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The elevator (or lift) is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or
goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel or other structure.

Elevators are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables or
counterweight systems like a hoist, or pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like
a jack.

Types of Elevators

Passenger Lift

A passenger elevator is designed to move people between a building's floors.

Passenger elevators capacity is related to the available floor space. Generally passenger elevators
are available in capacities from 1,000 to 6,000 pounds (500–2,700 kg) in 500-pound (230 kg)

Generally passenger elevators in buildings of eight floors or fewer are hydraulic or

electric, which can reach speeds up to 200 feet per minute (1 m/s) hydraulic and up to 500 feet
per minute (152 m/min) electric. In buildings up to ten floors, electric and gearless elevators are
likely to have speeds up to 500 feet per minute (3 m/s), and above ten floors speeds range 500 to
2,000 feet per minute (3–10 m/s).

Types of passenger elevator

Passenger elevators may be specialized for the service they perform, including: hospital
emergency (Code blue), front and rear entrances, a television in high-rise buildings, double-
decker, and other uses. Cars may be ornate in their interior appearance, may have audio visual
advertising, and may be provided with specialized recorded voice announcements. Elevators may
also have loudspeakers in them to play calm, easy listening music. Such music is often referred
to as elevator music.

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Residential elevators may be small enough to only accommodate one person while some are
large enough for more than a dozen. Wheelchair, or platform lifts, a specialized type of elevator
designed to move a wheelchair 12 feet (3.7 m) or less, can often accommodate just one person in
a wheelchair at a time with a load of 750 pounds (340 kg).

Goods Lift
A freight elevator, or goods lift, is an elevator designed to carry goods, rather than
passengers. Freight elevators are generally required to display a written notice in the car that the
use by passengers is prohibited (though not necessarily illegal), though certain freight elevators
allow dual use through the use of an inconspicuous riser. In order for an elevator to be legal to
carry passengers in some jurisdictions it must have a solid inner door. Freight elevators are
typically larger and capable of carrying heavier loads than a passenger elevator, generally from

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2,300 to 4,500 kg. Freight elevators may have manually
operated doors, and often has rugged interior finishes to
prevent damage while loading and unloading. Although
hydraulic freight elevators exist, electric elevators are more
energy efficient for the work of freight lifting.

Sidewalk Elevators
A sidewalk elevator is a special type of freight elevator. Sidewalk elevators are used to
move materials between a basement and a ground-level area, often the sidewalk just outside the
building. They are controlled via an exterior switch and emerge from a metal trap door at ground
level. Sidewalk elevator cars feature a uniquely shaped top that allows this door to open and
close automatically.

Stage Lifts

Stage and orchestra lifts are specialized lifts, typically powered by hydraulics, that are used
to lift entire sections of a theater stage.

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Residential Elevator
A residential elevator is often permitted to be of lower cost and complexity than full
commercial elevators. They may have unique design characteristics suited for home
furnishings, such as hinged wooden shaft-access doors rather than the typical metal sliding
doors of commercial elevators. Construction may be less robust than in commercial designs
with shorter maintenance periods, but safety systems such as locks on shaft access doors, fall
arrestors, and emergency phones must still be present in the event of malfunction.

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Some types of residential elevators do not use a traditional elevator shaft, machine room, and
elevator hoist way. This allows an elevator to be installed where a traditional elevator may
not fit, and simplifies installation

Dumbwaiters are small freight elevators that are intended to carry food rather than
passengers. They often link kitchens with rooms on other floors

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In a typical elevator, the car is raised and lowered by six to eight motor-driven wire ropes
that are attached to the top of the car at one end, travel around a pair of sheaves, and are
again attached to a counterweight at the other end.

The counterweight adds accelerating force when the elevator car is ascending and provides a
retarding effort when the car is descending so that less motor horsepower is required. The
counterweight is a collection of metal weights that is equal to the weight of the car containing
about 45% of its rated load. A set of chains are looped from the bottom of the counterweight
to the underside of the car to help maintain balance by offsetting the weight of the suspension

Guide rails that run the length of the shaft keep the car and counterweight from swaying or
twisting during their travel. Rollers are attached to the car and the counterweight to provide
smooth travel along the guide rails.

The traction to raise and lower the car comes from the friction of the wire ropes against the
grooved sheaves. The main sheave is driven by an electric motor.

Most elevators use a direct current motor because its speed can be precisely controlled to
allow smooth acceleration and deceleration. Motor-generator (M-G) sets typically provide to
dc power for the drive motor. Newer systems use a static drive control. The elevator controls
vary the motor's speed based on a set of feedback signals that indicate the car's position in the
shaftway. As the car approaches its destination, a switch near the landing signals the controls
to stop the car at floor level. Additional shaft way limit switches are installed to monitor over
travel conditions.

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An escalator is a moving staircase conveyor transport device for carrying people

between floors of a building. Escalators are used around the world to move pedestrian traffic
in places where elevators would be impractical. Principal areas of usage include department
stores, shopping malls, airports, transit systems, convention centres, hotels, and public

The device consists of a motor-driven chain of individual, linked steps that move up or down
on tracks, allowing the step treads to remain horizontal.

The benefits of escalators are many:

1. They have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they can be placed in
the same physical space as one might install a staircase.
2. They have no waiting interval (except during very heavy traffic),
3. They can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits,
4. And they may be weather proofed for outdoor use.


Escalators, like moving walkways, are powered by constant-speed alternating current

motors and move at approximately 1–2 feet (0.30–0.61 m) per second. The maximum angle of
inclination of an escalator to the horizontal floor level is 30 degrees with a standard rise up to
about 60 feet (18 m). Modern escalators have single piece aluminium or steel steps that move on
a system of tracks in a continuous loop. Escalators have three typical configuration options:
parallel crisscross and multiple parallel.

Escalators are required to have moving handrails that keep pace with the movement of
the steps. The direction of movement (up or down) can be permanently the same, or be
controlled by personnel according to the time of day, or automatically be controlled by whoever
arrives first, whether at the bottom or at the top.

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 A number of factors affect escalator design, including physical requirements,
location, traffic patterns, safety considerations, and aesthetic preferences.
 Foremost, physical factors like the vertical and horizontal distance to be spanned
must be considered.
 These factors will determine the pitch of the escalator and its actual length.
 The ability of the building infrastructure to support the heavy components is also a
critical physical concern.
 Location is important because escalators should be situated where they can be easily
seen by the general public.
 In department stores, customers should be able to view the merchandise easily.
Furthermore, up and down escalator traffic should be physically separated and should
not lead into confined spaces.
 Traffic patterns must also be anticipated in escalator design. In some buildings, the
objective is simply to move people from one floor to another, but in others there may
be a more specific requirement, such as funnelling visitors towards a main exit or
 The number of passengers is important because escalators are designed to carry a
certain maximum number of people.
 For example, a single-width escalator travelling at about 1.5 feet (0.46 m) per second
can move an estimated 170 persons per five minute period.
 The carrying capacity of an escalator system must match the expected peak traffic
demand, presuming that passengers ride single file. This is crucial for applications in
which there are sudden increases in the number of riders.


 These two platforms house the curved sections of the tracks, as well as the gears and
motors that drive the stairs.
 The top platform contains the motor assembly and the main drive gear, while the
bottom holds the step return idler sprockets.

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 These sections also anchor the ends of the escalator
truss. In addition, the platforms contain a floor plate
and a comb plate.
 The floor plate provides a place for the passengers
to stand before they step onto the moving stairs.
 This plate is flush with the finished floor and is
either hinged or removable to allow easy access to the machinery below.
 The comb plate is the piece between the stationary floor plate and the moving step.
 This design is necessary to minimize the gap between the stair and the landing, which
helps prevent objects from getting caught in the gap.


The truss is a hollow metal structure that bridges the lower and upper landings. It is
composed of two side sections joined together with cross braces across the bottom and just
below the top. The ends of the truss are attached to the top and bottom landing platforms via
steel or concrete supports. The truss carries all the straight track sections connecting the upper
and lower sections.


 The track system is built into the truss to guide the step chain, which continuously
pulls the steps from the bottom platform and back to the top in an endless loop.
 There are actually two tracks: one for the front wheels of the steps (called the step-
wheel track) and one for the back wheels of the steps (called the trailer-wheel track).
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 The relative positions of these tracks cause the
steps to form a staircase as they move out from
under the comb plate.
 Along the straight section of the truss the tracks
are at their maximum distance apart.
 This configuration forces the back of one step
to be at a 90-degree angle relative to the step
behind it.
 This right angle bends the steps into a shape resembling a staircase.
 At the top and bottom of the escalator, the two tracks converge so that the front and
back wheels of the steps are almost in a straight line.
 This causes the stairs to lay in a flat sheet like arrangement, one after another, so they
can easily travel around the bend in the curved section of track.
 The tracks carry the steps down along the underside of the truss until they reach the
bottom landing, where they pass through another curved section of track before
exiting the bottom landing.
 At this point the tracks separate and the steps once again assume a staircase
 This cycle is repeated continually as the steps are pulled from bottom to top and back
to the bottom again.


 The steps themselves are solid, one piece, die-cast aluminum or steel.
 Yellow demarcation lines may be added to clearly indicate their edges.
 In most escalator models manufactured after 1950, both the riser and the tread of
each step is cleated with comb like protrusions that mesh with the comb plates on the
top and bottom platforms and the succeeding steps in the chain.
 See Berger- or "step-type" escalators featured flat treads and smooth risers; other
escalator models have cleated treads and smooth risers.
 The steps are linked by a continuous metal chain that forms a closed loop.

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 The front and back edges of the steps are each connected to two wheels. The rear
wheels are set further apart to fit into the back track and the front wheels have shorter
axles to fit into the narrower front track.


 The handrail provides a convenient handhold for passengers while they are riding the
 In an escalator, the handrail is pulled along its track by a chain that is connected to the
main drive gear by a series of pulleys.
 It is constructed of four distinct sections.
 Handrails are constructed by feeding
rubber through a computer-controlled
extrusion machine to produce layers
of the required size and type in order
to match specific orders.
 The component layers of fabric,
rubber, and steel are shaped by skilled
workers before being fed into the
presses, where they are fused
 In the mid-twentieth century, some
handrail designs consisted of a rubber bellows, with rings of smooth metal cladding
called "bracelets" placed between each coil.
 This gave the handrail a rigid yet flexible feel.
 Additionally, each bellows section was no more than a few feet long, so if part of the
handrail was damaged, only the bad segment needed to be replaced.
 These forms of handrail have largely been replaced with conventional fabric-and-
rubber railings.

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Many of the early escalator sales were made to major department stores, installed for their
customers. These escalators travelled at speeds that ranged between 24-30 meters per minute.

Additional Requirements for Passenger and Goods Lifts

Bottom and Top Car Clearances
Bottom Car Clearance

When the car rests on its fully compressed buffer there shall be a vertical clearance of not
less than 600 mm between the pit floor and the buffer striker plate or the lowest structural or
mechanical part equipment or device installed. The clearance shall be available beneath the
whole area of the platform except for:

a) Guide shoes or rollers, safety jaw blocks, platform aprons, guards of other equipment located
within 300 nun measured horizontally from the sides of the car platform; and

b) Compensating sheaves. Provided that in all the cases, including small cars, a minimum
clearance of 600 mm is available over a horizontal area of 800 mm x 500 mm.

Provided also that in all the cases, when the car rests on its fully compressed buffers, there shall
be a vertical clearance of not less than 50 mm between any part of the car and any obstruction of
device mounted in the pit.

Top Car Clearance

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The vertical clearance between the car cross-head and the nearest overhead obstruction
within 500 mm measured horizontally to the nearest part of the crosshead when the car platform
is level with the top lauding, shall be not less
than the sum of the following;

a) The bottom counterweight run by.

b) The stroke of the counterweight buffer used.

Bottom Run by for Cars and Counterweights

 The bottom run by of cars and counterweights shall be not less than the following:
 150 mm where oil buffers are used;
 Where spring-buffers are used;
 150 mm for controls as in 2.12.4 to 2.12.S.
 Not less than the following for controls as in 2.12.2 to 2.12.3.

Maximum Bottom Run by

In no case shall the maximum bottom run by exceed the following:
a) 600 mm for cars; and
b) 900 mm for counter weights.

Top Counterweight Clearances

The top counterweight clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following four
items the bottom car run by;
The stroke of the car buffer used;
c) 150 mm; and
d) One-half the gravity stopping distance based on one hundred and fifteen percent of the rated
speed where oil buffers are used and no provision is made to prevent jump of the counterweight
at car buffer engagement; and governor tripping speed where spring buffers are used.

Recommended Dimensions of Passenger Lifts and Service Lift

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Recommended Dimensions of Goods Lifts (For Speeds Up to 0.5 mh)

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Recommended Dimensions of Hospital Lifts

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Recommended Dimensions of Dumb Waiter (For Speeds Up to 0.5 mk)

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 There are two passenger lifts and one service lift present in this apartment building.
 The passenger lift dimensions are 2.5x2.0m.
 The service lift dimension is 2.5x3.0m.





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