stone slabs, since in Babylonia BC)
stone was scarcer than in Assyria. Syro-Hittite (c. 1170-745 BC)




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~L UrmJa
Zincirli· .Sakje-geUji . .9
MTS. :AlaI8kh:c:arChemiSh K~o~sabad M E 0 I A

For Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam’s Private use only, www.pmu.edu

Antioch.". I:' .Nlneveh
• Aleppo '" ASS Y R I A PARTHIA
CYPRUS Ras Shamra!tY'~ • Nimrud
SYRIA .9.... Ashur
Marl. '1;. oEcbatana
Mediterranea~blo .:!
<- '1
Ty' '" Bag!;ldad
Sea ,f -\.CtesiPhon~LAM
Samarja!:Jericho·- .r"·· ~ ~BabY"lOn -Susa PERSIA
JerusalemoflDead "'" oNippur
If Sea
e J. Warka
I. --='Ur oPasargadae
Mem his o '"t:ridu Persepoliso
I 4

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,. A R A B A
o _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 500miles
L ~'

The ancient Near East

Urartian (C. 85(}"c. 600 Be) emergence of the tripartite plan, having subsidiary
Phrygian (c. 75(}"c. 650 Be) rooms on either side of the cella: this plan was to
Median and Persian (c. 750-c. 350 Be) become standard. Here too was first manifested the
Seleucid. Parthian and Sassanian (312 BC-AD 641) embellishment of the exterior by alternating niches
... and buttresses. The exact orientation of a Mesopota-
mian temple was of great religious significance from
this time onward. The predilection for established
Early Mesopotamian Architecture sites led to enduring continuity in the s~tes of temples,
themselves the nucleus each of its own city.
Eridu is the first significant example of the initial Warka (Uruk: the Biblical Erech) was by far the
association of the Mesopotamian tradition in archi- largest of the Sumerian cities which eventually, in the
tecture with that of the Sumerians. A succession of Early Dynastic Period (c. 2900-2340 Be). had a
remains of temples has been excavated dating back perimeter of over 9km (6 miles). About one-third of
probably earlier than any yet known elsewhere in this great area was occupied by temples and other
Surner. Temple XVI, the earliest to be uncovered in public buildings. The two major areas of the city with
its entirety, already reveals the central feature of the important buildings were the Eanna and the Anu
typical Mesopotamian temple, the 'cella' or sanctu- precincts, associated with the mother goddess and
ary, with an altar in a niche and a central offering- the sky god respectively. and dating back to the late
table with traces of burning. The later temples in this fifth millennium BC. By the late Uruk (or Protoliter-
sequence at Eridu are on a much larger scale, with the ate A and B) period the Eanna precinct had become




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, . 25




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o I
100 FT

o 20 MT


C BC 2125




© BIC 13 T.H CENT.



an impressive grouping of temples, larger than any and with layers of matting at intervals to improve
previously built. Cones of baked clay were set in mud cohesion. Its sides were slightly convex, giving an
plaster over many of the wall faces in the Eanna added effect of mass, with broad shallow comer but-
precinct temples, forming a distinctive mosaic dec- tresses. Weeper-holes through the brickwork al-
oration. One of the most striking examples of this is lowed for drainage and the slow drying out of the
the so-called Pillar Temple, which stood on a terrace interior: this is a likelier explanation than the theory
or platform and included two rows of massive col- of the excavator, Woolley, that trees were planted on
umns, 2.6m (Sft 6in) in diameter. Their great girth the stages of the ziggurat as the sacred·mountain,. and
and the primitive way in which they are constructed, required regular watering.
with biicks laid radially to form an approximate cir- Close to the ziggurat precinct at Ur stood a build-
cle, suggest a hesitant and experimental approach to ing with rooms corbel-vaulted in kiln-fired brick and
an advance in building techniques, this being the approached down long flights of steps, The floors had

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oldest surviving evidence of free-standing columns. to be raised hurriedly, to avoid the Euphrates flood
However, the pattern of cone mosaics clearly sug- water. This is usually described as the mausoleum of
gests imitation of a palm trunk. The Anu 'ziggurat' is the kings of the powerful Tbird Dynasty of Ur,
more typically Mesopotamian in its tripartite plan for although there is no proof that they were buried in
the temple: it is in fact not a ziggurat at all, but a series the city.
of temples, each built on top ofthe preceding one and The Temple Complex,lschali (p.71B), ofthe early
each on a high platform. second millennium BC, was of the terrace type, with-
The White Temple (p.6SA), the best preserved in out a ziggurat. It was rectangular Ll plan, with a large
the Anu series, may be said to illustrate the origin of main terrace court and an upper one in which the
the ziggurat, or temple-tower, in the prehistoric temple lay at right angles to the chief axis. On the
Mesopotamian temple set on its platform. The con- corresponding side of the main court there were two
cept of the ziggurat may well have combined two minor courts, and all were lined with rooms.
separate functions, the religious OJ'Ie being the re- The Temple Oval at Kbafaje (p.71A), north..,ast of
creation of a sacred mountain in the flat alluvial Baghdad, was an unusual complex, dating from the
plain, and the secular one being to provide a perma- Early Dynastic and subsequent periods. Within the
nent by
reminder to theVKN BPO
populace of thePvt Limited,
and economic pre-eminence of the temple. The
social' www.vknbpo.com . 97894
ovals the layout was rectilinear, 60001
the comers oriented
to the four cardinal points. Of three ascending ter-
White Temple platform had sloping sides, three of race levels, the lowest made a forecourt approached
which had flat buttresses; a subsidiary broall square . through an arched and towered gateway from the
platform of similar height overlapped the north cor- town, with a many-roomed building on one side,
ner, served by a long flight of easy steps from which a either administrative or a dwelling for the chief
circuitous ramp led off from an intermediate landing. priest. The second terrace, wholly surrounded by
The temple, originally whitewashed, had an end-to- rooms used as workshops and stores, had at its fur-
end hall with a span of 4.5 m (15 ftr, flanked on both ther end the temple platform about 3.6m (12ft) high.
sides by a series of smaller rooms, three of which Near its staircase, against the side of the temple
contained stairways leading to the roof. Of four en- terrace, was an external sacrificial altar, while else-
trances, the chief was placed asymmetrically on one where in the court were a well and two basins for
long side, giving a 'bent-axis' approach to the sanctu- ritual ablutions. Some special sanctity seems to have
ary, marked by an altar platform 1.2m (4ft) high, in attached to the Temple Oval, for before its construc-
the north comer of the hall. Centrally nearby was a tion. the whole area was dug down to virgin soil,
brick offering table, adjoined by a low semicircular through the accumulated depth of earlier building
hearth. Shallow buttresses formed the principal dec- levels, and then filled with clean sand; foundations of
oration of the hall and external walls. The platform a depth greater than structually requisite were laid in
stood 13m (42ft 6in) high, an impressive podium. the sand, and clay packed down against the walls.
The Ziggurat and Precinct of Ur (p.68B), already Thus the purity of the soil beneath the temple was
very old, were extensively remodelled by Urnammu assured. The later temple at Ischali had largely simi-
(c. 2125 ·BC) and his successors. The complex com- lar arrangements, though not within an oval peri-
prised the ziggurat and its court, a secondary court meter. Just north-east of the Temple Oval stood the
attached to it, and three great temples. All these Temple of the moon god Sin at Khafaje, with ten
stood on a great rectangular platform at the heart of successive phases, five dating to the late prehistoric
an oval-shaped walled city, itself about 6.1 m (20 ft) (Jemdet Nasr) period and five to the three phases of
above the surrounding plain. The ziggurat, 62 m X the Early Dynastic period. Thus Khafaje illustrates
43 m (205 ft x 141 ft) at its base, and about 21 m the northward extension of urban life centred upon
(70ft) high, carried the usual temple on its summit the city temple, from its first beginnings in Sumer.
and had the normal orientatibn. The ziggurat at Ur The hallmark of Sumerian architecture in the Early
had a solid core of mud brick, covered with a skin of Dynastic period, but neither before nor after, was the
burnt brickwork 2.4m (Sft) thick, laid in bitumen plano-convex mud brick: these were laid in herring-

bone pattern, or sometimes with three diagonally laid stituting the royal archives, one of the major sources 'r'
courses, all leaning in one direction, followed by two of historical evidence uncovered in the ancient Near
or three courses laid flat, with their convex sides East. There was the indirect access characteristic of
upwards, thus acting as an imperfect bonding. palaces in the ancient Near East, preventing the
At Tepe Gawra in northern Mesopotamia, at a shooting of missiles from without into the great fore-
time approximately contemporary with the earliest court. The section of the palace devoted to the pri-
levels at Warka, the first important manifestation of vate apartments of the royal family was embellished
monumental religif)us architecture appeared, where with mural paintings displaying contacts with the
in Level XIII three contiguous temples, the Northern Minoan civilisation of Crete, then at its height: Next
Temple, the Central Temple and the Eastern Shrine, to this section were the:offices of the civil service,
formed a group unique at that ~early date. Bricks of a including two rooms with brick benches and yielding
special size were used for these three temples. tablets showing that here the young recruits were

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The Royal Cemetery at Ur (Early Dynastic III taught the slow, painful mastery of the Akkadian
period) displays at its best the engineering skills of syllabary. The layout of the palace as a whole exem-
Sumerian architects. The stone used in the royal plifies the typical 1-1esopotamian arrangement of
tombs, at a time when brickwork was more and more rooms round a succession of courtyards, providing
superseding stone, was limestone, never dressed and light, air and means 6t access. Rooms must have been
only roughly split after quarrying. This use of rubble gloomy inside, b~' doorways were high and only
masonry makes all the more remarkable the ability of partially covered ;with matting; most of the palace
the Sumerian builders to roof a tomb chamber with a was probably of one storey only.
vault or dome. The true arch was known, and so too The four centuries of Kassite rule in Babylonia (c.
was the true barrel-vault, in stone, mud brick and 1595-1171 BC) were undistinguished in art and
burnt brick. Where the tomb itself, set at the foot of a architecture generally, being marked by restorations
shaft, had more than one room, the connecting doors at Vr and elsewhere, but at the new capital of Dur
were often spanned by an arch. However, no chrono- Kurigalzu, 32 km (20miles) west of present-day
logical sequence of the royal tombs at Dr can be Baghdad, the royal palace has some new features,
drawn up on the basis of the construction of their including a court bordered on two sides by an
Digitized bywasVKN BPO
only Pvt Limited,
roofs: corbel-vaulting, a more primitive method than
the true barrel-vault, used not for some of www.vknbpo.com
kingdom . 97894
of Elam, with its capital at Susa.60001
ambulatory with square pillars. To the east lay the
Nearby was
the royal tombs but also very extensively in the Third the Ziggurat or Tchoga-ZanhU (p.68C), of the thir-
Dynasty ofUr. In one of the royal tombs ofthe Early teenth century BC, built by Untash-Gal. The reo -,.-
Dynastic III cemetery at V r a wooden frame was markably complete remains give a fuller and more
found on the floor, perhaps used as centering. Two authentic picture of the upper parts of a ziggurat than
examples of the use of an apse were found. The dome were previously available. There were five tiers, the
is best exemplified by one tomb chamber found in- lowest shallower than the rest, each mounted on a
tact: just as the principle of the true arch had been plinth. The base is 107 m (350 ft) square and the total
mastered by the Sumerian architects, so too had the height was about 53 m (174 ft). Rights ofstairs, reces-
use of pendentives. sed in the mass, led to the top ofthe first tier on the
At TeO A,mar (Eshnunna), in the Diyala valley, centre of each front, but only that on the south-west
three sequences of temples span the Early Dynastic led to the second tier, while the rest ofthe height had
period. In the Early Dynastic II period the Square to be scaled on the south-east, the principal facade.
Temple was designed round an interior court with
two shrines added to the original one. Here a large
cache of statues of provincial Sumerian style had
been preserved. Assyrian Architecture
The usual plan of Mesopotamian temple before the
end of the Early Dynastic period had an indirect or In the second miDennium Be, covering the Old Assy-
'bent axis' approach, with the entrance in one of the rian and Middle Assyrian periods, the Syrian state
longer walls. But later it became normal to have the had to struggle for its existence. Though its art and
entrance, at one end, giving a long, straight approach architecture were closely bound to those of the south,
to the altar. distinctive traits began to manifest themselves.
The Palace at Marl was founded in the late third Polychrome ornamental brickwork. introduced by
millennium Be and endured until its destruction by the Assyri,ans, had its origins in these early centuries,
Hammurabi of Babylon (c. 1757 BC). This great although the second great innovation, the use of high
building combined within its walls the functions of plinths or dadoes of great stone slabs placed on edvp
royal residence; centre for receptions and audiences, and usually carved with low-relief sculpture. did not ~,
offices and a school for the civil service, servants' appear until the reign of Ashumasirpal II (c. 883-859
quarters and numerous store-rooms; in some rooms BC). Temples both with and without ziggqrats were
were found the thousands of cuneiform tablets con- built in Assyria, but by the Late Assyrian period

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A. (above) The Temple

Oval at Khafaje. Third
millennium Be. See p.69
B. (nght) The Temple
Complex at Ischali. Early
second millennium Be.

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A. Gypsum relief from throne room at NW Palace, Nimrod (c. 879·BC). See p.74

1. N.w. PALACE
2. S.w. PALACE

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B. Nimrud: plan of the citadel. See p.74


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A. Fort Shalmaneser, NimrudBPO Pvtcentury
plan and elevation of west gate. See p.74
Be): www.vknbpo.com . 97894
C. Tell Rimah: spiral column
decoration of brickwork.



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B. Fort Shalmane~e.r, Nimrud: plan of west fort


(911-612 BC) palaces were muct. more numerous ted buildings can be dated to the late third millen- .
and important, emphasising the central role of the nium BC (Third Dynasty of Ur). By the early second
monarchy. Recent excavations at Tell Rimah have millennium BC, however, the temple was built en-
revealed the use of brick barrel-vaulting on a con- tirely with radial vaulting.
siderable scale. . The close relationship between the ziggurat and
The City of Ashur was the ancient religious and the temple at its foot is typically Assyrian, a precursor
national centre of the Assyrian state, always impor- of the tradition best known at Nimrud and Khorsa-
tant wherever the administrative capital might be. It bad. But the ornamentation of the facades is unique
was built on a high rocky promontory above the in its virtuosity of craftsmanship and design. In all
Tigris, being surrounded during the second millen- there were 277 engaged columns, single or in groups,
nium Be by a strong defensive wall. An outer wall the fifty large columns being made of carved bricks
was added in the ninth century Be with a further laid in complex palm-trunk and spiraliform patterns

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extension to protect a residential suburb, the fron- (p.73C). The temple itself was of Babylonian plan,
tage along the Tigris becoming 3 km (1.8 miles). But the technical expertise in mud brick according with
the first shrine on the site of a temple dedicated to this southern origin .
.Ish tar • goddess of both love and war, was built in The City oC NImrud (Calah) (pp.72, 73, 75), was
the Early Dynastic period. The ziggurat temple of restored and enlarged by Ashumasirpal II (c. 833-
Ashur, the national god, was restored by Tukulti- 859 BC), who made it the capital of his kingdom.
Ninurtal (c. 1250-1210 BC). In his reign aA<l in Excavations at Nimrud have been mostly within the
subsequent generations Ashur displayed the ability citadel (p.72A), which had an area 550m x 320m
of the Assyrian architects to experiment with archi- (1800ft x 1050ft) and was situated at the south-west
tectural combinations in a way which demonstrated corner of the outer town, whose wall had a perimeter
intentional divergences from the Babylonian pro- of no less than 7.5 km (43f4miles), enclosing an area
totypes. The double temple of Anu and Adad had of 358 hectares (895 acres). The North-West Palace
twin ziggurats, with their related temples spanning (p.72A,B) was built by Ashurnasirpal II as his chief
between them. There were two further temples with- residence; it comprised a large public court, flanked
out ziggurats and two enormous palaces, one being on the north side by a modest ziggurat with associated

At TellDigitized
Rimah, in theby VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com
records, and on .the
97894 60001
primarily for administrative purposes. temples, and by a row of rooms later used to house
Sinjar district west ofMosul, administrative south side by the
an area densely settled throughout prehistoric times, huge throne-room and the private wing of the palace.
Shamshi-Adad I, the strongest ruler of Assyria in the This was to become the traditional plan of Assyrian
early second millennium BC, built a temple of impos- palaces, for the first time adorned with slabs carved
ing proportions and distinctive design overlying ear- with scenes of war and the chase and domestic scenes
lier building remains constituting a citadel mound; (pp.72A, 75).
and in the next generation a palace was built that has Fort Shalmaneser, Nimrud (p.73A,B) was built by
yielded archives of tablets listing issues of wine ra- Shalmaneser III (859-824 Be) outside the citadel,
tions, foreshadowing the wine lists of Nimrud, a mil- which he used as the administrative capital: the Fort
lennium later. This palace is paralleled in its plan not served as palace, barracks, arsenal and storehouse.
at Mari but at more distant Ur. There was also an The palace wing included the usual vast throne-
outer town. The necessarily restricted area of excava- room, and, though in this reign relief sculpture was
tions on the south side of the central mound, in levels much less in evidence, there was a magnificent panel
preceding the temple, revealed three main phases of of glazed bricks (p.79B) depicting the king twice, on
buildings with remarkably sophisticated 'pitched- either side of the sacred tree, a favourite motif of
brick' vaulting, a domical vault of the second phase Assy'rian art. The rest of Fort Shalmaneser consisted
being especially well preserved. The bricks used were of four courtyards, one entirely of store-rooms and
smaller and thinner than those in the walls, clearly in the others surrounded by quarters for the royal
order that they could be supported by the adhesion of guard, including ablutions and 'garages' for the
the mud mortar for the requisite length of time during army's chariots.
construction. This technique is better known, in' At Imgur-EnIiI (Balaw.t), 40 km (25 miles) west of
rather simpler form, in the arch of Ctesiphon, near Mosul, Ashurnasirpal II and his son Shalmaneser III
Baghdad, of the sixth century. Whereas in the more, built themselves a country residence, with a palace
usual technique the voussoirs are laid radially, here and temple. Here three pairs of massive wooden
the bricks are laid with their faces along the long axis gates were embellished with bronze bands decorated
of the vault, each ring of bricks being slanted for in relief in the repousse technique, illustrating ninth-
partial support by its predecessor. Construction century BC Assyrian campaigns. Among the details
usually continued from both ends, supported by each provided is the earliest known representation of
end wall. Fans of brickwork from each corner sup- Urartian fortresses.
ported these vaults, with their very flat profile, and The Temple oC Ezida, Nimrud (p.72B) was built
resembled pendentives. These 'pitched-brick' vaul- towards the end of the ninth century BC, and in-

10--. - - - - 1"·1"---- --

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Digitized by VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001


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Digitized by VKN BPO Pvt Limited, www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001


o so ISO 1$0 nET

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fULL tlCAVAnON I I,.~C. 8~ CENT.I ~. f-INAL PHASE. lAm. fURl"tR t.CAVAnOH)

cluded in its main wing the double sanctuary of Nabu wood centering (p.77C). This device was well known
(god of writing) and his consort. Off the oourt in front to the Egyptians too.
of this sanctuary was·a well, interpreted as the source Only stone dadoes so far have been mentioned; at
of water to be mixed with the very fine clay used for the foot of the facade of the three chief temples there
the tablets for writing by the scribes in cuneiform. were high plinths projecting from the wall, faced in
There was a north wing, with comparable double polychrome glazed bricks portraying sacred motifs
sanctuary, used for the rituals of the New Year festiv- and serving as pedestals for high cedar masts prob-
al each spring. . ably ringed with ornamental bronze bands, on the
The City of Khorsabad (p.76C) con'tained the most likely reconstruction (p.76F.J. The wall behind
next important buildings in Assyria; it was built by was panelled with a se!jes of abutted half-columns, a
Sargon II (722-705 BC) and abandoned at his death. revival of an ancient motif originating in the imitation
It was square-planned, with a defensive perimeter, of palm logs. .

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and covered nearly one square mile, but this area was It is worth noting that the only ziggurat ofthe city is
never entirely occupied by buildings. There were two associated with the palace temples, as at Nimrud, and
gateways in each tower-serrated wall (p.77D,E), ex- not with the large Nabu temple nearby. On a square
cept where the place of one of them on the north-west base of 45 m (148 ft) side, the seven-tiered ziggurat
wall was taken by an extensive citadel enclosure, rose to the same height (45 m, including the shrine at
containing all but one of the town's chief buildings. the top), ascended by a winding ramp 1.8 m (6ft)
These comprised a palace for the king's brother, who wide. The successive tiers were panelled and battle-
was his vizier; a temple to Nabu; several official mented and were painted in different colours on the
buildings, and, dominating them all, the Palace of plastered faces (p.76A,G).
Sargon, a complex of large and small courts, corri- A structural peculiarity of Khorsabad was that the
dors and rooms, covering 23 acres (p.76). Each ofthe mud bricks were not left to dry hard in the sun but
buildings was raised upon a terrace, that of the Palace were laid-ina pliable state, with mort~ rarely_u;;d,
of Sargon reaching-to the level of the' town walls, surely indicating a certain urgencY about this building
which the palace site bestrode, and was approached programme. Probably this is explicable on internal
by broad ramps. The main entrance to the palace political grounds, the consolidation of royal bur-
grand court was flanked by great towers and guarded eaucracy against the old power of the" aristocrafY,
by man-headedDigitized by nearly
winged bulls, VKN3.8m BPO Pvt
(12ft 6 in)Limited,
through www.vknbpo.com
the abandonment of Nimiitd . 97894
(Kalhu) 60001
by Sar-
high, supporting a bold, semi-circular arch decorated gon II, in favour of a virgin site. Kiln-fired bricks
with brilliantly-coloured glazed bricks. were used liberally for facings ~nd pavements. Stone
The palace had three main parts; each abutting the blocks up to 23 tonnes in weight and 2.7 m (9 ft) long
grand court. On the left on entering was a group of were used for the palace platform. Within the palace
three large and three small temples; on the right, the relief-carved orthostats were set in place and
service quarters and administrative offices; and carved, remarkably, before the brick superstructure
opposite, the private and residential apartments, was built. Cedar, cypress, juniper and maple were
with the state chambers behind. The state chambers used for the palace roofs, sometimes with painted
had their own court, almost as large as the first, round
which were dado slabs over 2.1 m (7 ft) high bearing
beams: timber seeins to have been plentiful. The
perimeter wall of the city was over 20m (66ft) thick,
reliefs of the king and his oourtiers. The lofty throne- with a dressed stone footing of 1.1m (3ft 6in) and
room, about 49m X 1O.7m (160ft x 35ft), was the mud-brick superstructure.
outermost of the state suite planned around its own The City of Nineveh was. made the capital of the
internal oourt. It was probably one of the few apart- Assyrian empire by Sargon's son Sennacherib (705-
ments to have a flat timber ceiling, for fine timber was 681 BC) who spent the first two years of his reign on
rare and costly. The plastered walls bore a painted the work of raising mighty walls and, on the citadel
decoration of a triple band of friezes, framed in run- now called Kuyunjik, building his 'Palace without a
ning orn~ment, about 5.5m (18ft) high overall, Rival' (the South-West Palace). Long inscriptions
around the room above a stone dado or reliefs describing this palace were recovered during the ex-
(p.79C). Walls were thick, about 6m (20ft) on aver- cavations made in the nineteenth century, and the
age. In the Grand and Temple Courts deooration was considerable labour of the building operations, espe-
oontrived by sunken vertical panelling on the cially that of making a secure found.tion platform on
whitewashed walls and towers, finishing in stepped the "mound formed by successive levels of earlier
battlements .above and stone plinths below, plain or occupation, is stressed therein; it is also depicted in
carved (p.76D). reliefs now in the British Museum (pp. 75J, 77B).
Within th'e mud-brick platforms of the palace there Other reliefs show campaigns and hunting in greater
were jointed terracotta drains to carry away rain- detail than ever before. More palaces were built at '.~.
water, joining larger drains of burnt brick covered Nineveh by Sennacherib's immediate successors,
with vaults which were slightly pointed and in which Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal. In the latter's reign
the brick courses were laid obliquely, to avoid using relief sculpture in Assyria attained its apogee in

A. (right) The Ishtar Gate.

Babylon (rebuilt by
. --1
563 BC). See p.8t

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B. Glazed brick panel from throne room suite. Fort C. Wall painting, Palace of Sargon II, Khorsabad
Shalmaneser, Nimrud. See p. 74 (722-705 BC). See p. 78


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scenes of lion hunting and of the bloody campaigns Early Anatolian and Hittite
against the kingdom of Elam, culminating in the Architecture
destruction of Susa' (c. 640 BC). Soon befofe the fall
of Assyria, Nineveh was given an extra rampart along The Hittites, although the best-known of the ancient
its vulnerable east side, but this was never finished. peoples of Anatolia, were not the earliest inhabi-
The city fell finally only after a prolonged attack by tants: they inherited on their arrival (c. 2000 BC) a
the Medes and Babylonians in 612 Be, and was never long tradition of building. In contrast to Mesopota-
to rise again. mia, both stone and timber were available in abund-
Water supply had long been a major concern of the ance, and in the most densely forest -covered areas
Assyrian kings: Ashurnasirpal II dug a canal from the timber-frame construction mHst have been normaL
river Zab to irrigate the land close to Nimrud, while One simple unit which seems to have been Anatolian
an arched aqueduct of stone construction, built by in origin and which appeared very early was the
Sennacherib at lerwan, may be said to anticipate 'megaron', a rectangular room with central hearth

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Roman achievements of this class. and door at one end, set in a deep porch formed by
the prolongation of the side walls to make 'antae·.
This unit is too simple not to have been evolved
Neo-Babylonian Architecture independently in different regions, though it was
suited to the extremes of the Anatolian climate. The
NeQ-Babylonian architecture was naturally des- best-known examples have been found at Troy, from
cended from that of the earlier centuries in Mesopo- the First Settlement (c. 3250-2600 BC) onwards, and
tamia, but it derived much also from the architecture at Beycesultan, in south-western Anatolia. Village
of the Assyrians. houses in much ofTurkey today are of mud brick with
The City of Babylon, whose ruins differ from those extensive use of timber, especially for the flat roofs;
of earlier cities largely because of the use of Q.u..J!!t.. and where of two storeys, these houses have their
brickh was rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar II (605-563 living-rooms upstairs, the ground floor being princi-
BCT; for it had been th'broughly 'Oestroyed by ~ll.­ pally for kitchens and store-rooms, and often also for
nacherib (689 BC). It had an,inner and outer part, animals. A largely comparable arrangement has been
each heavily fortified. The imler town was approx- found in the merchant colony established by traders
imately square byinVKN BPO
plan, of aboutPvt Limited,
1300m (4350ft) www.vknbpo.com
from Ashur at Kanesh. (Kultepe),
97894 60001whose houses in-
sides, containing the principal buildings, the E,l!P.h,- cluded an archive for their business records, kept on
""" rates river fanning the west side. The few main clay tablets baked in an oven.
\. streets intersected starkly .atnglh angles, terminating Most of the surviving monuments of Hittite archi-
in tower-framed bronze gates where they met the tecture date from the fourteenth and thirteenth cen-
walls.' Between the main stleets tiered dwellings, turies Be, the period of the 'Empire'. Mesopotamian
business houses, temples, chapels and shrinesJostled influences were strong in Hittite building, but there
in lively diso~der. The principal sites lined the river was much that was individual. In important struc-
front, and betiind them ran a grand processional way, tures massive stone masonry was used, though the
irsYista closed on the north by the Ishtar Gate upper parts of walls, even of highland town fortifica-
(p.79A), glowing in coloured glazed bricks, pat- tions, were commonly of sun-dried bricks in timber
terned with yellow and white bulls and dragons in framing; the chief remains are of town walls and
relief upon a blue ground~-Hereabouts there were temples.
palace-citadels, and connected with Nebuchadnez- The Palace of Beycesultan, Level V (c. 1900-1750
zar's great palace complex on the water side was that Be) is an outstanding example of the use of timber as
marvel of the ancient world, the Hanging Gardens, reinforcement for walls constructed of mud brick
275m x 183m (900ft x 600ft) oveiall;·oaInong"'ifS with footings of limestone. Some resemblance to the
. -{.... maze of rooms was a vast throne-room, 52 m x 17 m palaces of Minoan Crete is discernible, though not a
.':'.10 {"
"'1 . . . ').)
(170ft x 56ft), its long facade decorated with poly-
chrome glazed bricks. The central sites on the river
close one. As in pottery and other artefacts so in
architecture this fertile region of south-western Ana-
\ Y, front were occupied by the chief temple of the god of tolia maintained a tradition distinct from that of the
the city, Marduk, and, to the north of it, the expan- Hittite homeland in central Anatolia.
sive precinct where rose the associated ziggurat, the At Biiyilld<ale (Turkish: 'great castle'), Bogazkiiy,
'Tower of B.abe[,. The celebrated ziggurat appears to the ingenuity of the Gennan excavators over many
lia'Ve$be-en---on"'e""' combining the triple stairway seasons has made it possible to gain a sound grasp of
approach and massive lower tier customary in early the layout of the citadel of the Hittite capital of
Mesopotamia, with upper stages arranged spirally Hattusas. A fottified double gateway admitted to an
J' according to Assyrian practice. The plan was square, entrance court crossed by red marble flagstones and
I' of 90 m (295 ft) sides, and there were seven stages in thence through a hall to a lower court. At its north-
all, the summit temple being faced with blue glazed east end was a gate building with triple gateway,
bricks. admitting to a middle and upper court, the private_

sector. A large audience hall, almost 32 m (104 ft) temple at Alaca Hiiyiik.
square, opened on to the middle court: this seems to The Open-air Sanctuary, Yazilikaya (p.80D), ab-
have had five rows of five wooden columns, sup- out 1.6km (1 mile) north-east of Bogazkoy, is adeep
ported by parallel walls. There were three archives, re-entrant in an almost sheer limestone face, with
in the smallest of which were labels indicating the processions of some seventy gods and goddesses,
original cataloguing of the tablets. By the thirteenth about 1 m (3 It) high, carved at eye level on the faces,
century Be the entire citadel rock was occupied by converging on a rear panel. A lesser sanctuary with
these governmental and residential buildings, an area reliefs adjoined on the east. Screening the groves was
of up to 250m x 150m (810ft x 490ft), the upper a temple, comprising three buildings in a series, link-
part being denuded to the bare rock. ed by walls: a deep propylaeum; the temple proper,
The outer Town WaDs of Bogazkoy (c. 1360 BC) with rooms on three sides of a court in which stood a
(p.80B) enclosed some 300 acres. They were of case- walled cell and ftom which a lefthand turn was made

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mate construction, like those of Mesopotamia, being towards the sacred groves through a second, pillared
double and connected by cross-walls, the compart- propylaeum; and a large sanctuary, independently
ments thus formed being packed with rubble. Square approached. The propylaeum unit occurs also in the
towers projected at frequent intervals, and some 6m architecture of Minoan Crete and Mycenaean
(20 ft) in front was a lesser wall, with its own minor Greece (q.v.).
towers. The outer shell of the main wall was particu-
larly strong, built oflarge, rock-faced, close-jointed
stones up to 1.5 m (5 ft) long, varying in shape from
the rectangular to the polygonal. The upper parts of Canaanite, Phoenician and Israelite
the walls were of brick, and fragments of models Architecture
provide good evidence that towers and walls finished
in crenellations similar to the Mesopotamian. Five The architecture of the Levant in the second millen-
gateways partially survive. These were flanked by nium BC, of the regions now included within the
great towers and had peculiar elliptical openings of south-eastern fringes of Turkey, Syria, Lebanon,
which the corbellated upper parts stood on pairs of Jordan and Israel, cannot strictly be described under
enormous monolithic stone jambs (p.80A). Broad the above heading. Indeed, the Hurrians formed an
surrounded by VKN and
the portals, BPO Pvt Limited,
ornamenting www.vknbpo.com
important . 97894
element in the population, 60001
especially in
the jambs of three olthe gates were boldly projecting north Syria.
sculptures. On the 'King's Gate' was an armed figure The two Palaces at Tell Atchnna (ancient Alalakh),
on the reveal, not in fact a warrior but a god; on the in the plain of Antioch, may be ascribed to the Hur-
'Lion Gate' were foreparts of lions on the face of the rians more than to any other group. The earlier of
jambs; and on the 'Sphinx Gate' sphinxes not only these was built by Yarim-Lim, ruler of the minor
project forward but show the full body-length on the kingdom of Yamkhad and a contemporary of Ham-
reveals, thus anticipating the monsters of Assyrian murabi. It is in essence a private house, with the
times by some five centuries. public rooms in the north wing and the private rooms
Temple I, Bogazkoy (p.80E) is the largest and old- in the south, including traces of wall paintings from
est of five identified there, which have no regular the upper storey. Perhaps the most interesting fea-
orientation but show other principal features in com- ture of Yarim-Lim's palace is the use of basalt ortho-
mon. They consist of a number of rooms arranged stats in the north wing, the earliest example of a
round a central court, with cloister or corridor access tradition later occurring, as mentioned above, in Hit-
on two or more sides. In Temple I the building is tite and Assyrian buildings. In its extensive use of
girdled by a paved road beyond which are numerous timber to reinforce the mud-brick superstructure this
magazines, many still filled with great pottery jars palace was more in the Anatolian than the Mesopota-
and one containing cuneiform tablets constituting the mian tradition. The larger palace of Niqmepa, built
temple records. Asymmetrically placed was a special almost three centuries later, represents a refinement
unit of several rooms, the largest of all being a sanctu- of the design of the earlier palace and a larger, more
ary, only to be reached circuitously through adjacent public building.
smaller rooms. The sanctuary projected at one end, The Palnee at Rns Sbomra (ancient U garit), the
so that windows might give side illumination to the prosperous city on the north Syrian coast, seems to be
cult statue. Unlike Mesopotamian temples, light to transitional in plan between the palaces of Yarim-
most rooms came from deep windows on the external Lim and Niqmepa, being less advanced than the lat-
walls. The entrance was also asymmetrical, whether ter, a1thougb U garit was a much more important city
.through a simple recessed porch on the flank or, as in than Alalakh. The undoubted achievements of the
Temple I. on the front opposite the sanctuary unit. city·states of the Levant were never adequately re-
To one side of the court in Temple I stood a cell built flected in their architecture, at least as hitherto re-
of granite, as was the sanctuary unit, the building vealed by excavations. It is noteworthy that a group
elsewhere being of limestone. There was a similar of fourteen family vaults at Ugarit, all with a sbort
dramas with descending statrway and a rectangular of Yarim-Lim at Alalakh, although it is not until the
~ funerary chamber with a corbel'vaulted roof, and early first millennium BC that this unit can be dis-
outstanding in. design and execution, can undoubted- cerned in developed fORll in the context of Syro-
ly be ascribed to an Aegean element in the city's Hittite civilisation. Cultural continuity in Syria was
population, presumably merchants. Rather earlier never entirely broken after the end of the Hittite
(probably of the fifteenth century BC) were the forti- empire; unfortunately, however, the excavations at
fications of Ugarit, of rough stone masonry and in- Carchemish, which had a strong Hittite element in
cluding a well-built postern tunnel for sorties in time the population, have been sufficient only to establish
of siege. To the thirteenth century BC belong palace the sequence of the town's defences and the relative
buildings in dressed stone, which provide the earliest chronology of several groups of relief-sculptured
parallel with the better type of masonry used in Pales- orthostats. The Long Wall of sculptures depicts the
tine, first in the United Kingdom of David and Solo- victory procession of the ruler of Carchemish at that

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mon and later especially in Israel, from the tenth time, Katuwas (c. 9OOBC).
century BC onwards. The missing link between these At the Citadel of Zincirli (p.77F,G), because far
two periods was through the Phoenicians, for whose more excavated, the layout is much clearer. It was of
achievement reliance has still largely to be placed on oval plan, standing centrally on a mound in a walled
the Old Testament; the Phoenician cities, mostly town which, like so many in ancient West Asia, was
concealed beneath remains of Graeco-Roman cities completely circular. The construction of the citadel
and Crusader castles, have yet to be extensively in- walls was typical of the period in being timber-framed
vestigated. with sun-dried brick infill, standing on twO courses of
At Samaria, founded by Omri (c. 880 BC) and cut masonry on rubble foundations. Internally the
captured by the Assyrians (c. 720 BC), when the citadel was divided into defensive zones by cross-
kingdom of Israel was absorbed into the Assyrian walls, securing the approaches to an 'Upper' and a
empire, excavations have given the most coherent 'Lower' Palace, of about the eighth century Be. Each
record of the material civilisation of Israel, of which it comprised bit-hilani, two of which are particularly
was the capital. Six architectural phases have been plain in the plan ofthe Lower Palace (p.77G). These
distinguished for this period, the first two being stood on opposite sides of a large cloistered court,
and each had a two-columned por~h, with a stair on
Digitized by even
marked by the use of finely jointed and dressed
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the right, leading to a transverse hall or 60001
throne room,
At Jerusalem nothing has survived of the Temple beyond which was a range of smaller rooms including
a...J of Solomon, built by Phoenician craftsmen, with bedroom and bathroom. In front of the throne was a
- \. cedar beams imported from the Lebanon. However, circular hearth, while a hall in the Upper Palace had a
the excavations have revealed much of the long and movable iron hearth on bronze wheels. The porch
complex succession of defences of the city in the columns were of wood, with stone bases shaped
Jebusite period and after David made it the centre of either as a pair of lions or monsters, or in triple
his kingdom, although little has been found surviving ornamented stone cushions having some likeness to
of the buildings within the city's walls. Hezekiah's the earliest versions of the bases of the Classical
tunnel in the city and cisterns in the barren Negev Greek Ionic Order (q.v.). Instances of both occur at
testify to the continuing concern of the Judaean kings Tell Tayanat, west of Antioch (p.80C). Following the
for water supply, a serious weakness of Samaria. old Hittite tradition and partly contemporary Assy-
Meglddo and Hazor in the northern kingdom, and rian practice, gates were protected by staDe monsters
Lachish and TeO Beit Mersim in the southern, were and decorated by orthostats carved in relief.
among the major sites. At Ezion-Gerber, later called The City of Hamath was distinguished during its
Elath, situated at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba, a most prosperous period (c. 900-720 BC) by monu-
smelter for refining the copper from the Wadi Ara- mental buildings on the citadel, including two gate-
bah was built, surrounded by workers' quarters and ways, a probable temple and two palaces, only one of
by a protective wall, this being originally founded in which (Building II) has been entirely uncovered. The
the time of Solomon. He is said in the Bible to have main gate (Building I) had a long staircase, with a
fortified Hawr, Megiddo and Gezer, at all of which landing on the threshold, but the plan is simpler than
have been found gateways of similar multi-cham- in the cities of north Syria, such as Carchemish.
bered design, at Megiddo continuing through several Though there is the same use of orthostats, they are
subsequent phases: these comprise some of the few plain, the work of the sculptors at Hamath being
remains attributable with any certainty to his reign. almost confined to the provision of guardian lions.
There are no guard rooms on either side, though
there are flanking towers. The palace had a buttres-
-t Syro-Hittite Architecture sed facade notably lacking a columned portico.
Traces of gold leaf and fragments of red, blue and
The parched house, or 'bit-hiJani', so characteristic white plaster give a hint of the richness of decoration
of Syria, may have had its origin as early as the palace in the li~ing quarters of the palace, on the upper

floor; trom bere too probably came the throne and ridge in the middle of the Hosap valley. This is one of ''-ii,"
window grille, both carved in basalt, found thrown the few buildings which show that, although massive- T'
into the central court. The staircase evidently had ness rather than finesse seems the chief characteristic
two flights, only the lower one surviving, which gave of Drartian architecture, it does include examples of
the main evidence for the excavators' reconstruction a higher standard than the average Urartian building
of the height of the palace a880me 14.4m (47ft), with indicates. Blind windows carved on basalt monoliths,
the upperstorey being 7 m (23ft) high; a fallen pier of represented on a bronze model from Toprakkale
brickwork from the upper storey was of 48 courses. (Van), have been found tumbled down the hillside.
Hamath is a good example of many sites in the At <;:a~tepe the perimeter wall is of limestone
ancient Near East whose poor preservation makes it masonry whose joints are largely oblique, but which
difficult to grasp immediately the achievements of is finely dressed throughout. With its temple, this site
their architects. Hamath was then, as now, one of the belongs to the reign of Sarduri II who, before his

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leading cities of inland Syria. Its prosperity, and that defeats by Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria, had brought
of Syro-Hittite cities in general, rapidly declined with Urartu to the zenith of its power.
the growth of Assyrian power after 745 BC. Kannir-Blur (ancient Teishebaini) (p.86A), just
outside Erevan, is an outstanding example of an
Urartian fortress and governmental centre, with tow-
ered and buttressed perimeter wall, massive gate-
way, parade ground within the wall and ground floor
U rartian Architecture entirely occupied by store-rooms.
The Citadel of KelkaJesi, above Adilcevaz on the
The origins of the architecture of the Kingdom of north -west shore of Lake Van, is of similar date
Van, known to its Assyrian enemies as Urartu (Arar- (seventh century BC). Less typical is the large forti-
at), are as obscure as those of the kingdom itself. fied enclosure at the foot of Anzavur, near Patnos,
whose situation makes it all the more likely to have
been a military compound. This is of the time of
Fortresses Menua (c. 810-786BC).
The Citadel of Bastarn, near the north-west ex-
The Digitized by VKN
most typical buildings so farBPO
known Pvt Limited,
in Urartu are www.vknbpo.com
tremity ofIran, was built by. Rusaii
97894 (c. 60001
685-645 BC)
the numerous fortresses, many of them strategically to guard an approach road to Van. The greater part
sited round Lake Van, others being further afield, comprises massively terraced structures on a steep, .... '
round Lake Utmia in north-west Iran, and especially rocky hillside, which on the further side falls precipi-
in the Araxes valley. Massive stone masonry of cyclo- tously from its ridge to the valley below. Among
pean character was used for the lower parts of the major structures are gateways at the north and south
fortress walls, with buttresses or towers at regular ends, a columned hall and a large stable block in the
intervals (p,85A), while mud brick was used for the plain outside the. walls.
superstructure. Timber was' available for roofing,
though not so abundant as in Anatolia. Store rooms
containing huge jars of wine, oil or com are also a Temples
usual feature.
The Citadel of Van, the capital of Urartu, must Th~ most characteristic manifestation of Urartian
have been impregnable; it has a cliff along the south architecture is the temple, whose original appearance
side, and some 90m (300ft) of the Urartian walls (c. must have resembled a tall, fortified tower. There is a
800 BC) (p.85A) survives among much later work. standard plan, square and with shallow corner but-
At the foot of the west end of the citadel of Van tresses; the footings arc usually of very fine, smoothly
stands a massive stone podium, perhaps a shrine but dressed basalt ashlar, of an altogether finer quality
more probably a form of barbican protecting the than the walls of the fortresses.
entrance to the citadel and its water supply from a The Temple at Kayalidere, which is of rougher
spring: this was built by Sarduri I, the founder of Van masonry, has a facade over 12m (40ft) long, with
as capital of the kingdom, and some of the blocks are walls 3.2 m (10 ft 6 in) thick, while the interior of the
5.2m (17ft) long, being about 1.2m x 1.2m (4ft x sanctuary is barely 5 m (16ft 4in) square. Such mas-
4 ft) in section. The fortifications of the citadel above, sive walls themselves imply great height, and al-
like many of the fortresses of Urartu, were almost though an Assyrian relief depicting the temple of
certainly the work of Menua, whose reign (c. 810- Haldi, ,chief god of Urartu, at the city of Musasir,
786 BC), together with ihat of Rusa II (c. 685-645 suggests much squatter proportions, this was due to
Be), saw the two main periods of building activity the confined space of the register in the relief. ,'~_
that seem to have occurred in the history of Urartu. The Achaemenian Fire Temple at Naksh-i-Rustam
At Cavu~epe, south-east of Van, there stands a (p.91C) suggests that the proportions of the standard
long, narrow citadel crowning the summit of.a rocky Urartian temple may well have been a double cube,

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A. Karmir·Blur: plan of citadel (c. 685-645 BC). See p.84 B. The Cyrus Tomb: NW and SW elevations.

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A. Altintepe: plan of temple and audience hall (seventh B. Kayalidere: plan and sections of tomb (c.700 Be).
century BC). See Seep.88

C. Ketkalesi: Urartian relief with inscription of Rusa II (c.685-645 BC) and background of battlemented fortress. See p.88

and if, as the relief of the Musasir temple suggests, At Giriktepe, close to Patnos, a smaller palace has
the Vrartian temples had gabled roofs, these may been excavated: its large hall, decorated with doubly
have resembled that of the Tomb of Cyrus at Pasarga- ,recessed niches, shows similarities to the architecture
dae (q.v.), though in wood instead of stone. of the large citadel of H..anlu (c. 1100-800 BC), a
Apart from the temple at Kayalidere, there are major site just south of Lake Vrmia, in a region from
temples of the standard plan at Anzavur (with the which the expanding kingdom of Vrartu may have
annals inscription of Menua) ,i;aVU§lepe, Toprakkale
and Ailintepe (pp.85B, 87A) (with a colonnade run-
drawn some inspiration for its architecture, at least in
mud brick. il
ning round the court in which the temple stands). At Allintepe (p.87A), near Erzincan, situated by
Open-air rock-cut shrines occur at Van and else- the north-west frontier of Urartu, a palace has been
where. excavated with an audience hall 43.7m x 24.7m
The Temple .t Toprakkale is also worthy of men- (143 ft x 81 ft), with six rows of three columns having

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tion for its rusticated masonry, the centre of each their superstructure of mud brick, not wood. The
block being left rough and the joints recessed and diameter of the column bases of stone was almost
smooth. Though this occurs at Vgarit in the second l.5m (Sft), and they are spaced nearly S.2m (17ft)
millennium BC, there seems no ad.equate evidence apart. This hall seems to date from the seventh cen-
to suggest that the Vrartians did not develop this tury BC, a period of revival in V rartu not long before
independently. At Toprakkale stones of different its final eclipse.
colours, limestone and basalt, were used inlaid to
achieve a contrast.
The characteristic Urartian tomb was cut out of the
solid rock, with niches in the walls for lamps or offer- Phrygian Architecture
ings: such are the tombs in the south side of the
citadel of Van and at Kayalidere. At Altintepe there At Gordian, the Phrygian capital, the architecture
are tombs of comparable design, but of masonry and uncovered by excavations includes houses built on
built into the hillside just beneath the summit of the the 'megaron' plan, with its essential features of a
citadel. False vaults occur in the Altintepe tombs; at front porch flanked by antae prolonging the line of
an openingby VKNfloor BPO Pvt Limited,
Kayalldere there are bottle-shaped shafts accessible
only through in the of the chamber hearthwww.vknbpo.com . 97894
at or near its centre. This was suited60001
the main walls, and leading into a large room with a
to the
above (p.87B). extremes of the Anatolian climate. At one time,
The Sbamiram Su (Semiramis Canal) is the most perhaps through comparisons with modem Turkish
famous of the canals and cisterns which formed a village houses, it was ·doubted whether these ancient
rna jor part of the works of the successive Urartian megara had anything but flat roofs. The great width
kings, and was constructed by Menua to bring water and absence of central pillars might alone have sug-
from the valley of the Hosap river south-east of Van gested otherwise; the proof of gabled roofs is pro-
to the fields and gardens round the capital. This canal vided by graffi ti on walls of megara, by the roof of the
is largely visible to this day. timber tomb chamber of the great tumulus at Gor-
Sculpture was little manifest in Urartu and late in dian, supported by three gables, one in the middle
appearance. At Kefkalesi a relief (p.87C) includes a and one at each end, and by at least ten of the rock
representation of battlements, windows of narrow monuments of Phrygia (p.86C)~ including those of
slit form and doorways. A bronze model from Top- the so-called Midas City. This group of monuments
rakkale provides similar evidence of the mud-brick comprises not tombs but shrines, since the Phrygians
superstructure typical of an architedural tradition of had introduced the custom of burial in tumuli. The
which the stone footings alone normally survive, ex- great gateway of Gordian has a pronounced batter to
cept where fire (as at Kefkalesi and Karmir-Blur) has its facade. and, with the absence of niches and but-
preserved some of the brickwork. tresses at regular intervals and the relatively small
size of the stones used, these fortifications are quite
Palaces different in style and construction from the Urartian.
At Midas City the carved facades show the timbers
The Palace of Arglshti I (c. 786-764 BC) at Arin-Berd crossing at the apex of the gable, as on the graffiti at
(ancient Erebuni), the city which he founded close to Gordion, and reveal other architectural features too.
the later Karmir-Blur, is the most important Urartian One chamber is carved to imitate a house built of
palace known. It was decorated with mural paintings logs; in the so-called Tomb of Midas's Wife there are
in the formal court style adapted from that of Assyr- two shuttered windows carved in the gable; doors are
ia, with some examples of a freer genre, owing little represented as opening inwards; the so-called
or nothing to outside influences. This palace included Broken Tomb has a large chamber hewn out of the
a throne room with two entrances and a courtyard rock to represent the interior of a house, with ben-
with a wooden gallery supported by fourteen wooden ches along three sides, and in the Lion Grave there is
columns on stone bases. a carved bed inside the chamber.

A distinctive feature of Phrygian architecture was iog from Egypt; the sculptured monsters, re1ief-
. the use of terracotta tiles as ornament, represented carved orthostats and polychrome glazed brickwork
by examples from Gordian and from Pazarli, in cen- from Mesopotamia; the style of masonry indirectly
tral Anatolia; they may also be rendered as geometric perhaps from Urartu.
patterns on the facades of two of the shrines of Midas The site of Pasargodae comprises four groups of

.. City. These tiles seem to have been used as a frieze

beneath the pediment of gabled buildings. Vertical
and horizontal beams and cross-ties were used in the
structures scattered over a plain, centred round the
citadel, the residential palace, the tomb of Cyrus and
the sacred precinct respectively. Rusticated mason-
wooden framework of some. of the Phrygian buildings ry is a feature of the great platform of the citadel
of Gordian. Together with the chamber of the great (Takht-i-Suleiman), whose ambitious plan was aban-
tumulus and the ornate furniture found there they doned, presumably at the death of Cyrus (530 Be), in
attest to the wide variety of Phrygian wood-working favour of a more modest scheme in mud brick. The

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and the high level of skill achieved in an esse~tially TombofCyru. (p.86B), a simple box-like monument
Anatolian civilisation, owing much to Assyria. and of limestone 3.2m x 2.3m (10ft 6in x 7ft 6in),
perhaps also to Urartu, but at the same time preserv- gabled, and standing on a platform of six steps, is
ing its own identity. typically Achaemenian in its use of large blocks,
accurately cut, smoothly dressed, without mortar but
reinforced by swallowtail clamps oflead and iron. Its
design, based on an early type of gabled house, is
Median and Persian Architecture paralleled in the southern Zagros highlands by the
tomb of Gur-i-Dokhtar, and has possible antecedents
The architectural achievements of the Medes and in the underground tombs with gabled roofs in Luri-
Persians before the reign of Cyrus the Great have stan and in central Iran at Tepe Sialk, near Kashan. A
recently been recognised in buildings of the eighth- continuing tradition of gabled roofs is suggested by
seventh century BC excavated in western IraI,l, at their occurrence in all the finished chambers of the
Godin Tepe, Baba Jan and Nush-i Jan. rock-cut tomb of Darius I.
At Godin Tepe, Level II, the upper citadel original- Susa, ancient city of Elam, became the Persian
centred by VKN BPO andPvt Limited,
ly comprised a fortified manor, or minor palace,
which around a larger a smaller col- www.vknbpo.com . 97894 60001
capital in succession to Babylon. with the building
there of a citadel and palace complex by Darius I
umned hall, with additional smaller rooms and rows (522-486 Be). A most illuminating building inscrip-
of magazines; the whole was protected by a fortifica- tion tells how the resources and skills of the whole
tion wall with bastions, a tower and arrOw slots. empire were utilised in the construction of the palace
At Daba Jan, in Levels II and I, the manor must buildings. Cedar was brought from Lebanon, teak
have presented a formidable facade, being defended from the Zagros mountains and southern Persia,
by eight rectangular towers, aIle of which was re- while the baked bricks were made by the Babylonian
placed in Level I by a columned portico as the main method. Most significant of all, craftsmen were
entrance; the space within the towered wall compris- drawn from the Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians
ed a rectangular court, later roofed, with a long room and Ionian Greeks. The remarkable compound of
on either side. A contemporary building in another features which constitute the unique and gracious
part of the same s.ite had one room decorated in a architecture of Persia is thus explained. From this
style unknown elsewhere, with heavy painted wall palace and a later one by Artaxerxes II (404-358 Be)
tiles. Columns were also a feature of a large citadel come the famous glazed-brick decorations, por-
building, approximately contemporary with the man- traying processions of archers,lions, bulls or dragons
orot BabaJan, at Haftavan Tepe, in the Urmia basin (p.90F,G).
of north-west Iran. The Palace ofPersepolis (pp.90A-E, 91A), begnn
At Tepe Nosb-i Jan, near Hamadan (Ecbatana), in 518 BC by Darius I, was mostly executed by Xerx-
well-preserved mud-brick buildings of Median date es I (486-465 Be) and finished by Artaxerxes I about
have been uncovered in Level I (c. 700-550 BC) 460 Be, The various buildings stood on a platfonn,
(p.91D). In one building the earliest known example partly built up and partly excavated, faced in well-
of a fire altar has been discovered. Unusual mural laid local stone bound with iron clamps, about 460 m
decorations, suggesting long experience in the use of x 275m (15ooft x 900ft) in extent and rising 15m
mud brick, include recessed crosses, blind windows, (50ft) above the plain althe base of a rocky spur. The
and holes with the appearance of serving to support a approach on the north-west was by a magnificent
scaffold. Another building was a fort, with ramp flight of steps, 6.7 m (22ft) wide, shallow enough for
leading to a staircase, turning round a central pier horses to ascend. A gatehouse by Xerxes had mud-
and roofed with a mud-brick corbel-vault. The pal- brick walls, faced with polychrome bricks, and front
aces and tombs of the Persians show that many fea- and rear portals guarded by stone bulls. A third
tures of their remarkable columnar architecture were doorway on the south led towards the 'Apadana', a
derived from the older civilisations: the gorge mould- grand audience hall, 76.2m (250ft) square and with

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A. Persepolis: Hall of the Hundred Columns (restored) (c. 518-460 Be). Other ~etails of the palaces at Persepolis are
given below. See p.89

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A. Stairway ofTripylon, Persepolis (518-486 BC). See p.89


B. Tomb of Darius, Naksh-i-Rustam C.