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CH.HARIKA (14NN1A0457)
P.ANUSHA (14NN1A0435)

P.RAMA DEVI (14NN1A0434)

Y.ANITHA (14NN1A0449)

Under the esteemed guidance of

Mrs.G.Sandhya M.TECH.,(PhD.)

In the partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the award of the degree of

Electronics & Communication Engineering

Vignan’s Nirula Institute of Technology and Science for

Women (Affiliated to JNTUK & approved by AICTE)

Vignan’s Avenue Pedapalakaluru, Guntur -522005.

(Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTU, KAKINADA)




This is to certify that the mini project report entitled “PLUG PLUS” that is being submitted
byCH.HARIKA, P.ANUSHA, P.RAMADEVI, Y.ANITHA of the candidates in partial fulfillment
for the award of B.Tech degree in ECE from the VIGNAN’S NIRULA INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGYAND SCIENCE FOR WOMEN is a record of bonafide work done carried out
by them under our guidance and supervision.

Signature of guide Signature of HOD


The main objective is to develop a plug which can be connected to cloud and also talk to
few web applications like weather, temperature with the help of mobile app. when this plug is
used for water heaters, this will retrieve data from Google weather and heat the water according
to the weather. Like so, we can charge our mobile, laptop, hair drier(on/off) etc.
In this proof of concept we are using a unique protocol called MQTT, this is an IBM
protocol which recently opened to all (open source). This is a protocol where it uploads data by
publish method and while retrieving, it will use subscription. In simple, these sender is called
publisher on the other hand who receives the data is called subscriber. The subscriber and
publisher role will change according to the data send.





Raspberry pi
A Raspberry Pi is a general-purpose computer, usually with a Linux operating system, and has
the ability to run multiple programs. Raspberry Pi is best used when you need a full-fledged
computer. It is used in cases like driving a more complicated robot, performing multiple tasks,
doing intense calculations. Raspberry Pi has a very low power draw, and can be run for a very
long time without using much electricity. The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board
computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi foundation to promote the
teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.
Block diagram of Raspberry pi:

Fig: Raspberry pi zero W


The Raspberry Pi comes ready to be connected to the internet; it has a built-in ethernet port, and
it’s very easy to get a USB wifi dongle to give it wireless connectivity as well (you can see a
very tiny one in the image below). This is one of the reasons why the Pi is the device of choice
for things like personal web servers, printer servers, and VPNs.


The Arduino comes with 32 KB of onboard storage, which is just enough to store the code that
provides instructions for its current program. You can’t use this storage for apps, videos, photos,
or anything else. The Raspberry Pi, on the other hand, doesn’t come with any onboard storage,
but it does have a micro SD port, so you can add as much storage as you’d like. Adding 32 GB
of storage will only cost you around $12 with a SanDisk micro SD card, and you can easily add
up to 128 or 256 GB if you need it.

The Raspberry Pi, on the other hand, has four USB ports that you can use to connect it to a
router, a printer, an external hard drive, or a wide variety of other devices
In contrast, the Raspberry Pi comes stocked with a fully functional operating system called
Raspbian. This OS is based on Debian Linux, and was created specifically for the Pi. There are a
number of other operating systems that you can use with the board, most of which are Linux-
based, but Android can also be installed. Operating systems aren’t the only pieces of software
that the Pi runs, though; there are also a number of useful apps that you can use to accomplish
different tasks. One of the most common uses of a Raspberry Pi is as a media server, for which
both Kodi and Plex are popular apps. You can download games, server applications, calculators,
and even the LibreOffice office suite.

Of course, you can write your own programs for the Raspberry Pi as well, and that’s one of the
best reasons to get one: to learn to code. Python is the recommended language for the Pi, but C,
C++, Java, and Ruby are all pre-installed on the board. While Arduino can be tweaked to support
other languages, the native Arduino language is the best choice; if you’re looking to learn a more
useful language, the Pi will give you more options..

Processor speed ranges from 700 MHz to 1.2 GHz for the Pi 3; on-board memory ranges from
256 MB to 1 GB RAM. Secure Digital (SD) cards are used to store the operating system and
program memory in either SDHC or MicroSDHC sizes. The boards have one to four USB ports.
For video output, HDMI and composite video are supported, with a standard 3.5 mm phone jack
for audio output. Lower-level output is provided by a number of GPIO pins which support
common protocols like I²C. The B-models have an 8P8C Ethernet port and the Pi 3 and Pi Zero
W have on-board Wi-Fi 802.11n and Bluetooth. Prices range US$5 to $35.

The first generation (Raspberry Pi 1 Model B) was released in February 2012, followed by the
simpler and cheaper Model A. In 2014, the Foundation released a board with an improved
design, Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+. These boards are approximately credit-card sized and
represent the standard mainline form-factor. Improved A+ and B+ models were released a year
later. A "Compute Module" was released in April 2014 for embedded applications. The
Raspberry Pi 2 which added more RAM was released in February 2015.

A Raspberry Pi Zero with smaller size and reduced input/output (I/O) and general-purpose
input/output (GPIO) capabilities was released in November 2015 for US$5. Raspberry Pi 3
Model B was released in February 2016 and has on-board Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and USB boot
capabilities. By 2017, it became the newest mainline Raspberry Pi. On 28 February 2017, the
Raspberry Pi Zero W was launched, a version of the Zero with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities,
for US$10. The organization behind the Raspberry Pi now consists of two arms. Originally
developed under the auspices of the Raspberry Pi Foundation, the success of the Pi Model B
prompted the Foundation to set up Raspberry Pi Trading, with Dr. Eben Upton as CEO, to
develop the third model, the B+. Raspberry Pi Trading is responsible for developing the
technology while the Foundation is an educational charity that exists to get that message out to
schools. Raspberry Pi Trading reinvests about a third of its profit in R&D, and the rest goes to
the foundation.

The Foundation provides Raspbian, a Debi an-based Linux distribution for download, as well as
third-party Ubuntu, Windows 10 IOT Core, RISC OS, and specialized media center distributions.
It promotes Python and Scratch as the main programming language, with support for many other
languages. The default firmware is closed source, while an unofficial open source is available.

SPECS for the Raspberry Pi ZERO W:

o CPU: A Broadcom BCM2835 application, with a 1GHz ARM11 core

o Memory: 512MB of LPDDR2 SDRAM
o Storage: 1 x micro-SD card slot
o Video out: 1 x mini-HDMI socket for 1080p60 video output (needs mini-HDMI-HDMI
o Ports: 1 x USB On the go port (needs USB OTG to USB adapter), micro USB port for
o size: 65mm x 30mm x 5mm
o Weight: 9g
o Expansion: An unpopulated 40-pin GPIO header with identical pinout to Model A+/B+.
An unpopulated composite video header, CSI camera connector

SD card:
Secure Digital (SD) is a non-volatile memory card format developed by the SD Card Association
(SDA) for use in portable devices. The standard was introduced in August 1999 by joint efforts
between SanDisk, Panasonic (Matsushita Electric) and Toshiba as an improvement over
MultiMedia Cards (MMC), and has become the industry standard. The three companies formed
SD-3C, LLC, and a company that licenses and enforces intellectual property rights associated
with SD memory cards and SD host and ancillary products.

Block diagram:
The second-generation Secure Digital (SDSC or Secure Digital Standard Capacity) card was
developed to improve on the Multimedia Card (MMC) standard, which continued to evolve, but
in a different direction. Secure Digital changed the MMC design in several ways:

 Asymmetrical shape of the sides of the SD card prevents inserting it upside down (while
an MMC goes in most of the way but makes no contact if inverted).
 Most SD cards are 2.1 mm (0.083 inches) thick, compared to 1.4 mm (0.055 inches) for
MMCs. The SD specification defines a card called Thin SD with a thickness of 1.4 mm,
but they occur only rarely, as the SDA went on to define even smaller form factors.
 The card's electrical contacts are recessed beneath the surface of the card, protecting them
from contact with a user's fingers.
 The SD specification envisioned capacities and transfer rates exceeding those of MMC,
and both of these functionalities have grown over time. For a comparison table, see
 While MMC uses a single pin for data transfers, the SD card added a four-wire bus mode
for higher data rates.
 The SD card added Content Protection for Recordable Media (CPRM) security circuitry
for digital rights management (DRM) content-protection.
 Addition of a write-protect notch
 Full-size SD cards do not fit into the slimmer MMC slots, and other issues also affect the
ability to use one format in a host device designed for the other.

SD card speed is customarily rated by its sequential read or write speed. The sequential
performance aspect is the most relevant for storing and retrieving large files (relative to block
sizes internal to the flash memory), such as images and multimedia. Small data (such as file
names, sizes and timestamps) falls under the much lower speed limit of random access, which
can be the limiting factor in some use cases.
With early SD cards, a few card manufacturers specified the speed as a "times" ("×") rating,
which compared the average speed of reading data to that of the original CD-ROM drive. This
was superseded by the Speed Class Rating, which guarantees a minimum rate at which data can
be written to the card.
The newer families of SD card improve card speed by increasing the bus rate (the frequency of
the clock signal that strobes information into and out of the card). Whatever the bus rate, the card
can signal to the host that it is "busy" until a read or a write operation is complete. Compliance
with a higher speed rating is a guarantee that the card limits its use of the "busy" indication. X -
cards can protect their contents from erasure or modification, prevent access by non-authorized
users, and protect copyrighted content using digital rights management.

The user can designate most full-size SD cards as read-only by use of a sliding tab that covers a
notch in the card. The mini SD and micro SD formats do not support a write protection notch.
When looking at the SD card from the top, the right side (the side with the beveled corner) must
be notched. On the left side, there may be a write-protection notch. If the notch is omitted, the
card can be read and written. If the card is notched, it is read-only. If the card has a notch and a
sliding tab which covers the notch, the user can slide the tab upward (toward the contacts) to
declare the card read/write, or downward to declare it read-only. The diagram to the right shows
an orange sliding write-protect tab in both the unlocked and locked positions.

The presence of a notch, and the presence and position of a tab, have no effect on the SD card's
operation. A host device that supports write protection should refuse to write to an SD card that
is designated read-only in this way. Some host devices do not support write protection, which is
an optional feature of the SD specification. Drivers and devices that do obey a read-only
indication may give the user a way to override it. Cards sold with content that must not be altered
are permanently marked read-only by having a notch and no sliding tab.


A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical

conductors forming electrical junctions at differing temperatures. A thermocouple produces a
temperature-dependent voltage as a result of the thermoelectric effect, and this voltage can be
interpreted to measure temperature. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature
Commercial thermocouples are inexpensive, interchangeable, are supplied with standard
connectors, and can measure a wide range of temperatures. In contrast to most other methods of
temperature measurement, thermocouples are self powered and require no external form of
excitation. The main limitation with thermocouples is accuracy; system errors of less than one
degree Celsius (°C) can be difficult to achieve.

Thermocouples are widely used in science and industry. Applications include temperature
measurement for kilns, gas turbine exhaust, diesel engines, and other industrial processes.
Thermocouples are also used in homes, offices and businesses as the temperature sensors in
thermostats, and also as flame sensors in safety devices for gas-powered major appliances.

Type K (chromel–alumel) is the most common general purpose thermocouple with a sensitivity
of approximately 41 µV/°C, chromel positive relative to alumel.[6] It is inexpensive, and a wide
variety of probes are available in its −200 °C to +1350 °C / -328 °F to +2462 °F range. Type K
was specified at a time when metallurgy was less advanced than it is today, and consequently
characteristics vary considerably between samples. One of the constituent metals, nickel, is
magnetic; a characteristic of thermocouples made with magnetic material is that they undergo a
step change in output when the magnetic material reaches its Curie point (around 354 °C for type
K thermocouples).

Fig: Thermocouple


A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically

operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays
are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where
several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance
telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-
transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early
computers to perform logical operations.

A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or
other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts,
instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating
characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from
overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital
instruments still called "protective relays".

Magnetic latching relays require one pulse of coil power to move their contacts in one direction,
and another, redirected pulse to move them back. Repeated pulses from the same input have no
effect. Magnetic latching relays are useful in applications where interrupted power should not be
able to transition the contacts.

Magnetic latching relays can have either single or dual coils. On a single coil device, the relay
will operate in one direction when power is applied with one polarity, and will reset when the
polarity is reversed. On a dual coil device, when polarized voltage is applied to the reset coil the
contacts will transition. AC controlled magnetic latch relays have single coils that employ
steering diodes to differentiate between operate and reset commands.

A switched and programmable electrical plug lets you start the Raspberry Pi at predefined times,
saving power consumption, and a little Python code keeps you independent of the manufacturer's
cloud infrastructure

Fig: Relay