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ENGEL Injection

Molding Machine
Maintenance Manual
8580.772.0699M

ES25 - 4000
:

ENGEL Injection
Molding Machine,
Maintenance Manual.
8580.772.0699M
(Manual, Service)
ES25 - 4000
Re-issue 12-12-2005

ENGEL reserves the right to change or update information without prior notification.
Due to on going product improvement and various customer options available, ENGEL cannot
fully guarantee the accuracy of information contained in this manual.
Therefore Engel accepts no responsibility in that respect.

DANGER
Complex machine with personal injury hazards.
Do not operate machine unless you are properly trained.
Read and understand the hazards outlined in chapter 3 of
this manual. Before start-up, check safety devices as per
chapter 3 - Machine safety checklist.
Do not operate machine unless all interlocks/safety devices
are in place and function properly.
Consult your supervisor, if in doubt about machine safety .
Failure to follow instructions could result in injury.

WARNING!

ENGEL ADVISES THE USE OF NEW, CLEAN OIL, TO ISO CODE 16/13, IN THEIR
INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES. THIS LEVEL OF CLEANLINESS OR BETTER MUST BE
MAINTAINED THROUGHOUT THE LIFE OF THE MACHINE.
REFER TO ISO 4406 - HYDRAULIC FLUID POWER - FLUIDS - METHOD FOR CODING
LEVEL OF CONTAMINATION BY SOLID PARTICLES.
USE MINERAL BASED HYDRAULIC OIL WITH A VISCOSITY CLASS OF ISO VG 46
(AT 40O C) RECOMMENDED IN THE TABLE BELOW.
CONTACT ENGEL CONCERNING POSSIBLE WARRANTY ISSUES IF ZINC FREE
(ASHLESS) HYDRAULIC OIL IS USED IN THE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE.
THE USE OF RECYCLED OIL TO OPERATE AN ENGEL INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
WILL VOID THE WARRANTY OF THAT MACHINE.

These documents remain the property of ENGEL (Canada) Inc. And must not be copied without the
written consent of ENGEL (Canada) Inc. The contents of this manual may neither be made known to third
parties or be used for non-approved purposes.

© 2005 Copyright by ENGEL CANADA INC. Guelph, Ontario,


:

© 2005 Copyright by ENGEL CANADA INC. Guelph, Ontario,


MAINTENANCE:
1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
1.. MAIN MACHINE ELEMENTS: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.. THE CLAMPING SIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.. DESCRIPTION OF TOGGLE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.. CLAMP CYLINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.. HYDRAULIC EJECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.. TIE-BARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7.. MOLD HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8.. SAFETY GATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9.. INJECTION UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
10.. CARRIAGE UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
11.. PLASTICIZING CYLINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
12.. INJECTION CYLINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
13.. SCREW DRIVE ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
14. SCREWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
14.1. PLASTICIZING SCREWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
14.2. TYPES OF SCREW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
15. SCREWTIPS & NON-RETURN VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
16. NOZZLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
17. GENERAL MACHINE CYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39


1. LEGEND FOR MACHINE SPECIFICATION TABLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2. MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.1. TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.2. TIEBARLESS INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.3. VERTICAL CLAMP, HOR. INJ. UNIT, ROTARY TABLE, MOLDING MACHINES. . 48
2.4. VERTICAL CLAMP, VERT. INJ. UNIT, ROTARY TABLE, MOLDING MACHINES . 54
2.5. VERTICAL CLAMP, HOR. INJ. UNIT, ROTARY TABLE ELAST MACHINES . . . . . 56
2.6. HORIZONTAL ELASTOMER MACHINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.7. DUO PLATEN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.8. LARGE TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.9. PREVIOUS MODEL LINE - SMALL TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES 76

3. SAFETY DEVICES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 81
1.. MACHINE SAFETY FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.. MECHANICAL SAFETY DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
2.1. SAMPLE MACHINE SAFETY CHECKLIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.2. ROTARY TABLE SAFETY FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.. ROTARY TABLE SAFETY FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.1. SAMPLE ROTARY MACHINE SAFETY CHECKLIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.2. SHUTTLE TABLE SAFETY FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
4.. SHUTTLE TABLE SAFETY FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.1. SAMPLE SHUTTLE MACHINE SAFETY CHECKLIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
5.. SAFETY INSTRUCTION PLATES AND LABELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

16/12/05 a
MAINTENANCE:
4. INSTALLATION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 109
1.. MACHINE INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
1.1. INSTALLATION OF MACHINE MOUNTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
1.2. SUNNEX ISOLATION MOUNTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
1.3. UNISORB ISOLATION MOUNTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
1.4. ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS (TOGGLE MACHINE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
1.5. ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS (TIEBARLESS MACHINE) . . . . . . . . . . 114
1.6. SPLIT BASE MACHINE INSTALLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
2.. SPLIT BASE MACHINES - TIEBARLESS - INSTALLATION - EARLY STYLE . . . . . . 118
2.1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.. SPLIT BASE MACHINE LEVELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.1. LEVELLING AND ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.1.1. Levelling the Clamp base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.1.2. Levelling the Injection base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.. SPLIT BASE - TIEBARLESS - INSTALLATION - LATER STYLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
5.. SPLIT BASE MACHINE LEVELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.1. LEVELLING AND ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.1.1. Levelling the Clamp base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
5.1.2. Levelling the Injection base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
6.. VERTICAL CLAMP - MACHINE LEVELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
7.. INSTALLING AND SET-UP OF MOLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
7.1. SECURING THE MOLD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
7.2. INSTALLING MOLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8.. SETTING CLAMP FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.. SETTING MOLD PROTECTION PRESSURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
10.. MOLD PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
11.. MOLD OPEN - STROKE LIMITATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
12.. REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF INJECTION SCREW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
13.. BARREL REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT INJECTION UNITS 80-330). . . . . . . . . 142
13.1. CENTERING THE 80 - 330 INJECTION UNIT - OLDER STYLE. . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
13.2. CENTERING THE 80 - 330 INJECTION UNIT - NEWER STYLE . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
13.2.1. MEASUREMENT OF NOZZLE CENTERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
13.2.2. SWIVELLING THE INJECTION UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
13.3. CENTERING NOZZLE - 650 & UP - PREVIOUS STYLE INJECTION UNIT . . . . 147
14.. CENTERING THE INJECTION UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
14.1. CENTERING & LEVELLING INJECTION UNITS - 650 & UP - LATEST STYLE 148
14.1.1. MEASUREMENT OF NOZZLE CENTERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
14.1.2. CENTERING THE NOZZLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
14.2. SWIVELLING THE INJECTION UNIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
15.. SWIVELLING THE INJECTION UNIT - IN-LINE INJECTION UNITS. . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
16.. ADJUSTING NOZZLE HEIGHT - VERTICAL ROTARY BRIDGE MACHINES . . . . . 154
16.1. TO RAISE AND LOWER THE HORIZONTAL INJECTION UNIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
17.. SCREW TIP REPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
18.. TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
18.1. CAP SCREWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
18.2. MOLD MOUNTING BOLTS - U.N.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
19.. ANTI-SEIZE COMPOUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
20.. INSTALLATION OF HEATER BANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

b 16/12/05
MAINTENANCE:
5. START UP AND SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 163
1.. STARTING PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
2.. MACHINE SHUT-DOWN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
3.. MANUAL TO AUTOMATIC CYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
4.. CORES AND EJECTORS SWITCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 167


1.. BASICS OF HYDRAULICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
1.1. CONVERSION OF ENERGY IN HYDRAULICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
1.2. DIRECTIONAL CONTROL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
2.. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
3.. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
4.. HYDRAULIC OIL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
4.1. HYDRAULIC FLUIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
4.2. HYDRAULIC FLUID VISCOSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
4.3. FILTRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
4.3.1. HIGH AND MEDIUM-PRESSURE FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
4.3.2. HYDRAULIC SUCTION FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5. HYDRAULIC MOTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
5.1. HYDRAULIC PUMPS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
5.1.1. Variable Displacement Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
5.2. CHECK VALVES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
5.2.1. Pilot Operated Check Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
5.3. PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
5.3.1. Pilot Operated Pressure Relief Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
5.3.2. Directly Controlled Pressure Reducing Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
5.3.3. Pilot Operated Pressure Reducing Valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
5.4. DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
5.4.1. Pilot Operated Directional Control Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
5.5. PROPORTIONAL VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
5.5.1. Proportional Pressure Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
5.5.2. Proportional Flow Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
5.5.3. Proportional Solenoid with Position Transducer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
5.5.4. Proportional Directional Control Valves (Pilot Operated) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
5.6. OPEN LOOP VERSUS CLOSED LOOP (MOOG VALVE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
5.6.1. Moog Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
5.6.2. Two Stage Moog Valve With Closed Loop Position Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
5.6.3. Three-Stage Moog Valve With Closed Loop Position Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
5.7. CARTRIDGE HYDRAULICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
5.8. CARTRIDGE VALVES EXAMPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
5.9. PRESSURE GAUGE.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
5.10. HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
5.11. HYDRAULIC TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

16/12/05 c
MAINTENANCE:
7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 271
1.. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
1.1. HOW TO READ THE ENGEL ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
1.1.1. physical location naming convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
1.1.2. Electrical Line Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
1.1.3. Page and Line numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
1.1.4. Typical examples explained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
2. THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
3.. MOLD HEIGHT MOTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
4.. TRANSFORMERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
5.. CARD RACK POWER SUPPLY UNIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
6.. RELAYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
7.. SOLID STATE RELAYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
8.. VARISTORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
9.. SOLENOID OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
10.. DC SOLENOIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
11.. FANS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
12.. RECEPTACLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
12.1. 460 VOLT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
12.2. 230 VOLT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
12.3. 120 VOLT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
13. TRANSDUCERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
13.1. STROKE TRANSDUCERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
13.2. CLAMP FORCE STROKE TRANSDUCER (LVDT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
13.3. HYDRAULIC AND MOLD CAVITY PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS . . . . . . . . . . . 300
13.4. SCREW RPM TRANSDUCER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
13.5. THERMOCOUPLE TRANSDUCERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
14.. STANDARD SOLENOID LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
15.. SETTING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM BALANCE ON PA88 CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
16.. SETTING THE MINIMUM / MAXIMUM POINT FOR PRESSURE
(K-VALVE) - A02 CONTROLS (30 TON - 500 TON). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
17. SETTING THE MINIMUM /MAXIMUM POINT FOR SPEED
(Y-VALVE) - A02 CONTROLS (30 TON - 500 TON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
18. REPLACE OR ADJUST CLAMP FORCE TRANSDUCER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
19. REPLACE OR ADJUST CLAMP FORCE TRANSDUCER -TYPE LG93 . . . . . . . . . . 332
20.. REPLACE OR ADJUST CLAMP FORCE TRANSDUCER - TYPE LG99 . . . . . . . . . 333
21.. USING THE MICROGRAPH AS AN OSCILLOSCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
22.. TROUBLESHOOTING PROPORTIONAL VALVE CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
22.1. HOW TO SET UP PRESSURE VALVE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
22.2. TESTING CLAMP PROPORTIONAL VALVE FUNCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

8. PNEUMATIC SYSTEM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 347


1.. AIR SERVICE UNIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
2.. LUBRICATOR UNIT (OIL MIST). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

9. COOLING SYSTEM. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 349


1.. HEAT EXCHANGER (OIL COOLER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

d 16/12/05
MAINTENANCE:
10. LUBRICATION SYSTEM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 353
1.. OIL LUBRICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
2.. GREASE LUBRICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
2.1. HYDRAULIC OIL AND LUBRICANT COMPARISON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
2.2. TRABON AND VOGEL AUTOMATIC GREASE LUBRICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

11. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 367


1.. GENERAL PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
2.. SUGGESTED LOCKOUT PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
3.. CONTROLS MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
4.. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
5.. MACHINE CHECKS AND INSPECTIONS (SEMI - ANNUAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
6.. CHECKING AND ADJUSTING MACHINE LEVEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
6.1. ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
6.2. EUROMAP 7 TEST BLOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
7.. CHECKING AND ADJUSTING MOVING PLATEN BEARING SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . 381
7.1. MOVING PLATEN BEARING ADJUSTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
8.. CHECKING PLATEN PARALLELISM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
9.. TIEBARLESS MACHINES - PLATEN PARALLELISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
9.1. ROTARY LINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
9.2. ADJUSTMENTS FOR MAINTAINING PLATEN PARALLELISM: . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
9.3. “FLEX – LINK” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
10.. TOGGLE MACHINES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
10.1. CHECKING PARALLELISM AND TIE BAR STRETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
10.1.1. Platen Parallelism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
10.1.2. ADJUSTING PLATEN PARALLELISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
10.2. TIE BAR STRETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
10.2.1. CLAMP FORCE CALCULATION (metric & imperial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
10.2.2. CHECKING TIEBAR STRETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
10.2.3. Tie Bar Stretch calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
10.2.4. ADJUSTING TIEBAR STRETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
11.. PLASTICIZING UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

12. GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING FLOWCHARTS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 405

REVISION LIST - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 417

16/12/05 e
MAINTENANCE:

f 16/12/05
MAINTENANCE:
1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL
DESCRIPTION
ENGEL injection molding machines employ a hydraulically based system to provide the extremely
high clamping pressures required in the production of modern thermoplastic products. The
hydraulic pump is driven by an electric motor and the plastic injection process is achieved through
a screw drive mechanism.

1. MAIN MACHINE ELEMENTS:


A. Machine frame with:
• Electric motor
• Pump
• Hydraulic unit

B. Clamping unit with :


• Platens and Tie-bars
• Clamping Cylinder
• Toggle System
• Safety Gate

C. Injection unit with:


• Plasticizing Cylinder
• Injection Cylinder
• Carriage Cylinder
• Screw Drive
• Material Hopper

D. Control cabinet (AC)


(on machine) with:
• Main Connection
• Master Breaker Switch
• Motor Breaker Switch
• Heating Breaker Switch
• * Programmable Controller

E. Control cabinet
(separate) with:
• Electronic control
• * Programmable controller (Optional)

*The programmable controller might be placed in either cabinet depending on the specific
machine.

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 1


MAINTENANCE:
The injection molding machine basically consists of two parts; a horizontal press, and an extruder
with an injection cylinder.

A frame of hollow structural design, supports the horizontal clamping press and the injection unit.
The right-hand part of the frame accommodates the oil reservoir and part of the manifold system.
The left-hand side provides a large drop off area to accommodate bins or conveying system.

TYPICAL HYDRAULIC MACHINE

TYPICAL TOGGLE MACHINE

2 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

1 Clamp Cylinder 2 Safety Gate


3 Clamp Piston 4 Tie-bars (times 4)
5 Ejector 6 Moving Platen
7 Stationary Platen 8 Plasticizing Cylinder
9 Material Hopper 10 Injection Unit
11 Screw Drive Motor 12 Monitor and Front Faceplate
13 Alarm Light 14 Part Drop-out Area
15 Carriage Piston 16 Card Rack (inside left door)
17 Master Disconnect Switch 18 Machine Mount (adjustable)

Component Layout - 30/55 Ton Hydraulic Clamp

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 3


MAINTENANCE:

4 3 2 6 11 12 15 9 10 11 13

17

14
18 8 16

1 Clamp cylinder 2 Safety gates

3 Clamp piston 4 Prefill Hydraulic oil tank

5 Ejector 6 Moving Platen

7 Stationary Platen 8 Plasticizing Cylinder

9 Material Hopper 10 Injection unit

11 Screw Drive Motor 12 Monitor and front faceplate

13 Alarm light 14 Part drop out area

15 Carriage piston 16 Card rack (inside left door)

17 Master disconnect switch 18 machine mount (adjustable)

Component Layout 100 Ton

4 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

1 Clamping cylinder 2 Tie bar (x4)


3 Rear platen 4 Toggle area
5 Ejector cylinder 6 Moving platen
7 Safety gate 8 Monitor
9 Plasticizing cylinder 10 Material hopper
11 Injection unit 12 Screw drive motor
13 Master disconnect switch 14 Card rack
15 Manual switches 16 Part drop out area
17 Machine frame 18 Machine mount (adjustable)
19 Mold height motor

Component Layout 85/100 Ton

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 5


MAINTENANCE:

2 5 3 14 8 11 12 13
1 6

9 16 17
15 10 18
19 4

1. Clamping cylinder 2. Toggle mechanism


3. Tie bars (x 4) 4. Ejector cylinder
5. Moving platen 6. Safety gate
7. Manual control switches 8. Purge gate
9. Plasticizing cylinder 10. Carriage cylinder (x 2)
11. Material hopper 12. Injection unit
13. Screw drive motor 14. Monitor and front faceplate
15. Part drop out area 16. Card rack
17. Carriage linear bearing (x 2) 18. Master disconnect switch
19. Machine mount (adjustable)

Component layout 200 Ton (150 - 500 Ton series)

6 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
2. THE CLAMPING SIDE
The clamping side consists of:

Clamping Unit - Platens and Tie-bars.


On all Engel machines, the stationary platen is mounted to the base. The clamping cylinder
platen, which is the left hand platen when standing on the operator-side of the machine, is
allowed to float, to a certain extent, in order to permit tie-bar stretch during clamping. The
moving platen, guided on four tie-bars, is supported with roller supports on larger machines
(on smaller machines the roller supports are optional). The moving platen also contains long
guide bushings which ride on the highly polished surface of the tie-bars. The clamping and
opening movement of the platens is achieved either by direct hydraulic action (28 ton and
45 ton) or hydraulically activated toggle mechanism.
Mold mounting and ejector hose on the platen are according to SPI standards. The
stationary platen is equipped with cooling holes to minimize heat transfer from the
plasticizing unit or hot runner mold into the clamp system.

Clamp System - ES 30 and 55.


Both machines are fully hydraulic machines with a high speed closing cylinder and a high
pressure cylinder and pre-fill valve. The older type of ES25, ES28 and ES45 are clamped
up with the full clamping cylinder rod and have a high speed opening cylinder.

3. DESCRIPTION OF TOGGLE SYSTEM


The clamp force is generated by the means of a double folding toggle mechanism.
The toggle system consists of the following parts:
• Crosshead
• Left-hand connecting fork
• Right-hand connecting fork
• Link Right
• Link Left
• Latches
• Toggle Pins

The toggle pins are case hardened and the bushings are made from hardened tool steel.
Each bushing of the toggle mechanism is individually lubricated by the oil lubrication
system.

4. CLAMP CYLINDER
The hydraulically activated cylinder for the clamp system is mounted to the cylinder platen.
The hydraulic cylinder provides the necessary force for opening and clamping the machine,
and it is also equipped with a hydraulic cushion for maximum opening stroke.

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 7


MAINTENANCE:
5. HYDRAULIC EJECTOR
The hydraulic ejector plate is mounted to the back of the moving platen by means of guide
rods. The ejector provides enough adjustable force to eject the parts. Newer machines are
provided with an arrangement to connect the ejector rod to the mold platen for easier return
of the ejector plate.

6. TIE-BARS
The tie-bars are made from a high quality pre-hardened steel alloy which has been
induction hardened and super-finished for wear resistance. The threaded sections however
are unaffected by the induction hardening process. The tie-bars act as springs during clamp
lockup and stretch to allow for proper clamp force (typical tie-bar stretch is 0.030" at nominal
clamp force). On machines of 400 tons, or less, the section of tie-bar within the stationary
platen is preloaded, according to the tonnage of the machine. On a 300 ton machine, for
example, each tie-bar would be preloaded to a minimum of 75 tons. This effectively
prevents tie-bar movement within the platen whilst distributing the load into the platen via
hardened inserts.

7. MOLD HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT


Mold height adjustment is performed over the long threaded ends of the tie-bars, on each
tie-bar nut a gear is mounted and is driven by a central gear, this in turn is driven by the
mold-height motor via a reducing gearbox. Operating the key switch, "mold height
adjustment" on the push-button station, enables the mold-height to be increased or
decreased.

8. SAFETY GATE
The safety gates protect personnel from all pinch points on the clamp unit and also activates
all safety devices on the machine such as mechanical drop bar, hydraulic interlock and
electrical limit switches. Protective guards are an integral part of the machine and can only
be removed with hand tools. Operation of the machine without these safety guards is
dangerous to personal safety and forbidden by safe factory working conditions. To allow
observation of the mold and clamp mechanism, as well as the hydraulic ejector, the safety
gate and guards are equipped with large windows wherever deemed necessary. On split
gate designs the rear door can be opened for service accessibility, although if the rear door
is opened, the machine will shuts off.

9. INJECTION UNIT
The injection unit consists of:
• Carriage Cylinder
• Plasticizing Cylinder
• Injection Cylinder
• Screw Drive Assembly

8 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
10. CARRIAGE UNIT
The carriage unit is the complete injection unit riding on two guide rods mounted to the
base. Two carriage cylinders are mounted to the injection unit which provide the necessary
nozzle force and nozzle travel. The two piston rods are connected to the stationary platen,
symmetrical about the machine center line. Nozzle pressure and nozzle speed are
independently adjustable from zero to maximum.

11. PLASTICIZING CYLINDER


The plasticizing cylinder consists of:
• Cylinder, Screw
• Barrel Head
• Nozzle Heater Bands
• Thermocouple
• Screw Tip Assembly.

Plasticizing cylinders and screws are available for special molding applications. The
standard screw, is nitrided, and used in conjunction with a nitrided plasticizing cylinder, this
arrangement is suitable for processing a wide range of thermoplastic material. A large
variety of different nozzles designs are available for special applications, such as optional
hydraulically activated shut-off nozzles, spring-loaded shut-off nozzles, reverse taper nylon
nozzles, extended nozzles and heaterless nozzles.

12. INJECTION CYLINDER


The injection cylinder is a double-acting cylinder providing sufficient force for high injection
pressure speed, as well as position suckback for melt decompression. The cylinder is
mounted to the cylinder-casting of the injection unit. The hydraulic force is transmitted over
the floating screw drive onto the screw generating injection pressure.

13. SCREW DRIVE ASSEMBLY


On our older generation of machines up to 70 ton and on all our newer generation of
machines, a direct hydraulic drive is used. It basically consists of a high torque - low RPM
hydraulic motor, main drive shaft and shaft bearings. The unit itself is maintenance free. On
the older generation of machines starting with the 110 ton, a reduction gear in conjunction
with a high speed - low torque hydraulic motor is used. The unit must be maintained directly
according to our maintenance recommendations. The main drive shaft contains a female
spline which accepts the splined shaft of the plasticizing screw. The initial connection is
provided by a split ring and drop nut. When reconnecting the screw to the gear assembly, it
is important that the two “C” halves of the split ring sit properly in the front counter bore of
the main drive shaft before tightening the locknut to prevent severe damage to screw and
drive shaft.

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 9


MAINTENANCE:
14 SCREWS

14.1 PLASTICIZING SCREWS

HEATER BAND THERMOCOUPLE


NOZZLE
HEATER BAND

NOZZLE
BARREL A3001372

SCREWTIP SCREW

The most important part in an injection unit is the plasticizing screw. It is used to melt the
material in the plasticizing cylinder. The design considerations and manufacturing quality of
a screw is important, in order to achieve the following characteristics:
• Very good plasticizing capability.
• Good color mixing, by dry color material or master batch.
• Constant material feed.
• Development of very little friction heat.
• Use of many different plastic material types.

If all these characteristics were maximized, the result would be the ideal universal screw.
However all screw design is a compromise. If the screw design has a very high feed
capability, the mix capability will be affected. If the mix capability is raised, there is a
possibility of generating too much friction heat and thereby slowing down the feed capability.
Therefore, a compromise must be made. Most machine manufacturers, have designed a
general purpose screw for manufacturing with frequent material changes. The screw is
designed for good feed rate, good mixing ability, low friction heat and good wear quality.

10 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
14.2 TYPES OF SCREW.

There are a large number of different materials being injection molded. Each material has
its own individual characteristics resulting in unique molding problems for that material. This
has given rise to many innovations in screw design.
Some of the most commonly used screw types will be discussed in this section.

A. Thermoplastic Screws.

Thermoplastic Screws or general purpose screws are used for plastic material,
polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene.
The general purpose screws are divided into three zones from the hopper end of the
machine:
1. Feed zone - As the material falls from the hopper into the screw, the feed zone warms
the material and the deep flights of the screw transport the material to the second zone.
2. Transition zone - The flight depth of the screw is much shallower in this zone and the
material is compressed against the wall of the cylinder as it is transported to the last
zone and starts to melt.
3. Metering zone - Here the flights of the screw are very shallow and the material is melted
into the final liquid stage, mixed and transported to the front of the screw tip. At the
screw tip it is ready for injection into the mold.
Two important measurements are always given for a screw, L/D ratio and compression
ratio.
The effective screw length to diameter ratio (L/D) is the distance from the forward end of the
screw flight divided by the diameter of the screw. General purpose screws commonly have
an L/D ratio of 20:1. Typically, on a screw with 20 flights, this might be divided between the
three zones as 40% (8D) in the feed zone, 35% (7D) in the transition zone and 25% (5D) in
the metering zone.
The compression ratio is obtained by dividing the volume of the screw channel at the feed
opening by the volume of the last flight prior to discharge, a ratio of 2 or 3:1 would be
common.

D METERING TRANSITION FEED ZONE


ZONE ZONE

TYPICAL THERMOPLASTIC SCREW

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 11


MAINTENANCE:
The L/D ratio of a screw for processing polyethylene and polypropylene is quite different
because of the greater shear strength of the material. Typically the screw would be divided
up as follows:

Feed zone - 60% (12D)

Transition zone - 20% (4D)

Metering zone - 20% (4D)

General purpose screws are normally case hardened using a process known as nitriding.
A very hard outer case can be obtained by subjecting the screw to a nitrogen rich
atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The depth of case is approximately .020 - .024
inches. When any significant wear has taken place and the case hardening has been worn
through, the screw will experience rapid wear of the softer inner material. Non filled
materials should be used with this type of screw. Materials such as glassfill, micafill and
quartzfill require a specially coated screw because of the corrosive acids found in these
materials.

Thermoset Screws

When molding thermoset materials such as phenolic and melamine a screw with the
following characteristics is used:

L/D ratio = 16

Compression ratio = low 2’s

The screw is mainly used for transporting the material, so little or no compression is
required.
The nose of the screw is tapered, with the flights extending almost to the tip, instead of an
actual screw tip.
Screw cooling is used to prevent over heating when the screw has a large diameter (2.75
inches and over).

12 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Elastomer Screws

Elastomer screws used for rubber, are a three compression type with the following
characteristics:

L/D ratio = 16

Compression ratio =

Very little compression is required for rubber and the screw is mainly used for transport of
the material.

Lim Screws

LIM (Liquid Injection Molding) screws provide no compression and are for material transport
only.

A3000627

Polyester Screws

Polyester screws provide no compression and are for material transport only.

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 13


MAINTENANCE:
Vented screws

DECOMPRESSION
AREA

METERING VENTING FEED

2ND 1ST
TRANSITION TRANSITION
A3001263
METERING

Vented screws are used to mold ABS, polycarbonate and nylon. The screw appears to be
two screws joined together. The material is dried in the barrel and the moisture vapour or
gases are vented through a hole in the barrel. If the vapour were prevented from escaping
then, the vapour would be compressed by the melted plastic and carried to the mold. Once
in the mold, the vapour will expand and cause bubbles in the molded part.
To allow the vapour to escape before it reaches the mold, the molten plastic is
decompressed half way along the barrel. This is achieved by reducing the diameter or root
of the screw. At the point of screw diameter reduction, a hole is located in the barrel for
vapour to escape through.
Special attention has to be given to accurate heating and heating zone transfer from zone
to zone.
A vented screw should have the screw speed adjusted so that almost all of the screw
rotation time is used. This provides a good melt without excessive shear and increases the
time that the melt is tumbled in the vent zone to allow the escape of vapour or gases.
Back pressure should be kept to a minimum to allow the screw to recover properly and to
prevent material from flowing through the vent hole.
When using vented screws and barrels a loss of plasticizing capacity of up to 40% can be
expected compared with a standard screw of the same diameter.

14 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
15 SCREWTIPS & NON-RETURN VALVES
Sliding Ring Check Valve.

Most Engel injection molding machines are fitted with a free-flowing screw tip. The free-
flowing screw tip consists of a stationary seal ring, floating check ring and a deeply grooved
tip.
During plasticizing the free-flowing check ring is pushed to the front of the tip to allow
material to flow underneath the ring to the front of the tip. When the screw stops turning and
begins the injection cycle the pressure of the plastic plus the injecting of the ram forces the
ring back against the seat to prevent any back flow of the material. It is important that this
free floating seal ring has a good seal seat (no scratches) against the stationary seal ring.
Back flow of material could result in uneven shots and bridging in the feeding section. If
during injection uneven shots occur or a loss of cushion stability, it will be necessary to
check the seal ring, stationary ring and tip for wear or cracks.

CHECK RING

VALVE SEAT

SCREW TIP

Sliding ring check valves are most commonly used for their free flow design that creates
very little pressure drop, across the valve, which is ideal for processing heat sensitive
materials.

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 15


MAINTENANCE:
Cam Actuated Check Valve

CAM

A3001385
CHECK RING

PIN
DIRECTION OF
ROTATION

TIP

The plasticizing pressure presses the CHECK RING against the PIN. The PIN interlocks
with a CAM which is machined into the CHECK RING and rotates with the screw.
Depending on the amount of material which is plasticized, the CHECK RING lifts off a
corresponding amount from its seat. At the end of plasticizing, the screw slows down
according to a fixed speed ramp. As the screw slows down, the plasticizing rate also
decreases. Since the plasticizing rate determines the clearance between the CHECK RING
and the TIP, the gap decreases proportionally to the decreasing screw speed. At the end of
plasticizing, the CHECK RING is already in a closed position.
Because of this effect, the CHECK RING does not have to travel as far (or not at all) to reach
the closed position when the screw moves forward during the injection cycle - hence more
consistent shutoff and closer shot size control.
Increased cylinder wear has been noticed when using filled materials because the ring is
forced to rotate with the screw (same as with BALL CHECK valves). Therefore this type is
not recommended for filled materials.

16 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Ball Check Valves

Ball check valves perform in a similar manner to sliding ring check valves, but have some
advantages in that they provide better shot control and a more positive shut off. Ball valves
however do have some disadvantages, because their design is not so streamlined as the
ring valve they produce a greater pressure drop across the valve and therefore more heat.
This makes them unsuitable for handling heat sensitive materials and so they are mainly
used for polystyrene, polyethylene and polypropylene.
A ball check valve comprises a floating steel ball, held in place by a crosspin that closes the
flow of material during injection. The material is either discharged through the front of the
valve or the side.
The front discharge type is less expensive than the ring type and operates well with less
viscous materials, but is harder to clean.
The side discharge type has all the characteristics of the front discharge type and is much
easier to clean, but is more expensive.

INLETS

FRONT
DISCHARGE

FRONT DISCHARGE TYPE BALL CHECKVALVE

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 17


MAINTENANCE:
Smeartips

When molding materials like PVC, normal screw tips cannot be used, and Smear tips are
employed instead.

HIGHLY POLISHED

A3001266

CHAMFERED TIP
(little heating)

When using a smear tip, the front nozzle flange and nozzle have to be changed to match
each other. The angle of the smear tip, flange and nozzle must be accurately fitted together
and the gap between the screw tip, flange and nozzle must not exceed 0.015". Since this
type of design does not use a check ring it is necessary that an anti-rotation device, either
hydraulic or mechanical, be installed in the machine to prevent back flow of plasticized
material.

18 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Spring Loaded Check Valve

This type is used for L.I.M (liquid injection molding)

SPRING

A3000047

DISCHARGE HOLES

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 19


MAINTENANCE:
16 NOZZLES
At the front end of the injection cylinder is the nozzle, which is screwed into the cylinder
flange and makes the connection between mold and machine.

TYPICAL NOZZLE ARRANGEMENT


The nozzle normally has a radius, according to SPI standards of 1/2" (up to 400 ton
machines) to 3/4" (over 400 ton machines)." The radius of the nozzle should be slightly less
than the sprue bushing radius so that only the nozzle hole or the front most end of the
nozzle is connected to the mold. The outer part of the radius should be free and not touching
the mold.

SPRUE
BUSH
NOZZLE

R (SPRUE BUSH) = r (NOZZLE) + 0.020 TO 0.040 INCHES

20 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
It is very important that the hole of the nozzle be the same size, or a little less than, the size
of the hole of the sprue bushing. A very small hole in the nozzle will result in high injection
pressure and more shearing which will heat up the material. Nozzles over 1" in length
should be supplied with their own heating zone and their own heater band to permit good
control over the temperature of the nozzle.

Nozzle Types
There are a variety of nozzles available depending upon the material or mold parameters
required.
Some of the types of nozzles include:
• Insulated.
• Reverse tapered.
• External spring shut off or internal spring shut off.
• Hydraulic shut off

Insulated nozzles are mainly used for single cavity molding, where the part can be reached
in the mold to achieve a hot runner molding effect.
Reverse taper nozzles are mainly used to mold nylon, where the front channel of the nozzle
is reversed to taper off the back channel.

Standard Nozzle
Used for general purpose molding where a special nozzle is not required.

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 21


MAINTENANCE:
Plunger Nozzle
This is an extended rigid nozzle, which is used with hot runner molds.

Thermoset

PVC Nozzle

22 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Ante-Chamber Nozzle
This nozzle plunges into the mold for sprueless injection. Due to the high conductivity of the
copper tip of the nozzle the material does not freeze in the antechamber of the sprue bush.

Shutoff Nozzles
The controlled shut off type of nozzle is employed to eliminate drooling of the material.
They are also preferred when the plasticizing time is longer than the cooling time and if the
plasticizing occurs with nozzle retracted for improved mold cooling and less nozzle cooling.
The hydraulic shut off nozzles are in fact hydraulic open nozzles, in the event of hydraulic
failure the shut off nozzle would close, this is termed "fail safe".

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 23


MAINTENANCE:

BARREL HEAD PLAST. CYLINDER FEEDTHROAT

NOZZLE

ACTUATING FORK

HYDRAULIC CYLINDER A3000043

ROTARY VALVE BARREL HEAD PLA. CYLINDER

OPEN NOZZLE

CLOSED

OPEN

CONNECTING ROD

HYDRAULIC CYLINDER
A3000044

24 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

Vari- Description
able

A Mold open position


A1 Mold position to start ejector
A2 Start air blowing 1
A3 Start air blowing 2
AH Minimum opening stroke robot
AZ Ejector counter (number of times ejector comes forward)
B Toggle lever locked
B1 Start toggle lock slowdown (A01)
B8 Move in before tonnage (cores)
BG2 End mold protection pressure (A01)
C1 Set screw feed stroke
C1* Corrected feed stroke (corrected by the cushion program)
C2 Decompress after feed
C2* Decompression stop (corrected feed stroke plus decompression)
C3 Stroke cut-off point
C3b Hydraulic pressure cut-off window
C3d Cut-off window (screw position before parallel cut-off)
C3E External cut off
C3u Screw position at cut-off
C4 Decompress before feed
CP Cushion length set value
CPx Actual cushion length
DZx Actual screw feed speed (rpm)
FA Number of cavities
FZx Flow number ()
G1 Start of mold protection
G1A Start of 2nd mold protection (A01)
G2 Start clamping pressure (toggle lever position)
G2f Stop mold protection (mold position)
H1x Temperature - heat zone 1
H2x Temperature - heat zone 2 ....etc.
J Nozzle contact position
J1 Start 2nd nozzle forward speed
K Sprue break stroke
K1 Nozzle fully retracted
KA1 Monitor position for core out (1)
KA2 Monitor position for core out (2)
KA3 Monitor position for core out (3)
KD1E Valve off after movement (core 1)
KD2E Valve off after movement (core 2)
KD3E Valve off after movement (core 3)
KE1 Monitor position for core in (1)
KE2 Monitor position for core in (2)
KE3 Monitor position for core in (3)
KH1A Using auxiliary power source (core 1 out)
KH1E Using auxiliary power source (core 1 in)
KH2A Using auxiliary power source (core 2 out)

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 25


MAINTENANCE:
Vari- Description
able
KH2E Using auxiliary power source (core 2 in)
KH3A Using auxiliary power source (core 3 out)
KH3E Using auxiliary power source (core 3 in)
KO1 Mold position for core out (1)
KO2 Mold position for core out (2)
KO3 Mold position for core out (3)
KP1A Priority for moving out (core 1)
KP1E Priority for moving in (core 1)
KP2A Priority for moving out (core 2)
KP2E Priority for moving in (core 2)
KP3A Priority for moving out (core 30
KP3E Priority for moving in (core 3)
KRZ Shake as ejector (cores - number of times)
KS1 Mold position for core in (1)
KS2 Mold position for core in (2)
KS3 Mold position for core in (3)
KT1A Time dependent (core 1 out)
KT1E Time dependent (core 1 in)
KT2A Time dependent (core 2 out)
KT2E Time dependent (core 2 in)
KT3A Time dependent (core 3 out)
KT3E Time dependent (core 3 in)
KV1A Before mold opening (core 1 out)
KV2A Before mold opening (core 2 out)
KV3A Before mold opening (core 3 out)
KZ1A While mold is moving (core 1 out)
KZ1E While mold is moving (core 1 in)
KZ2A While mold is moving (core 2 out)
KZ2E While mold is moving (core 2 in)
KZ3A While mold is moving (core 3 out)
KZ3E While mold is moving (core 3 in)
L Retract position (ejector)
L1 Forward position (ejector)
L2 Shake position (ejector)
Min Time (minutes)
OelTx Oil temperature actual value
P1 Clamping pressure
P2 1st mold protection pressure
P2A 2nd mold protection pressure
P2A-E 5 Mold protection pressures
P5 Nozzle forward pressure
P5b Holding (nozzle) pressure after injection
P6 Injection boost pressure
P7 1st injection hold pressure
P8 2nd injection hold pressure
P9 3rd injection hold pressure
P10 4th injection hold pressure,
P11 5th injection hold pressure
P12 6th injection hold pressure
P13 7th injection hold pressure

26 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Vari- Description
able
P14 8th injection hold pressure
P15 9th injection hold pressure
P16 10th injection hold pressure
P17 1st back pressure
P18 2nd back pressure
P19 3rd back pressure
P20 4th back pressure
P21 5th back pressure
P25 Ejector forward pressure
P26 Ejector retract pressure
P30 Pressure core 1 out
P31 Pressure core 1 in
P32 Pressure core 2 out
P33 Pressure core 2 in
P34 Pressure core 3 out
P35 Pressure core 3 in
PF Cavity pressure cut-off point
PFs Peak value of cavity pressure
PFu Cavity pressure at cut-off
PFx Cavity pressure actual value
PH Hydraulic pressure cut-off point (boost to hold)
PH3a Actual melt pressure,(special equipment)
PH3x Peak melt pressure, (special equipment)
PHs Peak value of injection pressure
PHu Hydraulic pressure at cut-off
PHx Hydraulic pressure actual value
PNs Injection hold peak pressure
PSs Back pressure peak value
PSx Back pressure actual value
PVs Peak value of injection pressure (this abbrev. sometimes used)
PVs Peak Value of cavity pressure (this abbrev. sometimes used)
SAx Actual ejector position
SD Actual nozzle position
SFs Mold opening stroke (stored), see Program
SFx Actual mold position
SKs Clamping force stored
SKs1 Clamping force stored (tiebar 1)
SKs2 Clamping force stored (tiebar 2) .....up to 4
SKx Actual toggle position
SKx1 Clamping force current (tiebar 1)
SKx2 Clamping force current (tiebar 2) .....up to 4
SSx Actual screw position
Std Time (hours)
StZ Good parts required (set value
StZx Good parts required (actual value)
SZ Total cycles required
SZx Total cycles produced (actual value - excluding rejects)
V1 Clamp closing speed A to W3
V2 Clamp closing speed W3 to W1
V3 Clamp closing speed W1 to G2

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 27


MAINTENANCE:
Vari- Description
able
V4A-E 5 Mold Protection speeds
V6 Clamp opening speed G2 to W4
V7 Clamp opening speed W4 to W2
V8 Clamp opening speed W2 to A
V9 Nozzle forward speed K to J1
V10 Nozzle forward speed J1 to J
V11 Sprue break speed (J to K)
V12 1st injection speed
V13 2nd injection speed
V14 3rd injection speed
V15 4th injection speed
V16 5th injection speed
V17 6th injection speed
V18 7th injection speed
V19 8th injection speed
V20 9th injection speed
V21 10th injection speed
V23 Intrusion speed
V24 Decompression speed
V25 Ejector forward speed
V26 Ejector retract speed
V30 Speed (core 1 moving out)
V31 Speed (core 1 moving in)
V32 Speed (core 2 moving out)
V33 Speed (core 2 moving in)
V34 Speed (core 3 moving out)
V35 Speed (core 3 moving in)
VP2 1st mold protection speed
VP2A 2nd mold protection speed
VSchx Mold closing speed (actual value)
W1 Mold position at start of 3rd closing speed (between W3 and G1)
W2 Mold position at start of 3rd opening speed (between W4 and A)
W3 Mold position at start of 2nd closing speed (between A and W1)
W4 Mold position at start of 2nd opening speed (between A and W2)
Z1 Injection boost time
Z2 Injection hold time
Z3 Screw feed delay time
Z4 Cooling time
Z4x Elapsed cooling time (also appears as 'ACT')
Z5 Recycle time (time mold is open after ejection)
Z5a Nozzle contact pressure time (delay before injection)
Z6 Sprue break delay time
ZA Forward dwell (ejector)
ZA1 Moving out time (core 1)
ZA2 Moving out time (core 2)
ZA3 Moving out time (core 3)
ZAV Forward delay (ejector)
ZD Screw feed time limit (A01) (Max - Min on A02)
ZDx Elapsed feeding time (screw)
ZE1 Moving in time (core 1)

28 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Vari- Description
able
ZE2 Moving in time (core 2)
ZE3 Moving in time (core 3)
ZF Mold protection time set value
ZFx Mold protection time actual value
ZIN Intrusion time
ZKV Toggle lever lockup time (A01)
ZL1 Air blowing time (air valve 1)
ZL2 Air blowing time (air valve 2)
ZLV1 Air blowing delay time (air valve 1)
ZLV2 Air blowing delay time (air valve 2)
ZS0 Minimum injection time limit (A01) Minimum on A02
ZS1 Maximum injection time limit (A01) Maximum on Ao2
ZSx Elapsed injection boost time
ZSZ Number of cycles interval between toggle lubrications
ZU1 Monitoring time (core 1 in)
ZU2 Monitoring time (core 2 in)
ZU3 Monitoring time (core 3 in)
ZUa1 Monitoring time (core 1 out)
ZUa2 Monitoring time (core 2 out)
ZUa3 Monitoring time (core 3 out)
ZUs Time taken for previous cycle
ZUx Elapsed time of the current cycle (begins at start of mold close)

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 29


MAINTENANCE:
17 GENERAL MACHINE CYCLE
Cycle Start - Mold Close
If the mold is open to position A, the ejector is retracted to position L, and the screw is refilled to
position C1, or C2 if decompression after screw refill has been selected, then the molding cycle
will begin when the operator closes the front safety gate. The mold will close using the speeds
chosen by the operator. The range of these speeds is also chosen by the operator by setting
variables A, W3 and W1. It is better to use slower mold closing speeds when first setting up the
machine and then increase the speeds later in order to reduce cycle time.

Engel employs two different mold protection methods. The first method, now being phased out,
uses a five-step mold protection zone. Mold protection begins at G1 and continues until G2 is
reached. The mold is closed with high speed and pressure until the last closing speed (W1)
before G1. The last closing speed is used to slow the mold down, so that the mold, as it enters
the mold protection zone, is barely moving.

During mold protection, the pressure is substantially reduced. If an obstacle is encountered, the
pressure and sped are now so low that no or very little damage is incurred. The other factor to the
mold protection zone is the time monitoring.

Once a successful mold closing is achieved and the time taken to move through the mold
protection zone (ZFx) can be noted. This time is set into the mold protection monitoring time (ZF).
When the mold is prevented from closing by an obstruction, the machine continues to try and
close, at reduced pressure and speed, until the monitoring time (ZF) is exceeded. The mold will
then open and the cycle will stop.

With the newly introduced "Autoprotect", the mold is closed with 100 % speed and pressure if so
desired. In reality the speed is reduced going through the mold protection zone.

From an initial successful closing, a monitoring curve is generated. Subsequent mold closings are
compared to the monitoring curve. Either the force or speed of closing can be monitored. The
operator sets a small tolerance to the monitoring curve and if an obstruction is encountered, the
force will increase or the speed will decrease. Once the force or speed exceeds the monitoring
curve by the set tolerance, the machine goes into mold protection alarm.

This system is so sensitive that it can detect very small changes in speed or force and react very
quickly to the change.

Once the mold moves through the mold protection zone and the two mold halves touch, a "trigger"
will be activated which will end mold protection pressure and will activate clamping pressure.
Depending on the version of software existing within the machine control, the "trigger" could be an
activated proximity switch input, an activated input from a series of limit switches, or when the
mold, or toggle lever, reach a certain closing position.

Toggle machines which are equipped with a Clampforce transducer, should always have clamping
pressure set to 100 % since the controller will adjust the mold-height to deliver the correct clamp
force. If you require a different clamp tonnage, change the clamp force set value and the machine
will adjust automatically. On a direct hydraulic machine, reducing the clamp force set value will
cause a proportional reduction in clamp force by reducing clamping pressure.

30 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Carriage Forward
When the mold is closed and in a locked position, the input signal B will be activated to signal the
carriage to move forward. On direct hydraulic machines the G2 input is used to initiate the
carriage forward movement.

The carriage moves quickly at first, but then slows down near the end of its forward travel to avoid
damaging the nozzle. The first speed is in effect from the sprue break point K, to point J1. The
slowdown speed is in effect from point J1 to point J.

J is the carriage zero point and indicates that the nozzle is pressed against the sprue bushing. To
determine the extent of carriage forward pressure, turn the manual pressure gauge to position #4.
At maximum this pressure can be 80% of full system pressure. As soon as the controller
recognizes that the carriage is in its forward position, as indicated by the J marker, timer Z5a
begins counting during which time the carriage forward pressure P5 is allowed to develop. When
time Z5a expires, the injection process begins.

Injection Boost
The molder has up to 10 injection speeds and speed ranges available with which to profile the
injection according to how quickly the mold will accept the plastic. Normally, the plastic is injected
as quickly as possible and then transferred into hold pressure to complete mold cavity packing.

Remember, that faster injection speeds, result in higher hydraulic injection pressures. This is
particularly true when molding thin walled parts or when using molds that are equipped with very
small gates. The molder must remember that injection speed control is only possible if the
injection boost pressure limit P6 is set high enough to allow for that control.

For example, with a speed profile set at 4 inches per second, an injection stroke of 2 inches
should take about 0.5 seconds. However, if the elapsed injection time ZSx indicates that this
injection took 2 seconds or an average rate of 1 inch per second, then clearly this machine is not
achieving the required speed profile. As well, injecting this slowly can lead to all sorts of
undesirable molding problems.

The reason for this particular problem can be directly related to the incorrect setting of the
injection boost pressure limit variable P6. On “open loop” machines, P6 is simply a hydraulic
pressure relief valve setting which limits the maximum hydraulic injection pressure. On “closed
loop” machines equipped with a Servo valve, the system pressure relief valve is set to 100% when
the Servo valve is in operation. The pressure limitation is still controlled by P6, but the Servo valve
limits pressure available to the injection piston, according to the P6 setting.

Consider what is actually happening during the injection process. Assume that P6 is set at 2320
psi and hydraulic boost to hold cutoff is set to 1500 psi. Monitoring the manual pressure gauge
position #3, or the variable PHx on the injection page, the actual hydraulic injection pressure can
be observed.

Notice that the actual injection pressure does not come near the 2320 psi setting. Instead, the
pressure started at a very low level when the screw just started to move forward and then
increased as the injection process continued.

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 31


MAINTENANCE:
A glance at the elapsed injection time ZSx also indicates that for this part, we had complete speed
control. This injection stroke of 2 inches at a speed of 4 inches per second should have taken
approximately 0.5 seconds.

INJECTION BOOST
HOLD PRESSURE
P6 - Injection Boost Pressure Limit

P7-P16
Hold Pressures

PHx

Time
0
PHx - Actual hydraulic pressure
P6 - P16 - Relief or valve controlled pressure

You will notice that injection pressure increases over time. Also notice the constant value setting
of P6 as an upper pressure limitation. If the actual hydraulic injection pressure does not approach
the level of P6, speed control is maintained.

As the screw moves forward, the mold cavity is filling. The fuller the mold cavity becomes, the
more hydraulic pressure is required to inject plastic into the mold cavity.

At this point you should be asking yourself why must P6 be set higher than the actual injection
pressure required to fill the mold cavity?

The answer lies in the fact that hydraulic pressure relief valves have a cracking pressure, at which
they just start to crack open, which is lower than the actual full flow pressure relief valve setting.

In other words, fluid will start relieving or cracking open the valve at about 80% of pressure relief
valve setting. This will allow fluid to flow back to the oil tank and not to the injection piston which
is trying to push the screw forward.

Speed in hydraulics depends on how much fluid can be delivered to the injection piston in a given
amount of time. Fluid which leaks through the relief valve is fluid lost, and the set injection speeds
cannot be achieved. P6 is set correctly and speed is being controlled when increases in the value
of P6 do not bring about any further reductions in the elapsed injection time, ZSx.

32 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
With the increase specific injection pressure program on the injection page switched to "No", the
injection process occurs using a regenerative hydraulic circuit. This will provide a higher possible
injection speed but with a proportional reduction in specific injection pressure. The regenerative
circuit is possible by re-directing the rod side oil to be combined with the pump flow in order to
supply more GPMs to the back side of the injection piston.

This results in pressure being applied to both sides of the piston causing the net injection force to
be lower. A faster injection speed, but a lower than possible specific injection pressure is the net
effect. If you are having difficulty injecting plastic into the mold, it is possible to select the
increased injection pressure function which would result in an increase to the specific injection
pressure in front of the screw tip.

When this function is chosen, the hydraulic oil from the piston's rod side is directed back to the oil
reservoir. By eliminating the rod side pressure, the piston's forward force will increase and will
cause an increase in specific injection pressure.

Injection Hold Pressure


When most of the plastic has been injected into the mold cavity, the molder must choose a means
of switching from injection speed control into injection pressure control. In other words, from boost
into hold pressure. Engel machines have up to five separate methods to initiate the transfer into
hold pressure. The method by which the machine actually does transfer into hold pressure, will be
indicated by a software flag to the right of the triggering variable.

The operator can choose:


1. Time, as set by variable Z1,
2. Stroke position, as set by variable C3,
3. Hydraulic pressure, as set by variable PH,
4. Mold cavity pressure, as set by variable PF, or
5. Some external means as indicated by a digital input C3E.

For example, the time variable Z1, could be set so that the machine will inject for the length of time
Z1 and then transfer into hold pressure.

Another method would be to set the stroke position, C3 so that the machine will inject until the
stroke position C3 is reached and then transfer into hold pressure.

For transfer based on hydraulic pressure, the variable PH would be set to a particular value and
when the actual hydraulic pressure, PHx equals PH, the machine would transfer into hold
pressure. In order to use this method effectively, variable C3b can be set to provide a switching
window within which the controller would look for the required hydraulic pressure value. Typically,
C3b is set slightly higher than the actual screw position at switch over. Since position C3b must
be reached before the PH variable is considered by the controller, pressure peaks during injection
will not cause a premature boost to hold transfer.

For transfer based on mold cavity pressure, the variable PF would be set to a particular value and
when the actual mold cavity pressure, PFx equals PF, the machine would transfer into hold
pressure.

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 33


MAINTENANCE:
Of course, both the hydraulic pressure transfer and the mold cavity pressure transfer require that
the machine be equipped with the proper pressure sensors.

For a transfer based on a particular external indication, the function C3E must be switched to
"YES". The machine will now inject until the external device delivers a digital input signal to the
machine controller. An example of this type of device is a unit which measures the mold parting
line distance. The injection proceeds until the mold parting line device indicates a certain cavity
fill condition and then transmits a digital input signal to the machine controller causing the boost
to hold transition.

The variables PFu, PHu, C3u and ZSx on the injection page, also provide useful information on
the boost to hold pressure function. For example, PFu indicates the actual mold cavity pressure
at the moment of boost to hold transfer. PHu indicates the actual hydraulic pressure at the
moment of boost to hold transfer. The variable C3u indicates the actual screw position at the
moment of boost to hold transfer. ZSx indicates how long the injection took - from the start of the
injection function, to the transfer into hold pressure. These values will appear no matter which
method is employed.

For example, if the machine is running on stroke position transfer, and you would like to change
the transfer to occur based on hydraulic pressure, monitor variable PHu. Take the value that
consistently comes up in PHu and enter that value into PH. The machine will now look for this
level of hydraulic pressure before the transfer into hold pressure occurs. Remember though, you
should also set the value of C3b in order to provide an appropriate switching window and also to
guarantee that you are transferring on hydraulic pressure and not on the C3b stroke position
value.

If the hydraulic pressure transfer is operating correctly, you should now be witnessing a PHu value
equal to PH and a C3u value indicating the screw position at transfer. The variables PFs and PVs
indicate the peak values in cavity pressure and hydraulic pressure that occurred during the
injection cycle.

Once the machine has transferred into hold pressure, timer Z2 starts to run. Each of the separate
hold pressures are maintained for one-tenth of Z2 time.

For example, if Z2 was set to 10 seconds, each of the separate hold pressures would be
maintained for one second. Generally, the first few hold pressures should equal the hydraulic
injection pressure at the moment of boost to hold pressure transfer. The remaining hold pressures
could then be profiled depending on the desired part quality. Switching from a higher actual
injection pressure into a lower hold pressure will tend to allow plastic to flow out of the mold cavity
and could lead to sink marks in the molded part.

The material which lies ahead of the screw after injection, preventing the screw from bottoming
out, is known as the cushion. The plastic cushion plays an important part in the molding process
during hold pressure. The cushion provides the medium through which pressure is transmitted
from the screw to the mold cavity. The cushion also provides a quantity of material which is
available to be pushed into the mold cavity during packing and hold pressure in order to
compensate for part shrinkage.

34 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
The cushion size is displayed after each injection cycle as variable CPx on the hold pressure
page. The difference between C3u, the screw position at boost to hold pressure transfer, and
CPx, represents the screw travel under hold pressure conditions.

The extent and duration of hold pressure has a lot to do with the dimensional stability and outer
appearance of the molded part. If hold pressure time is too short, the mold gates will not have had
enough time to freeze off and sink marks could appear on the part. This is especially true of larger
parts or when higher hold pressures are employed. After the mold gates "freeze", hold pressure
has no effect and should be terminated at that point.

Cooling - Screw Refill


When the hold pressure time Z2 ends, the cooling time Z4 begins. For Z4 amount of time, the
mold will remain closed allowing the part to solidify enough to be ejected when the mold opens.
Generally, the lowest cycle times can be achieved using the lowest melt temperature and the
lowest mold temperature possible.
It must be recognized, however, that injecting relatively cool material into a relatively cool mold
can also present problems. The trick is to find the best melt temperature and the best mold
temperature for your specific molding purposes.

For example, if the mold temperature is too low, injection can be difficult. An indication of this
could show up as short shots or as dramatically increasing injection pressures, especially when
molding thin walled parts.

Notice also that it is during the cooling time that the screw refill function occurs. As the screw
turns, frictional forces between the screw and the barrel melt the plastic granules. The screw
flights force the melted plastic ahead of the screw in preparation for the next injection. As the
screw is turning, it is the plastic gathering in front of the screw that causes the screw to travel
backwards axially, as it turns.

If we restrict the backwards travel of the screw by increasing the back pressure, this would cause
an increase in the plastic melt temperature, a more densely packed shot, and a more
homogeneous mixture of the plastic melt.

During the screw refill function, it is important to remember that the melting process is partially
governed by the rate at which the plastic will actually melt. A poor melt mixture can result using a
very high screw refill speed that does not allow the plastic granules enough time to melt. As well,
some plastics are extremely shear sensitive and can actually degrade at high screw refill speeds

Each plastic has its own specific characteristics, but as a general rule , the best melting
performance can usually be achieved using as slow a screw refill speed as possible. For example,
if the cooling time is quite a bit longer than the screw refill time, does it does not make any sense
to drive the screw motor at a 100% RPM rate.

Of course, the major determinant here is the quality of the molded part. However, if a good quality
part can be produced at a lower screw refill RPM rate, why not save the wear and tear on the
machine and mold parts with a lower screw speed?

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 35


MAINTENANCE:
It is also important to remember that the screw refill function has priority over the mold open
function. For this reason, make sure that the screw refill function has been completed before the
cooling time Z4 has expired. Otherwise, the machine will wait for the screw refill function to finish
before allowing the mold to open. An indication of the screw speed being too low is when the
actual cooling time is longer than the set value cooling time, Z4.

After the screw has refilled for the next injection, it is sometimes necessary to decompress, or
"suck back" the screw in order to prevent the plastic ahead of the screw from drooling. This
function pulls back the plastic melt with a vacuum effect caused by the retracting injection screw.
The distance of the decompression is set by variable C2 on the screw refill page. Some situations
call for a decompression before the screw refill function and this distance can be set by variable
C4 on the same page.

The molder can also move the screw refill function to a later point in the cooling period by using
the screw refill delay timer Z3. This function can be useful if the plastic material is very heat
sensitive and there is a very long cooling time.

Sprue Break
After the screw has been refilled , the sprue break function will go into effect if it has been
selected. Since the mold is relatively cool compared to the nozzle, a "freezing off" of the nozzle tip
can occur. To prevent this condition, the nozzle is pulled back to the operator chosen sprue break
position K and will wait at that position until the mold closes again in the next cycle.

To guarantee that the sprue break function does not occur until after the screw refill and
decompression functions have been completed, use the sprue break delay timer Z6 to ensure the
correct sequence of events.

If all of these functions have taken place, the machine controller is only waiting for the end of the
cooling period in order to continue the cycle.

Mold Open
When the cooling time Z4 expires, the controller will start the mold open function. The mold will
open at the speeds chosen by the operator. The range of these speeds is set by the operator by
adjusting variables W4, W2 and A. It is better to use slower mold opening speeds when first
setting up the machine and then increase the speeds later in order to reduce cycle time.

The mold opens under a software set pressure until it reaches stroke position A.

Ejection
In the interests of decreasing cycle time, it is also possible to eject the part as the mold is opening
rather than waiting for the full mold open position. However, this procedure is effective only when
the machine is equipped with an extra pump or accumulator specifically dedicated to the “ejection
on the fly” function. If the extra hydraulic equipment is not installed, the variable A1, Mold Position
to Start Ejector, should be set equal to the mold open position A. Both of these variables can be
found on the Ejector page. On earlier versions of software, A1 is located on the mold open page.
If your machine incorporates a robot to remove the parts, it is possible to install mechanical stops
so that the mold opens to the exact position every time. When the robot reaches in for the part,
the mold will always be in the right position.

36 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
As soon as the mold opens to the A position, the ejection function is signaled to begin. The ejector
will move forward at an operator set speed and pressure from the rear position L, to the stroke
position L1. Again, if you do not need high speeds and pressures to complete the ejection
function, lower these variables.
If the ejector forward dwell time ZA has been selected, the ejector will stay in the forward position
for ZA amount of time and then return to the rear position. As well, the ejection function can be
delayed after reaching the mold open position by setting the Ejector Forward Delay, ZAV, to a
value greater than zero. If multiple ejections are required, it is not necessary on newer software to
have the ejector return to the rear position before moving forward again.
For example, if the variable L2, Ejector Shake Position was set between the ejector rear position
L, and the ejector stroke position L1, the ejector would move forward to L1 and shake back and
forth between L1 and L2 for the number of ejections required, and then return to the rear position.

Re-Cycle Time (Mold Open Time)


As soon as the ejector returns to the rear position at the end of the ejection function, the re-cycle
time Z5 begins. If the variable Z5 is set greater than zero, the next cycle will not begin until the
expiration of Z5 time. This timer is usually employed to guarantee that the part has had enough
time to fall clear of the mold before the mold close function is activated.
If the Z5 timer is used in conjunction with the ejection control option, a dual ejection function can
be put into effect. The ejection control function is used to detect whether or not a molded part has
been ejected and is clear of the mold. Ejection scales or a photocell determine if the molded part
has fallen clear of the mold and if so, signals the next cycle to begin.
If the signal is received during mold opening, indicating that the part has dropped out, there will be
no ejection, but the cycle will continue. If the mold has opened without seeing the signal, the
ejection function will operate but the controller must see the drop out signal within the re-cycle
time Z5 to continue the cycle.
For example, if the operator is employing an airblow to eject the part during mold open, the ejector
can be employed as a back-up ejection system. The ejection control function can eliminate the
need for hydraulic ejection and lead to significant cycle time savings.

Cycle Repeats in Automatic


If the mold is at position A, the ejector is at position L, and the screw is at position C1, or C2 if
decompression after screw refill has been selected, then the molding cycle will continue.......

16/12/05 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 37


MAINTENANCE:

38 1. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
Engel Injection molding machines are designed using distinct modular elements for clamp,
injection unit, electronics and hydraulics. The modular elements can be mixed to achieve a high
degree of customization and also means a machine can be re-configured at a later time.

1 LEGEND FOR MACHINE SPECIFICATION TABLES.


1 = Based on polystyrene material.
2 = Based on HPDE material (for ES750+)
3 = Calculated.
4 = Can be increased with Accumulator.
5 = Can be increased.
6 = As per Euromap 6 standard.
7 = 30 mm Screw also available as standard.
8 = With increased injection pressure.
(C) = Clamp weight.
D. = Diameter
ft-lbs. = foot pounds (torque)
g.p.m. = gallons per minute.
h. = height
HP = Horse power
Hz = Hertz (cycles per second)
(Inj.) = Injection weight.
ins. = Inches.
ins3 = cubic inches.
K = 1000
KW = Kilowatts
l. or L = length.
lbs. = pounds.
mm = millimetres.
N/A = Not Applicable.
ozs. = ounces.
p.s.i. = pounds per square inch.
R.P.M. = revolutions per minute.
tons = U.S. tons = 2000lbs.
w. = width.

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 39


MAINTENANCE:
2 MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
2.1 TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 100 ES 150


Clamp force US tons 100 150
Clamp opening force US tons 10 18
Clamp stroke (max) inches 12.20 16.54
9
Mold height (min - max) inches 9.84 - 20.87 5.91 - 20.47
9
Daylight (min - max) inches 9.84 - 33.07 5.91 - 37.01
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 22.68x22.68 N/A
Extended - inches B N/A 28.35x25.20
Distance between Standard - inches A 15.98x15.98 N/A
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A 19.69x16.54
Tie bar diameter inches 2.36 2.95
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 3.94 5.12
Hydraulic ejector force tons 2.8 6.8
INJECTION 330 330 330 330 650 650 650 750
Screw diameter mm 30 35 40 45 40 45 50 55
Screw diameter inches 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772 1.575 1.772 1.969 2.165
1+3
Shot size oz 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3 8.2 10.3 12.7 15.4
Injection capacity in3 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5 15.3 19.4 24.0 29.0
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.6
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 118 183 200 265 186 246 334 349
Injection rate at max. press. 4 in3/sec 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3 6.5 8.2 10.1 16.1
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3 8.7 11.0 13.6 21.5
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 3.3 3.3 3.3 4.4
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 4.5 4.5 4.5 5.8
Screw Stroke inches 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 24143 21765 30000 27173 22011 22910
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 30000 23200 17763 16013 22418 20306 16448 17120
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 420 420 320 320 297 297 297 238
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 260 260 325 325 514 514 514 813
Screw L/D ratio 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 9.84 13.78
Nozzle force US tons 5.2 7.6
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.2 24.2 24.2 31.7
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 52 113
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575/ - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 20 30 30 30 40
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 7.2 12.7 13.7 15.7 16.7
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 1.7 1.6
Water requirements (max) gpm 6 8 8 8 11
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 165x52x80 219x67x86
Machine weight lbs 9500 16200
Hopper capacity lbs 44 163
Suitable Engel robots ERC23 ERC33

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

40 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 200 ES 250


Clamp force US tons 200 250
Clamp opening force US tons 25 33
Clamp stroke (max) inches 18.11 20.08
Mold height (min - max) inches 5.91 - 22.05 7.87 - 24.02
Daylight (min - max) inches 5.91 - 40.16 7.87 - 44.09
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A N/A 32.68x32.68
Extended - inches B 30.71x27.36 N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A N/A 22.44x22.44
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B 21.26x18.11 N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 3.35 3.54
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.91 5.91
Hydraulic ejector force tons 6.8 6.8
INJECTION 750 750 750 1050 750 1050 1050 1050
Screw diameter mm 45 50 55 60 45 50 55 60
Screw diameter inches 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362
1+3
Shot size oz 10.3 12.7 15.4 19.7 10.3 13.7 16.6 19.7
Injection capacity in3 19.4 24.0 29.0 37.1 19.4 25.8 31.2 37.1
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 197 268 349 441 197 268 349 441
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 10.8 13.3 16.1 15.1 10.8 10.5 12.7 15.1
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 14.4 17.8 21.5 19.1 14.4 13.3 16.1 19.1
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 4.4 4.4 4.4 3.4 4.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 5.8 5.8 5.8 4.4 5.8 4.4 4.4 4.4
Screw Stroke inches 7.87 7.87 7.87 8.46 7.87 8.46 8.46 8.46
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 27695 22910 20518 30000 27695 22910 20518
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 22418 20696 17120 16154 22418 21805 18037 16154
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 238 238 238 238 238 238 238 238
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 813 813 813 813 813 813 813 813
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 13.78 13.78
Nozzle force US tons 7.6 7.6
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 125 125
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 40 40
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 13.7 15.7 16.7 18.7 13.7 15.7 16.7 18.7
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 1.8 1.9
Water requirements (max) gpm 11 11
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 245x70x86 245X70X89
Machine weight lbs 21600 23000
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163
Suitable Engel robots ERC33-43 ERC43

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 41


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 200 ES 250


Clamp force US tons 200 250
Clamp opening force US tons 25 33
Clamp stroke (max) inches 18.11 20.08
Mold height (min - max) inches 5.91 - 22.05 7.87 - 24.02
Daylight (min - max) inches 5.91 - 40.16 7.87 - 44.09
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A N/A 32.68x32.68
Extended - inches B 30.71x27.36 N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A N/A 22.44x22.44
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B 21.26x18.11 N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 3.35 3.54
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.91 5.91
Hydraulic ejector force tons 6.8 6.8
INJECTION 750 750 750 1050 750 1050 1050 1050
Screw diameter mm 45 50 55 60 45 50 55 60
Screw diameter inches 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362
1+3
Shot size oz 10.3 12.7 15.4 19.7 10.3 13.7 16.6 19.7
Injection capacity in3 19.4 24.0 29.0 37.1 19.4 25.8 31.2 37.1
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 197 268 349 441 197 268 349 441
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 10.8 13.3 16.1 15.1 10.8 10.5 12.7 15.1
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 14.4 17.8 21.5 19.1 14.4 13.3 16.1 19.1
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 4.4 4.4 4.4 3.4 4.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 5.8 5.8 5.8 4.4 5.8 4.4 4.4 4.4
Screw Stroke inches 7.87 7.87 7.87 8.46 7.87 8.46 8.46 8.46
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 27695 22910 20518 30000 27695 22910 20518
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 22418 20696 17120 16154 22418 21805 18037 16154
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 238 238 238 238 238 238 238 238
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 813 813 813 813 813 813 813 813
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 13.78 13.78
Nozzle force US tons 7.6 7.6
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 125 125
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 40 40
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 13.7 15.7 16.7 18.7 13.7 15.7 16.7 18.7
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 1.8 1.9
Water requirements (max) gpm 11 11
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 245x70x86 245X70X89
Machine weight lbs 21600 23000
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163
Suitable Engel robots ERC33-43 ERC43

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

42 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 300 ES 400 ES 450


Clamp force US tons 300 400 450
Clamp opening force US tons 42 57 57
Clamp stroke (max) inches 23.62 27.56 27.56
Mold height (min - max) inches 7.87 - 25.98 11.81 - 33.94 11.81 - 33.94
Daylight (min - max) inches 7.87 - 49.60 11.81 - 61.50 11.81 - 61.50
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 35.67x35.87 44.56x44.56 N/A
Extended - inches B N/A N/A 47.24x47.24
Distance between Standard - inches A 25.04x25.04 30.00x30.00 N/A
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A N/A 33.07x33.07
Tie bar diameter inches 3.94 5.51 5.51
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 7.87 9.45 9.45
Hydraulic ejector force tons 8.9 8.9 8.9
INJECTION 1350 1350 1800 2050 2050 2550 2050 2050 2550
Screw diameter mm 55 60 70 60 70 80 60 70 80
Screw diameter inches 2.165 2.362 2.756 2.362 2.756 3.150 2.362 2.756 3.150
1+3
Shot size oz 20.0 23.8 33.7 27.5 37.5 50.5 27.5 37.5 50.5
Injection capacity in3 37.7 44.9 63.4 51.8 70.5 95.1 51.8 70.5 95.1
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 1.4 1.8 2.7 2.2 3.2 3.0 2.2 3.2 3.0
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 318 402 603 485 728 683 485 728 683
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 13.9 16.6 18.8 16.4 22.4 24.9 16.4 22.4 24.9
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 17.3 20.6 22.6 19.7 26.9 29.2 19.7 26.9 29.2
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.8 3.8 3.1 3.8 3.8 3.2 3.8 3.8 3.2
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 4.7 4.7 3.8 4.5 4.5 3.8 4.5 4.5 3.8
Screw Stroke inches 10.24 10.24 10.63 11.81 11.81 12.20 11.81 11.81 12.20
Injection pressure (max) psi 28304 26535 22780 30000 25810 23751 30000 25810 23751
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 22850 21421 18934 24979 21491 20205 24979 21491 20205
8
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 217 217 217 262 262 175 262 262 175
5 8
Screw torque ft-lbs 1305 1305 1305 1305 1305 1950 1305 1305 1950
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 19.69 25.59 25.59
Nozzle force US tons 12.4 12.4 12.4
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 46.0 46.0 46.0 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 145 204 204
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 50 60 60
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 20.2 21.7 24.7 25.3 29.4 33.5 25.3 29.4 33.5
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 2.0 2.6 2.6
Water requirements (max) gpm 14 17 17
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 284X72X91 345x88x101 345x88x101
Machine weight lbs 27000 49000 49000
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163 163
Suitable Engel robots ERC43-63 ERC53-63 ERC-53-63

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 43


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 500 ES 500W ES 500W


Clamp force US tons 500 500 500
Clamp opening force US tons 60 60 60
Clamp stroke (max) inches 27.56 27.56 27.56
Mold height (min - max) inches 11.81 - 33.94 11.81 - 33.94 11.81 - 33.94
Daylight (min - max) inches 11.81 - 61.50 11.81 - 61.50 11.81 - 61.50
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 47.80x47.24 58.26x47.24 58.26x47.24
Extended - inches B N/A N/A N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 34.65x33.07 44.09x33.07 44.09x33.07
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A N/A N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 5.51 5.51 5.51
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 9.45 9.45 9.45
Hydraulic ejector force tons 8.9 8.9 8.9
INJECTION 2550 2550 2550 2550 2550 2550 3550 3550 3550
Screw diameter mm 70 80 85 70 80 85 70 80 90
Screw diameter inches 2.756 3.150 3.346 2.756 3.150 3.346 2.756 3.150 3.543
1+3
Shot size oz 38.7 50.5 57.1 38.7 50.5 57.1 48.7 63.6 80.5
Injection capacity in3 72.8 95.1 107.3 72.8 95.1 107.3 91.6 119.6 151.4
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 3.2 3.0 3.6 3.2 3.0 3.6 1.9 2.6 2.7
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 728 683 820 728 683 820 417 585 597
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 19.0 24.9 28.1 19.0 24.9 28.1 18.0 23.6 29.8
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 22.4 29.2 33.0 22.4 29.2 33.0 21.2 27.6 35.0
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.5
Screw Stroke inches 12.20 12.20 12.20 12.20 12.20 12.20 15.35 15.35 15.35
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 23751 21039 30000 23751 21039 30000 23780 22639
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 25521 20205 17898 25521 20205 17898 25560 20260 19288
8 8 8
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 262 175 175 8 262 175 175 150 150 150
5 8 8 8
Screw torque ft-lbs 1305 1950 1950 8 1305 1950 1950 2655 2655 2655
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 25.59 25.59 23.62
Nozzle force US tons 12.4 12.4 16.8
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 204 204 204
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 60 60 75
Number of heat control zones 4+N 4+N 5+N 4+N 4+N 5+N 5+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 29.4 33.5 51.8 29.4 33.5 51.8 30.6 33.6 38.8
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 2.6 2.6 2.6
Water requirements (max) gpm 17 17 21
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 349x88x101 353x99x101 365x99x102
Machine weight lbs 55200 60200 69000
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163 300
Suitable Engel robots ERC53-63 ERC63 ERC-63

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

44 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

2.2 TIEBARLESS INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES40TL ES60TL ES100TL


Clamp force US tons 40 60 100
Clamp opening force US tons 2.2 3.0 4.0
Clamp stroke (max) inches 13.78 13.00 17.72
Mold height (min - max) inches 7.09 - N/A 7.48 - N/A 9.84 - N/A
Daylight (min - max) inches 7.09 - 20.87 7.48 - 20.47 9.84 - 27.56
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 21.65 x 16.93 25.60 x 16.93 27.95 x 22.05
see platen illustration below for max. mold size
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 3.94 3.94 3.94
Hydraulic ejector force tons 2.9 3.5 4.3
INJECTION 80 80 80 200 200 200 330 330 330 330
Screw diameter mm 18 22 25 25 30 35 30 35 40 45
Screw diameter inches 0.709 0.866 0.984 0.984 1.181 1.378 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772
1+3
Shot size oz 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.4 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3
Injection capacity in3 1.5 2.3 3.0 4.2 6.0 8.2 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 22 47 66 88 135 209 118 183 200 265
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 2.1 3.2 4.1 3.9 5.6 7.6 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 2.8 4.1 5.3 5.9 8.5 11.6 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.8 7.8 7.8 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2
Screw Stroke inches 3.90 3.90 3.90 5.51 5.51 5.51 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 23200 30000 30000 23505 30000 30000 24143 21765
5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 30000 23200 17763 30000 21040 15456 30000 23200 17763 16013
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 360 360 360 480 480 480 420 420 320 320
Screw torque 5 ft-lbs 163 163 163 163 163 163 260 260 325 325
Screw L/D ratio 22:1 18.2:1 16:1 24:1 20:1 17.1:1 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1
Nozzle stroke inches 7.87 7.87 9.84
Nozzle force US tons 3.2 3.2 5.3
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 10.6 10.6 10.6 16.1 16.1 16.1 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 30 57 60
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575/ - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575/ - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 10 20 20
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 3+Nozzle 3+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 3.2 3.6 3.6 4.8 7.2
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 1.5 1.5 1.5
Water requirements (max) gpm 3 6 6
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 121x53x75 146x56x76 165x56x77
Machine weight lbs 4846 9600 14000
Hopper capacity lbs 44 44 44
Suitable Engel Robots ERSE21, ERC23 ERSE21, ERC23 ERSE21, ERC23

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 45


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
TIEBARLESS INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES150TL ES200TL


Clamp force US tons 150 200
Clamp opening force US tons 9.8 9.8
Clamp stroke (max) inches 23.62 27.56
Mold height (min - max) inches 9.84 - N/A 9.84 - N/A
Daylight (min - max) inches 9.84 - 33.46 9.84 - 37.40
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 33.46 x 27.56 35.43 x 29.53
see platen illustration below for max. mold size
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.90 5.90
Hydraulic ejector force tons 6.9 6.9
INJECTION 650 650 650 750 750 750 750 1050
Screw diameter mm 40 45 50 55 45 50 55 60
Screw diameter inches 1.575 1.772 1.969 2.165 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362
1+3
Shot size oz 8.2 10.3 12.7 15.4 10.3 12.7 15.4 19.7
Injection capacity in3 15.3 19.4 24.0 29.0 19.4 24.0 29.0 37.1
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.6 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 186 246 334 349 197 268 349 441
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 6.5 8.2 10.1 16.1 10.8 13.3 16.1 15.1
Injection rate (regenerative)4 in3/sec 8.7 11.0 13.6 21.5 14.4 17.8 21.5 19.1
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.3 3.3 3.3 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 3.4
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 4.5 4.5 4.5 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 4.4
Screw Stroke inches 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 8.46
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 27173 22011 22910 30000 27695 22910 20518
5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 22418 20306 16448 17120 22418 20696 17120 16154
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 297 297 297 238 238 238 238 238
Screw torque5 ft-lbs 514 514 514 813 813 813 813 813
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 13.78 13.78
Nozzle force US tons 7.6 7.6
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 24.2 24.2 24.2 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7 31.7
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 116 116
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 30 30 30 40 40
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 12.7 13.7 15.7 16.7 13.7 15.7 16.7 18.7
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 2.0 2.0
Water requirements (max) gpm 6 6 6 9 9
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 221x71x89 229x73x89
Machine weight lbs 19850 25350
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163
Suitable Engel Robots ERSE31, ERC33 ERSE31, ERC33-43

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

46 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
TIEBARLESS INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES300TL ES400TL


Clamp force US tons 300 400
Clamp opening force US tons 17.8 23.0
Clamp stroke (max) inches 33.50 37.40
Mold height (min - max) inches 13.78 - N/A 13.78 - N/A
Daylight (min - max) inches 13.78 - 47.24 13.78 - 51.18
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 46.46 x 35.43 55.12 x 42.52
see platen illustration below for max. mold size
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 7.87 9.84
Hydraulic ejector force tons 8.9 8.9
INJECTION 1350 1350 1800 2050 2050 2550
Screw diameter mm 55 60 70 60 70 80
Screw diameter inches 2.165 2.362 2.756 2.362 2.756 3.150
Shot size 1+3 oz 20.0 23.8 33.7 27.5 37.5 50.5
Injection capacity in3 37.7 44.9 63.4 51.8 70.5 95.1
Recovery rate 1+2+3 oz/sec 1.4 1.8 2.7 2.2 3.2 3.0
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 318 402 603 485 728 683
Injection rate at max. press.4 in3/sec 13.9 16.6 18.8 16.4 22.4 24.9
Injection rate (regenerative)4 in3/sec 17.3 20.6 22.6 19.7 26.9 29.2
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.8 3.8 3.1 3.8 3.8 3.2
Injection velocity (regenerative)4 in/sec 4.7 4.7 3.8 4.5 4.5 3.8
Screw Stroke inches 10.24 10.24 10.63 11.81 11.81 12.20
Injection pressure (max)5 psi 28304 26535 22780 30000 25810 23751
Injection pressure (regenerative)5 psi 22850 21421 18934 24979 21491 20205
8
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 217 217 217 262 262 175
8
Screw torque5 ft-lbs 1305 1305 1305 1305 1305 1950
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 19.69 25.59
Nozzle force US tons 12.4 12.4
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 46.0 46.0 46.0 58.1 58.1 58.1
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 140 204
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 50 60
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 20.2 21.7 24.7 25.3 29.4 33.5
GENERAL
Dry cycle performance6 sec 2.2 3.2
Water requirements (max) gpm 12 12
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 273x83x101 315x88x101
Machine weight lbs 35000/13000 55000/14000
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163
Suitable Engel Robots ERSE41, ERC43-63 ERSE51, ERC53-63
1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 47


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

2.3 VERTICAL CLAMP, HORIZONTAL INJECTION UNIT, ROTARY TABLE,


MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES55VHRB
Clamp force US tons 55
Clamp opening force US tons 2
Clamp stroke (max) inches 11.81
7
Mold height (min - max) inches 11.02 -N/A
7
Daylight (min - max) inches 11.02 -22.83
Platen size (H x V) inches 21.65 x 13.23
ROTARY TABLE
Rotary Table Diameter inches 38.39
Mold pitch circle diameter inches 20.87
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.0
Ejector penetration (above table) inches 2.0
Hydraulic ejector force US tons 1.3
INJECTION 200 200 200 330 330 330 330
Screw diameter mm 25 30 35 30 35 40 45
Screw diameter inches 0.984 1.181 1.378 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772
1+2
Shot size oz 2.2 3.2 4.4 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3
Injection capacity in3 4.2 6.0 8.2 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5
1+2
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2
1+2
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 88 135 209 118 183 200 265
3+4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 3.9 5.6 7.7 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3
3+4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 5.9 8.6 11.6 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3
3+4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
3+4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 7.8 7.8 7.8 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2
Screw Stroke inches 5.51 5.51 5.51 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30
4
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 23505 30000 30000 24143 21765
4
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 30000 21040 15455 30000 23200 17763 16013
6 6
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 480 480 480 420 420 320 320
4 6 6
Screw torque ft-lbs 163 163 163 260 260 325 325
Screw L/D ratio 24:1 20:1 17.1:1 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1
Nozzle stroke inches 13.0 13.0
Nozzle reach to mold centre inches 3.0 5.0
Nozzle force US tons 1.7 2.8
4
Nozzle height (min-max) inches 5.0 - 12.0 5.0 - 12.0
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 16.1 16.1 16.1 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 106 106
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575/ - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 30 30
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 3+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 4.8 7.2
GENERAL
Water requirements (max) gpm 6 6
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 129 x 106 x 118 129 x 106 x 118
Machine weight lbs 17000 17000
Hopper capacity lbs 44 44
Suitable Engel robots ERC23, ERV21, ERSE21
1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

48 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
VERTICAL CLAMP, HORIZONTAL INJECTION UNIT, ROTARY TABLE, MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES85VHRB
Clamp force US tons 85
Clamp opening force US tons 4
Clamp stroke (max) inches 11.81
7
Mold height (min - max) inches 11.02 -N/A
7
Daylight (min - max) inches 11.02 -22.83
Platen size (H x V) inches 21.65 x 13.23
ROTARY TABLE
Rotary Table Diameter inches 38.39
Mold pitch circle diameter inches 20.87
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.0
Ejector penetration (above table) inches 2.0
Hydraulic ejector force US tons 1.3
INJECTION 200 200 200 330 330 330 330
Screw diameter mm 25 30 35 30 35 40 45
Screw diameter inches 0.984 1.181 1.378 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772
Shot size 1+2 oz 2.2 3.2 4.4 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3
Injection capacity in3 4.2 6.0 8.2 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5
1+2
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2
1+2
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 88 135 209 118 183 200 265
3+4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 3.9 5.6 7.7 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3
3+4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 5.9 8.6 11.6 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3
3+4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
3+4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 7.8 7.8 7.8 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2
Screw Stroke inches 5.51 5.51 5.51 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30
4
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 23505 30000 30000 24143 21765
Injection pressure (regenerative)4 psi 30000 21040 15455 30000 23200 17763 16013
6 6
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 480 480 480 420 420 320 320
4 6 6
Screw torque ft-lbs 163 163 163 260 260 325 325
Screw L/D ratio 24:1 20:1 17.1:1 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1
Nozzle stroke inches 13.0 13.0
Nozzle reach to mold centre inches 3.0 5.0
Nozzle force US tons 1.7 2.8
4
Nozzle height (min-max) inches 5.0 - 12.0 5.0 - 12.0
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 16.1 16.1 16.1 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 106 106
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 30 30
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 3+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 4.8 7.2
GENERAL
Water requirements (max) gpm 6 6
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 129 x 106 x 118 129 x 106 x 118
Machine weight lbs 17000 17000
Hopper capacity lbs 44 44
Suitable Engel robots ERC23, ERV21, ERSE21
1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 49


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
VERTICAL CLAMP, HORIZONTAL INJECTION UNIT, ROTARY TABLE, MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES125VHRB
Clamp force US tons 125
Clamp opening force US tons 10
Clamp stroke (max) inches 15.75
7
Mold height (min - max) inches 15.75 -N/A
Daylight (min - max) inches 15.757 -31.50
Platen size (H x V) inches 31.89 x 17.72
ROTARY TABLE
Rotary Table Diameter inches 46.46
Mold pitch circle diameter inches 25.59
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 6.3
Ejector penetration (above table) inches 3.1
Hydraulic ejector force US tons 1.8
INJECTION 330 330 330 330 600 600 600 600 700 700 700 700
Screw diameter mm 30 35 40 45 40 45 50 55 45 50 55 60
Screw diameter inches 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772 1.575 1.772 1.969 2.165 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362
Shot size 1+2 oz 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3 8.2 10.3 12.7 15.4 10.3 12.7 15.4 18.3
Injection capacity in3 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5 15.3 19.4 24.0 29.0 19.4 24.0 29.0 34.5
1+2
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.9 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0
1+2
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 118 183 200 265 186 246 334 435 197 268 349 441
3+4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3 6.4 8.2 10.1 10.9 9.2 11.4 13.8 13.7
Injection rate (regenerative) 3+4 in3/sec 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3 8.7 11.1 13.7 14.2 12.0 14.8 17.9 17.0
Injection velocity at max. press. 3+4 in/sec 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.1
3+4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 4.5 4.5 4.5 3.8 4.9 4.9 4.9 3.9
Screw Stroke inches 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87
4 5 5
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 24143 21765 30000 27164 22017 20420 30000 24708 20420 20509
4 5 5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 30000 23200 17763 16013 22129 20037 16240 15646 22986 18931 15646 16498
6 6
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 420 420 320 320 297 297 297 297 238 238 238 238
4 6 6
Screw torque ft-lbs 260 260 325 325 514 514 514 514 813 813 813 813
Screw L/D ratio 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 13.0 15.8 15.8
Nozzle reach to mold centre inches 5.0 5.0 5.0
Nozzle force US tons 2.8 4.0 4.0
4
Nozzle height (min-max) inches 5.0 - 12.0 5.0 - 12.0 5.0 - 12.0
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 106 106 106
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 30 30 40
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 7.2 9.1 10.7 11.7 13.1 10.7 11.7 13.1 15.9
GENERAL
Water requirements (max) gpm 9 10 11
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 135 x 106 x 121 174 x 106 x 121 174 x 106 x 121
Machine weight lbs 32000 33000 33000
Hopper capacity lbs 44 163 163
Suitable Engel robots ERC33, ERV31, ERSE31

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

50 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
VERTICAL CLAMP, HORIZONTAL INJECTION UNIT, ROTARY TABLE, MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES150VHRB
Clamp force US tons 150
Clamp opening force US tons 14
Clamp stroke (max) inches 15.75
7
Mold height (min - max) inches 15.75 -N/A
7
Daylight (min - max) inches 15.75 -31.50
Platen size (H x V) inches 31.89 x 17.72
ROTARY TABLE
Rotary Table Diameter inches 46.46
Mold pitch circle diameter inches 25.59
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 6.3
Ejector penetration (above table) inches 3.1
Hydraulic ejector force US tons 1.8
INJECTION 330 330 330 330 600 600 600 600 700 700 700 700
Screw diameter mm 30 35 40 45 40 45 50 55 45 50 55 60
Screw diameter inches 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772 1.575 1.772 1.969 2.165 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362
1+2
Shot size oz 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3 8.2 10.3 12.7 15.4 10.3 12.7 15.4 18.3
Injection capacity in3 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5 15.3 19.4 24.0 29.0 19.4 24.0 29.0 34.5
1+2
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.9 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0
1+2
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 118 183 200 265 186 246 334 435 197 268 349 441
3+4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3 6.4 8.2 10.1 10.9 9.2 11.4 13.8 13.7
3+4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3 8.7 11.1 13.7 14.2 12.0 14.8 17.9 17.0
3+4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.1
3+4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 4.5 4.5 4.5 3.8 4.9 4.9 4.9 3.9
Screw Stroke inches 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87
4 5 5
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 24143 21765 30000 27164 22017 20420 30000 24708 20420 20509
4 5 5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 30000 23200 17763 16013 22129 20037 16240 15646 22986 18931 15646 16498
6 6
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 420 420 320 320 297 297 297 297 238 238 238 238
4 6 6
Screw torque ft-lbs 260 260 325 325 514 514 514 514 813 813 813 813
Screw L/D ratio 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 13.0 15.8 15.8
Nozzle reach to mold centre inches 5.0 5.0 5.0
Nozzle force US tons 2.8 4.0 4.0
4
Nozzle height (min-max) inches 5.0 - 12.0 5.0 - 12.0 5.0 - 12.0
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 106 106 106
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 30 30 40
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 7.2 9.1 10.7 11.7 13.1 10.7 11.7 13.1 15.9
GENERAL
Water requirements (max) gpm 9 10 11
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 135 x 106 x 121 174 x 106 x 121 174 x 106 x 121
Machine weight lbs 32000 33000 33000
Hopper capacity lbs 44 163 163
Suitable Engel robots ERC33, ERV31, ERSE31

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 51


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
VERTICAL CLAMP, HORIZONTAL INJECTION UNIT, ROTARY TABLE, MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES200VHRB
Clamp force US tons 200
Clamp opening force US tons 14
Clamp stroke (max) inches 15.75
7
Mold height (min - max) inches 15.75 -N/A
7
Daylight (min - max) inches 15.75 -31.50
Platen size (H x V) inches 31.89 x 17.72
ROTARY TABLE
Rotary Table Diameter inches 46.46
Mold pitch circle diameter inches 25.59
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 6.3
Ejector penetration (above table) inches 3.1
Hydraulic ejector force US tons 1.8
INJECTION 330 330 330 330 600 600 600 600 700 700 700 700
Screw diameter mm 30 35 40 45 40 45 50 55 45 50 55 60
Screw diameter inches 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772 1.575 1.772 1.969 2.165 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362
1+2
Shot size oz 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3 8.2 10.3 12.7 15.4 10.3 12.7 15.4 18.3
Injection capacity in3 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5 15.3 19.4 24.0 29.0 19.4 24.0 29.0 34.5
1+2
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.9 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0
1+2
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 118 183 200 265 186 246 334 435 197 268 349 441
3+4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3 6.4 8.2 10.1 10.9 9.2 11.4 13.8 13.7
3+4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3 8.7 11.1 13.7 14.2 12.0 14.8 17.9 17.0
Injection velocity at max. press. 3+4 in/sec 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.1
3+4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 4.5 4.5 4.5 3.8 4.9 4.9 4.9 3.9
Screw Stroke inches 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87
4 5 5
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 24143 21765 30000 27164 22017 20420 30000 24708 20420 20509
4 5 5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 30000 23200 17763 16013 22129 20037 16240 15646 22986 18931 15646 16498
6 6
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 420 420 320 320 297 297 297 297 238 238 238 238
4 6 6
Screw torque ft-lbs 260 260 325 325 514 514 514 514 813 813 813 813
Screw L/D ratio 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 13.0 15.8 15.8
Nozzle reach to mold centre inches 5.0 5.0 5.0
Nozzle force US tons 2.8 4.0 4.0
4
Nozzle height (min-max) inches 5.0 - 12.0 5.0 - 12.0 5.0 - 12.0
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 106 106 106
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 30 30 40
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 7.2 9.1 10.7 11.7 13.1 10.7 11.7 13.1 15.9
GENERAL
Water requirements (max) gpm 9 10 11
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 135 x 106 x 121 174 x 106 x 121 174 x 106 x 121
Machine weight lbs 32000 33000 33000
Hopper capacity lbs 44 163 163
Suitable Engel robots ERC33, ERV31, ERSE31

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

52 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
VERTICAL CLAMP, HORIZONTAL INJECTION UNIT, ROTARY TABLE, MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES300VHRB
Clamp force US tons 300
Clamp opening force US tons 31
Clamp stroke (max) inches 19.70
7
Mold height (min - max) inches 11.80 -N/A
7
Daylight (min - max) inches 11.80 -31.50
Platen size (H x V) inches 39.40 x 25.10
ROTARY TABLE
Rotary Table Diameter inches 62.00
Mold pitch circle diameter inches 35.82
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.9
Ejector penetration (above table) inches 3.0
Hydraulic ejector force US tons 4.3
INJECTION 600 600 600 600 700 700 700 700 1300 1300 1300
Screw diameter mm 40 45 50 55 45 50 55 60 55 60 70
Screw diameter inches 1.575 1.772 1.969 2.165 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362 2.165 2.362 2.756
1+2
Shot size oz 8.2 10.3 12.7 15.4 10.3 12.7 15.4 18.3 20.8 24.8 33.7
Injection capacity in3 15.3 19.4 24.0 29.0 19.4 24.0 29.0 34.5 39.1 46.6 63.4
1+2
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.8 1.1 1.5 1.9 0.9 1.2 1.6 2.0 1.4 1.8 2.7
1+2
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 186 246 334 435 197 268 349 441 318 402 603
3+4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 6.4 8.2 10.1 10.9 9.2 11.4 13.8 13.7 14.5 17.3 18.0
3+4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 8.7 11.1 13.7 14.2 12.0 14.8 17.9 17.0 16.7 19.9 20.1
3+4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.1 3.9 3.9 3.0
3+4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 4.5 4.5 4.5 3.8 4.9 4.9 4.9 3.9 4.5 4.5 3.4
Screw Stroke inches 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87 10.63 10.63 10.63
4 5 5 5
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 27164 22017 20420 30000 24708 20420 20509 28300 23780 22774
4 5 5 5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 22129 20037 16240 15646 22986 18931 15646 16498 24542 20622 20454
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 297 297 297 297 238 238 238 238 217 217 217
4
Screw torque ft-lbs 514 514 514 514 813 813 813 813 1305 1305 1305
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 15.8 15.8 17.7
Nozzle reach to mold centre inches 5.0 5.0 8.5
Nozzle force US tons 4.0 4.0 6.6
4
Nozzle height (min-max) inches 6.75 - 16.5 6.75 - 16.5 7.5 - 14.5
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4 46.0 46.0 46.0
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 158 158 158
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 60 60 60
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 9.1 10.7 11.7 13.1 10.7 11.7 13.1 15.9 14.7 15.9 19.1
GENERAL
Water requirements (max) gpm 10 11 14
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 260 x 109 x 145 260 x 109 x 145 260 x 109 x 145
Machine weight lbs 42000 42000 47000
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163 163
Suitable Engel robots ERC43, ERV41, ERSE31

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 53


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

2.4 VERTICAL CLAMP, VERTICAL INJECTION UNIT, ROTARY TABLE, MOLDING


MACHINES

CLAMP ES60VV ES90VV


Clamp force US tons 60 90
Clamp opening force US tons 3.0 3.0
Clamp stroke (max) inches 13.78 13.78
Mold height (min - max) inches 7.48 - N/A 7.48 - N/A
Daylight (min - max) inches 7.48 - 21.26 7.48 - 21.26
Platen size (H x V) (Moving) 27.5 x 17.7 27.5 x 17.7
ROTARY TABLE
Rotary Table Diameter inches 38.4 46.46
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.00 6.30
Hydraulic ejector force tons 1.3 1.8
INJECTION 200 200 200 330 330 330 330
Screw diameter mm 25 30 35 30 35 40 45
Screw diameter inches 0.984 1.181 1.378 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772
Shot size 1+3 oz 2.2 3.2 4.4 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3
Injection capacity in3 4.2 6.0 8.2 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 88 135 209 118 183 200 265
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 3.9 5.6 7.7 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3
Injection rate (regenerative)4 in3/sec 5.9 8.6 11.6 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
Injection velocity (regenerative)4 in/sec 7.8 7.8 7.8 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2
Screw Stroke inches 5.51 5.51 5.51 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 23505 30000 30000 24143 21765
Injection pressure (regenerative)5 psi 30000 21040 15456 30000 23200 17763 16013
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 480 480 480 420 420 320 320
Screw torque5 ft-lbs 163 163 163 260 260 325 325
Screw L/D ratio 24:1 20:1 17.1:1 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1
Nozzle stroke inches 12.99 12.99
Nozzle force US tons 1.7 2.8
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 16.1 16.1 16.1 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 106 106
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575/ - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 30 30
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 3+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 4.8 7.2
GENERAL
Water requirements (max) gpm 6 6
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches
Machine weight lbs
Hopper capacity lbs 44 44
1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

54 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
VERTICAL CLAMP, VERTICAL INJECTION UNIT, ROTARY TABLE, MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES125VV ES150VV


Clamp force US tons 125 150
Clamp opening force US tons 6.8 8.2
Clamp stroke (max) inches 17.72 17.72
Mold height (min - max) inches 7.48 - N/A 7.48 - N/A
Daylight (min - max) inches 7.48 - 25.20 7.48 - 25.20
Platen size (H x V) (Moving) 31.5 x 21.65 31.5 x 21.65
ROTARY TABLE
Rotary Table Diameter inches 62.0 62.0
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.90 5.90
Hydraulic ejector force tons 4.3 4.3
INJECTION 330 330 330 330 330 330 330 330
Screw diameter mm 30 35 40 45 30 35 40 45
Screw diameter inches 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772
1+3
Shot size oz 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3
Injection capacity in3 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.2
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 118 183 200 265 118 183 200 265
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3 5.0 6.8 8.9 11.3
Injection rate (regenerative)4 in3/sec 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.3
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2
Screw Stroke inches 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 24143 21765 30000 30000 24143 21765
Injection pressure (regenerative)5 psi 30000 23200 17763 16013 30000 23200 17763 16013
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 420 420 320 320 420 420 320 320
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 260 260 325 325 260 260 325 325
Screw L/D ratio 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1
Nozzle stroke inches 12.99 12.99
Nozzle force US tons 2.8 2.8
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 106 106
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 30 30
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 3+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 7.2 7.2
GENERAL
Water requirements (max) gpm 6 6
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches
Machine weight lbs
Hopper capacity lbs 44 44

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Calculated. 3. Can be increased with accumulator. 4. Can be increased.
5. Per Euromap 6 standard. 6. With high torque screw drive. 7. Split base - two piece shipping.
(N/A=Not Available.
O/R=On Request.
Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 55


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

2.5 VERTICAL CLAMP, HORIZONTAL INJECTION UNIT, ROTARY TABLE


ELASTOMER MACHINES

CLAMP ES85VHRB ES200VHRB ES300VHRB


Clamp force US tons 85 200 300
Clamping Speed (max) in/sec 10.9 14.0 15.0
Opening Force US tons 4.0 14.0 31.0
Opening Stroke inches 11.81 15.75 19.70
Mold Height (min) inches 11.02 - 22.83 15.75 - 31.50 11.80 - 31.50
Daylight between heating platens inches 11.02 - 22.83 15.75 - 31.50 11.80 - 31.50
Platen size (std) inches 21.65x13.23 31.89x17.72 39.40x24.40
Heating Platen capacity/zones kW 2x5.1/2 2x6.0/6 2x6.0/6
ROTARY TABLE
Rotary Table Diameter inches 38.39 46.46 62.00
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.00 6.30 5.90
Hydraulic ejector force tons 1.3 1.8 4.3
INJECTION 280 430 750 430 750 1500 750 1500 2700
3
Shot volume @ 29,000 PSI (max) in 17.08 26.23 45.75 26.23 45.75 91.50 45.75 91.50 164.70
3
Shot volume @ 21,750 PSI (max) in N/A 34.78 61.02 34.78 61.02 122.05 61.02 122.05 219.68
Screw Diameter inches 0.79 0.98 1.18 0.98 1.18 1.57 1.18 1.57 1.97
Screw L/D 14:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1
Injection stroke inches 6.10 6.65 7.68 6.65 7.68 10.16 7.68 10.16 12.05
Injection rate (max) in3/sec 3.66 5.18 5.18 5.18 5.18 5.12 5.18 5.12 7.32
Injection pressure (max) psi 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000
Screw speed (max) rpm 250 250 200 250 200 150 200 150 160
Plasticizing rate (max) in3/min 15.2 27.5 42.7 27.5 42.7 91.5 42.7 91.5 152.0
Screw torque (max) ft-lbs 148 236 295 236 295 620 295 620 922
Strip intake opening inches 1.6x0.5 2.0x0.5 2.4x0.6 2.0x0.5 2.4x0.6 3.2x0.7 2.4x0.6 3.2x0.7 3.5x0.8
GENERAL
Pump drive motor hp 30 40 60
Hydraulic system pressure psi 3625 3625 3625
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 106 106 159
Total connected load (excl.temp. kw 44 96 133
control units,extra heaters,etc.)
Machine weight - total (no oil) lbs 26432 33040 42000
Dimensions (LxWxH) inches 124x88x107 168x106x121 192x109x145

NOTES:
1. Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator. 5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

56 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

2.6 HORIZONTAL ELASTOMER MACHINES

CLAMP ES45VT ES90VT ES30VHL PRO


Clamp force US tons 45 90 30
Clamping Speed (max) in/sec -- -- 38
Opening Force US tons -- -- 2
Opening Stroke inches 15.75 15.75 13
Mold Height (min) inches 1.97 2.36 1.97
Daylight between heating platens inches 18 18 15
Platen size (std) inches 12.60x15.75 14.17 x 19.68 11.81 x 11.81
Heating Platen capacity/zones kW 2x6 / 2 2x6 / 2 2x2.6 / 2
INJECTION 160 280 160 280 200/30 200/35
Shot volume @ 29,000 PSI (max) in3 9.76 17.08 9.76 17.08 6.04 --
3
Shot volume @ 21,750 PSI (max) in N/A N/A N/A N/A -- 8.24
Screw Diameter inches 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 1.18 1.38
Screw L/D 12:1 12:1 12:1 12:1 16:1 14:1
Injection stroke inches 4.57 6.10 4.57 6.10 -- --
Injection rate (max) in3/sec 3.66 3.66 4.88 4.88 4.88 6.10
Injection pressure (max) psi 29000 29000 29000 29000 30450 23200
Screw speed (max) rpm 280 280 280 250 250 250
Plasticizing rate (max) in3/min 15.26 15.26 15.26 15.26 24.4 22.5
Screw torque (max) ft-lbs 148 148 148 148 280 280
Strip intake opening inches 1.4 x 0.5 1.4 x 0.5 1.4 x 0.5 1.4 x 0.5 1.2 x 2 1.2 x 2
GENERAL
Pump drive motor hp 15 20 15
Hydraulic system pressure psi 3625 3625 3625
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 34 53 24
Total connected load (excl.temp. kw 27 32 20
control units,extra heaters,etc.)
Machine weight - total (no oil) lbs -- -- 6050
Dimensions (LxWxH) inches 69X47X114 86x55x122 60x51x112

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 57


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
HORIZONTAL ELASTOMER MACHINES

CLAMP ES30VHL PRO ES50VHL PRO


Clamp force US tons 30 50
Clamping Speed (max) in/sec 38 42
Opening Force US tons 2 3
Opening Stroke inches 13 13.8
Mold Height (min) inches 1.97 7.09
Daylight between heating platens inches 15 21
Platen size (std) inches 11.81 x 11.81 12.6 x 15.75
Heating Platen capacity/zones kW 2x2.6 / 2 2x6 / 2
INJECTION 200/30 200/35 200/30 200/35
Shot volume @ 29,000 PSI (max) in3 6.04 -- 6.04 --
3
Shot volume @ 21,750 PSI (max) in -- 8.24 -- 8.24
Screw Diameter inches 1.18 1.38 1.18 1.38
Screw L/D 16:1 14:1 20:1 17:1
Injection stroke inches -- -- -- --
Injection rate (max) in3/sec 4.88 6.10 4.70 6.40
Injection pressure (max) psi 30450 23200 31175 22910
Screw speed (max) rpm 250 250 480 480
Plasticizing rate (max) in3/min 24.4 22.5 51.3 69.6
Screw torque (max) ft-lbs 280 280 280 280
Strip intake opening inches 1.2 x 2 1.2 x 2 2x0.8 2x0.8
GENERAL
Pump drive motor hp 15 15
Hydraulic system pressure psi 3625 3625
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 24 30
Total connected load (excl.temp. kw 20 27
control units,extra heaters,etc.)
Machine weight - total (no oil) lbs 6050 --
Dimensions (LxWxH) inches 60x51x112 --

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

58 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
HORIZONTAL ELASTOMER MACHINES

CLAMP ES90VHL PRO ES100V / ES100V VIC


Clamp force US tons 90 100
Clamping Speed (max) in/sec 38 18
Opening Force US tons 4 7
Opening Stroke inches 17.7 18
Mold Height (min) inches 7.87 4
Daylight between heating platens inches 26 22
Platen size (std) inches 14.17 x 25.98 14.17 x 19.68
Heating Platen capacity/zones kW 2x6 / 6 2x6 / 6
INJECTION 330/35 330/40 280 430 750
Shot volume @ 29,000 PSI (max) in3 9.40 -- 17.08 26.23 45.75
3
Shot volume @ 21,750 PSI (max) in -- 12.27 N/A 34.78 61.02
Screw Diameter inches 1.38 1.57 0.79 0.98 1.18
Screw L/D 20.0 17.5 14:1 10:1 10:1
Injection stroke inches -- -- 6.10 6.65 7.68
Injection rate (max) in3/sec 1.34 1.56 3.66 5.12 5.12
Injection pressure (max) psi 29000 22185 29000 29000 29000
Screw speed (max) rpm 400 320 280 250 200
Plasticizing rate (max) in3/min 80.6 91.5 12.2 24.4 48.8
Screw torque (max) ft-lbs 280 390 148 236 295
Strip intake opening inches 2x1.2 2.4x1.2 1.6x0.5 2.0x0.5 2.4x0.6
GENERAL
Pump drive motor hp 20 20
Hydraulic system pressure psi 3625 3625
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 37 42
Total connected load (excl.temp. kw 32 27
control units,extra heaters,etc.)
Machine weight - total (no oil) lbs -- 13200
Dimensions (LxWxH) inches -- 100 x 48 x 107

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 59


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
HORIZONTAL ELASTOMER MACHINES

CLAMP ES175V / ES175V VIC ES275V / ES275V VIC


Clamp force US tons 175 275
Clamping Speed (max) in/sec 22 22
Opening Force US tons 12 19
Opening Stroke inches 20 22
Mold Height (min) inches 4 4
Daylight between heating platens inches 24 26
Platen size (std) inches 19.68 x 21.65 21.65 x 25.59
Heating Platen capacity/zones kW 2x8.8 / 8 2x11 / 8
INJECTION 430 750 1500 750 1500 2700
Shot volume @ 29,000 PSI (max) in3 26.23 45.75 91.50 45.75 91.50 164.70
3
Shot volume @ 21,750 PSI (max) in 34.78 61.02 122.05 61.02 122.05 219.68
Screw Diameter inches 0.98 1.18 1.57 1.18 1.57 1.97
Screw L/D 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1
Injection stroke inches 6.65 7.68 10.16 7.68 10.16 12.05
Injection rate (max) in3/sec 5.12 5.12 5.12 7.32 7.32 7.32
Injection pressure (max) psi 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000
Screw speed (max) rpm 250 200 150 200 150 160
Plasticizing rate (max) in3/min 24.4 48.8 91.5 48.8 91.5 152.0
Screw torque (max) ft-lbs 236 295 620 295 620 922
Strip intake opening inches 2.0x0.5 2.4x0.6 3.2x0.7 2.4x0.6 3.2x0.7 3.5x0.8
GENERAL
Pump drive motor hp 20 30
Hydraulic system pressure psi 3625 3625
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 42 59
Total connected load (excl.temp. kw 32.6 44.4
control units,extra heaters,etc.)
Machine weight - total (no oil) lbs 15180 19580
Dimensions (LxWxH) inches 106 x 48 x 119 101 x 55 x 126

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

60 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
HORIZONTAL ELASTOMER MACHINES

CLAMP ES440V / ES440V VIC ES660V


Clamp force US tons 440 660
Clamping Speed (max) in/sec 18 18
Opening Force US tons 28 28
Opening Stroke inches 26 26
Mold Height (min) inches 8 8
Daylight between heating platens inches 33 33
Platen size (std) inches 27.95 x 36.22 31.50 x 43.31
Heating Platen capacity/zones kW 2x18 / 8 2x20 / 10
INJECTION 1500 2700 4500 2700 4500 8000
Shot volume @ 29,000 PSI (max) in3 91.50 164.70 274.50 164.70 274.50 488.00
3
Shot volume @ 21,750 PSI (max) in 122.05 219.68 366.14 219.68 366.14 640.75
Screw Diameter inches 1.57 1.97 2.36 1.97 2.36 2.95
Screw L/D 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1
Injection stroke inches 10.16 12.05 15.16 12.05 15.16 20.47
Injection rate (max) in3/sec 14.64 14.64 14.64 14.64 14.64 14.64
Injection pressure (max) psi 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000
Screw speed (max) rpm 150 160 160 160 160 140
Plasticizing rate (max) in3/min 91.5 122.0 183.0 152.0 183.0 216.5
Screw torque (max) ft-lbs 620 922 1342 922 1342 1475
Strip intake opening inches 3.2x0.7 3.5x0.8 3.9x0.9 3.5x0.8 3.9x0.9 4.7x1.0
GENERAL
Pump drive motor hp 60 60
Hydraulic system pressure psi 3625 3625
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 108 113
Total connected load (excl.temp. kw 80 85
control units,extra heaters,etc.)
Machine weight - total (no oil) lbs 44000 53900
Dimensions (LxWxH) inches 143 x 56 x 155 152 x 59 x 186

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 61


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
HORIZONTAL ELASTOMER MACHINES

CLAMP ES880V ES1100V ES60H TL


Clamp force US tons 880 1100 60
Clamping Speed (max) in/sec 10 -- 24.0
Opening Force US tons 28 -- 3.0
Opening Stroke inches 35 -- 13.00
Mold Height (min) inches 12 -- 7.48
Daylight between heating platens inches 49 --
Platen size (std) inches 35.43 x 47.24 -- 12.60x15.75x2.75
Heating Platen capacity/zones kW 2x25 / 12 -- 2x5.1/2
INJECTION 4500 8000 8000 280
3
Shot volume @ 29,000 PSI (max) in 274.50 488.00 488.00 17.08
3
Shot volume @ 21,750 PSI (max) in 366.14 640.75 640.75 N/A
Screw Diameter inches 2.36 2.95 2.95 0.79
Screw L/D 10:1 10:1 10:1 14:1
Injection stroke inches 15.16 20.55 20.55 6.10
Injection rate (max) in3/sec 18.31 18.31 -- 3.66
Injection pressure (max) psi 29000 29000 29000 29000
Screw speed (max) rpm 160 140 140 250
Plasticizing rate (max) in3/min 183.0 213.5 213.5 15.2
Screw torque (max) ft-lbs 1342 1475 1475 148
Strip intake opening inches 3.9x0.9 4.7x1.0 4.7x1.0 1.6x0.5
GENERAL
Pump drive motor hp 60 -- 20
Hydraulic system pressure psi 3625 -- 3625
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 153 -- 57
Total connected load (excl.temp. kw 104 --
control units,extra heaters,etc.)
Machine weight - total (no oil) lbs 101200 -- 9600
Dimensions (LxWxH) inches 181x69x260 --

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

62 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
HORIZONTAL ELASTOMER MACHINES

CLAMP ES100H TL ES150H TL


Clamp force US tons 100 150
Clamping Speed (max) in/sec 27.5 21.9
Opening Force US tons 4.0 9.8
Opening Stroke inches 17.72 23.62
Mold Height (min) inches 9.84 9.84
Daylight between heating platens inches
Platen size (std) inches 14.17x19.68x2.75 17.32x19.68x2.75
Heating Platen capacity/zones kW 2x6.0/6 2x6.0/6
INJECTION 280 430 280 430 750
3
Shot volume @ 29,000 PSI (max) in 17.08 26.23 17.08 26.23 45.75
3
Shot volume @ 21,750 PSI (max) in N/A 34.78 N/A 34.78 61.02
Screw Diameter inches 0.79 0.98 0.79 0.98 1.18
Screw L/D 14:1 10:1 14:1 10:1 10:1
Injection stroke inches 6.10 6.65 6.10 6.65 7.68
Injection rate (max) in3/sec 3.66 5.18 3.66 5.18 5.18
Injection pressure (max) psi 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000
Screw speed (max) rpm 250 250 250 250 200
Plasticizing rate (max) in3/min 15.2 27.5 15.2 27.5 42.7
Screw torque (max) ft-lbs 148 236 148 236 295
Strip intake opening inches 1.6x0.5 2.0x0.5 1.6x0.5 2.0x0.5 2.4x0.6
GENERAL
Pump drive motor hp 20 30
Hydraulic system pressure psi 3625 3625
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 60 116
Total connected load (excl.temp. kw
control units,extra heaters,etc.)
Machine weight - total (no oil) lbs 14000 19850
Dimensions (LxWxH) inches

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 63


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
HORIZONTAL ELASTOMER MACHINES

CLAMP ES200H TL ES300H TL


Clamp force US tons 200 300
Clamping Speed (max) in/sec 23.3
Opening Force US tons 9.8 17.8
Opening Stroke inches 27.56 33.50
Mold Height (min) inches 9.84 13.78
Daylight between heating platens inches
Platen size (std) inches 19.68x21.65x3.15 21.65x25.59x3.15
Heating Platen capacity/zones kW 2x8.8/8 2x11.2/8
INJECTION 430 750 1500 750 1500 2700
3
Shot volume @ 29,000 PSI (max) in 26.23 45.75 91.50 45.75 91.50 164.70
3
Shot volume @ 21,750 PSI (max) in 34.78 61.02 122.05 61.02 122.05 219.68
Screw Diameter inches 0.98 1.18 1.57 1.18 1.57 1.97
Screw L/D 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1 10:1
Injection stroke inches 6.65 7.68 10.16 7.68 10.16 12.05
Injection rate (max) in3/sec 5.18 5.18 5.12 5.18 5.12 7.32
Injection pressure (max) psi 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000 29000
Screw speed (max) rpm 250 200 150 200 150 160
Plasticizing rate (max) in3/min 27.5 42.7 91.5 42.7 91.5 152.0
Screw torque (max) ft-lbs 236 295 620 295 620 922
Strip intake opening inches 2.0x0.5 2.4x0.6 3.2x0.7 2.4x0.6 3.2x0.7 3.5x0.8
GENERAL
Pump drive motor hp 40 50
Hydraulic system pressure psi 3625 3625
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 116
Total connected load (excl.temp. kw
control units,extra heaters,etc.)
Machine weight - total (no oil) lbs 25350
Dimensions (LxWxH) inches

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

64 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

2.7 DUO PLATEN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 65


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
DUO PLATEN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

66 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
DUO PLATEN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 67


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
DUO PLATEN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

1.Based on polystyrene material.


2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+).
3. Calculated.
4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased.
6. Per Euromap 6 standard.
7. With increased injection pressure .
8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional.
(N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

68 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

2.8 LARGE TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 600
Clamp force US tons 600
Clamp opening force US tons 66
Clamp stroke (max) inches 33.46
Mold height (min - max) inches 12.2 - 31.5
Daylight (min - max) inches 12.2 - 64.96
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 53 X 50.4
Extended - inches B N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 36.02 X 33.86
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 6.10
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 9.84
Hydraulic ejector force tons 10.7
INJECTION 3550 4550
Screw diameter mm 70 80 90 80 90 105
Screw diameter inches 2.756 3.149 3.543 3.149 3.543 4.134
Shot size 1+3 oz 48.7 63.6 80.5 63.6 80.5 109.6
Injection capacity in3 91.6 119.6 151.4 119.6 151.4 206.0
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 1.3 1.8 2.6 1.8 2.5 3.5
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 294 413 587 397 556 794
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 17.3 22.6 28.6 23.4 29.6 40.3
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 20.3 26.5 33.5 26.5 33.5 45.6
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 2.9 3.0
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 3.4 3.4
Screw Stroke inches 15.35 15.35
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 33105 25346 20026 33350 26351 19360
5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 28205 21594 17062 29265 23123 16988
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 5 - 150 5 - 140
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 2949 4718
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 23.62 27.55
Nozzle force US tons 14.7 14.7
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 57 91
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 200 243
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 100 125
Number of heat control zones 5+NOZZLE 5 + NOZZLE
Total heating wattage kw 30.6 33.6 38.8 33.6 38.8 45.6
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 3.9 4.3
Water requirements (max) gpm 22 22
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 360x95x105 385x95x105
Machine weight lbs 63000 66000
Hopper capacity lbs 300 300
1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 69


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
LARGE TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES750
Clamp force US tons 750
Clamp opening force US tons 86
Clamp stroke (max) inches 35.43
Mold height (min - max) inches 15.75 - 36.22
Daylight (min - max) inches 15.75 - 71.65
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 59.06 X 54.72
Extended - inches B N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 40.35 X 36.42
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 6.69
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 10.82
Hydraulic ejector force tons 16.8
INJECTION 4550 7050
Screw diameter mm 80 90 105 90 105 120
Screw diameter inches 3.149 3.543 4.134 3.543 4.134 4.724
Shot size 1+3 oz 63.6 80.5 109.6 99.1 134.9 176.2
Injection capacity in3 119.6 151.4 206.0 186.4 253.7 331.3
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 1.8 2.5 3.5 2.3 3.2 4.7
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 397 556 794 508 730 1048
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 23.4 29.6 40.3 28.6 38.9 50.8
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 26.5 33.5 45.6 35.5 48.3 63.1
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.0 2.9
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 3.4 3.6
Screw Stroke inches 15.35 18.90
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 33350 26351 19360 33223 30346 23234
5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 29265 23123 16988 32609 23958 18343
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 5 - 140 5 - 130
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 4718 7375
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 27.55 37.40
Nozzle force US tons 14.7 15.9
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 91 118
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 266 405
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 125 150
Number of heat control zones 5 + NOZZLE 5 + NOZZLE
Total heating wattage kw 33.6 38.8 45.6 38.6 45.6 53.6
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 4.3 4.7
Water requirements (max) gpm 22 34
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 411x111x112 435x128x112
Machine weight lbs 80000 71000 / 46000
Hopper capacity lbs 300 300

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

70 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
LARGE TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 800
Clamp force US tons 800
Clamp opening force US tons 86
Clamp stroke (max) inches 35.43
Mold height (min - max) inches 15.75 - 40.16
Daylight (min - max) inches 15.75 - 75.59
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 64.30 X 66.73
Extended - inches B N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 45.00 X 45.00
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 7.09
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 9.84
Hydraulic ejector force tons 12.4
INJECTION 4550 7050
Screw diameter mm 80 90 105 90 105 120
Screw diameter inches 3.149 3.543 4.134 3.543 4.134 4.724
Shot size 1+3 oz 63.6 80.5 109.6 99.1 134.9 176.2
Injection capacity in3 119.6 151.4 206.0 186.4 253.7 331.3
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 1.8 2.5 3.5 2.3 3.2 4.7
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 397 556 794 508 730 1048
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 23.4 29.6 40.3 28.6 38.9 50.8
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 26.5 33.5 45.6 35.5 48.3 63.1
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.0 2.9
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 3.4 3.6
Screw Stroke inches 15.35 18.90
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 33350 26351 19360 33223 30346 23234
5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 29265 23123 16988 32609 23958 18343
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 5 - 140 5 - 130
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 4718 7375
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 27.55 37.40
Nozzle force US tons 14.7 15.9
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 91 118
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 266 405
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 125 150
Number of heat control zones 5 + NOZZLE 5 + NOZZLE
Total heating wattage kw 33.6 38.8 45.6 38.6 45.6 53.6
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 4.7 4.7
Water requirements (max) gpm 22 34
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 475x106x118 475x128x102
Machine weight lbs 87000 / 40000 87000 / 46000
Hopper capacity lbs 300 300

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 71


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
LARGE TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 1000
Clamp force US tons 1000
Clamp opening force US tons 106
Clamp stroke (max) inches 39.37
Mold height (min - max) inches 15.75 - 39.37
Daylight (min - max) inches 15.75 - 78.74
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 66 x 61
Extended - inches B N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 44.09 X 40.35
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 7.87
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 11.81
Hydraulic ejector force tons 26.2
INJECTION 7050 11050
Screw diameter mm 90 105 120 105 120 135
Screw diameter inches 3.543 4.134 4.724 4.134 4.724 5.315
Shot size 1+3 oz 99.1 134.9 176.2 160.2 209.2 264.8
Injection capacity in3 186.4 253.7 331.3 301.2 393.4 497.9
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 2.3 3.2 4.7 3.0 4.3 5.8
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 508 730 1048 675 968 1317
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 28.6 38.9 50.8 33.6 43.8 55.5
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 35.5 48.3 63.1 47.0 61.4 77.7
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 2.9 2.5
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 3.6 3.5
Screw Stroke inches 18.90 22.44
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 33223 30346 23234 33289 28422 22457
5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 32609 23958 18343 27103 20751 16396
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 5 - 130 5 - 120
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 7375 7375
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 37.40 43.31
Nozzle force US tons 15.9 15.9
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 118 133
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 405 405
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 150 175
Number of heat control zones 5 + NOZZLE 5 + NOZZLE
Total heating wattage kw 38.6 45.6 53.6 45.8 53.8 62.4
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 4.7 4.7
Water requirements (max) gpm 34 34
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 468x110x100 480x110x100
Machine weight lbs 99000 / 46000 99000 / 50000
Hopper capacity lbs 300 300

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

72 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
LARGE TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 1000W
Clamp force US tons 1000
Clamp opening force US tons 106
Clamp stroke (max) inches 39.37
Mold height (min - max) inches 15.75 - 39.37
Daylight (min - max) inches 15.75 - 78.74
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 83.23 x 71.85
Extended - inches B N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 60.00 x 45.28
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 8.66
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 11.81
Hydraulic ejector force tons 26.2
INJECTION 7050 11050
Screw diameter mm 90 105 120 105 120 135
Screw diameter inches 3.543 4.134 4.724 4.134 4.724 5.315
Shot size 1+3 oz 99.1 134.9 176.2 160.2 209.2 264.8
Injection capacity in3 186.4 253.7 331.3 301.2 393.4 497.9
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 2.3 3.2 4.7 3.0 4.3 5.8
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 508 730 1048 675 968 1317
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 28.6 38.9 50.8 33.6 43.8 55.5
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 35.5 48.3 63.1 47.0 61.4 77.7
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 2.9 2.5
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 3.6 3.5
Screw Stroke inches 18.90 22.44
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 33223 30346 23234 33289 28422 22457
5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 32609 23958 18343 27103 20751 16396
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 5 - 130 5 - 120
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 7375 7375
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 37.40 43.31
Nozzle force US tons 15.9 15.9
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 118 133
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 405 405
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 150 175
Number of heat control zones 5 + NOZZLE 5 + NOZZLE
Total heating wattage kw 38.6 45.5 53.6 45.8 53.8 62.4
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 4.7 4.7
Water requirements (max) gpm 34 34
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 513x136x115 525x136x115
Machine weight lbs 134000 / 46000 134000 / 50000
Hopper capacity lbs 300 300

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 73


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
LARGE TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES1300W
Clamp force US tons 1300
Clamp opening force US tons 106
Clamp stroke (max) inches 43.31
Mold height (min - max) inches 15.75 - 47.24
Daylight (min - max) inches 15.75 - 90.55
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 83.23 x 71.85
Extended - inches B N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 60.00 x 45.28
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 8.66
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 11.81
Hydraulic ejector force tons 24.2
INJECTION 7050 11050
Screw diameter mm 90 105 120 105 120 135
Screw diameter inches 3.543 4.134 4.724 4.134 4.724 5.315
Shot size 1+3 oz 99.1 134.9 176.2 160.2 209.2 264.8
Injection capacity in3 186.4 253.7 331.3 301.2 393.4 497.9
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 2.3 3.2 4.7 3.0 4.3 5.8
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 508 730 1048 675 968 1317
4
Injection rate at max. press. in3/sec 28.6 38.9 50.8 33.6 43.8 55.5
4
Injection rate (regenerative) in3/sec 35.5 48.3 63.1 47.0 61.4 77.7
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 2.9 2.5
4
Injection velocity (regenerative) in/sec 3.6 3.5
Screw Stroke inches 18.90 22.44
5
Injection pressure (max) psi 33223 30346 23234 33289 28422 22457
5
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 32609 23958 18343 27103 20751 16396
Screw speed max (min = 25) rpm 5 - 130 5 - 120
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 7375 7375
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 37.40 43.31
Nozzle force US tons 15.9 15.9
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity (required) gpm 166 166
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 405 405
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 225 225
Number of heat control zones 5 + NOZZLE 5 + NOZZLE
Total heating wattage kw 38.6 45.6 53.6 45.8 53.8 62.4
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 5.7 5.7
Water requirements (max) gpm 34 34
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 602x136x115 614x136x115
Machine weight lbs 170000 / 46000 170000 / 50000
Hopper capacity lbs 300 300

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

74 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 75


MAINTENANCE:
2.9 PREVIOUS MODEL LINE - SMALL TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING
MACHINES

CLAMP ES 100 ES 150


Clamp force US tons 100 150
Clamp opening force US tons 10 18
Clamp stroke (max) inches 12.20 16.54
9
Mold height (min - max) inches 9.84 - 20.87 5.91 - 20.47
9
Daylight (min - max) inches 9.84 - 33.07 5.91 - 37.01
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 22.68x22.68 N/A
Extended - inches B N/A 28.35x25.20
Distance between Standard - inches A 15.98x15.98 N/A
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A 19.69x16.54
Tie bar diameter inches 2.36 2.95
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 3.94 5.12
Hydraulic ejector force tons 2.8 6.8
INJECTION 330 600
Screw diameter mm 30 35 40 45 40 45 50 55
Screw diameter inches 1.181 1.378 1.575 1.772 1.575 1.772 1.969 2.165
1+3
Shot size oz 3.7 5.0 6.5 8.3 8.2 10.3 12.7 15.4
3
Injection capacity in 6.9 9.4 12.3 15.5 15.3 19.4 24.0 29.0
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.9 2.3
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 203 270 203 225 248 293 423 518
4 3
Injection rate at max. press. in /sec 5.0 6.8 8.9 9.8 6.4 8.2 10.1 10.9
4 3
Injection rate (regenerative) in /sec 6.8 9.3 12.1 15.2 8.7 11.1 13.7 14.2
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.0
)4
Injection velocity (regenerative in/sec 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 4.5 4.5 4.5 3.9
Screw stroke inches 6.3 7.87
5 7
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 30000 24143 21765 30000 27173 22011 20416
5 7
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 30000 23200 17763 16013 25361 20039 16240 15646
Screw speed range rpm 25-420 25-420 25-320 25-320 25-297
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 260 260 325 325 514
Screw L/D ratio 23.3:1 20:1 17.5:1 15.6:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 9.84 11.81
Nozzle force US tons 5.2 7.4
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity gpm 24.0 24.8
System pressure psi 2654 2320
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 41 113
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 230/460/575/ - 3Ph/60Hz 230/460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 20 30
Number of heat control zones 3+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 7.2 9.1 10.7 11.7 13.1
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 1.7 1.6
Water requirements (max) gpm 6 8
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 165x52x80 227x67x86
Machine weight lbs 9500 16200
Hopper capacity lbs 44 163
1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

76 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
PREVIOUS MODEL LINE - SMALL TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 200 ES 250


Clamp force US tons 200 250
Clamp opening force US tons 25 33
Clamp stroke (max) inches 18.11 20.08
Mold height (min - max) inches 5.91 - 22.05 7.87 - 24.02
Daylight (min - max) inches 5.91 - 40.16 7.87 - 44.09
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A N/A 32.68x32.68
Extended - inches B 30.71x27.36 N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A N/A 22.44x22.44
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B 21.26x18.11 N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 3.35 3.54
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 5.91 5.91
Hydraulic ejector force tons 6.8 6.8
INJECTION 700 700
Screw diameter mm 45 50 55 60 45 50 55 60
Screw diameter inches 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362 1.772 1.969 2.165 2.362
1+3
Shot size oz 10.3 12.7 15.4 18.4 10.3 12.7 15.4 18.4
3
Injection capacity in 19.4 24.0 29.0 34.5 19.4 24.0 29.0 34.5
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.1 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.1
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 225 338 405 423 225 338 404 423
4 3
Injection rate at max. press. in /sec 9.2 11.4 13.8 13.7 9.2 11.4 13.8 13.7
4 3
Injection rate (regenerative) in /sec 12.0 14.8 17.9 17.0 12.0 14.8 17.9 17.0
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.1 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.1
)4
Injection velocity (regenerative in/sec 4.9 4.9 4.9 3.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 3.9
Screw stroke inches 7.87 7.87
5 7 7
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 24708 20416 20518 30000 24708 20416 20518
5 7 7
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 23374 18923 15646 16500 23374 18923 15646 16500
Screw speed range rpm 25-238 25-238
5
Screw torque ft-lbs 813 813
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 11.81 11.81
Nozzle force US tons 7.4 7.4
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity gpm 31.4 31.4
System pressure psi 2320 2320
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 125 125
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 40 40
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 10.7 11.7 13.1 15.9 10.7 11.7 13.1 15.9
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 1.8 1.9
Water requirements (max) gpm 11 11
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 248x70x86 248X70X89
Machine weight lbs 19000 26100
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 77


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
PREVIOUS MODEL LINE - SMALL TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 300 ES 400


Clamp force US tons 300 400
Clamp opening force US tons 42 57
Clamp stroke (max) inches 23.62 27.56
Mold height (min - max) inches 7.87 - 25.98 11.81 - 33.94
Daylight (min - max) inches 7.87 - 49.60 11.81 - 61.50
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 35.67x35.87 44.56x44.56
Extended - inches B N/A N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 25.04x25.04 30.00x30.00
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 3.94 5.51
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 7.87 9.45
Hydraulic ejector force tons 8.9 8.9
INJECTION 1300 2000
Screw diameter mm 55 60 70 60 70 80 85
Screw diameter inches 2.165 2.362 2.756 2.362 2.756 3.150 3.346
1+3
Shot size oz 20.8 24.8 33.7 28.4 38.7 50.6 57.1
3
Injection capacity in 39.2 46.6 63.4 53.5 72.8 95.1 107.4
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 1.7 1.8 2.4 1.6 2.2 2.8 2.7
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 383 404 540 360 495 630 608
4 3
Injection rate at max. press. in /sec 14.5 17.3 18.0 16.7 22.8 20.1 22.7
4 3
Injection rate (regenerative) in /sec 16.7 19.9 20.0 19.2 26.1 22.0 24.9
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.9 3.9 3.0 3.8 3.8 2.6 2.6
)4
Injection velocity (regenerative in/sec 4.5 4.5 3.4 4.4 4.4 2.8 2.8
Screw stroke inches 10.63 12.2
5 7 7 7
Injection pressure (max) psi 28304 23780 22780 30000 22577 25549 22635
5 7 7 7
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 24534 20619 20460 26811 19690 23345 20677
8
Screw speed range rpm 25-217 25-198 25-162
5 8
Screw torque ft-lbs 1305 1790 2186
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 13.78 21.65
Nozzle force US tons 12.1 12.1
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity gpm 46.0 57.6
System pressure psi 2320 2320
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 145 204
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz
Total rated horsepower HP 50 60
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 14.7 15.9 19.1 18.3 21.5 24.7 26.1
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 2.0 2.6
Water requirements (max) gpm 14 17
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 298X72X94 359x87x101
Machine weight lbs 34100 49000
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

78 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
PREVIOUS MODEL LINE - SMALL TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 450 ES 500


Clamp force US tons 450 500
Clamp opening force US tons 57 60
Clamp stroke (max) inches 27.56 27.56
Mold height (min - max) inches 11.81 - 33.94 11.81 - 33.94
Daylight (min - max) inches 11.81 - 61.50 11.81 - 61.50
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 44.56x44.56 47.80x47.24
Extended - inches B 47.24x47.24 N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 30.00x30.00 34.65x33.07
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B 33.07x33.07 N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 5.51 5.51
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 9.45 9.45
Hydraulic ejector force tons 8.9 8.9
INJECTION 2000 2000 2750
Screw diameter mm 60 70 80 85 60 70 80 85 90
Screw diameter inches 2.362 2.756 3.150 3.346 2.362 2.756 3.150 3.346 3.543
1+3
Shot size oz 28.4 38.7 50.6 57.1 28.4 38.7 50.6 57.1 64.0
3
Injection capacity in 53.5 72.8 95.1 107.4 53.5 72.8 95.1 107.4 120.4
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 1.6 2.2 2.8 2.7 1.6 2.2 2.8 2.7 3.5
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 360 495 630 608 360 495 630 608 788
4 3
Injection rate at max. press. in /sec 16.7 22.8 20.1 22.7 16.7 22.8 20.1 22.7 31.0
4 3
Injection rate (regenerative) in /sec 19.2 26.1 22.0 24.9 19.2 26.1 22.0 24.9 33.9
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.8 3.8 2.6 2.6 3.8 3.8 2.6 2.6 3.1
)4
Injection velocity (regenerative in/sec 4.4 4.4 2.8 2.8 4.4 4.4 2.8 2.8 3.4
Screw stroke inches 12.2 12.2 12.2
5 7 7 7 7
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 22577 25549 22635 30000 22577 25549 22635 22635
5 7 7 7 7
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 26811 19690 23345 20677 26811 19690 23345 20677 20677
8 8 8
Screw speed range rpm 25-198 25-162 25-198 25-162 25-197
5 8 8 8
Screw torque ft-lbs 1790 2186 1790 2186 2186
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 21.65 21.65 21.65
Nozzle force US tons 12.1 12.1 12.1
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity gpm 57.6 57.6 70.0
System pressure psi 2320 2320 2600
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 204 204 204
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz same
Total rated horsepower HP 60 60 75
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 4+Nozzle 5+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 18.3 21.5 24.7 26.1 18.3 21.5 24.7 26.1 39.3
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 2.6 2.6 2.5
Water requirements (max) gpm 17 17 21
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 359x87x101 363x88x101 385x88x101
Machine weight lbs 53500 55200 57300
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163 163

1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

16/12/05 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 79


MAINTENANCE:
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
PREVIOUS MODEL LINE - SMALL TOGGLE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES

CLAMP ES 500W
Clamp force US tons 500
Clamp opening force US tons 60
Clamp stroke (max) inches 27.56
Mold height (min - max) inches 11.81 - 33.94
Daylight (min - max) inches 11.81 - 61.50
Platen size (H x V) Standard - inches A 58.26x47.24
Extended - inches B N/A
Distance between Standard - inches A 44.09x33.07
tie bars (HxV) Extended - inches B N/A
Tie bar diameter inches 5.51
Hydraulic ejector stroke inches 9.45
Hydraulic ejector force tons 8.9
INJECTION 2000 2750
Screw diameter mm 60 70 80 85 90
Screw diameter inches 2.362 2.756 3.150 3.346 3.543
1+3
Shot size oz 28.4 38.7 50.6 57.1 64.0
3
Injection capacity in 53.5 72.8 95.1 107.4 120.4
1+2+3
Recovery rate oz/sec 1.6 2.2 2.8 2.7 3.5
1+2+3
Plasticizing capacity lbs/hr 360 495 630 608 788
4 3
Injection rate at max. press. in /sec 16.7 22.8 20.1 22.7 31.0
4 3
Injection rate (regenerative) in /sec 19.2 26.1 22.0 24.9 33.9
4
Injection velocity at max. press. in/sec 3.8 3.8 2.6 2.6 3.1
)4
Injection velocity (regenerative in/sec 4.4 4.4 2.8 2.8 3.4
Screw stroke inches 12.2 12.2
5 7 7
Injection pressure (max) psi 30000 22577 25549 22635 22635
5 7 7
Injection pressure (regenerative) psi 26811 19690 23345 20677 20677
8 8
Screw speed range rpm 25-198 25-162 25-197
5 8 8
Screw torque ft-lbs 1790 2186 2186
Screw L/D ratio 20:1 20:1
Nozzle stroke inches 21.65 21.65
Nozzle force US tons 12.1 12.1
HYDRAULICS
Pump Capacity gpm 57.6 70.0
System pressure psi 2320 2600
Oil reservoir capacity US gal 204 204
ELECTRICS
Power supply available volts 460/575 - 3Ph/60Hz same
Total rated horsepower HP 60 75
Number of heat control zones 4+Nozzle 5+Nozzle
Total heating wattage kw 18.3 21.5 24.7 26.1 39.3
GENERAL
6
Dry cycle performance sec 2.6 2.5
Water requirements (max) gpm 17 21
Machine dimensions (LxWxH) inches 363x100x101 385x88x101
Machine weight lbs 75000 57300
Hopper capacity lbs 163 163
1.Based on polystyrene material. 2. Based on HDPE material (ES600+). 3. Calculated. 4. Can be increased with accumulator.
5. Can be increased. 6. Per Euromap 6 standard. 7. With increased injection pressure . 8. With high torque screw drive.
9. Smaller mold hieght settings optional. (N/A=Not Available. O/R=On Request. Std.=Standard)

80 2. GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
3. SAFETY DEVICES

1. MACHINE SAFETY FEATURES

NOTE!

Do not operate machine unless all safety features are in place and functioning
properly. These safety features are typical of an ENGEL machine but may vary
with machine size and options.

These protective features are built into the machine to protect personnel. The user is responsible
for each protective device being in good working order before the machine is placed in operation.
The user must maintain these safety features in working order.
Operational and maintenance personnel must be trained to recognize that variations in machine
configuration (i.e. vertical or horizontal clamp), machine size and age may result in changes to the
design and position of safety features and guards.
We very strongly recommend that the safety features are inspected at the beginning of each shift
and when a new mold is installed. A log should be kept detailing when and by whom the
inspections were performed.

MAIN DISCONNECT SWITCH


- Operating the main disconnect switch to open the electrical cabinet door, disconnects
electrical power downstream of that main disconnect switch.
- L1, L2, and L3 entering the cabinet are live unless the electrical power to the machine has
been disconnected.
- Check that operating the main electrical disconnect switch on the machine, disconnects
electrical power at the machine.

EMERGENCY STOP BUTTON


- Pushing this switch in will break the electric motor circuit causing the motor to stop.
- Restart of the motor should not be possible until the button is released.
- Check that motor stops when emergency stop button is pressed.

MECHANICAL SAFETY DEVICE


- Mechanically prevents clamp closure when operator side gate is open.
- Some designs require adjustment to suit various mold open strokes.
- Please refer to detailed directions elsewhere in this manual.
- Check that mechanism moves freely and is correctly adjusted.

PURGE GUARD
- Provides operator protection during purging.
- Activates limit switch E9 to prevent injection when the purge guard is raised.
- Check that a raised purge guard prevents carriage movement.

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 81


MAINTENANCE
- ES 30/55 machines have a sliding guard which performs the duties of the purge guard. This
guard actuates E9 limit switch.

HYDRAULIC INTERLOCK
- Cuts the flow of hydraulic fluid to the clamp cylinder thereby preventing clamp closure.
- Check that pushing back the hydraulic interlock arm, stops clamp closure.

BARREL HEATSHIELD
- Provides operator protection from direct contact with heater bands.
- Check that shields are in place before heating up the barrel.

SAFETY GATE (OPERATOR SIDE)


- Provides protection from the moving clamp.
- Activates mechanical safety device, hydraulic interlock, limit switches E1 and E2.
- Check that opening gate activates appropriate devices and prevents clamp closure.

SAFETY GATE (NON-OPERATOR SIDE)


- Provides protection from the moving clamp.
- Activates limit switches E3 and E4 to stop motor.
- Check that opening this gate causes motor to stop.
- ES 30/55 with a single gate may not have switches E3 and E4.

COVER AROUND CLAMP ASSEMBLY


- Provides protection from the toggle mechanism while machine is in operation.
- Check that panels are securely fastened in position.

E10 LIMIT SWITCH ON


- Releasing the bar, to allow the operator side gate to be opened passed the moving platen for
access to the area behind the clamp, engages limit switch E10.
- The limit switch is in the Emergency stop circuit, when the limit switch is engaged the machine
is immobilized.

E21 LIMIT SWITCH ON MOVING PLATEN DROP-BAR MECHANICAL INTERLOCK


(This device is not installed on all machines)
- Check that clamp closure is prevented as soon as the bar is raised.
- Opening the operator safety gate will deactivate limit switch E21.
Digital input 28 will go low (0 Volts).
- Closing the operator safety gate will actuate limit switch E21.
Digital input 28 will go high (24Volts), indicating that the mechanical interlock has been
released.

E52 LIMIT SWITCH INDICATING INJECTION UNIT ALIGNMENT


(This switch is not installed on all machines)
- Rotation of the carriage, to permit barrel change, will actuate limit switch E52.
- On ES30/55 this switch is operated by movement of the swinging injection guard.
- Check that activation of E52 prevents injection.

82 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
SAFETY FEATURES ES 30/55

Find No. Description


1 Main Disconnect Switch on Electrical Cabinet
2 Emergency Stop Button
3 Mechanical Safety Device (Closing Protection)
4 Hydraulic Interlock
5 Heat Shield over Barrel
6 Safety Gates (Operator and Non-Operator Sides)
7 Injection Guard (Sliding)
8 Injection Guard (Swinging)
9 Hard Covers around Clamp and Injection Units
Switch
E1, E2, Limit Switches on Safety Gates
E3, E4
E9 Limit Switch on Sliding Injection Guard
E10 Limit Switch on Moving Platen Drop Bar (may not be installed)
E52 Limit Switch on Swinging Injection Guard

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 83


MAINTENANCE
SAFETY FEATURES ES85.

8 3 4

AS1 E2 5 E1 E10 2 6 1

AS2 E4 7 E3 E9 E52

AS1 E2 E1 7 3 2 1

Find No. Description


1 Main Disconnect Switch on Electrical Cabinet
2 Emergency Stop Button
3 Mechanical Safety Device (Closing Protection)
4 Purge Guard
5 Hydraulic Interlock
6 Heat Shield over Barrel
7 Safety Gates (Operator and Non-Operator Sides)
8 Hard Covers around Clamp and Injection Units
Switch
E1, E2, Limit Switches on Safety Gates
E3, E4
AS1, AS2 Limit Switches on Plexi-Glass Panels
E9 Limit Switch on Sliding Injection Guard
E10 Limit Switch on Moving Platen Drop Bar (may not be installed)
E52 Limit Switch on Swinging Injection Guard

84 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
SAFETY FEATURES ES 100

9 5 7 8

E21 3 E2 E1 2 E9 E52 1
9 4 E4 E3 2 9 9

E21 4 E2 6 E1 2 E9 E52

Find No. Description


1 Main Disconnect Switch on Electrical Cabinet
2 Emergency Stop Button
3 Mechanical Safety Device (Closing Protection)
4 Hydraulic Interlock
5 Heat Shield over Barrel
6 Safety Gates (Operator and Non-Operator Sides)
7 Injection Guard (Sliding)
8 Injection Guard (Swinging)
9 Hard Covers around Clamp and Injection Units
Switch
E1, E2, Limit Switches on Safety Gates
E3, E4
E9 Limit Switch on Sliding Injection Guard
E52 Limit Switch on Swinging Injection Guard
E21 Limit Switch on Moving Platen Drop Bar

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 85


MAINTENANCE
SAFETY FEATURES (TL100 TIEBARLESS)

E21 6 5 7
3 E10 8
9
9

E9

E52

1
E4 E3
4
E2 E1
2

Legend Description
1 Main Electrical Power Disconnect
2 Emergency Stop button
3 Mechanical Safety Device (Closing Protection)
4 Hydraulic Interlock
5 Barrel Heatshield
6 Safety Gates (Operator and Non Operator)
7 Injection Guard (sliding)
8 Injection Guard (swinging)
9 Hard Covers around Clamp and Injection unit
Switches
E1, E2, Limit switch on Safety Gates
E3, E4
E9 Limit switch on sliding injection guard (Nozzle Guard)
E10 Limit switch on Operator gate stop
E21 Limit switch on Moving Platen Dropbar mechanical interlock
E52 Limit switch on swinging injection guard

86 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
SAFETY FEATURES ES200 TOGGLE

4
E10
8 8 7 6
E21 3 E9
E52

E4 E3
E2 1
2
E1
5

Legend Description
1 Main Electrical Power Disconnect
2 Emergency Stop button
3 Mechanical Safety Device (Closing Protection)
4 Purge Guard
5 Hydraulic Interlock
6 Barrel Heatshield
7 Safety Gates (Operator and Non Operator)
8 Hard Covers around Clamp and Injection unit
Switches
E1, E2,
E3, E4 Limit on Safety Gates
E9 Limit switch on sliding injection guard (Nozzle Guard)
E10 Limit switch on Operator safety gate stop
E21 Limit switch on Moving Platen Dropbar mechanical interlock
E52 Limit switch on swinging injection guard

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 87


MAINTENANCE
SAFETY FEATURES ES300 to ES500

6
E21 3

E8.1 4
E1 E2
5
1

2 E3
E4 E8.2 E9

2 1 3

Find No. Description


1 Safety Gates (Operator and Non-Operator Sides)
2 Hard Covers around Clamp
3 Injection Guard (Sliding)
4 Main Disconnect Switch on Electrical Cabinet
5 Emergency Stop Button
6 Mechanical Safety Device (Closing Protection)
7 Hydraulic Interlock
Switch
E21 Limit Switch on Mechanical Interlock
E1 Limit Switch on Operator Side Safety Gate
E2 Limit Switch on Operator Side Safety Gate
E3 Limit Switch on Non Operator Side Safety Gate
E4 Limit Switch on Non Operator Side Safety Gate
E8.1 Limit Switch on Operator Side Hydraulic Interlock
E8.2 Limit Switch on Non Operator Side Hydraulic Interlock
E9 Limit Switch on Injection / Purge Guard

88 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
SAFETY FEATURES ES600 to ES3500

OPERATOR SIDE

2 1
E8 E55 E3, E4
3
E9

2 E2 E8.1 bE10 1 E1

Find No. Description


1 Safety Gates (Operator and Non Operator side)
2 Hard Covers around Clamp (Operator and Non Operator side)
3 Purge Guard around Injection Unit
4 Main Electrical Disconnect On Cabinet
5 Emergency Stop Button
6 Hydraulic Interlock
Switch
E10 Front Safety Gate
E1 Safety Gate Closed
E2 Safety Gate Not Closed
E8 Hydraulic Clamp Interlock
E8.1 Front Safety Gate Not Closed
E9 Purge Guard Closed
E3 Rear Safety Gate L.S.
E4 Rear Safety Gate L.S.
E52 Injection Unit aligned

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 89


MAINTENANCE
2. MECHANICAL SAFETY DEVICES
There are four types of mechanical safety devices used on ENGEL machines.
Be aware of the type of mechanical safety device used on the machine and of the adjustments
required (if any) to ensure maximum protection.

Mechanical Safety Type 1

STRIKE PLATE
GUIDE BLOCK SPLIT RING
STOP BAR STOP BLOCK

MOVING PLATEN STATIONARY PLATEN

When the front safety gate and the clamp are both open, the strike plate drops covering the hole
through which the stop bar passes. Thus preventing the clamp from closing. As the front safety
gate closes, the strike plate is lifted uncovering the hole through which the safety bar moves when
the clamp closes. In order for this protective device to operate properly, the stop bar must be
adjusted as close to the strike plate as possible, with the clamp open. The stop bar has a series
of cylindrical grooves into which is inserted a split ring. A guide block mounted upon the moving
platen retains the stop bar and split ring with a clamping device. To set the mechanical safety
device, move clamp to required mold open position and open front safety gate. Using the most
available cylindrical groove, adjust the stop bar in the guide block to a position as close as
possible to the strike plate.

NOTE!

The safety device must be checked for correct adjustment every time the mold
open stroke is altered.
Ensure strike plate pivots freely.
See warning plates attached to the machine.

90 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
Mechanical Safety Type 2

MOVING STATIONARY
PLATEN SAFETY ROD PLATEN

LATCH TUBE
STOP BLOCK STOP BLOCK
ROLLER
Mechanical Safety Device As Viewed From Above

1. When the front safety gate is opened the latch drops into a groove in the safety rod thereby
preventing the clamp from closing.
2. As the front safety gate is closed the cam on the gate contacts the roller attached to the
latch. This causes the latch to be lifted from the groove on the safety rod which then
permits the clamp to close.
3. This design requires no regular adjustment. However, it is essential to regularly check that
the latch moves freely as the safety gate is opened and closed. This device must be kept
clean of all debris.

Mechanical Safety Type 3

SAFETY ROD SAFETY ROD

BASE MOVING
PLATE PLATEN

BRACKET
LATCH
LEVER

SHAFT ROLLER

Mechanical Safety Device As Viewed From Above


1. When the front safety gate is opened the latch drops into a groove in the safety rod thereby
preventing the clamp from closing.
2. As the front safety gate is closed the cam on the gate contacts the roller which is attached
through the lever and the shaft to the latch. This causes the latch to be lifted away from the
safety rod. The rod is then free to move through the base plate and the clamp permitted to
close.
3. This design requires no regular adjustment. However, it is essential to regularly check that
the latch moves freely as the safety gate is opened and closed. This device must be kept
clean of all debris.

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 91


MAINTENANCE
Mechanical Safety Type 4

92 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
This type of Mechanical Safety Bar is fixed to the toggle crosshead or the moving platen and
moves through the cylinder platen with each movement of the clamp. The latch and pneumatic
actuator are mounted on the cylinder platen and are spring loaded into the latched position.

A failure of the compressed air supply will result in the Mechanical Safety Device being in the
locked position.

When the safety gate is opened, the controller de-actuates the solenoid S45. This action divert
compressed air into the piston side of the pneumatic latch and closes the latch onto the
Mechanical Safety Device ratchet bar, assisted by the spring tension, preventing closure of the
clamp.

Closing the safety gate re-activates the solenoid S45 and this action diverts air to the rod side of
the pneumatic latch and opens the latch, against the spring tension, freeing the mechanical safety
device and allowing the clamp to close.

The Mechanical Safety Device can be overridden (mold opening only) with the keyswitch CORES
AND EJECTORS - MOTION / NO MOTION when switched into the MOTION position.

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 93


MAINTENANCE
2.1 SAMPLE MACHINE SAFETY CHECKLIST

SAFETY CHECKLIST
YES NO
FUNCTION REMARKS
INIT. INIT.
1. DO LIMIT SWITCHES E3 & E4 ON
THE REAR DOOR STOP THE MOTOR ?

2. IS THE MECHANICAL SAFETY DEVICE


ADJUSTED CORRECTLY -DOES THE
STRIKE PLATE DROP FREELY ?

3. DOES THE HYDRAULIC INTERLOCK


STOP CLOSING OF THE PRESS ?

4. DO LIMIT SWITCHES E1 & E2 STOP


THE CLOSING OF THE CLAMP ?

5. DOES THE EMERGENCY STOP BUTTON


STOP THE MOTOR WHEN PRESSED ?

6. DOES AN OPEN GATE STOP CLAMP


FROM CLOSING ?

7. IS THE HEAT SHIELD OVER THE


BARREL INSTALLED ?

8. ARE THE HEAT CONTROL INSTRUMENTS


FUNCTIONING PROPERLY ?

9. ARE THERE ANY OIL OR WATER LEAKS ?

10. IS SAFETY GATE ALARM CIRCUIT


FUNCTIONAL ?

11. ARE ALL SAFETY WARNING LABELS


ATTACHED TO MACHINE ?

A7720451

94 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
2.2 ROTARY TABLE SAFETY FEATURES

EMERGENCY STOP

MECHANICAL
HEAT SHIELD
CLOSING
SAFETY
MAIN ELECTRICAL ISOLATOR

MFSI

PURGE SLIDE
LIGHT CURTAIN or
PNEUMATIC PURGE GUARD
SAFETY
GATE

EMERGENCY STOP

NOTE!

These safety features are typical but may vary with machine size and options.

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 95


MAINTENANCE
3. ROTARY TABLE SAFETY FEATURES
These protective features are built into the machine to protect personnel. The user is responsible
for each protective device being in good working order before the machine is placed in operation.
The user must maintain these safety features in working order.
Operational and maintenance personnel must be trained to recognize that variations in machine
configuration (i.e. vertical or horizontal clamp), machine size and age may result in changes to the
design and position of safety features and guards.
We very strongly recommend that the safety features are inspected at the beginning of each shift
and when a new mold is installed. A log should be kept detailing when and by whom the
inspections were performed.

Main Disconnect Switch


• Operation of this switch to open the electrical cabinet door, cuts power downstream of
the 107 disconnect switch.
• L1, L2, and L3 entering the cabinet may still be live.
• Check that operating the handle cuts power to machine.

Emergency Stop Buttons


• Pushing any one of these switches in will cause a break in the electric motor circuit
causing the motor to stop.
• Restart of the motor should not be possible until the button is released.
• Check that motor stops when any one of these buttons is pressed.

Mechanical Safety Device


• Mechanically prevents clamp closure when the light curtain is interrupted.
• A spring causes the stop bar to be engaged when the light curtain is interrupted, when
the machine is in manual, or when pneumatic power is lost.
• A pneumatic cylinder disengages the stop bar when the clamp is being operated.
• A fault with the limit switch (B77) monitoring this device would be indicated by a
"MECH.INTRLCK FAULT" error on the monitor.

Light Curtain
• Interruption of the light curtain will prevent clamp or ejector movements.
• In manual mode check that clamp and ejector movement are prevented when the light
curtain is being interrupted.
• Run a finger slowly down the edge of the light curtain and check that as each beam is
interrupted the "LIGHT CURTAIN HAZARD" warning light is illuminated.

Mold Flash Safety Interlock (MFSI)


• Provides operator protection during injection.
• Prevents injection if mold is not closed.
• Check that switch is made when mold halves are in contact and not before.
• With B74 (Purge Slide closed) input made and K (nozzle back) position reached to allow
for purging but with the Mold Flash Safety Interlock not made, check that manual
injection is prevented.

96 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
Purge Guard
• Provides operator protection during purging.
• De-activates limit switch E9 to prevent injection while guard is raised.
• Check that raised purge guard prevents carriage movement.

Purge Slide
• Provides operator protection during purging.
• Limit switch B74 (slide closed) must be made to allow purging.
• With slide out of position but Mold Flash Safety Interlock input made and position K
(nozzle back) reached check that manual injection is not possible.

Barrel Heatshield
• Provides operator protection from direct contact with heater bands.
• Check that shields are in place before operating.

Cover Around Clamp Assembly


• Provides protection from the toggle mechanism while machine is in operation.
• Check that opening either of the locking side panels stops the motor via limit switches E3
and E4.
• Check that the other fixed panels are securely fastened in position.

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 97


MAINTENANCE
3.1 SAMPLE ROTARY MACHINE SAFETY CHECKLIST

ENGEL ROTARY SAFETY CHECKLIST


DATE: TIME: CHECKED BY: SIGNED:

FUNCTION YES NO REMARKS

1. DOES THE MAIN DISCONNECT SWITCH CUT


POWER TO THE MACHINE ?

2. DOES THE MOTOR STOP WHEN ANY ONE


OF THE EMERGENCY STOP BUTTONS IS
PRESSED ?

3. DOES AN INTERRUPTION OF THE LIGHT


CURTAIN PREVENT BOTH CLAMP AND
EJECTOR FUNCTIONS ?

4. IS INJECTION PREVENTED IF THE MOLD


IS NOT CLOSED ?

5. IS CARRIAGE MOVEMENT AND INJECTION


PREVENTED WITH RAISED PURGE GUARD ?

6. IS INJECTION PREVENTED IF THE PURGE


SLIDE IS NOT CLOSED ?

7. DOES THE MOTOR STOP WHEN EITHER OF


THE LOCKING CLAMP COVERS IS OPENED ?

8. ARE ALL COVERS SECURELY IN PLACE ?

9. IS THE BARREL HEATSHIELD IN PLACE ?

10. ARE THERE ANY OIL OR WATER LEAKS ?

11. ARE ANY WIRES DAMAGED OR ELECTRICAL


CONNECTIONS EXPOSED ?

12. ARE ALL SAFETY WARNING LABELS


ATTACHED TO MACHINE?

NOTE!

This is a sample checklist and intended as a guide only. Certain machine


options may require additions to, or deletions from the list.

98 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
3.2 SHUTTLE TABLE SAFETY FEATURES

8
B77 1
8

5 E9 7
AS
6
4 4 B77
2

3
2

2 AS

Find # Description
1 Main Disconnect Switch on Electrical Cabinet
2 Emergency Stop Buttons
3 Mechanical Safety Device (Closing Protection)
4 Light Curtain
5 Front Safety Gate
6 Purge Guard
7 Heat Shield over Barrel
8 Hard Cover around Clamp Assembly
Switch
E9 Limit Switch on Sliding Injection Guard
B77 Switch Indicating Mechanical Safety Engaged
AS Switch Indicating Front Safety Gate Closed

NOTE!

These safety features are typical but may vary with machine size and options.

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 99


MAINTENANCE
4. SHUTTLE TABLE SAFETY FEATURES
These protective features are built into the machine to protect personnel. The user is responsible
for each protective device being in good working order before the machine is placed in operation.
The user must maintain these safety features in working order.
Operational and maintenance personnel must be trained to recognize that variations in machine
configuration (i.e. vertical or horizontal clamp), machine size and age may result in changes to the
design and position of safety features and guards.
It is strongly recommend that the safety features are inspected at the beginning of each shift and
when a new mold is installed. A log book should be kept detailing when and by whom the
inspections were performed.

Main Disconnect Switch


• Operation of this switch to open the electrical cabinet door, cuts power downstream of
the 107 disconnect switch.
• L1, L2, and L3 entering the cabinet may still be live.
• Check that operating the handle cuts power to machine.

Emergency Stop Buttons


• Pushing any one of these switches in will cause a break in the electric motor circuit
causing the motor to stop.
• Restart of the motor should not be possible until the button is released.
• Check that motor stops when any one of these buttons is pressed.

Mechanical Safety Device


• Mechanically prevents clamp closure when the light curtain is interrupted.
• A spring causes the stop bar to be engaged when the light curtain is interrupted, when
the machine is in manual, and when pneumatic power is lost.
• A pneumatic cylinder disengages the stop bar when the clamp is being operated.
• A fault with the limit switch (B77) monitoring this device would be indicated by a
"MECH.INTRLCK FAULT" error on the monitor.

Light Curtain
• Interruption of the light curtain will prevent clamp or ejector movements.
• In manual mode check that clamp and ejector movement are prevented when the light
curtain is being interrupted.
• Run a finger slowly down the edge of the light curtain and check that as each beam is
interrupted the "LIGHT CURTAIN HAZARD" warning light is illuminated.

Front Safety Gate


• Provides operator protection during injection.
• De-activates limit switch AS to prevent injection while gate is open.
• Check that injection is prevented when gate is opened. (For the purpose of this check the
gate must be open enough to release limit switch AS but not so far as to interrupt the light
curtain).

100 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
Purge Guard
• Provides operator protection during purging.
• De-activates limit switch E9 to prevent injection while guard is raised.
• Check that raised purge guard prevents carriage movement.

Barrel Heatshield
• Provides operator protection from direct contact with heater bands.
• Check that shields are in place before operating.
• Cover Around Clamp Assembly
• Provides protection from the toggle mechanism while machine is in operation.
• Check that all fixed panels are securely fastened in position.

Cover Around Clamp Assembly


• Provides protection from the toggle mechanism while machine is in operation.
• Check that all fixed panels are securely fastened in position.

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 101


MAINTENANCE
4.1 SAMPLE SHUTTLE MACHINE SAFETY CHECKLIST

ENGEL SHUTTLE SAFETY CHECKLIST


DATE: TIME: CHECKED BY: SIGNED:

FUNCTION YES NO REMARKS

1. DOES THE MAIN DISCONNECT SWITCH CUT


POWER TO THE MACHINE?

2. DOES THE MOTOR STOP WHEN ANY ONE


OF THE EMERGENCY STOP BUTTONS IS
PRESSED ?

3. DOES AN INTERRUPTION OF THE LIGHT


CURTAIN PREVENT BOTH CLAMP AND
EJECTOR FUNCTIONS ?

4. IS INJECTION PREVENTED IF THE FRONT


SAFETY GATE IS OPEN ?

5. IS CARRIAGE MOVEMENT AND INJECTION


PREVENTED WITH RAISED PURGE GUARD ?

6. IS INJECTION PREVENTED IF THE PURGE


SLIDE IS NOT CLOSED ?

7. ARE ALL COVERS SECURELY IN PLACE ?

8. IS THE BARREL HEATSHIELD IN PLACE ?

9. ARE THERE ANY OIL OR WATER LEAKS ?

10. ARE ANY WIRES DAMAGED OR


ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS EXPOSED ?

11. ARE ALL SAFETY WARNING LABELS


ATTACHED TO MACHINE ?

NOTE!

This is a sample checklist and intended as a guide only.


Certain machine options may require additions to, or deletions from the list.

102 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
5. SAFETY INSTRUCTION PLATES AND LABELS
Safety instruction plates are fastened to your machine at strategic locations. Under no
circumstances shall they be removed. They must be kept clean and readable. Operating and
maintenance personnel must understand each safety instruction before they are permitted to
work on the machine.
This section includes "DANGER", "WARNING" and "CAUTION" signs used on ENGEL
machines.
These signs are used to indicate a potential hazard caused by the improper use, adjustment,
maintenance, or removal of a safety device or guard.
The following pages show samples of the signs and the positions on the machine where they may
be found.

5 7
2 8
9 6
3
1

4
3

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8

7 8 9 ENT
4 5 6 ER
1 2 3
. !
- 0 CLE
AR

A !

ON
OFF PR

CONT MO BARREL MOLD MO


VOL O O O OVER
ROL TOR HEAT HEAT TOR
TAG N N N LOAD
E
CORES BARREL HEAT MOLDPOWER
HEAT HOPPER
O I OF OF
AU OP AU UNL
UT N F F
TO EN TO OAD

EJECTOR
MOLD CLAMPING INJECTION
RETR SEC FW RELE INJE FE
ACT URE D. ASE CT ED

CLAMP
MODE SELECT
CONTROL VOLTAGE CARRIAGE
OP CLO MAN MOTOR
O FW RETR
EN SE UAL START
N D. ACT

MOLD HEIGHT
MODE SELECT
CONTROL VOLTAGE
MOTOR STOP EMERGENCY
INCR DECR MAN OF ST
EASE EASE UAL F OP

1
2 11 1 10 12 9
2
FIND # DESCRIPTION DRAWING NUMBER
1 HIGH VOLTAGE C3401.0301
2 CRUSHING INJURY C3401.0307
3 HIGH SPEED MOVING PARTS C3401.0302
4 HIGH PRESSURE FLUID C3401.0306
5 MOLTEN MATERIAL C3401.0317
6 HOT AREA C3401.0312
7 ROTATING SCREW C3401.0318
8 COMPLEX MACHINE C3401.0315
9 FILTER CLEANING EC98.723.6354B
10 FILL PUMP-STARTUP EC98.723.6356B
11 STATIC SENSITIVE EC98.723.6370B
12 CSA DISCLAMER EC98.723.6355B

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 103


MAINTENANCE

NOTE!

These warning labels are typical of an ENGEL machine but may vary with
machine size and options.

HIGH VOLTAGE

High voltage.
Before servicing turn off, lock out/tag
out main power disconnect.
Do not modify electric or hydraulic
circuits unless authorized by
manufacturer.
Earth ground machine and electrical
cabinet before turning on power.
Failure to comply can cause shock,
burns or death.

HIGH SPEED MOVING PARTS

High speed moving parts.


Do not operate with gates / guards
removed or open.
DO NOT REACH AROUND,
UNDER, OVER OR THROUGH
GATE / GUARDS
while machine is operating.
can cause crushing injury or death.

104 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
HOT AREA

High voltage.
Hot surface.
Turn off and lock out
main power disconnect,
allow to cool before
servicing.
Can cause shock,
severe burns or death.

MOLTEN MATERIAL

High pressure
molten material.
Stand clear and wear
protective gear when
purging and/or servicing
injection system.
Can cause severe burns.

WARNING
MOLTEN PLASTIC IS EXTREMELY HOT AND
WILL CAUSE SEVERE BURNS TO HUMAN FLESH.
ALWAYS WEAR A FACESHIELD AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING WHEN REMOVING
BLOCKAGES IN INJECTION UNITS, THE MOLTEN PLASTIC MAY BE UNDER PRESSURE.
UNLESS YOU ARE WEARING PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND A FACESHIELD,
NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY INTO AN ORIFICE (NOZZLE OR FEEDTHROAT)
THAT MAY DISCHARGE MOLTEN PLASTIC UNDER PRESSURE.

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 105


MAINTENANCE
ROTATING SCREW

Rotating screw.
Do not operate with
hopper removed or put
hands or feet into opening.
Serious bodily injury
can occur.

CRUSHING INJURY

Crushing injury.
High speed moving parts.
When operator gate is open and keyswitch
“Core and Ejector Motion” is turned to
motion, do not reach into unguarded mold
area where pinch points are created.
Consult supervisor for instructions.
Failure to follow safety procedures can
cause injury.

106 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE
COMPLEX MACHINE

Complex machine with hazards.


Do not operate machine unless trained,
read and understand the Maintenance/
Operator manual(s). Prior to start-up,
test safety devices per instruction manual. Do
not operate machine unless interlocks/safety
devices are in place and function properly. Do
not modify machine unless authorized by
manufacturer.
Failure to follow instructions could
result in injury.

16/12/05 3. SAFETY DEVICES 107


MAINTENANCE

FILTER CLEANING

FILL PUMP

CSA DISCLAIMER

108 3. SAFETY DEVICES 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
4. INSTALLATION
This section details information for installing and removal/replacement of major components:

• Machine Installation

• Machine levelling

• Centering injection units

• Torque specifications

• Mold set up

• Swivelling injection units

• Screw Removal and Replacement

• Screw Tip Removal and Replacement

• Barrel Removal and Replacement

• Heater Band Installation

1. MACHINE INSTALLATION

NOTE!

The CUSTOMER is responsible for ensuring that the machine is level.


The operation of an injection molding machine that has not been correctly levelled causes
mechanical stresses to the machine. This could lead to tiebar breakage, improper mold clamping,
flashing of the mold, excessive wear on bushings and the toggle system, or roller bearing platen
support breakage.

NOTE!

ENGEL does not advise lifting machines of 300 tons clampforce and
above using the vibration mounts.
Use an appropriate jack under the machine frame, positioned close to
the mount being adjusted.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 109


MAINTENANCE:
1.1 INSTALLATION OF MACHINE MOUNTS
To install machine mounts; determine the type of mounts supplied with the machine (SUNNEX or
UNISORB) and follow the instructions below.

WARNING!

DO NOT USE “VARSOL” TYPE PRODUCTS TO CLEAN THE FLOOR,


THESE PRODUCTS LEAVE A RESIDUE.

1. Remove all oil, grease and debris from the floor where the mounts will be positioned.
2. To clean the floor: use an industrial grade grease solvent followed by a household grease
cutting cleaner. Lightly buff the floor with sandpaper to remove any shiny finish. Ensure
that sufficient floor area is cleaned to allow the mount to be slid under the machine.
There must be no dirt or grease under the mount.
3. Keep the mounts wrapped until they are ready to be placed under the machine.
4. Move the machine into the required location and raise the machine enough to allow the
machine mount housings to be positioned under the mounting locations of the base. The
bolt is removed from the housing.
5. Align the bolt holes in the mount with the mounting holes in the machine frame.
6. Insert the bolts with nut and washer through the machine frame and screw fully into the
mount housing.
7. Align the mounts with the machine frame.
8. Repeat for all the mounting points and lower the machine onto the isolation mounts.
9. Refer to the tables over the page for adjustment range of the type of mount being used.
10. Allow 20 minutes for the machine to “settle in” on the isolation mounts.
11. Refer to the attached levelling procedure for “TIEBARLESS” or “TIEBAR” machine.
12. Torque on the leveling bolts should be roughly equal, indicating an even load distribution.
13. When the machine is level, tighten the locknut to secure the mount to the machine frame.

110 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
1.2 SUNNEX ISOLATION MOUNTS

SUNNEX ISOLATION MOUNTS

Mount type Minimum height ΤMaximum height Adjustment range

M1 1.56” (39.6 mm) 2.06” (52.3 mm) 0.50” (12.7 mm)

M2 1.81” (46.0 mm) 2.31” (58.7 mm) 0.50” (12.7 mm)

HD30 2.09” (53.1 mm) 2.84” (72.2 mm) 0.75” (19.1 mm)

HD40 2.20” (55.9 mm) 2.95” (75.0 mm) 0.75” (19.1 mm)

NOTE!

1. Measure from the floor to the top of the levelling support plate
2. Never exceed the maximum height of the machine mount housing
(Distance between floor and top surface of leveling support plate)!

Add shims, as required, to deal with any floor irregularities.


For additional adjustment range, use shims between the machine frame
and the mount housing. The shims must have the same footprint as the
leveling support plate.

LOCKNUT
ADJUSTING
A SECTIONAL VIEW
THROUGH A SPINDLE LOCKWASHER
TYPICAL SUNNEX
ISOLATION MOUNT

MACHINE BASE LEVELING SUPPORT PLATE


(Generic)

MACHINE MOUNT HOUSING

SEE TABLE FOR


MAXIMUM
HEIGHT OILPROOF RUBBER
ELASTIC ELEMENT

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 111


MAINTENANCE:
1.3 UNISORB ISOLATION MOUNTS

UNISORB QUANTUM® ISOLATION MOUNTS

Mount type Minimum height Maximum height Adjustment range

IM51 2.50” / 63.5 mm 3.88” / 98.5 mm 1.38” / 35.0 mm

IM61 2.50” / 63.5 mm 3.88” / 98.5 mm 1.38” / 35.0 mm

IM71 2.50” / 63.5 mm 3.88” / 98.5 mm 1.38” / 35.0 mm

IM81 2.50” / 63.5 mm 3.88” / 98.5 mm 1.38” / 35.0 mm

IM81TS 2.50” / 63.5 mm 3.25” / 82.5 mm 0.75” / 19.0 mm

NOTE!

Never exceed maximum height of the machine mount housing


(Distance between floor and top surface of machine mount)!
Add shims as required to deal with any floor irregularities.
For additional adjustment range, use shims between the machine frame and the
mount housing. The shims must have the same footprint as the isolation mount.

ADJUSTING BOLT
A SECTIONAL VIEW
THROUGH A TYPICAL
LOCKNUT QUANTUM ISOLATION
MOUNT
LOCKWASHER

MACHINE BASE MACHINE MOUNT


(Generic) HOUSING

SEE TABLE
FOR MAXIMUM
HIEGHT

PAD & IMPACT PLATE ASSEMBLY

112 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
1.4 ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS (TOGGLE MACHINE)

NOTE!

ENGEL do not advise lifting machines of 300 tons clampforce and above
using the vibration mounts.
Use an appropriate jack under the machine frame, positioned close to
the mount being adjusted.

• Use a precision machinist's level and adjust for an approximate level of 0.002" per foot
lengthways and widthways on a convenient machined surface e.g. platen guides, tiebars
injection guides .
• Turn the adjustment spindle, or adjustment bolt, clockwise (cw) to raise the machine
frame and counterclockwise (ccw) to lower the machine frame. Try to keep the space
between the support plate and the mount housing to a minimum.
• Check machine level on both frame and tiebars. (See section on Moving Platen Roller
Bearing Supports, for machines so equipped.)
• When the machine has been levelled, tighten the isolation mount locknuts.

LEVEL FRAME

LEVEL INJECTION GUIDES


LEVEL TIE BARS

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 113


MAINTENANCE:
1.5 ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS (TIEBARLESS MACHINE)

NOTE!

ENGEL do not advise lifting machines of 300 tons clampforce and above
using the vibration mounts.
Use an appropriate jack under the machine frame, positioned close to
the mount being adjusted.

• Using an engineer’s spirit level or a precision water level, check the level of the machine
across and along the moving platen guide rails.
• Check the machine level along the injection unit guide rail.
• The machine must be level within approximately 0.002 inches per foot.
• Adjust the spindle, or adjustment bolt, of the machine support, clockwise to raise or anti
clockwise to lower, the machine mount as necessary to achieve a level situation.

114 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
1.6 SPLIT BASE MACHINE INSTALLATION

The CUSTOMER is responsible for ensuring that the machine is level.


The levelling of a split base injection molding machine is even more important than that of a single
base machine, an incorrectly levelled machine will cause excess mechanical stress to the
machine. This could lead to tiebar breakage, improper mold clamping, flashing of the mold,
excessive wear on bushings and the toggle system, or roller bearing platen support breakage.
Equipment required.
a. Precision level accurate to 0.002" per foot.
b. Machined flat steel bar approximately six foot long.
c. Wrenches; open ended: • 20 mm
• 40 mm
• 50 mm
• 70 mm
d. Lubricating oil.

Installation of Machine Mounts


To install machine mounts; determine the type of mounts supplied with the machine:

BARRY follow the instructions below.


UNISORB refer to the section entitled “Installation of machine mounts”

WARNING!

Do not clean using a “Varsol”type product, this will leave a residue on the floor.
1. Remove all oil, grease and debris from the floor where the mounts will be positioned.
2. To clean the floor: use an industrial grade grease solvent followed by a household grease
cutting cleaner. Lightly buff the floor with sandpaper to remove any shiny finish. Ensure
that sufficient floor area is cleaned to allow the mount to be slid under the machine.
There must be no dirt or grease under the mount.
3. Keep the mounts wrapped until they are ready to be used.
4. Remove locknut and washer from the threaded rod.
5. Turn the threaded rod so that the support plate and the mount housing come into contact.
6. Lubricate the mount and the threaded rod before installation.
7. Raise the Injection and Clamp base high enough to insert each machine mount.
8. If not already fitted, screw the threaded sleeve, with the 70 mm locknut fitted, into the
machine base so that the end of the threaded sleeve is flush with the under side of the
machine base.
9. Insert the threaded rod through the holes in the threaded sleeve fitted to the machine base
and replace the locknut and washer. Do not tighten the locknuts.
10. Lower the Clamp and Injection bases onto their machine mounts, so that they are tightly
butted together.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 115


MAINTENANCE:
BARRY ISOLATION MOUNTS
THREADED
ROD 40 mm LOCKNUT

WASHER

THREADED
SLEEVE

70 mm LOCKNUT

MACHINE BASE

OILPROOF RUBBER
ELASTIC ELEMENT

SUPPORT PLATE MOUNT HOUSING


Adjustment of Isolation Machine Mounts

NOTE!

For Barry mounts use step 4a


If a combination of mounts are employed use step 4a for Barry mounts
and step 4b for UNISORB mount
1. Using the Clamp and Injection base adjustable mounting pads #1 and #2, set the height of
each base as necessary to align the Injection base with the spacer block on the Clamp base.
2. Level the separate bases along the length of the operator side first, followed by the non-
operator side, using only mounting pads #8 and #10.
3. Use a precision level and adjust for a level of approximately 0.002" per foot lengthways and
widthways.
4a. Using a 50 mm wrench turn the threaded sleeve to raise the machine frame or lower the
machine frame as necessary. Try to keep the space "A" (see figure above) between the
support plate and the machine base to a minimum.
4b. Turn the adjustment spindle, or adjustment bolt, clockwise (cw) to raise the machine frame and
counterclockwise (ccw) to lower the machine frame. Try to keep the space between the support
plate and the mount housing to a minimum.

116 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5. Check machine level across both frame and tiebars on the Clamp base, adjust using only
mounting pads # 1, 2, 3, 4, 15 and 16. (See section on Moving Platen Roller Bearing
Supports, for machines so equipped.)
6. Check machine level across the frame on the Injection base, adjust using only mounting pads
# 1, 2, 8 and 10.
7. Turn threaded sleeves on machine pads #5 to 14 on the Clamp base and machine pads # 3
to 7 and #9 on the injection base, until the weight of the bases is supported plus and extra 1/
4 turn.
8. Check again that the level is approximately 0.002" per foot lengthways and widthways, adjust
as necessary.
9. Tighten all 70 mm locknuts on the threaded sleeves.
10. Tighten all 50 mm locknuts on the threaded rods.
11. When the machine has been levelled, tighten the locknuts.

OPERATOR SIDE

LEVEL TIEBARS LEVEL INJECTION GUIDES


LEVEL MACHINE FRAME

3 7
15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 1 5 9 10

2 4 6 8
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

INJECTION
CLAMP BASE BASE

MACHINE MOUNTING PAD NUMBERS

NOTE!

The number of machine mounting pads will vary with the size of
Injection Molding machine, the figure is intended as a guide only

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 117


MAINTENANCE:
2. SPLIT BASE MACHINES - TIEBARLESS - INSTALLATION - EARLY STYLE

2.1 GENERAL
This section details information for mounting and levelling split base machines.

CAUTION!

THE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE MUST NOT BE LIFTED


AS ONE ASSEMBLY, MOVE EACH BASE SEPARATELY!
DISCONNECT YOKE AS INDICATED IN THE FIGURE BELOW

NOTE!

The clamp base must be mounted and levelled first, then the injection base can be
mounted and levelled to the clamp unit as described below.
1. Set the clamp base on the vibration mounts and level, refer to section “Machine
installation” for installing mounts.
2. The yoke that connects the injection and clamp bases together, should already be
mounted on the injection base, when shipped.
3. The yoke for a tiebarless machine base, should be oriented as shown below.

INJECTION UNIT
BASE
NOTE;
DISCONNECT
YOKE HERE

NOTE:
DO NOT
DISCONNECT THE
YOKE HERE
When disconnecting the
bases to move the
machine.
CLAMP
BASE

118 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

SET SCREWS

CAP SCREWS

MOUNTING BAR

YOKES - Mounted on
injection unit

Typical yoke
Raise or lower the injection base using a jacks and adjust the machine mount height until
the yoke and the bar on the clamp frame line up.
The machine bases were joined and levelled at the factory. The injection unit was adjusted
until the single set screw coincided with the middle of the mounting bar on the clamp base.

NOTE!

It is the customer responsibility to level the machine at the new location.


This positioning is not critical, as long as the bar is captured within the yoke and the injection
unit nozzle is centered within the locating ring of the stationary platen. Fine adjustments for
nozzle centering can be made later at the eccentric cam adjusters on the injection unit
carriage. There is +/-2mm adjustment on the injection unit.
Mount the strap onto the yoke, tighten the cap screw “hand tight”, until the two bases have
been levelled and then tighten the cap screws. The connection does not form part of the
machine rigidity, although there is a small intermittent compressive load on the yoke. High
torquing of this connection has no beneficial impact on performance or alignment.
The “set screws” were set at the factory and should need no adjustment.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 119


MAINTENANCE:

COLLAR - Lateral alignment

INJECTION
CLAMP BASE
BASE

YOKE
MOUNTING BAR

The lateral alignment is set at the factory. Two collars are fitted to the clamp unit mounting
bar to permanently set the lateral alignment of the injection base to the clamp base.

120 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
3. SPLIT BASE MACHINE LEVELLING

NOTE!

The CUSTOMER is responsible for ensuring that the machine is level.


The levelling of a split base injection molding machine is even more important than that of a
single base machine, an incorrectly levelled machine will cause excess mechanical stress
to the machine. This could lead to tie-bar breakage, improper mold clamping, flashing of the
mold, excessive wear on bushings and the toggle system, or roller bearing platen support
breakage.
Equipment required.
• Precision level accurate to 0.002" per foot or better.
• Machined flat steel bar approximately six foot long.
• Wrench - open ended - 20 mm
• Lubricating oil.
• Suitable jack capable of lifting each base.

3.1 LEVELLING AND ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS

NOTE!

ENGEL does not advise lifting machines of 300 tons clampforce and
above using the vibration mounts.
Use an appropriate jack under the machine frame, positioned close to
the mount being adjusted.

NOTE!

Level the clamp base first.

3.1.1 LEVELLING THE CLAMP BASE

1. Level the clamp base along the length of the operator side first, followed by the non-
operator side.
2. Use a precision level and adjust for a level of approximately 0.002" per foot.
3. Turn the adjustment bolt, clockwise (cw) to raise the height of the machine frame and
counterclockwise (ccw) to lower the height of the machine frame.
4. Turn adjustment bolt on machine pads #5 and 6 on the Clamp base, until the weight of the
base is supported, add an extra 1/4 turn.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 121


MAINTENANCE:
5. Check and adjust the clamp base level across both frame and tie-bars, adjust the height
using only mounting pads # 1, 2, 3 and 4, adjust in pairs for the eight mount Austrian
machines.
For Canadian machines, re-adjust mounting pads #5 and #6, if necessary, to take up the
weight of the machine and add an extra 1/4 turn. Torque on the adjustment bolts should be
roughly equal, indicating equal load on all the pads.

Typical Canadian machine mount layout

Typical Austrian machine mount layout

122 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

Machine levelling

3.1.2 LEVELLING THE INJECTION BASE

1. Level the injection base along the length of the operator side first, using mounts #8 and
#10, followed by the non-operator side, using mounts #7 and #9.
Using a precision level, adjust for a level of approximately 0.002" per foot.
Turn the adjustment bolt, clockwise (cw) to raise the height of the machine frame and
counterclockwise (ccw) to lower the height of the machine frame.
The number of machine mounting pads will vary with the size of Injection Molding
machine, the figure is intended as a guide only
2. Introduce the injection unit base to the clamp unit base. Raise or lower all machine mounts
on the injection base to line up the yoke with the bar on the clamp frame.
Lining up the yoke to be equidistant over the bar will ensure that the injection unit is
approximately at the right height relative to the clamp unit. The customer will still have to
ensure that the machine is level.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 123


MAINTENANCE:

Roughly equal space


above and below the bar

3. When the two bases are connected, check the level in both planes. If the level is within the
0.002 inches per foot the spacers can be tightened to the clamp base. Use the torque
specifications in the found in the section “Torque specifications”.
4. Check that the level is still approximately 0.002" per foot lengthways and widthways,
adjust as necessary.
5. When the machine is level, tighten the machine mount lock nuts.
6. Refer to the following sections “Centering the injection unit” for checking and adjusting
nozzle alignment.

124 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
4. SPLIT BASE - TIEBARLESS - INSTALLATION - LATER STYLE
4.1 GENERAL
This section details information for mounting and levelling split base machines.

WARNING!

THE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE MUST NOT BE LIFTED AS ONE ASSEMBLY!


MOVE EACH BASE SEPARATELY!

CAUTION!

DO NOT DISCONNECT THE BASE ASSEMBLIES AT THE INJECTION UNIT END, ALWAYS
DISCONNECT AT THE CLAMP UNIT

NOTE!

The clamp base must be mounted and levelled first, then the injection base can be
mounted and levelled to the clamp unit as described below.
1. Set the clamp base on the vibration mounts and level, refer to section “Machine installation”
for installing mounts.
2. On a typical machine base the mounting blocks are as shown below. If a larger injection unit
is used, spacers may have to be fitted to the mounting blocks to accommodate the longer
barrel. In this case the spacers will be fitted at the factory and shipped mounted to the
injection unit and should not be removed under any circumstance.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 125


MAINTENANCE:

Typical clamp unit mounting bar


Raise or lower the injection base until the dowel on the injection unit block or spacer and the
slot in mounting bar on the clamp frame line up.
This dowel is inserted at the factory and sets up the lateral align of the bases.
The slots on the mounting bar allow a certain amount of vertical adjustment for the injection
unit base.
Raise or lower the injection unit until the nozzle roughly coincides with the center of the
stationary platen ring. The fine adjustment can be done at the injection unit
Level the injection base in the same manner as the clamp base, see section entitled “Split
base levelling”
Insert bolts and torque as usual. Grade 12.9, M20 x 90 socket head cap screws are used to
join the two bases.
Because the material that the screw is being threaded into is not high tensile, ENGEL
recommend using torque values for grade 10.9 socket head cap screw, to reduce the risk of
thread distortion in the tapped hole.

NOTE!

There is a small intermittent compressive load on these spacers.


High torquing of this connection has no beneficial impact on
performance or alignment.

126 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5. SPLIT BASE MACHINE LEVELLING

NOTE!

The CUSTOMER is responsible for ensuring that the machine is level.


The levelling of a split base injection molding machine is even more important than that of a
single base machine, an incorrectly levelled machine will cause excess mechanical stress
to the machine. This could lead to tie-bar breakage, improper mold clamping, flashing of the
mold, excessive wear on bushings and the toggle system, or roller bearing platen support
breakage.
Equipment required.
• Precision level accurate to 0.002" per foot or better.
• Machined flat steel bar approximately six foot long.
• Wrench - open ended - 20 mm
• Lubricating oil.
• Suitable jack capable of lifting each base.

5.1 LEVELLING AND ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS

NOTE!

ENGEL does not advise lifting machines of 300 tons clampforce and
above using the vibration mounts.
Use an appropriate jack under the machine frame, positioned close to
the mount being adjusted.

NOTE!

Level the clamp base first.

5.1.1 LEVELLING THE CLAMP BASE


1. Level the clamp base along the length of the operator side first, followed by the non-
operator side.
2. Use a precision level and adjust for a level of approximately 0.002" per foot.
3. Lift the machine frame with an appropriate jack, if the machine is 300 tons clampforce or
over. Turn the adjustment bolt, clockwise (cw), on the machine mount, to raise the height
of the machine frame and counterclockwise (ccw) to reduce the height of the machine
frame.
4. Adjustment machine mounts #5 and 6 on the Clamp base, until the weight of the base is
supported, add an extra 1/4 turn.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 127


MAINTENANCE:
5. Check and adjust the clamp base level across both frame and tie-bars, adjust using only
mounting pads # 1, 2, 3 and 4, adjust in pairs for the eight mount Austrian machines.
For Canadian machines, re-adjust mounting pads #5 and #6, if necessary, to take up the
weight of the machine and add an extra 1/4 turn. Torque on the adjustment bolts should be
roughly equal, indicating equal load on all the pads.

Typical Canadian machine mount location

Typical Austrian machine mount location

128 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

Machine levelling points

5.1.2 LEVELLING THE INJECTION BASE

1. Level the injection base along the length of the operator side first, using mounts #8 and
#10, followed by the non-operator side, using mounts #7 and #9.
Using a precision level, adjust for a level of approximately 0.002" per foot.
Use an hydraulic jack to raise and lower the injection base. Turn the adjustment bolt,
clockwise (cw) to increase the base height frame and counterclockwise (ccw) to lower the
base height.
The number of machine mounting pads will vary with the size of Injection Molding
machine, the figure is intended as a guide only
2. Introduce the injection unit base to the clamp unit base. Raise or lower the injection base
to line up the blocks or spacers with the mounting bar on the clamp frame.
3. Center the injection nozzle within the locating ring of the stationary platen. When the
nozzle is centered, check the level in both planes. If the level is within the 0.002 inches per
foot the spacers can be tightened to the clamp base. Use the torque specifications in the
found in the section “Torque specifications”.
4. When the machine is level, tighten the machine mount lock nuts.
5. Refer to the following sections “Centering the injection unit” for checking and adjusting
nozzle alignment. The injection carriage has eccentric cam adjusters that will give +/-2 mm
of movement to center the nozzle accurately.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 129


MAINTENANCE:
6. VERTICAL CLAMP - MACHINE LEVELLING

NOTE!

The CUSTOMER is responsible for ensuring that the machine is level.


The levelling of the injection molding machine is important, as an incorrectly levelled
machine will cause excess mechanical stress on the machine components. This could
lead to, improper mold clamping, flashing of the mold and excessive wear on bushings.
Equipment required:
• Precision level accurate to 0.002" per foot or better.
• Machined, flat steel bar, approximately six foot long.
• Wrench - open ended - 20 mm
• Lubricating oil.
• Suitable jack capable of lifting each base.

LEVELLING AND ADJUSTMENT OF MACHINE MOUNTS

NOTE!

ENGEL does not advise using the vibration mounts to lift machines of
300 tons clampforce and above.
Use an appropriate jack under the machine frame, positioned close to
the mount being adjusted.

130 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
LEVELLING THE ROTARY TABLE
Level the table, using machine mounts 1 and 2 inconjunction with mounts 3 and 4.
Use a engineer’s precision level and adjust for a level of approximately 0.002" per foot.
Lift the machine frame with an appropriate jack, if the machine is 300 tons clampforce or
over. Turn the adjustment bolt, clockwise (cw), on the machine mount, to raise the height
of the machine frame and counterclockwise (ccw) to reduce the height of the machine
frame.
Adjustment machine mounts #5, #6, #7, #8, #9 and #10, until the weight of the machine is
supported, add an extra 1/4 turn.
Check and adjust the level across the table, adjust using only mounting pads # 1, and 3 or
2 and 4, adjust in pairs.
Check and adjust the table level in line with the machine, adjust using only mounting pads
#1 and 2 or 3 and 4, adjust in pairs
Torque on the adjustment bolts should be roughly equal, indicating equal load on all the
pads.

CHECKING THE LEVEL AT THE INJECTION UNIT


Level the injection base along the length of the operator side first, using mounts #8 and
#10, followed by the non-operator side, using mounts #7 and #9.
Using a precision level, adjust for a level of approximately 0.002" per foot.
Use an hydraulic jack to raise and lower the injection base. Turn the adjustment bolt,
clockwise (cw) to increase the base height frame and counterclockwise (ccw) to lower the
base height.
The number of machine mounting pads will vary with the size of Injection Molding
machine, the figure is intended as a guide only
When the machine is level, tighten the machine mount lock nuts.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 131


MAINTENANCE:
7. INSTALLING AND SET-UP OF MOLD
Installing a mold in the Engel injection molding machine:

NOTE!

Before lifting the mold into position ensure that the two halves
are securely fastened together with straps or tie plates.

7.1 SECURING THE MOLD.

Direct bolting.

Direct bolting is the most desirable method as the bolts not only carry the load of the mold but also
resist the mold opening forces.

Use bolts where the thread engagement is a minimum of 1 1/2 times the diameter of the bolt and
lubricate the threads.

Long spans between fixing points should be avoided and only high tensile alloy steel bolts of
grade 8 or better should be used.

The size and quantity of bolts used is determined by several factors:


• The size of the threaded hole in the platen or mold.
• The physical size of the mold.
• The physical properties of the bolt.
• Sufficient bolts to ensure the security of the mold.
• Sufficient bolts to ensure that the mold opening forces can be resisted.

Clamping.

If clamps are used they must be of a type designed to be used with a particular mold, and the bolts
securing the mold and clamp must be placed as close as possible to the mold. The bolts must be
tightened so to prevent the mold moving during operation.

As with the direct bolting method, the bolts must be of high tensile steel alloy of grade 8 or better
and the threads must be lubricated.

It is the machine users responsibility to determine the type and amount of bolts or clamps used to
secure a particular mold.

Once these criteria have been established proceed with mounting the mold as follows:

132 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
7.2 INSTALLING MOLD
1. Set velocity and pressure to a minimum by activating the set-up mode on the program
selection panel.
2. Ensure that the ejector rods are not in the way.
3. Open the clamp to allow plenty of room to install the mold.
4. Lower the mold into position and insert the location ring, located on the mold, into the
insertion ring (female end), located on the stationary platen.
5. (Toggle machines only) Still in the set-up mode, switch to the mold closing page and turn
the automatic mold height adjustment program on. Turn the manual clamp switch to the
“close’ position and hold the switch in the ‘close” position until the automatic mold height
adjustment program switches off. At this point the toggle should be locked and the mold
held between the two platens.
6. (Direct hydraulic machines only) Still in the set-up mode, switch to the mold closing page
and turn the manual clamp switch to the “close” position. Hold the switch in the “close”
position until the moving platen touches the back of the mold and the actual mold position
SFx = 0 (at least 5 seconds). At this point the mold should be held between the two
platens.
7. Turn the motor(s) and control voltage off and use an approved lockout procedure to
ensure the machine is disabled. Check that clamp controls are disabled.
8. Using the proper bolts and clamps, fasten the mold to the platens. The mold bolts should
be screwed into the platens to a depth of at least one and a half times their diameter. For
example, a 0.75 inch bolt should be screwed into the platen at least 1.125 inches. (i.e. 75
x 1.5 = 1.125).

NOTE!

Refer to section 18 for approximate torque values.


A selection of the most commonly used U.N.C. bolts,
on standard SPI platens, are listed.

9. Any additional equipment, such as water lines, should be connected at this time.
10. When the mold installation is secure and complete then the machine lockout may be
removed and the machine restarted.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 133


MAINTENANCE:
8. SETTING CLAMP FORCE
Toggle

NOTE!

If the START CLAMPING PRESSURE variable G2 has been set cor-


rectly prior to adjusting the tonnage, G2 must be increased at each
decrease of the mold height. Adjust G2 so that CLAMPING PRES-
SURE variable P1 activates just as the two mold halves touch.

1. Set the program selection to the manual mode


2. On the clamp force page, enter the required clamping force in the "Set" data field. 'P1' must
always be set to 100%.
3. Open and close the mold so that an "Actual" value of clamping force appears on the screen.
The actual value will be compared with the set value and the automatic clamp force
adjustment program will cause an adjustment by the mold height motor until the actual value
of the clamping force is within the allowed tolerance range as set by K0285. Within this
tolerance range there is no clamping force adjustment.

Toggle without clamp force transducer


1. Set the program selection to the manual mode.
2. Set clamping pressure (P1) to 100%
3. Use the mold height key switch to manually adjust the mold height increase or decrease.
4. Decrease the mold height until the toggle just barely locks in. This is the maximum clamp
force for the machine.
5. If the machine is not equipped with a clamp force transducer, a reduction in tonnage can be
accomplished by reducing 'P1' and following steps (3) and (4). For example, a 300 Ton
machine can be adjusted to approximately 150 Tons by reducing P1 to 50%.

Direct Hydraulic
1. Set the amount of tonnage desired in the CLAMP FORCE SET data field. The machine
clamping pressure will be automatically adjusted according to the tonnage desired.

134 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
9. SETTING MOLD PROTECTION PRESSURE.

NOTE!

This method of mold protection pressure setting only applies to Software sys-
tem versions less than 2.00, refer to next section - 5 “Mold protection”
1. Set mold protection pressure to 75%.
2. Set all mold closing and mold protection speeds, equal to the mold protection speed desired.
3. Set the distance of mold protection by adjusting mold protection start position, G1.
4. Close and lock the mold while monitoring mold protection time variable, ZFx.
5. Decrease the mold protection pressure until ZFx starts to increase. It is at this point that mold
protection speed becomes pressure dependent and indicates the correct pressure setting for
mold protection pressure.
6. Mold protection can be made more sensitive, but only at the expense of a longer mold
protection time and therefore a longer cycle time.
7. Set the mold closing speeds as desired, but remember to use the last speed to slow down the
mold as it enters the mold protection zone. This will guarantee that the mold is moving
through the mold protection zone regulated by mold protection pressure and not the inertia of
the mold's forward movement.

10. MOLD PROTECTION


CC100 A03 controllers with “system version 2.00” or greater installed have the “Autoprotect” mold
protection program installed. Controllers with “system versions” less than 2.00 do not have the
“Autoprotect” program installed.
The “Autoprotect” program monitors either the speed or pressure during mold closing between G1
and G2 and compares the data to a previously recorded successful mold closing. If the speed or
pressure vary by a predetermined tolerance, a mold protection alarm is set.

To check your machines software version:


1. Press the “Error message” key on the front panel.
2. Press F3 - “Hardware test” function key.
3. Press F4 - “SW version” function key.
The first line will indicate the CPU type and “system version”, for example:
• CPU 211 #1 SYS-V 1.17b - this machine DOES NOT have the “Autoprotect” program.
or
• CPU 212 #1 SYS-V 2.00 - this machine DOES have the “Autoptotect” program.

NOTE!

Refer to the Controller - Operator manual for a control specific


mold protection set-up procedure.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 135


MAINTENANCE:
11. MOLD OPEN - STROKE LIMITATION

ADJUSTING SPINDLE
STANDARD MOLD
CYLINDER
KEY CLOSING CYLINDER
SPINDLE

LOCK NUT
"Mold Open" Stroke Limitation adjustment procedure.
To limit the "mold open" stroke, follow the steps laid out below:
1. Release the lock nut.
2. Turn the end of the spindle in an anti clockwise direction to achieve the fully retracted
position.
3. Set the machine into the "Set up" mode.
4. Open the mold to the desired position (SFx = Platen position actual value).
5. Turn the spindle end clockwise until the adjusting spindle makes contact with the mold
closing piston.
6. Contact between the piston and the adjusting spindle has been made when the spindle
becomes difficult to turn. DO NOT continue to turn spindle once initial contact has been
made.
7. Tighten the lock nut to lock the adjusting spindle in position.
8. Reduce the last mold opening speed (V8) and mold opening speed range (W2-A) to a level
that will not cause the mold to bounce out of position.

NOTE!

To correctly calibrate the mold stroke, it is necessary to fully


retract the stroke limiter.

136 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

DAMPING
FRONTPLATE RING
TOGGLE CROSSHEAD
MACHINE
COVER

CAP
SCREWS

ADJUSTABLE
TIEBAR

LOCKING
BLOCK ADJUSTING SPINDLES

"Mold Open" Stroke Limitation adjustment procedure.

To limit the "mold open" stroke, follow the steps laid out below:
3. Release the cap screws in the locking block.
4. Retract both adjusting spindles to be level with the inside face of the frontplate.
5. Set the machine into the "Set up" mode.
6. Open the mold to the desired position (SFx = Platen position actual value).
7. Adjust both spindles until they both make contact with the toggle crosshead, DO NOT
continue to turn spindles once initial contact has been made.
8. Tighten the cap screws in the locking blocks to hold the spindles in position.
9. Reduce the last mold opening speed (V8) and mold opening speed range (W2-A) to a level
that will not cause the mold to bounce out of position.

NOTE!

To correctly calibrate the mold stroke, it is necessary to fully


retract the stroke limiters.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 137


MAINTENANCE:
12. REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF INJECTION SCREW.
Preparing machine for screw removal.
For safe screw removal the following steps must be carried out:
• Wait until the plasticizing cylinder is at operating temperature.
• Push the hopper back to prevent feeding of the plastic material.
• Ensure the purge guard is in place.
• Operate the nozzle back switch to fully retract carriage.

WARNING!

When handling a hot barrel or screw, wear asbestos gloves.

NOTE!

If abrasive plastics have previously been molded, use a purging compound or


Polyethylene to aid in purging the barrel.
• Operate the Injection feed switch to purge the barrel, removing as much plastic material as
possible.
• At the controller, set "C4 - decompression before refill" to the maximum value to allow full
screw retraction without screw rotation.

Screw removal.
When the machine has been properly prepared, proceed with the following steps:

WARNING!

Turn the power off and lock out to prevent accidental movement of the screw
drive mechanism or coupling, when reaching into these areas.
• Operate the injection feed switch to fully retract the injection ram.
• Gain access to the barrel head area, lift or open purge guard.
• Disconnect the nozzle heater band and corresponding thermocouple.
• Loosen, but do not remove the front heater band.
• Remove the barrel head bolts.
• Remove the barrel head flange and nozzle.
• Remove the cover from the screw locking ring area.

NOTE!

Do not remove locking ring.


• Loosen the three socket screws on the locking ring and rotate clockwise to unlock (page 140)

138 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
• Close the purge guard, this action sets digital input E9 high to allow screw movement.
• At the controller set the injection speeds to 0.5 inches per second.
• Operate the Injection switch to move the screw forward to 0.0 inches.
• Operate the injection feed back switch to uncouple the screw from the injection ram
• Disconnect both carriage retraction rods from the stationary platen (See pages 146 and 151).
• Open the purge guard.
• Fully swivel the barrel, refer to the section “swivelling the injection unit” for the method that
applies to your machine.
• Close the purge guard. This action sets digital input E9 high to allow screw movement.
• An assistant will be required to hold the E52 limit switch (located on the non-operator side of
the carriage) in its normal operating position to allow the injection ram to be operated.
• Introduce a brass bar (smaller in diameter than the inside diameter of the barrel) between the
end of the screw and the injection ram.
• To expose the end of the screw, operate the Injection switch to move the Injection ram
forward against the bar of metal to push the end of the screw out of the barrel.
• Operate the Injection feed switch to retract the Injection ram and remove the bar of metal.
• Release the E52 limit switch.
• Depending upon the size of the screw either, remove by hand or use a mechanical handling
device.

Preparing machine for replacement of screw.


Before the Injection screw can be replaced ensure that:
• The inside of barrel is clean and free from obstructions.
• The barrel is swivelled to the operators side.

Replacement of screw.
When the machine has been properly prepared, proceed with the following steps:
• By hand or with a mechanical handling device, introduce the splined end of the screw into the
barrel opening.
• Supporting the front end of the screw, push the screw fully into the barrel.
• Align the splines on the end of the screw with the splines in the Injection ram.
• Open the purge guard.
• Swivel the carriage, by hand, into alignment with the machine.
• Connect the carriage retraction rods to the stationary platen (see pages 146 and 151).
• Reduce all hydraulic operating pressures to minimum level.
• Close the purge guard.
• Operate Injection switch to gently push screw back into the splines of the Injection ram.
• Turn locking ring anti-clockwise and tighten the three screws (See page 140 and Table 4.1 on
page 159).
• Open the purge guard
• Fit barrel head flange and nozzle.
• Fit barrel head bolts and tighten (See Table 4.1 on page 159).
• Connect nozzle heater band and thermocouple.
• Tighten front heater band.
• Close purge guard.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 139


MAINTENANCE:

STATIONARY
PLATEN

SCREW

GRUB LOCKRING
SCREW
AND
LOCKNUT
TYPICAL SMALL INJECTION UNIT CARRIAGE

UNLOCK

INJECTION LOCKING
SCREW RING

LOCK

SCREW / LOCKING RING ARRANGEMENT

140 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

CARRIAGE
RETRACTION INJECTION
ROD COUPLING SCREW
SOCKET SCREW

LOCKING RING

STATIONARY
PLATEN

CARRIAGE
CARRIAGE RETAINING
RETAINING GUIDE PLATE SCREW
SCREW

PNEUMATIC CONNECTION
TYPICAL LARGE INJECTION UNIT - OLDER STYLE

TO MOVE UNIT
LEVER POINT CAM ADJUSTER
ALLEN REAR
INJECTION
SCREW UNIT MOUNT
ECCENTRIC CLAMP
CAM
ADJUSTER FRONT
INJECTION
UNIT MOUNT
LOCKING
HANDLE

TYPICAL LARGE INJECTION UNIT - NEWER STYLE

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 141


MAINTENANCE:
13. BARREL REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT INJECTION UNITS 80-330).
Preparing machine for barrel removal.
For safe barrel removal the following steps must be carried out:
• Wait until the plasticizing cylinder is at operating temperature.
• Push the hopper back to prevent feeding of the plastic material.
• Ensure the purge guard is in place.
• Operate the nozzle-back switch to fully retract carriage.

WARNING!

Under normal operation the barrel is hot, and contains molten plastic, wear
asbestos gloves when handling.

NOTE!

If abrasive plastics have previously been molded, use a purging compound or


Polyethylene to aid in purging the barrel.
• Operate the Injection-feed switch to purge the barrel, removing as much plastic material as
possible.
• At the controller, set "C4 - decompression before refill" to the maximum value to allow full
screw retraction without screw rotation.

Barrel removal.
When the machine has been properly prepared, proceed with the following steps:

WARNING!

Turn the power off and lock out to prevent accidental movement of the screw
drive mechanism or coupling, when reaching into these areas.
• Operate the injection feed switch to fully retract the injection ram.
• Remove the cover from the screw locking ring area.

NOTE!

Do not remove locking ring.


• Loosen the three socket screws on the locking ring and rotate clockwise to unlock (page 140)
• At the controller set the injection speeds to 0.5 inches per second.
• Operate the Injection switch to move the screw forward to 0.0 inches.

142 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
• Operate the injection feed back switch to uncouple the screw from the injection ram
• Disconnect both carriage retraction rods from the stationary platen (see pages 146 and 151).
• Open the purge guard.
• Fully swivel the barrel, by hand, towards the operator side of the machine.
• Disconnect all heater and thermocouple cables at plug panel.
• Fit two "eye" bolts into the top of the barrel, and attach with suitable lifting tackle to a crane.
• Release barrel "fast mounting " device as follows:
• Remove safety screw from lever.
• Open lever to maximum.
• With the barrel suspended by the crane, gently pull barrel away from carriage.

Preparing machine for replacement of barrel.


Before the barrel can be replaced ensure that:
• The carriage is swiveled to the operators side.

Replacement of barrel.
When the machine has been properly prepared, proceed with the following steps:
• With the barrel suspended from a suitable crane, introduce the end of the barrel into the
carriage opening.
• Align the splines on the end of the screw with the splines in the Injection ram.
• Turn locking ring anti-clockwise and tighten the three screws (See Table 4.1 on page 159).
• Align the cut outs on the sides of the barrel with the jaws of the barrel "fast clamping" device,
and close the clamp and replace the safety screw.
• Open the purge guard.
• Swivel the carriage, by hand, into alignment with the machine.
• Connect the carriage retraction rods to the stationary platen (see pages 146 and 151).
• Close the purge guard.
• Connect the heater and thermocouple cables

STATIONARY
PLATEN FAST MOUNTING
DEVICE
LIFTING
EYE BOLTS
SCREW

GRUB LOCKRING
SCREW
AND
LOCKNUT
Figure 4.11

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 143


MAINTENANCE:
13.1 CENTERING THE 80 - 330 INJECTION UNIT - OLDER STYLE

Before carrying out any adjustments or measurements,


bring the cylinder up to operation temperature

1 2
3 4 5

Locating Ring
View X

6
7
8

1. Stationary Platen 2. Mounting Flange


3. Mounting Flange Screw 4. Carriage Rod Adjustment
5. Lock Nut - Carriage Rod 6. Locking Set Screw
7. Vertical Adjustment Nut 8. Lock Nut - Vertical Adjustment

Locating Ring
View X

The machine must be operated with the injection unit centered and in-line with the sprue bushing.
Measurement of nozzle centering.
When the cylinder has reached operating temperature (approx. 200oC) move the nozzle in line
with the surface of the stationary platen (1).
Using a vernier caliper, measure vertically and horizontally the distance from the nozzle aperture
to the edge of the central hole in the platen.
The maximum off center tolerance is 0.008" (0.2 mm).
If the nozzle is outside the maximum tolerance the following adjustments can be made:

If adjustment is required:
1. Loosen the mounting flange screws (3) on both mounting flanges (2).
2. Loosen the lock nut - vertical adjustment (8).
3. Turn the vertical adjustment nut (7) to correct vertical position.
4. Slight horizontal adjustment (side to side) is possible by moving the mounting flanges (2).
After centering, tighten the locknut for vertical adjustment (8) and mounting flange screws (3).
If the injection unit is subject to "yawing" on contact, loosen the lock nut - carriage rod (5) and
adjust the carriage rod (4). Re-tighten the lock nut after adjustment.

144 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
13.2 CENTERING THE 80 - 330 INJECTION UNIT - NEWER STYLE

NOTE!

Before carrying out any adjustments or measurements,


bring the cylinder up to operation temperature

13.2.1 MEASUREMENT OF NOZZLE CENTERING.


When the cylinder has reached operating temperature (approx. 200oC) move the nozzle (1) in line
with the surface of the stationary platen (2).
Using a vernier caliper, measure vertically and horizontally the distance from the nozzle aperture
to the edge of the central hole in the platen.
The maximum off center tolerance is 0.008" (0.2 mm).
Ensure that the injection unit is level as well as centered.
If the nozzle is outside the maximum tolerance the following adjustments can be made.
Raising, lowering or levelling the injection unit is achieved by following the procedure below:
1. Loosen the four locating screw (1 or 2 turns).
2. Release the four locknuts.
3. Use the four adjustment bolts to raise or lower the unit to center the nozzle.
4. Place an engineers spirit level across the feedthroat. This is a machined flat surface.
Turn the adjustment bolts as required to level the unit. Place the spirit level across and in line
with the injection unit to determine the level in both planes. Once the injection unit is level,
ensure that the nozzle is still centered.
5. Tighten the locknuts and locating screws when the desired position is achieved

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 145


MAINTENANCE:
The centering procedure may cause the injection unit to yaw (move to the side),
if so, adjust as follows:
1. Run the nozzle to within 1/2" of the mechanical stop.
2. Remove the “Detent pin” and “Shoulder pin” from the coupling rod on the operator side.
3. Run the nozzle to the mechanical stop.
4. Loosen the locknuts on the carriage cylinder coupling rod.
5. Turn the “Adjustment nut” until the hole in the Joint is aligned with the hole in the Coupling
Rod mounts.
6. Insert the Shoulder Pin and secure with the Detent Pin.
7. Secure the Connecting Rod with the Locknuts.
Run the injection nozzle up to sprue bushing to check that the injection unit is not pulled as the
nozzle pressure is applied.

LOCKNUTS

CLAMP SIDE INJECTION UNIT SIDE

ADJUSTMENT

13.2.2 SWIVELLING THE INJECTION UNIT


Refer to the procedure for screw or barrel removal. Prepare the injection unit for screw or barrel
remove before swivelling.
Release the “locknuts” and loosen the grub screws until the “retraction rod” can be released from
the mount.
Pull the injection unit towards the operator side.

Grubscrew

Locknut

Mounting
Screws

146 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
13.3 CENTERING THE NOZZLE - 650 AND UP - PREVIOUS STYLE INJECTION UNIT

NOTE!

Before carrying out any adjustments or measurements,


bring the barrel up to operation temperature

1
8

9
3 10

13
2 4
12
A3001479

11

5a 6 7 6 5b

1 Nozzle 2 Stationary Platen 3 Measurement


4 Level Locknut 5a Level Nut -Nozzle side 5b Level Nut - Inj. cyl. side
6 Carriage Retaining Bolt 7 Stop screw 8 Coupling Rod Shoulder Pin
9 Coupling Rod Joint 10 Coupling Rod 11 Coupling Rod Mounts
12 Detent Pin 13 Coupling Rod Locknut

Nozzle centering measurement.


When the barrel has reached operating temperature (approx. 200oC) move the nozzle (1) in line
with the surface of the stationary platen (2).
Using a vernier caliper, measure vertically and horizontally the distance from the nozzle aperture
to the edge of the central hole in the platen.
The maximum off center tolerance is 0.008" (0.2 mm).
If the nozzle is outside the maximum tolerance the following adjustments can be made:
1. For vertical adjustments:
a. Loosen the four Level Locknuts (4) on the injection cylinder unit.
b. Turn the Level Nuts (5a and 5b) equal amounts to raise or lower the injection cylinder.
c. Check the measurements are within the 0.008" tolerance of each other.
d. Tighten the Locknuts (4).
1. When the desired vertical position is obtained tighten the Allen screw clamps

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 147


MAINTENANCE:
14. CENTERING THE INJECTION UNIT
14.1 CENTERING AND LEVELLING INJECTION UNITS - 650 AND UP - LATEST STYLE
Specialized equipment required:
• Engineers spirit level - 0.002" graduations per foot or better.
• Vernier caliper
• Suitable hydraulic jack capable of lifting one side of the clamp base.

NOTE!

Ensure that the injection molding machine base and linear bearings are level.
The items above must be level before attempting to level the injection unit.
1. Remove the stationary half of the mold to expose the locating ring in the stationary platen.
2. Move the injection unit forward until the nozzle is just protruding beyond the mounting face
of the stationary platen.
3. Move the screw back.
4. Place an engineer's spirit level on the top of the "operator side" injection rod.
5. Release the Allen screw clamps on the eccentric cam adjuster.
6. Adjust the front or rear eccentric cams as required to level the injection unit.
7. When the injection unit is level (to within 0.002" per foot) tighten the Allen screw clamp.

NOTE
There is a total adjustment of
4 mm via the eccentric cam.

148 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
14.1.1 MEASUREMENT OF NOZZLE CENTERING.
When the cylinder has reached operating temperature (approx. 200oC) move the nozzle
in line with the surface of the stationary platen.
Using a vernier caliper, measure vertically and horizontally the distance from the nozzle
aperture to the edge of the central hole in the platen.
The maximum off center tolerance is 0.008" (0.2 mm).

14.1.2 CENTERING THE NOZZLE.

To move the injection unit in the vertical plane:


1. Release the Allen screw clamps.
2. Adjust the eccentric cams simultaneously to raise or lower the unit.
3. When the desired vertical position is obtained tighten the Allen screw clamps

To move the injection unit in the horizontal plane:


1. Release the four socket head cap screws under the front injection unit mount.
2. Release the two socket head cap screws under the rear injection unit mount.

To move the injection unit towards operator:


1. On the non-operator side of the front injection mount, release the grub screw lock nut.
2. Using an Allen key, turn the grub screw in (cw) to push the injection unit.
3. When the desired position is reached, secure the grubscrew with the lock nut.
4. Re-tighten the 6 socket head cap screws under the injection unit mounts.

To move the injection unit towards the non-operator side:


1. Release the four socket head cap screws under the front injection unit mount.
2. Release the two socket head cap screws under the rear injection unit mount.
3. Release the locknut and grubscrew and unscrew the grubscrew 2 or 3 turns.
4. On the operator side front mount, use a pry bar (at the lever point) to move the injection
unit towards the non-operator side.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 149


MAINTENANCE:
5. When the desired position is reached, screw in the grub-screw without applying pressure
and lock into place.
6. Re-tighten the 6 socket head cap screws under the injection unit mounts.
7. Feed and inject the screw several times and re-check the injection unit level.

The centering procedure may cause the injection unit to yaw (move to the side), if the injection unit
is yawing, adjust as follows:
1. Run the nozzle to within 1/2" of the mechanical stop.
2. Remove the “Detent pin” and “Shoulder pin” from the coupling rod on the operator side.
3. Run the nozzle to the mechanical stop.
4. Loosen the “lock nuts” on the carriage cylinder coupling rod.
5. Turn the “Adjustment nut” until the hole in the Joint is aligned with the hole in the
“Coupling” Rod mounts.
6. Insert the “Shoulder Pin’ and secure with the “Detent Pin”.
7. Secure the “Connecting Rod” with the lock nuts.

LOCKNUTS

CLAMP SIDE INJECTION UNIT SIDE

ADJUSTMENT

150 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
14.2 SWIVELLING THE INJECTION UNIT.

LEVER POINT CAM ADJUSTER


TO MOVE UNIT ALLEN
ECCENTRIC SCREW FRONT REAR
CAM CLAMP INJECTION INJECTION
ADJUSTER UNIT MOUNT UNIT MOUNT
LOCKING
HANDLE

1. Clamp the front part of the Injection carriage to the linear bearings.
2. Remove the four socket head cap screws under the front "injection unit mount".
3. Loosen the two socket head screws under the rear "injection unit mount", but do not
remove.
4. Disconnect the coupling rods at the stationary platen.
5. Remove the detent pins and pull the coupling rod shoulder pin up and out to release the
coupling rods.
6. Pull the injection unit to the operator side.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 151


MAINTENANCE:
15. SWIVELLING THE INJECTION UNIT - IN-LINE INJECTION UNITS.

1. Switch the machine off and lock out the electrical power to the machine using an approved
lockout procedure that is in force at the customer’s facility.
2. Discharge or lock out any residual hydraulic pressure, such as accumulators.
3. Allow the plasticizing barrel time to cool down.
4. Disconnect the coupling rods at the stationary platen.
• Remove the detent pins and pull the coupling rod shoulder pin up and out to release the
coupling rods.

5. Push the injection unit fully back.


6. Raise the purge shield.
7. Remove the lock screw as shown in the diagram and figures overleaf.
8. Pull the injection unit to the operator side.

152 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

Operator side of injection unit


Remove the socket head cap screw, indicated by the arrows, to enable the injection unit
to be swivelled.

Operator side of injection unit

Injection unit swivel stop - non operator side

When returning the injection unit to the normal operating position, push the unit back
against the “swivel stop” and secure the bolt that prevents swivelling.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 153


MAINTENANCE:
16. ADJUSTING NOZZLE HEIGHT - VERTICAL ROTARY BRIDGE
MACHINES
16.1 TO RAISE AND LOWER THE HORIZONTAL INJECTION UNIT.
The height adjustment is located at the rear of the machine. The adjustment is locked
against accidental movement, by a safety pin.
To enable the injection table height to be adjusted pull the safety pin out by the ring.
Using an appropriate sized socket and ratchet or pneumatic nut driver, adjust the height of
the injection unit as required. The table is raised or lowered on three interconnected jacks.
Adjust the height of the table so that the nozzle co-incides the sprue bushing on the mold.
To relocate the safety pin, turn the height adjustment until the hole in the shaft lines up with
the “locking bracket” and re-insert the pin to prevent further movement.

Height Adjustment Locking bracket Safety pin

Safety pin removed

154 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
A bar is attached to the injection unit, to limit the movement of the table.
A scale is provided to give a an approximate position of the table, relative to the end
positions. The pointer for the scale is attached to the stop bar.

Movement
limitation bar

Height
adjustment

Height
Height scale
indication
pointer

Rear view of the Vertical clamp, rotary table injection molding machine.

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 155


MAINTENANCE:
17. SCREW TIP REPLACEMENT
• Prepare the new screw tip as shown

Screw Tip

NOTE!

Refer to section 4.11 of this


Chapter for the correct anti-
Use Anti-Seize seize compound to use when
on threads re-assembling Engel injection
molding machine components.
• Loosen front heater band and remove barrel head.
• Loosen socket screws on locking ring at the rear of the screw, turn locking ring clockwise to
unlock splines.
• Pull the screw from the barrel, to expose the screw tip. Turn the screw tip counterclockwise
to unscrew.

• Fit new screw tip and turn clockwise to tighten.

• Push screw tip back into barrel.


• Replace barrel head, but do not tighten bolts.
• Tighten front heater band (failure to do so will cause heater band to burnout).
• Heat up screw tip in barrel.

156 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

• When the barrel has reached the correct working temperature.


• Loosen front heater band.

• Remove barrel head.


• Pull out screw and tighten screw tip
• Push screw back into barrel, aligning the splines on the ends of the screw with the
splines in the injection ram.
• Turn the locking ring anti clockwise to lock the screw to the ram and tighten the three
screws on the locking ring (See Table 4.1).
• Fit the barrel head and nozzle and tighten the barrel head bolts (See Table 4.1).
• Tighten all heater bands

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 157


MAINTENANCE:
18. TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
18.1 CAP SCREWS

This information covers metric plain (not coated) standard coarse thread fasteners for general
applications.
The values given must not be exceeded without authorization from ENGEL.

NOTE!

1. Refer to section 19 in this chapter for information concerning the correct


anti-seize compound to be used in the re-assembly of machine components
2. Consult manufacturers specifications to verify performance of coated or
plated screws for any critical applications.
All socket head cap screws used by ENGEL CANADA of grades 12.9 or 10.9 are tightened to the
torque values specified for grade 10.9, unless the application or drawing specifies otherwise. It is
desirable but not mandatory that all screws be of the same grade in a given assembly.
Where grade 12.9 screws are specified, grade 12.9 torque values must be applied. It is then
mandatory that all screws used must be grade 12.9.
The socket head cap screw applications are broken down into group usage in the table below. The
torque settings for each group are detailed in the tables overleaf.
The torque settings, in the tables, are specified in both the SI (metric) and Imperial systems of
measurement.

Group 1 Hydraulic cylinders

Group 2 Plasticizing cylinders and Barrel Heads

Group 3 Components on the clamp unit that fasten parts which experience:
Clamping force
Opening force

Group 4 Components on the injection unit that fasten parts which experience:
Injection force
Retraction force
Contact force
Plasticizing screw torque

Group 5 Safety Gates and moving guard critical parts. Secure screws with Loctite 242,
(Torque specifications are not mandatory for these parts)

Group 6 Hydraulic Valves and Manifolds

Group 7 Pump - Motor assemblies

158 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Table 4.1 Recommended Cap Screw Torque Settings
DIN 912 - Metric Plain Socket Head Cap screws (not coated)
Groups 1, 3, 4, 6 & 7 (Standard Coarse Thread)

TORQUE Nm TORQUE ft-lbs


SIZE Grade 10.9 Grade 10.9
M5 8 6
M6 13.4 10
M8 33 24
M10 64 48
M12 113 84
M16 275 203
M20 543 400
M24 918 677
M30 1878 1386
M36 3215 2370
M42 5235 3860
M48 7198 5270
DIN 912 - Metric Plain Socket Head Cap Screws (not coated) with anti-seize compound applied.
Group 2 Barrel Heads (Standard coarse thread)

TORQUE Nm TORQUE ft-lbs


SIZE Grade 10.9 Grade 10.9
M10 47 35
M12 80 59
M16 200 148
M20 392 290
M24 672 496
M30 1360 1004
M36 1920 1417

NOTE!

The elevated working temperature reduces the yield strength of the screw material.
To compensate for this fact, the table above reflects a 20% reduction from the
standard torque values ( anti-seize co-efficient of friction = 0.10).

These values are to be used for hot or cold applications, but all the components
must all be at the same temperature (i.e. the barrel, barrel head and screws).

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 159


MAINTENANCE:
DIN 933 Metric Plain Hexagon head screws (uncoated) Standard course thread.
The table below reflects the torque setting for the general purpose hexagon head screws used on
the injection molding machine.

Grade 8.8
SIZE Torque Nm Torque ft-lbs
M5 5.5 4
M6 9.5 7
M8 23 17
M10 47.4 35
M12 77.4 57
M16 195 144
M20 390 288
M24 669 494
M30 1350 996

Grade of Screw - The grade number is marked on the head of the screw, the number before the
point refers to the maximum tensile strength in kilograms times 10 per mm2
and the number after the point refers to the percentage yield of the screw.
Size of Screw - The size is marked on the head of the screw, M refers to METRIC and the
number refers to the diameter across the shank in millimetres.
Torque - The torque is the tightening force applied to the screw in pounds force per foot
(lbf ft.) or Newton metres (Nm).

18.2 MOLD MOUNTING BOLTS - U.N.C.


The torque specifications for the bolts given in the table below are average values based
on the following parameters:
• Uncoated (plain steel).
• Hexagon head, U.N.C.
• ASTM A307 grade A.
• Dry application, i.e. no lubrication on the threads or head of the bolt.

Shank diameter (Inches) 5/8 3/4 1 1 1/4


Bolt grade SAE

Low carbon steel 2 107 185 373 675


lbf -ft
Medium carbon steel 5 157 252 647 1105
torque
Heat treated 8 215 356 807 1211

The values are just guidelines, please consult an Engineer’s handbook for more
information on the different grades of U.N.C. bolts.
U.N.C. bolts have markings on their heads that indicates the grade.
If the mold mounting holes, in the platens, have metric threads, please use the table for
hexagon head metric bolts given above.

160 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
19. ANTI-SEIZE COMPOUND
There will be two types of anti-seize compound that are used on Engel machines:
1. Anti-Seize C5-A from Fel-Pro

This copper and graphite anti-seize should be used exclusively.

Exception: Dissimilar metals (see Heavy Duty Anti-Seize)

Example of C5-A anti-seize use:


a. Plasticizing cylinder and injection unit
All engaged screw threads and locating diameters on the:
• Plasticizing screw tip
• Barrel head fastening screws and locating diameter
• Nozzle body
• Nozzle tip
• Locating diameter on the back end of the barrel
• Split ring and groove where applicable
• Quick barrel change grooves where applicable
• Feed throat screw fasteners.
b. Injection
• Screw spline
• Injection cylinder flange locating diameter
• Screw drive motor shaft and locating diameter
• Adapter for screw drive motor shaft
• Injection swivel plate (test to be made with Moly Paste and EP grease)
c. Pump motor assembly
• Pump motor shaft, coupling and key
• Locating diameters

d. Clamp assembly
• Tie rod ends and nuts at stationary platen end
• Locating diameters of hydraulic cylinders, ejector and clamp
• Quick mold clamp cam bushing
2. “Heavy Duty Anti-Seize” from Fel-Pro
This graphite and calcium fluoride anti-seize is to be used for application of dissimilar metals.
Example of Heavy Duty Anti-Seize usage:
• Stainless steel / steel components
• Casting / steel components
• Aluminum / steel components

16/12/05 4. INSTALLATION 161


MAINTENANCE:
20. INSTALLATION OF HEATER BANDS
To install, slide the heater band over the barrel and align the thermocouple mounting hole in the
barrel with the thermocouple hole in the band.

Tighten the heater band firmly, bring the barrel up to operating temperature and re-tighten the
bands. Allow the barrel to cool and re-tighten the heater bands again.

This procedure is only performed when installing new heater bands to take up any initial stretch
that may be in the units.

THERMOCOUPLE

HEATER BAND

162 4. INSTALLATION 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5. START UP AND SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE

1. STARTING PROCEDURE
The following instructions assume that all necessary connections have been made to allow the
machine to operate correctly.

All breakers must be in the ON position and all water hoses must be properly connected.

At the machine control panel (See Figure 5.1);


Step 1: Turn the CONTROL VOLTAGE switch to ON.T
here is a control voltage switch on the EC88 and CC90 machines. To release the
emergency stop button, simply turn it to the right until it springs out.
Step 2: Turn on the cooling water supply.
Ensure that both the water supply inlet and the water supply outlet have been
properly connected to allow for cooling water flow (i.e. heat exchanger, feed throat,
platens, mold, etc.)
Step 3: Turn the HEAT SELECTOR switch to AUTO.
The correct operating temperature for the screw and barrel will be reached in
approximately 15 to 20 minutes.
Step 4: Reset the controls by the MODE SELECT switch (program interruption button "PU")
from MANUAL to AUTOMATIC and back to MANUAL. The motor will start only when
this switch is in the manual position and the rear gate is closed.
Step 5: Operate the MOTOR switch to START and release.
This will start the electric motor which drives the pump system.
Step 6: Monitor the hydraulic oil temperature and the barrel temperatures.

NOTE!

As soon as you receive the machine, take note of the normal state of all
LEDs within the electronic cabinet.

• Digital input cards.


• Digital output cards.
• E-7 Analog card.
• E-7 Temperature cards.
• PS88 power supply card.

Record the normal state of these LEDs, either ON or OFF, this will more closely pinpoint the
problem area and enable a quicker solution to be arrived at if minor electronic faults are
encountered.

16/12/05 5. START UP AND SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE 163


MAINTENANCE:

CORES & ALARM BELL


MOTOR EJECTORS
OVERLOAD ACTIVATION SILENCE

SAFETY GATE MOLD WIPER MOLD GATE


OPEN CLOSE OUT IN CLOSE OPEN

EJECTOR CORE AIR BLOW NOZZLE


BACK FORWARD OUT IN ON FORWARDBACK

CLAMP MOLD CLAMPING PART CHUTE INJECTION


CLOSE SECURERELEASE AUTO INJECT FEED
OPEN REJECT STORE

MODE SELECT MOLDHEIGHT HEAT CONTROL VOLTAGE


MANUALAUTO INCR. DECR. OFF AUTO OFF ON

CYCLE CORES & MOTOR EMERGENCY


EJECTORS
START NO MOTIONMOTION STOP START STOP

A7601222

Figure 5.1 Typical Control Panel.

164 5. START UP AND SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
2. MACHINE SHUT-DOWN.
The following general shut-down procedures apply when molding with common plastic materials
such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), etc.

Step 1: Slide the raw material hopper back and away from the feed throat so that no further
material drops through to the plasticizing screw.

Step 2: Switch the HEAT switch to the OFF position.

Step 3: Engage the manual or semi-automatic mode of operation.

Step 4: Move the carriage unit back and away from the carriage forward position.

Step 5: Reduce injection pressures and "purge" out the barrel by injecting and screw feeding
until most of the material has been removed from the barrel. Clear away and dispose
of the contaminated purged material.

Step 6: Examine the mold cavity and clean if necessary. Afterwards, close the mold until the
two mold halves are just touching but no clamp force is being applied. This keeps
the mold cavities contamination free during the shutdown period.

Step 7: Switch the CONTROL VOLTAGE switch to OFF.

Step 8: Switch off the main breaker on the power-supply cabinet.

Step 9: Turn off the cooling water supply.

NOTE!

1. If there is any possibility of the temperature falling below freezing make


sure that all water has been removed from mold cavities, heat exchang-
ers, water towers, etc.

2. If the machine is equipped with an accumulator, make sure that the


accumulator has been relieved of any pressure. Monitor the manual
gauge to ensure that this important step has been carried out.

16/12/05 5. START UP AND SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE 165


MAINTENANCE:
3. MANUAL TO AUTOMATIC CYCLE
The following instructions assume that:

The oil temperature is within the set operating range,

The barrel temperatures are within their specific tolerances,

That all safety devices have been checked and verified by the maintenance department as being
fully operational and correctly adjusted.

Step 1: With the MODE SELECT switch in MANUAL, ensure that:


• The mold is at position "A".
• The ejector is at position "L".
• The screw is at position "C1"
(and "C2" if decompression before or after screw refill used).

Step 2: Switch the selector switch on the push-button panel to automatic

Step 3: Press the automatic mode button on the control unit (or semiautomatic).

Step 4: Open and close the front safety gate.

4. CORES AND EJECTORS SWITCH.


If the CORES and EJECTORS switch is turned to MOTION and the machine is in semi-automatic,
the operator will be able to open the front gate while the mold opens. The ejector will also move
forward and the cores will be allowed to move out.

166 5. START UP AND SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

1. BASICS OF HYDRAULICS
The question "What is hydraulics ?" can be answered in the following way.

Hydraulics is the transmission and control of forces and motions through the medium of fluids.

Hydraulic systems and equipment have wide-spread application throughout industry. For
example:
• - machine tool manufacturing
• - press manufacturing
• - plant construction
• - vehicle manufacturing
• - aircraft manufacturing
• - shipbuilding
• - injection molding machines

Prerequisites that hydraulics requires of the user and serviceman:


• - knowledge of the basic physical laws of hydrostatics and hydrodynamics
• - knowledge of the symbols of hydraulic control elements
• - knowledge of hydraulic circuit diagrams
• - knowledge of the maintenance of a hydraulic system

Hydraulic to Electrical Analogy

Hydraulics and electrics are analogous, because they both deal with flow, pressure and load.

The components in each type of circuit perform similar functions and therefore can be related, a
few examples are listed below:

Hydraulic Pump ←→ Generator


Hydraulic Motor ←→ Electric Motor
Directional Control Valve ←→ Switches
Hoses ←→ Wire
Cylinder ←→ Solenoid
Check Valve ←→ Diode
Relief Valve ←→ Circuit Breaker
Accumulator ←→ Capacitor
Booster ←→ Transformer

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 167


MAINTENANCE:
1.1 CONVERSION OF ENERGY IN HYDRAULICS

hydraulic User operating


Drive - hyd. pump control and hyd. cylinder element to be
Electric Motor regulating units hyd. motor actuated

Electric Mechanical Hydraulic Hydraulic Mechanical


Energy Energy Energy Energy Energy

Various forms of energy are converted to accomplish mechanical movement in the injection
molding machine. Electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy, which in turn is converted
to hydraulic energy to operate and control the moving components of the machine. The hydraulic
energy is converted to mechanical energy to achieve the final desired result, which may be "mold
clamping pressure" or "material injection".

The figure above summarizes the energy conversions for an injection molding machine.

168 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Pascal's Law

Pascal's Law states that a pressure acting on a confined fluid is transmitted equally and
undiminished in all directions.

In the figure below, a 10 pound force acting on a 1 square inch area generates a pressure of 10
pounds per square inch (psi) throughout the container acting equally on all surfaces.

10 pounds force
over 1 sq. in.

10 p.s.i.

This principle is important to remember, that the pressure in any portion of an hydraulic system is
equal throughout that system.

This statement is valid with the omission of the force of gravity, which would have to be added,
according to the fluid level. Due to the pressures that hydraulic systems operate at, this smaller
amount need not be considered

e.g. a 32 foot head of water approximately equals 14.5 psi.

(a 10 metre head of water approximately equals 1 bar.)

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 169


MAINTENANCE:
Force Transmission in Hydraulics

One of the main advantages on the use of hydraulic to power our molding machinery is the
efficient transmission of forces.

If force F1 is exerted on surface A1, pressure p is created. (p = F1).


A1

Since pressure affects all parts of the system equally, therefore pressure p is applied to surface
area A2.

Force F2 will equal pressure p x surface area A2 (F2 = p x A2), and transposing that formula for
p = F2
A2.

Since p = F1 therefore F2 = F1
A1 A2 A1.

In the diagram below, the following relationships hold: S1 = A2 = F2


S2 A1 F1

Where S= piston stroke


A= piston area
F= force

F1 F2
S2

S1
A1 A2

If A1 = 1 square inch and A2 = 10 square inches, then a force of F1 = 10 pounds can support a
force of F2 = 100 pounds.

However, the strokes of the pistons are inversely proportional to their surface areas .
If the smaller piston were moved in the direction of S1 by 10 inches, then the larger piston will only
move 1 inch in the direction of S2.

170 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Area and Force

As the clamp piston is moved forward during the clamp close function, the pressure developed
acts upon the clamping piston which has a certain size or area.

P x A =F

S1 S2

M
A6411650
A basic formula in hydraulics states that pressure multiplied by area to which that pressure is
applied equals force.

i.e. pressure x area = force

p x A = F

The formula can be manipulated to calculate any one of the three variables p, A or F, if any of the
other two variables are known. As follows:
pxA=F
F/p=A
F/A=p

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 171


MAINTENANCE:
Pressure

Hydraulic pressure is generated when a flowing fluid meets resistance which is generally related
to the load that is being moved.

Load

A6411649 Hydraulic Pressure

A force is applied via the lever to produce system pressure (p = F/A or F = p x A).
If more force is applied, the system pressure rises until the load moves, if the load remains
constant the pressure will increase no further.

The load can therefore be moved if the necessary pressure is generated. The speed at which the
load moves will be dependent upon the volume of fluid which is fed to the load cylinder.

For example, as the mold is opening or closing, the pressure generated in the system represents
the resistance of the toggle lever to movement. Adding to that resistance would be the weight (i.e.
mass) of the mold and toggle lever and also the friction between the toggle lever bushings and the
tiebars.

When the two mold halves touch and the toggle begins to straighten out, the increasing pressure
represents that which is required to stretch the tiebars in the generation of a particular clamp
force.

Similarly when injecting material into the mold the pressure generated in the injection system
represents the resistance of the injection ram to movement. Adding to that resistance would be
the mass of the injection ram and screw, the friction between all moving components and the
resistance of the plastic melt as it is forced quickly into the mold cavity.

172 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Pressure Control

In order to safeguard the system, pressure relief valves are installed. The valves serve to limit the
amount of pressure that can develop in the hydraulic system since the various hydraulic
components are expensive and they are subject to pressure limitations before failure occurs.

One characteristic of fluid flow that is important to note here is that flow occurs always in the path
of least resistance. Pressure would continue to rise in the circuit consistent with the load being
moved. The pressure relief valve is always set to allow flow to travel through the relief valve well
before pressure rises above safe levels and causes damage to the system and its components.
In other words, the path of least resistance is employed here to safeguard the system after the
other movements have taken place.

A B C
100 LBS 50 LBS 10 LBS

A6411653

1500 psi
Pressure
Relief
Valve

• Load "C" would move first, because it is the lightest.


• Load "B" would move next, because it is the second lightest.
• Load "A" would move last, because it is the heaviest.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 173


MAINTENANCE:
Pressure Override

An extremely important concept to understand about pressure relief valves is their pressure
override characteristics.

Pressure override is the difference between the pressure at which the relief valve just starts to
crack open and the pressure at the full open position. For direct acting pressure relief valves this
pressure differential can be as high as 30% and proportional pressure relief valves range from
10% - 20%.

Full Flow
Pressure
Cracking
Pressure
Pressure
Override

Ideal
Pressure
Setting

During injection, "P6, Injection Boost Pressure Limit", must be set high enough to recognize
this inherent feature of the pressure relief system. This is extremely important for open loop
systems since a "P6" setting that is too low will adversely affect speed control during injection.

Although pressure override is not a factor on Moog valve equipped machines, setting "P6" to a
level less than the minimum required to inject the plastic will also affect closed loop speed control.

174 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Pressure Intensification

Another important concept to keep in mind is that of pressure intensification. This law of
hydraulics is often forgotten when troubleshooting hydraulic circuits.

A1 A2

P1 F1 P2

A6411655

For example, if two pistons of different size are connected by a rod, the pressure existing on the
smaller area will always be greater. This principle also applies to the cap side and the rod side of
a normal double acting piston.

If P1 = 1,000 psi and A1 = 10 square inches, then F1 = 10,000 pounds of force.

If F1 = 10,000 pounds of force and if A2 = 5 square inches, then P2 = 2,000 psi.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 175


MAINTENANCE:
Speed in Hydraulics

The speed of a hydraulic component can be calculated based on the formula below:

S= V/t
A
Where,
S = piston speed
V / t = volume of oil over time (i.e. gpm)
A = piston area

For example, given the conditions below the injection piston, therefore the screw, will move at
3.85 inches per second. However, this speed will not be possible if the pressure relief valve
opens. (See Pressure Override)

10 INCHES SQUARE
AREA

10 GPM
__________ (1 gallon = 231 cu. in.)
S=
10 in. sq.
10 1500
2310 cu.in./min GPM PSI
S= ____________
10 in. sq.

S = 231 in./min or 3.85 in/sec.

176 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Hydrodynamics

As well as understanding the concept of speed in hydraulics, it is also important to have some
insight into flow characteristics.

For example, the drawing below shows that when oil is flowing through different diameter pipes
an equal volume flows in an equal unit of time. If that is true and if the shaded quantity Q1 equals
the shaded quantity Q2, then velocity V2 must be greater than velocity V1.

Q1 Q2

V2
V1

As the diameter of the pipe decreases, the flow rate will increase. Specifically, if the pipe diameter
decreases by one half in the direction of oil flow, the cross sectional area will decrease by four
times, and visa versa. Oil flow velocity through different pipe sizes can be calculated using the
formula:

Velocity (feet per second) = GPM / 3.117 x area

2 inch 1 inch
diameter diameter

A6411657

The same gallons per minute will have to travel 4 times faster through the smaller pipe.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 177


MAINTENANCE:
Another important concept in hydrodynamics is how fluids flow based on certain critical flow
speeds or as the result of meeting restrictions to flow such as bends in the pipe or system
components.

LAMINAR FLOW

One goal in the initial design of hydraulic power transmission systems is to encourage laminar
flow as much as possible since an increase in turbulence will increase flow resistance and
hydraulic losses as well. The diagram below illustrates the concept of turbulent flow.

TURBULENT FLOW

Although turbulent flow is wasteful in most hydraulic applications, it is desirable to have turbulence
in the oil flow as it travels through the heat exchanger for cooling purposes. If turbulence exists as
the oil flows through the heat exchanger, more of the oil molecules come into contact with the heat
exchanger cooling tubes and more efficient cooling is the result.

178 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
1.2 DIRECTIONAL CONTROL

One of the main advantages of hydraulic based systems is that the oil flow direction is easily
controlled. The drawing below shows a piston being extended, held stationary and then retracted,
simply by changing the position of a directional valve. Even though the drawing is simple in
nature, it still demonstrates the principle involved in directional control.

In addition to simple directional control valves, we also employ proportional directional control
valves on some machines to control the clamp opening and closing function.

EXTEND HOLD RETRACT

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 179


MAINTENANCE:
Hydraulics in Action

The next few pages show a simple hydraulic system in action.

Atmospheric pressure acts down on the oil in


4.2 the oil tank (2) forcing the hydraulic oil to the
4.1 pump inlet (1). Oil is pumped towards the
directional control valve (5) through the
pressure line (P). The pressure in the system is
what ever it takes to move the load.

LOAD The position of the directional control valve


spool (6) allows the oil to be pushed towards
the cap end of the piston (4.1) through the
working port (A). The load is connected directly
to the piston rod and will extend with the piston.

5 The rod side oil is forced back to the oil tank via
working port (B) of the directional control valve
and the tank line (T).

6
T

B A

180 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

In any hydraulic system, pressure must be


allowed to increase to a level sufficient to move
4.2 the load.
4.1
In all cases however, there must also be a limit
to that pressure in order to protect the system
and its components (seals, hoses, etc.).

To provide a protective limit against a damag-


LOAD ing pressure rise, a pressure relief valve (3)
must be provided. When system pressure
increases to the pressure relief valve setting,
the valve would open and the pump flow would
travel back to the tank (2) through tank line (T).

6
T

B A

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 181


MAINTENANCE:

Atmospheric pressure acts down on the oil in


4.2 4.1 the oil tank (2) forcing hydraulic oil to the pump
inlet (1). Oil is pumped towards the directional
control valve (5) through the pressure line (P).
The pressure in the system is what ever it
takes to move the load.

LOAD The position of the directional control valve


spool (6) allows oil to be pushed towards the
rod side of the piston (4.2) through working
port (B). The load is connected directly to the
piston rod and will retract with the piston.

5 The cap end oil is forced back to the oil tank


via working port (A) of the directional valve and
the oil tank line (T).

6
T

B A

182 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

There are various valves that can be installed


4.2 to control the speed of any particular hydraulic
4.1 system. The drawing shows an in-line, manu-
ally adjusted flow control valve (7) placed in
the system to control the speed of the load.
Notice that the speed would be controlled in
either the extension or retraction modes.
LOAD
Since the pump shown is a fixed displacement
model, a continuous and constant volume of
oil is output to the system. If the flow control
valve is adjusted to slow down the load, the
5 excess flow would go over the pressure relief
valve at the pressure relief setting.

There would be two pressures in this system.


6 The relief valve pressure existing between the
T pump (1) and the flow control valve (7) and the
load pressure existing between the flow con-
trol valve and the load.

B A

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 183


MAINTENANCE:
2. INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

ELECTRIC
MOTOR

PUMP

PRESSURE & VELOCITY


CONTROL VALVES

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
VALVE

VELOCITY SERVO
CONTROL CONTROL

CLAMP CARRIAGE HYDRO COREPULL INJECTION


CYLINDER CYLINDER MOTOR CYLINDER CYLINDER

SCREW

184 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
3. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OVERVIEW.
The Injection Molding Machine uses an hydraulic system to produce high clamping pressures that
are required in the production of thermoplastic moldings and also to efficiently transmit and control
the motive power of the machine.

The hydraulic pump, driven by an induction motor, produces the flow of hydraulic oil to drive:
• The Hydromotor which turns the plasticizing screw that delivers the molten plastic to the
end of the injection cylinder.
• The Injection Cylinder backwards and forwards to expel the molten plastic into the mold
and withdraw for the next charge.
• The Injection Carriage backwards and forwards to deliver the tip of the barrel to the mold
• The Clamp Cylinder to open and closed the mold.
• The Ejector Corepulls to release the molding from the mold.

The following major components which are described in this chapter:


8. Variable displacement pump.
9. Hydromotor.
10. Injection Cylinder.
11. Carriage Cylinder.
12. Clamp Cylinder.
13. Ejector Corepull Cylinders.

Variable Displacement Pump.

The Variable Displacement Pump operations are discussed in paragraph 6.9 of this chapter.

Hydromotor (Hydraulic motors).

The Hydromotor operation is discussed in section 5 of this chapter.

Injection Cylinder.

The Injection Cylinder is of a double acting type providing sufficient force for high injection
pressure speed as well as position suckback for melt decompression to prevent drooling of the
material. the hydraulic force is transmitted over the floating screw drive onto the screw generating
injection pressure. The Injection Cylinder extension circuit employs a regenerative system for
faster injection speeds.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 185


MAINTENANCE:
Regenerative Circuit

Some Engel machines make use of a regenerative circuit for a faster injection speed.

A regenerative type circuit is a trade off between injection pressure and injection speed. If one
increases, the other decreases in a proportional manner.

The regenerative effect works by combining the oil flow being expelled from a cylinder, as it
extends, with the pump flow, which will extend the cylinder faster. In reality, more gallons per
minute (GPM) are being pumped into the cylinder than would otherwise be the case without the
regenerative set-up.

The diagram below shows a circuit with a regenerative capability. When solenoid S4D is switched,
the oil flow from the rod side of the cylinder is added to the pump flow, which results in more GPM
extending the cylinder. Since more gallons per minute are extending the cylinder, obviously the
cylinder moves faster.

Assume that the machine is set to run at 3 inches per second. If the injection pressure is
increased, the injection speed would decrease unless corrective action is taken. In this case, to
have the increased injection pressure and still have the machine run at 3 inches per second, the
fluid flow rate to the injection cylinder must be increased. This adjustment is done automatically in
the microprocessor based control system of the machine.

INJECTION

S4D

TANK FROM
PUMP

186 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Non - Regenerative versus Regenerative

Non - Regenerative

2000 lbs. FORCE

ROD SIDE = 1 INCH SQUARE


BLIND SIDE = 2 INCHES SQUARE
PRESSURE = 1000 PSI

5 GPM

10 GPM

TANK FROM
PUMP

Force = System pressure x Area Speed = Flow / Area


Force = Lbs/ Inches2 x Inches2 Speed = Inches3 per minute / Inches2
Force = 1000 x 2 Speed = 10 x 231 / 2
Force = 2000 lbs Speed = 1155 inches / minute

In a non-regenerative system, oil is delivered to one side of the piston to extend or retract it and
oil from the other side is expelled to tank, which is at zero system pressure.

The figure above shows a simple hydraulic circuit with values for:
• System pressure,
• Flow rate,
• Cross sectional areas.

Force and speed for any similar arrangement can easily be calculated from the formulae given
above.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 187


MAINTENANCE:
Regenerative

1000 lbs. FORCE 2000 lbs. FORCE

1000 lbs. NET FORCE

ROD SIDE = 1 INCH SQUARE


BLIND SIDE = 2 INCHES SQUARE
PRESSURE = 1000 PSI

5 GPM

10 GPM

TANK FROM
PUMP

Force = System pressure x Area Speed = Flow / Area


Force = Lbs/ Inches2 x Inches2 Speed = Inches3 per minute / Inches2
Gross Force = 1000 x 2 Speed = 10 x 231 / 1 inches per minute
Gross Force = 2000 lbs Speed = 2310 inches / minute
Net Force = 1000 x 1 Speed (Regen) = 2 x Speed (non regen)
Net Force = 1000 lbs

The oil flow from the rod side of the cylinder combines with the flow from the pump. The pump only
has to make up the volume difference between the blind side and rod side. Consequently the
pump only has to supply the volume of oil equivalent to the rod side. Supplying a flow of 10
Gallons per minute, as the diagram shows, results in a doubling of the speed.

The opposing force from the rod side of the cylinder detracts from the force on the blind area,
resulting in a net force half that of the non regenerative system.

During regeneration equal pressure is applied to both sides of the cylinder piston. The net force
delivered by the rod will be the same as if the effective pressure were applied only to an area
equal to the rod, but on the blind side of the piston.

Regeneration is employed in clamp closing circuits until the mold halves touch and is operator
selectable for injection.

When the full force is required the hydraulic circuit is switched back from the regenerative mode
to the non-regenerative mode.

188 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
The figure below shows a typical hydraulic circuit diagram.

A regenerative circuit is employed to increase the injection speed.

INJECTION CYLINDER
HYDROMOTOR
J

A B Y3
S4D A B
P T
a
P T A B A B
a a
P T S3 P T
IREGEN. S24
INJECTION SUCKBACK SCREW TURN

Figure 6.2 Injection Cylinder Regenerative Circuit Flow.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 189


MAINTENANCE:
Carriage Cylinder.

The two carriage cylinders mounted on the injection unit provide the necessary nozzle force and
travel.

The figure shows the control valve arrangement and solenoids that control the backwards and
forwards movement of the carriage cylinders.

CARRIAGE CYLINDER

G1

A B
S6 S5
BACK FWD
P T

Figure 6.3 Carriage Cylinder.

190 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Ejector Corepull.

The Ejector provides enough force to eject the moldings from the mold.

The Corepull activates mold components around which the plastic is molded.

The figure shows the control valve arrangement and solenoids that control the forward and retract
movement of the ejector and corepull circuits.

EJECTOR COREPULL1

A6 B6 A5 B5

RETRACT FWD CORE OUT CORE IN

S26 A B S25 S14 A B S15

P T P T

F F
H H

PRESSURE

TANK

Figure 6.4 Ejector Corepull.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 191


MAINTENANCE:
Clamp Cylinder.

The clamp cylinder provides the necessary force for opening and clamping the mold. The
advantages of a hydraulic clamp are that the system is infinitely variable and the clamp forces and
speed can be controlled and changed at any time, to provide high speed to close the mold and
low speed and high pressure to clamp up the mold. The hydraulic clamp offers smooth
acceleration because of the fluid nature of the system and as a consequence the fluid continually
lubricates the components resulting in a minimum maintenance requirement.

Hydraulic Versus. Toggle Clamping

Force in a hydraulic system is calculated by the mathematical equation below:

Force = Pressure (PSI) X Area (sq. ins.)

The area required to produce a given force can be calculated with the equation:

Force
Area = --------
Pressure

Therefore, in a strictly hydraulic system, to produce 400 tons of compressive force at a system
pressures of 160 bar (2320 psi) a clamp cylinder of the size calculated below will be needed:

800,000 lbs.
Area = ------------ = 345 inches squared
2320

This equates to a clamp cylinder diameter size of 21 inches! This size cylinder would require huge
pumps to supply the quantity of fluid necessary to move the cylinder at our cycle times.

These high compressive forces have to be produced by other methods than strictly hydraulic
force. Larger Engel machines use a double folding toggle mechanism to achieve these high
forces.

192 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Toggle mechanisms are often used when a large force moving through a small distance is
required. For example, consider the drawings below.

FIXED PLATENS FIXED PLATENS

CLAMP
CYLINDER

A6410114
ED91.641.7777E.P1
MOVING PLATEN MOVING PLATEN

What would happen between the fixed and moving platens in the right hand drawing if the clamp
cylinder was extended any further? Take note of the fact that the platens are touching.
The forces acting horizontally would increase dramatically (approaching infinity) as the linkage
straightens out. When the toggle does straighten out, the forces acting horizontally actually
stretch the four tie bars holding the platens together. In other words, the tie bars really act as huge
springs. The more the tie bars are forced to stretch, the higher is the compressive force applied
between the moving and fixed platens.

Safety Gate Hydraulic Interlock.


The Injection Molding Machine has an operator side and a non operator side safety gate (see
Chapter 3) which when slid back, activate an hydraulic interlock. The interlock is a directional
control valve and with the safety gates closed allows oil to the clamp cylinder, but when the gates
are opened the valve is extended and vents the "extend" side of the clamp cylinder to tank thereby
preventing the clamp from closing.

CLAMP CYLINDER

SAFETY GATE-FRONT

A A B
BE8
P T
T

RETRACT EXTEND TANK

Figure 6.5 Hydraulic Interlock.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 193


MAINTENANCE:
Table 6.1 Sheet 1 of 6 Hydraulic Symbols

Working line, tank or return line.


Generally, the heavier solid lines indicate
pressure (P) and the lighter solid lines
indicate the tank (T) return lines.

In general, the heavier dashed line indicates


a pilot line and the lighter dashed line
indicates a drain line to tank, labelled (L)

Indicates a flexible line (i.e. a hose)

Indicates a line junction

Indicates crossing, but not connected lines.

Indicates a manifold for several components


which are assembled as one unit. For example,
a number of cartridge valves controlled by
various directional control valves.

Tank enclosure for hydraulic fluid return


lines

P,T,A,B These letters indicate the pressure (P), tank


(T), and the working ports, A and B, of
directional control valves.
L This letter is used to indicate a drain line
to tank

194 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

Table 6.1 Sheet 2 of 6 Hydraulic Symbols

S XX This letter plus accompanying numerals is used to identify a particular


solenoid.

Y This letter indicates a proportional flow or throttle valve

K This letter indicates a pressure relief valve.

X26 or Z36 The letter (X or Z) and accompanying numerals are used to identify a
valve and are used to reference that particular valve on the hydraulic
parts list.

NG XX This represents the flow capacity of a particular valve.

P1 The letter that appears on the perimeter of the manifold can be found
stamped into the surface of the manifold beside the appropriate piping
connection.

M3 These symbols, that appear on the perimeter of the manifold indicate


locations where pressure gauge readings can be taken. e.g. if the pres-
sure gauge is turned to position 3 (M3) the pressure occurring at M3
(Injection) can be monitored.

This symbol represents the heat exchanger with external lines indicating
the coolant flow direction.

This symbol represents the 40 micron strainer that is immersed in the


hydraulic fluid within the tank. If a blockage occurs, the accompanying
pressure switch is "tripped" which results in the electric motor being
stopped.

This symbol represents the hydraulic filler cap and strainer located on
the top of the tank. The cap performs three functions: filler, breather and
strainer.

This symbol represents a filter with electric feedback.

This symbol represents the hydraulic fluid level indicator. If the fluid is
too low, the accompanying switch is "tripped" which results in the electric
motor being stopped.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 195


MAINTENANCE:

Table 6.1 Sheet 3 of 6 Hydraulic Symbols

This symbol represents the hydraulic fluid temperature gauge and elec-
t trical feedback to the control system. If the temperature exceeds the
maximum set limit, the accompanying switch is "tripped" which results in
the electric motor being stopped.

This symbol represents a one way check valve.

This symbol represents a spring loaded one way check valve.

This symbol represents a double check valve. Pressure in one line


opens the other check valve to allow return flow.

This symbol represents a shuttle valve, that allows high pressure flow
from only one direction at a time.

This symbol represents a return spring.

This symbol represents an adjustable return spring.

This symbol represents a main drive electric motor.

This symbol represents a variable displacement pump (Bosch)

This symbol represents a variable displacement pump (Rexroth)

This symbol represents a fixed displacement pump with one flow direc-
tion.

This symbol represents an hydraulic motor with one flow direction.

This symbol represents an input or output shaft.

This symbol represents a shaft coupling.

196 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

Table 6.1 Sheet 4 of 6 Hydraulic Symbols

This symbol represents a fixed orifice, generally used to limit hydrau-


lic pressure shocks or to introduce a time delay in force transmis-
sion. The flow rate through the orifice is unaffected by viscosity.

This symbol represents a metered orifice that can self compensate


to maintain a particular flow rate.

This symbol represents a fixed orifice, generally used to limit hydrau-


lic pressure shocks or to introduce a time delay in force transmis-
sion. However the flow rate through the orifice is affected by
viscosity.

This symbol represents a d.c. solenoid that is used to switch direc-


tional control valve positions.

a b This symbol represents a three position directional control valve that


can be switched into either position by a d.c. solenoid.

This symbol represents a directional control valve. The filled trian-


gles indicate a main spool that is piloted by a smaller hydraulic
valve.

Z Y This symbol represents a cartridge valve cover plate with two


plugged pilot lines, Z and Y.
F
This symbol represents a cartridge valve with three areas upon
B B
which pressure acts. The bottom area A = 100% the side area B =
A 160% and the top area F = 160%
F
This symbol is a variation of the symbol above and represents a car-
B B tridge valve with three areas upon which pressure acts. Area A is
A
small compared to F, but as above A + B = F
F
This symbol represents a cartridge valve as above but the black tri-
B B
angle represents precision control notches that allow for soft open-
A ing and closing.
F
This symbol is a variation of the symbol above and represents a car-
B B tridge valve as above but the black area represents precision control
A notches that allow for soft opening and closing.
F
This symbol represents a cartridge valve with a 1:1 area ratio, area
B B
A = area F. The valve is usually employed in pressure relief circuits.
A

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 197


MAINTENANCE:

Table 6.1 Sheet 5 of 6 Hydraulic Symbols


F
This symbol is a variation of the preceding symbol and repre-
B B sents a cartridge valve with a 1:1 area ratio, area A = area F. The
A valve is usually employed in pressure relief circuits.
F
This symbol represents a cartridge valve with a 1:1 area ratio,
B B
but with an orifice through the middle allowing pressure equaliza-
A tion on areas A and F.
F
This symbol represents a cartridge valve used to control pres-
B B
sure as the fluid is flowing through it. This is a normally open
A valve.
F
This symbol represents a cartridge valve used to control pres-
B B
sure as the fluid is flowing through it. This is a normally closed
A valve.

This symbol represents an adjustable relief valve, directly oper-


ated, normally closed.

This symbol represents an adjustable pressure reducing valve,


normally open.

This symbol represents a proportional pressure control valve,


a K valve

This symbol represents a proportional flow control valve, a Y


valve.

A B This symbol represents a three way Moog valve. The main spool
is controlled by a servo pilot valve.
P T

198 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

Table 6.1 Sheet 6 of 6 Hydraulic Symbols

A B Y4 A S1
:
T P
P T

PILOT VALVE
X Y

MAIN VALVE
A
A _ B
B

P T

X Y
P T

This symbol represents a pilot operated proportional directional control valve.


The figure shows the main stage valve which is piloted by the Y4 valve.
The pilot line to the right side of the main spool runs through the S1 valve which is ener-
gized during mold close.
The position of the main spool is determined by a position transducer and superimposed
upon the pilot valve control circuit.
If the solenoid is not energized, the main spool is relieved and shifts to the center position
due to the force of the spool centring springs.
This symbol represents a double acting cylinder.

This symbol represents a double acting cylinder with a single adjust-


able cushion.
This symbol represents a roller and plunger used to mechanically
switch a directional control valve.
This symbol represents a manual cut off valve, often used in accumu-
lator circuits. If the notch in the center of the handle is in line with the
line of flow then the valve is open. If the notch is across the line of flow
the valve is closed.
This symbol represents a gas charged accumulator.

This symbol represents a stroke limiter for a cartridge valve. These are
generally employed with accumulators.

This symbol represents an hydraulic pressure transducer.

This symbol represents a non return check valve with adjustable throt-
tle control.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 199


MAINTENANCE:
4. HYDRAULIC OIL.

WARNING!

ENGEL ADVISES THE USE OF NEW, CLEAN OIL, TO ISO CODE 16/13, IN THEIR
INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES. THIS LEVEL OF CLEANLINESS OR BETTER
MUST BE MAINTAINED THROUGHOUT THE LIFE OF THE MACHINE.
REFER TO ISO 4406 - HYDRAULIC FLUID POWER - FLUIDS - METHOD FOR
CODING LEVEL OF CONTAMINATION BY SOLID PARTICLES.
USE MINERAL BASED HYDRAULIC OIL WITH A VISCOSITY CLASS OF
ISO VG 46 (AT 40 OC)
THE USE OF RECYCLED OIL TO OPERATE AN ENGEL INJECTION MOLDING
MACHINE WILL VOID THE WARRANTY OF THAT MACHINE.
CONTACT ENGEL CONCERNING POSSIBLE WARRANTY ISSUES IF ZINC FREE
(ASHLESS) HYDRAULIC OIL IS USED IN THE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
OR FOR RECOMMENDATIONS OR ADVICE ON HYDRAULIC OIL CHOICE

Filling.
If necessary, fill oil tank with appropriate brand name oil before pump start-up, see Table 6.2
(minimum startup temperature of the oil is 15 oC or 59 oF)

NOTE!

OIL MUST BE FILTERED BEFORE BEING PUMPED INTO THE OIL TANK.

Changing.
Hydraulic oil must be changed after approximately 5000 - 6000 working hours or after testing of
an oil sample has indicated contamination and or breakdown of the oil.

To change the oil follow these steps:


1. Draw the oil out through the filling pipe with a suction pump and drain off the remaining oil
through the drain plug.
2. Remove the cleaning cover from the side the oil tank.
3. Clean the walls and bottom of the oil tank with a cleansing agent in order to remove any
residues.
4. Install the drain plug and fit the cleaning cover.
5. Ensure the inset filter screen is installed.
6. Fill with appropriate brand name oil through the filling pipe, to the upper third of the oil level
sight glass.
7. Replace filler/breather cap.
8. Do not start the pump for approximately 1/2 hour to allow for settling and degassing.

200 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
4.1 HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

WARNING!

ENGEL ADVISES THE USE OF NEW, CLEAN OIL, TO ISO CODE 16/13, IN THEIR
INJECTION MOLDING MACHINES. THIS LEVEL OF CLEANLINESS OR BETTER MUST BE
MAINTAINED THROUGHOUT THE LIFE OF THE MACHINE.
REFER TO ISO 4406 - HYDRAULIC FLUID POWER - FLUIDS - METHOD FOR CODING
LEVEL OF CONTAMINATION BY SOLID PARTICLES.
USE MINERAL BASED HYDRAULIC OIL WITH A VISCOSITY CLASS OF ISO VG 46
(AT 40 OC) RECOMMENDED IN THE TABLE BELOW.
THE USE OF RECYCLED OIL TO OPERATE AN ENGEL INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
WILL VOID THE WARRANTY OF THAT MACHINE.
CONTACT ENGEL CONCERNING POSSIBLE WARRANTY ISSUES IF ZINC FREE
(ASHLESS) HYDRAULIC OIL IS USED IN THE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE OR FOR
RECOMMENDATIONS OR ADVICE ON HYDRAULIC OIL CHOICE.

The hydraulic fluid in an Engel injection molding machine serves the following purposes:
1. Power transmission
2. Lubrication
3. Sealing
4. Cooling
5. Cleaning

Power transmission - Pressurized hydraulic fluid converts hydraulic energy to


mechanical energy. For example, to extend and retract cylinders or
to rotate a hydraulic motor.

Lubrication - The inherent lubricating qualities of hydraulic fluid helps to


minimize component wear and tear.

Sealing - The hydraulic fluid moistens the various gaskets and pressure
seals ensuring leakage will be kept to a minimum.

Cooling - The hydraulic fluid absorbs heat from the various machine
components and transfers that heat to the oil reservoir where it
radiates from the reservoir into the atmosphere.

Clean - Normal machine wear introduces minute metal particles into the
system. The hydraulic fluid transports these particles to the filtering
system of the machine where the particles are separated from the
fluid before re-circulation through the system.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 201


MAINTENANCE:
Table 6.2 HYDRAULIC OIL and LUBRICANT COMPARISON

WARNING!

ENGEL ADVISES THE USE OF NEW, CLEAN OIL, TO ISO CODE 16/13, IN THEIR INJECTION
MOLDING MACHINES. THIS LEVEL OF CLEANLINESS OR BETTER MUST BE MAINTAINED
THROUGHOUT THE LIFE OF THE MACHINE.
REFER TO ISO 4406 - HYDRAULIC FLUID POWER - FLUIDS - METHOD FOR CODING LEVEL OF
CONTAMINATION BY SOLID PARTICLES.
USE MINERAL BASED HYDRAULIC OIL WITH A VISCOSITY CLASS OF ISO VG 46
(AT 40 OC) RECOMMENDED IN THE TABLE BELOW.
CONTACT ENGEL CONCERNING POSSIBLE WARRANTY ISSUES IF ZINC FREE (ASHLESS)
HYDRAULIC OIL IS USED IN THE INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE OR FOR RECOMMENDATIONS
OR ADVICE ON HYDRAULIC OIL CHOICE.
THE USE OF RECYCLED OIL TO OPERATE AN ENGEL INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE WILL
VOID THE WARRANTY OF THAT MACHINE.

Gear Oil Central Grease


Manufacturer Hydraulic Oil Lubrication
(older m/c only) Lubrication (Oil)
(lithium base)
Ashland AW20 Epcomp.100 Waylube W-30
Valvoline X 18MD S1000
BP Oil Corp. Turbinol HL-46 Energol GR-XP-C220 Energrease
LS EP2
Castrol *!* Tribol 943AW
Chevron Hydraulic oil ISO EP Gear Compound Way oil Vistac 68 Dura-Lith EP 2
AW 46 EP 220 Ultiplex EP #2
Tegra Synthetic 220
Citgo Petro- Citgo A/W 46 EP Compound 220 Sliderite 68
leum Co.
Exxon Nuto H 46 Spartan Ep220 (3) Febis K68
Esso Nuto H 46 Penoled EP 3 (53) Beacon EP2
Nebula EP2
Fiske Bros. Lubriplate HO-46 APG 90 Lubriplate *3V
E.F. Houghton Hydro-Drive HP-200 MP Gear Oil 90 Way Lubricant 297
A. Margolis & T.I.P. 100-20 7 M.P.E.P. Gear M.P. 307
Sons Lube SAE 90
Mobil DTE 25 Lubrite HD 90 Vactra 2 Mobillux EP2
Mobile Gear 630 Vacuoline 1409
Shell Tellus T 46 Omala 220 Tonna V 68 (33) Alvania EP
Sunoco Sunvis 832 WR Lubeway 1754 Sunaplex
Sunway 1180 992 EP GR
Texaco Rando HD46 (B) Universal Gear Lube Waylube 68 Multifak EP 2
HD 46 HD 90 Meropa 220 (3)
Tower Oil & #95 Way & Gear Lube, #47 Way Lube
Techn. Co. Expr.Gear Lube HG 90
*!* = Only use with BOSCH RKP Pumps

202 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
VISCOSITY EQUIVALENTS

Grade System Saybolt


Kinematic
Viscosities
Viscosities
cSt cSt SAE SAE SUS SUS
40 oC 100 oC ISO AGMA Engine oil Gear OIl 210 oF 100 oF
800 4000
40
680 8 200
600
3000
500
30 460 7 140 150 2500
400
2000
350
320 6 125 1800
300 1500
250 20 1250
100
220 5 50
200 90 1000
90
16 150
150 4 80
40
85W
3 70 500
100 100
10 30
80 60 400
9 68 2 80W
60 8 55 300
20 250
50 7 46 1 50
40 200
6
30 32 75W 45
150
5
10W
22
20 4 40 100
5W 90
15 15
70
10 10
55
Viscosities can be related horizontally only, e.g. the following oils have similar viscosities: ISO
460, AGMA 7 and SAE Gear Oil 140.

The viscosity / temperature relationships are based on 95 VI oils and are usable only for mono
grade engine oils, gear oils and other 95 VI oils.

NOTE!

CRANKCASE OIL AND GEAR OILS ARE BASED ON 100O C VISCOSITY. THE
"W" GRADES ARE CLASSIFIED ON LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES. ISO
OILS AND AGMA GRADES ARE BASED ON 40 OC VISCOSITY.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 203


MAINTENANCE:
4.2 HYDRAULIC FLUID VISCOSITY

Fluid viscosity is generally regarded as the most important selection factor to be considered when
choosing a hydraulic fluid for industrial purposes.

Viscosity is the term that refers to a fluid's internal resistance to flow (i.e. thickness). If the fluid
selected does not have the correct viscosity, it will not perform satisfactorily in the machine.

Viscosity is affected by heat and pressure, high pressures will increase viscosity because the fluid
molecules will be "packed closer together" and are more difficult to move.

An increase in heat will cause the molecules to move away from each other make the fluid easier
to move which will lead to a lower viscosity. Conversely cold fluid is sluggish to move because the
molecules are closely packed together.

For example;

Using a lower viscosity grade than recommended leads to:


• excessive leakage
• increased wear
• loss of pressure
• erratic hydraulic operation
• lower overall efficiency

Using a higher viscosity grade than recommended leads to:


• increased pressure drop
• higher fluid temperatures
• sluggish operation
• higher power consumption

Engel recommends that viscosity grade 46 (VG 46) be used in all injection molding machines for
peak performance. Any deviation from this viscosity grade recommendation could lead to the
above mentioned problems.

Preheating Program

Engel machines are equipped with programs and procedures to bring the temperature of the
hydraulic fluid up to normal operating temperatures.

Preheating may be necessary if a machine has been idle for a period of time. As discussed earlier
the viscosity of the oil will change, in response to a change in temperature. If a machine is set-up
to operate with oil at a particular viscosity to achieve specific flow and pressure characteristics
and the viscosity of the oil is higher because the oil is cold, flow and pressure characteristics will
not be right. The machine will not perform as expected.

204 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
In order to preheat the oil to the "set value" operating temperature, oil is directed through a valve
(Z3 on 100 Ton and smaller machines and Z36 on 125 Ton and larger machines) under system
pressure back to the tank. The minimum temperature must be reached before the machine can
be switched to automatic cycle.

The specific directional control valve that controls this function is S10. If the machine has two
pumps S9 directional control valve controls a second preheating valve (Z37) in the same way that
S10 controls Z36.

Concept of Power

Power is defined as the rate of doing work. The most common method of measuring power is to
use the term horsepower. Specifically, horsepower is the amount of weight that a horse can lift a
distance of one foot in a time of one second.

Mechanical:

Force x Distance
Power = -----------------------
Time

550 lbs. x 1 Foot


1 Horsepower = ------------------------
1 Second

Electrical

Power = Voltage x Current Flow

1 Horsepower = 745.7 Watts

Hydraulic

Power = Pressure x Volumetric Flow

1714 PSI x 1 GPM


1 Horsepower = --------------------------
1714

Heat in Hydraulics

Hydraulic systems develop heat in normal operation in the following ways:


• through pipes and fittings
• through flow controls
• over relief valves
• internal leakage of pumps and motors

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 205


MAINTENANCE:
All of these show a drop in pressure as the hydraulic fluid flows past these points. Since
horsepower is represented by the equation of pressure multiplied by flow, it is obvious that
horsepower is being lost at the above mentioned points, since they do no useful work.

The wasted horsepower shows up as heat in hydraulic systems, the higher the pressure drop, the
higher the horsepower loss.

If the flow rate in gallons per minute (GPM) and the pressure drop in pounds per square inch (PSI)
are known, then the heat generated by the system and therefore the horsepower lost, can be
calculated as follows:

BTU = 1.5 x GPM x PSI


(1) -----
HR

2545 BTU
(2) 1 Horsepower = -------------
HR

BTU/HR
(3) ---------- = Horsepower lost/HR
2545

Consider the following example:

a.) 20 GPM pump


flow

b.) 3000 PSI max


pressure.

c.) 1500 PSI load 20 1500 PSI


induced GPM LOAD INDUCED
pressure 3000 PRESSURE
PSI

A6410117

206 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
The horsepower required to operate at full speed and full load will be:

20GPM x 1500 PSI


HP = ------------------------- = 20.6 HP
1714 x .85 (eff.)

In this case, the total flow is required for full speed but maximum pressure is not required to
overcome the load. Therefore, the relief valve will stay closed and little heat will be generated.

Assume now that 50% speed is required and 50% of the previous load is being lifted.

The heat generated would be:

BTU BTU
------ = 1.5 x 10 x 3000 = 45000 -------
HR HR

This represents only the heat generated from the 10 GPM through the relief valve at 3000 PSI.

Heat is also generated due to the pressure drop across the flow control valve.

750 psi LOAD


INDUCED
3000 psi PRESSURE
RELIEF
VALVE
SETTING

BTU BTU
----- = 1.5 x 10 x 2250 = 33750 ------
HR HR

In total, 33750 plus 45000 BTU / HR will equal 78750 BTU / HR generated.

If this is converted into HP, we will have:

78750 BTU
--------------- = 31 HP
2545 HR

To run the load up at 50% speed and 50% of full load condition, the loss will be the equivalent of
31 HP in heat per hour.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 207


MAINTENANCE:
Lowering the load under the same speed and load conditions will waste the total 41 HP input since
the potential energy in the load does the work of lowering the load. Therefore, the BTU's
generated by lowering the load will equal:

BTU BTU
----- = 1.5 x 20 x 3000 = 90000 ----
HR HR

Consider the following:

BTU
--- generated to raise load = 78750
HR

BTU
--- generated to lower load = 90000
HR

Raising and lowering the load for one hour, will generate:
Raise 78750 BTU x 0.5 HR = 39375
Lower 90000 BTU x 0.5 HR = 45000
39375 plus 45000 = 84375 BTU / HR
84375 BTU / HR will be generated just raising and lowering the load.

This is enough energy to heat an average three bedroom home to 70o F on a zero degree day.

208 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
4.3 FILTRATION

The majority of hydraulic problems can be related to dirt or contamination within the hydraulic
components. The extremely close tolerances to which most hydraulic components are
manufactured make the hydraulic system intolerant to even small amounts of contamination.

Sources of contamination include:


1. Inherited contamination
2. System generated contamination
3. Externally introduced contamination

Inherited Contamination

A barrel of new oil from the refinery is usually quite "dirty" by hydraulic cleanliness standards and
cannot be considered as satisfactorily clean. Also, when new machines are assembled there are
relatively large amounts of dirt within the system. The new machines are thoroughly flushed out
before delivery to the customer. Oil added to the machine, after delivery must be properly filtered.

System Generated Contamination

During normal machine operation, friction in pumps, valves, cylinders and motors causes wear of
the sliding surfaces. The effect is to generate microscopic particles throughout the system which
have an abrasive effect on the system as a whole . This, in turn, produces more particles and
increased wear in a snowballing effect until the contamination and resulting wear reaches a critical
level.

Externally Introduced Contamination

Generally, the industrial environments that Engel machines operate in, are not the cleanest.
During normal operation, the level in the reservoir is constantly changing. For example, when a
cylinder extends, the oil level drops and the reservoir inhales air contaminated with dust and water
vapor. These contaminants mix with the oil and then enter the system.

Engel systems are equipped with a number of devices to remove contamination from the
hydraulic fluid.
1. Strainers
2. Filters
3. Magnets
4. Tank Baffles

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 209


MAINTENANCE:
Strainer

Engel uses a 40 micron suction filter located between the reservoir and the pump inlet. The
suction filter is immersed horizontally within the tank, at this location there is very little pressure
differential or fluid velocity across the filtering element.

This arrangement increases the filter's efficiency since the low fluid velocity will not disturb the
particles already collected, and the low pressure differential will not encourage any of the
collected particles to be forced through the filter. This strainer should be cleaned one month after
initial start-up and semi-annually thereafter.

Filters

Engel employs a pressure filter downstream from the pump. This is a 10 micron pressure filter
which provides maximum protection for the machine components directly downstream from the
filter outlet. It is designed to handle maximum system pressure with a high degree of filtration and
relatively long service life.

Machines equipped with a Moog servo-valve will have an additional filter fitted to the injection
manifold. This is designed to provide the extra filtration normally required for servo-valves.

Magnets

Located within the casing of the suction filter is a permanent magnet which is designed to collect
any minute particles of steel within the fluid. These steel particles occur due to the friction involved
during the normal operation of the machines (i.e. pump friction, valve friction, etc.)

Tank Baffles

Engel machine reservoirs are designed to allow time for heat radiation (i.e. cooling) and to allow
time for contaminants within the hydraulic fluid to settle to the bottom of the tank and out of the
mainstream of fluid flow. For example, water cannot be removed from the system by filtration, but
it will settle out. This is achieved by strategically placing baffles in the tank to slow the flow of oil
from the return side of the tank to the suction side. There is an inspection cover located on the
side of every Engel machine to allow for the periodic cleaning of the inside of the reservoir.

210 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
4.3.1 HIGH AND MEDIUM-PRESSURE FILTER

High or medium pressure filters are routinely installed directly after the pump outlet. Machines
which are equipped with a Moog Valve will also have a high or medium pressure filter installed in
the valve pilot line.

ELECTRICAL
INDICATOR
POP UP INDICATOR

BYPASS SENSOR

FILTER ELEMENT
BYPASS VALVE

FILTER BOWL

Figure 6.6 High or Medium Pressure Filter.

There are two types of alarm indications for these type of pressure filters:

Mechanical type alarm.

The mechanical type alarm which has an indicator which pops up when the filter is dirty. Cold
starts may cause the contamination indicator to pop up, but once the machine is up to normal
running temperature and the pop up indicator will not stay down when pressed the filter should be
changed. This type of filter alarm should be visually checked every day.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 211


MAINTENANCE:
Electrical type alarm.

The electrical type of alarm indicator will cause the machine to stop if the alarm is tripped. Cold
starts may cause the contamination indicator to pop up and a warning signal sent to the controller,
but once the machine is up to normal running temperature and the pop up indicator will not stay
down when pressed and/or the warning signal continues, the filter should be changed.

The controller is always "looking" for a 24 volt signal to indicate that the filter is OK. If the signal is
not present, the controller assumes that the filter is dirty, stops the machine, and indicates the
problem on the error page.

NOTE!

Maintain an adequate supply of spare elements; disposable elements cannot


be cleaned.

Filter Element Replacement.


1. Shut system down and ensure filter pressure is zero
2. Unscrew filter bowl - counterclockwise
3. Clean filter bowl with suitable cleaning solvent.
4. Remove the filter element from the filterhead, a side to side movement may be necessary
to free the element.
5. Check all "O" rings, "back up rings and seals for damage, replace if necessary.
6. Ensure that the part number on the new element corresponds with the part number on the
filter nameplate.
7. Open one end of the plastic bag and push the element over the receiving piece in the filter
head.
8. Remove the plastic bag completely.
9. Screw the filter bowl over the element until it comes to a full stop and then back off the
bowl 1/8 to 1/2 turn.

212 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
4.3.2 HYDRAULIC SUCTION FILTER

The suction filter prevents dirt particles from the oil tank from entering the pump and consequently
the entire hydraulic system. Metal particles are collected on a magnetic bar inside the filter.

If the filter should become totally clogged, a vacuum switch signals the problem to the control unit.
The result is an immediate shutdown of the pump motor and the heat zones are switched to
standby temperature settings.

Before a restart can be attempted the suction filter must be dismantled and cleaned.

2 3 5 6 10 11 7 8 9

1 4

Figure 6.7 Suction Filter

Spare parts list :


Part 1 Valve actuator
Part 2 Seal
Part 3 Filter cover with screen seat
Part 4 Cap screws
Part 5 "O" ring
Part 6 Nut
Part 7 Valve disk
Part 8 Valve spring
Part 9 Valve box
Part 10 Screen insert
Part 11 Magnetic bar

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 213


MAINTENANCE:
Screen cleaning instructions
To remove the screen insert:
• Place a suitable container under the drip tray drain plug and remove the drain plug.
• Screw the valve actuator out fully, to close the valve.
• Remove cap screws from the end cover.
• Remove the end cover, screen and magnetic bar as one.
• Lightly tap the screen to release it from the taper in the end cover.
• Clean the screen with a suitable cleansing agent ( benzene, benzole etc. ).
• Strip off stubborn dirt particles with the end of a soft pencil.
• Clean the magnetic bar.
• Fit the screen into the taper of the end cover.
• Ensure that the valve actuator is fully screwed out before fitting the end cover / filter
assembly into the valve box.
• Ensure that the "O" ring is properly seated, and hold the end cover assembly / filter to the
valve box.
• Fit the cap screws, and tighten them evenly in rotation around the end cover.
• Screw the valve actuator in fully to allow oil flow.

The suction filter shown in figure 6.8 is often used on smaller machines.

FILTER ELEMENT

OIL IN
OIL OUT

COVER

VALVE

A6311512 OIL IN
Figure 6.8. Suction Filter

To remove and clean this style of filter:


1. Place a suitable container under the drip tray drain plug and remove the drain plug.
2. Unscrew filter cover and withdraw filter element. The valve will close during the
unscrewing to prevent the discharge of oil from the tank.
3. Clean filter element by immersing in a suitable cleaning solvent and moving the element
around to dissolve and dislodge the dirt deposits.
4. Check seals and reinstall.

214 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
BY-PASS FILTERS

Filtroil - By-pass filtration unit.

Full time by-pass filtration is an effective way of improving the overall filtration system and also the
quality of the hydraulic oil used.

Full flow filters are limited in their ability to remove and hold small particles and maintain proper
circulation pressure.

The Filtroil by-pass system allows a consistent low pressure oil flow rate from a high pressure line
of the hydraulic system (between 100 and 3000 psi), into a filter housing and through a cellulose
filter element. The by-pass system filters approximately 10 to 20% of the oil per hour, over the
course of a few weeks the system oil will be upgraded and maintained at approximately 2 to 5
grades cleaner than new oil. Many hydraulic and machine problems can be traced back to
contaminated oil.

Construction and principle of operation.

The Filtroil system consists of :


1. Filter canister.
2. Filter lid.
3. Tee bar / oil feed.
4. Pressure gauge.
5. Pressure compensated flow control valve.
6. Shut Off valve.
7. Test / Drain valve.

The filter element is effectively sealed inside the canister of the unit (See figure 6.9), the bottom
of the element is seated on two ridges , one inner and one outer, the lid is tightened down onto the
element to prevent oil from flowing down the sides of the element.. The element has a
polypropylene compression skirt around the bottom to ensure that no oil escapes to tank before it
is forced through the filter element.

The unit is designed to take hydraulic oil at between 100 to 3000 psi, through a flow control valve,
which is acting as a pressure reducing valve. The oil is then feed up through the middle of the tee
bar to the top of the cellulose filter, where under pressure the oil is forced through the filter to the
bottom of the unit which is at atmospheric pressure, and the oil flows to tank.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 215


MAINTENANCE:
The nature of the filter element, which is constructed as a roll of many layers of lightweight
cellulose fibre, when compressed by the oil pressure is that the layers become progressively
compacted, as the bottom of the filter is neared. This has the effect of filtering progressively
smaller particles as the oil is forced to the bottom of the unit. Cellulose fibre also has the ability to
absorb moisture and the element can hold approximately half a pint of water, but on the downside
the water degrades the elements filtering ability, the water tends to hold the layers apart which
prevents the element from successfully trapping the smaller particles.
The element will trap suspended particles as small as 0.1 micron, but will not affect any oil
additives because the additives are in solution and are effectively part of the hydraulic oil.

TEE BAR / OIL FEED

"U" RING
GASKET
LID

OIL WAY
TO TOP OF
ELEMENT FILTER
ELEMENT

CANISTER FILTER
SEATING
RIDGE

MESH

OIL RETURN
TO TANK
PRESSURE
GAUGE
TEST/DRAIN
VALVE

Figure 6.9 Filtroil By-pass Filter System

216 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Periodic Maintenance.

To ensure that Filtroil by-pass system is working at maximum efficiency, carry out the following
regular checks:

Daily. Check pressure Less than 75 psi = OK


gauge reading More than 75 psi = clogged filter needs changing.

3 Monthly. Check gasket set Replace if defective.

Change filter element Refer to element change section in this chapter.

Check pressure Cycle Shut Off valve and observe rise and fall of gauge.
gauge function.

Oil sample analysis Take sample for analysis using Test / Drain valve.

6 Monthly. Check flow rate Note time required to fill container of known size, check
through Flow Control result against specifications for unit (Range 0.3 to 1.5
Valve to Filtroil unit. gallons per minute).

Insert flow meter in oil line to filter unit, check as before.

Flow rate through Control Valve

Model BU-50 BU-100 BU-200 BU-400

0.3GPM 0.5GPM 0.75GPM 1.5GPM

Filtroil Filter Element Change.

To change the element proceed as follows:


1. Turn off the Shut Off Valve, ensure pressure gauge reads zero.
2. Slowly unfasten and remove Tee- Bolt, to allow any oil left inside the housing to escape to
tank.
3. Place container under Test/Drain valve and open to fully drain the canister.
4. Remove the lid and "U" ring gasket.
5. Using hooks on filter, slowly remove filter. Slight side to side motion may be required if any
resistance is felt.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 217


MAINTENANCE:
6. Fit new filter element, push down lightly on the filter to ensure a good seal.

NOTE!

A. PLASTIC SKIRT AT BOTTOM OF FILTER ELEMENT MUST BE IN PLACE.


B. NEVER POUR OIL ON TOP OF NEW ELEMENT.

7. Fit the "U" ring gasket on the top lip of the canister.
8. Fit lid and Tee- Bar, carefully hand tighten the Tee-bar ensuring that the lid does not turn too.
9. Return Test/Drain valve to Off position.
10. Slowly turn the Shut-off Valve to the on position.
11. Check connections for leaks.
12. Ensure that the pressure gauge rises to between 20 and 40 psi as the Filtroil system matches
the machine system.
13. Fill out element change sticker with the correct date and stick to Filtroil canister.
14. Allow 24 hours for the old filter to drain into a suitable container, then dispose of the filter in
the approved manner.

218 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
By-Pass Filter System Trouble Shooting.

Symptom Cause Solutions

Gauge always reads too Element saturated with con- Change element
high taminants
Gauge reads incorrectly Check function of gauge
Flow control valve installed Install flow control valve correctly
backwards
Hole in bottom of Tee Bar Remove Tee Bar and clean out
clogged hole
Oil poured on top of element at Replace element.
time of change.
Element installed incorrectly Check installation of element.
Restriction in outlet side of Check outlet at bottom of canis-
unit. ter and outlet hose for restriction.

Oil analysis shows Improper sampling. Review sampling methods, use


unchanged or worsening sampling valve on unit.
ISO code.
Make up oil added without pre- Always filter new oil.
filtering.
Contaminants introduced dur- Do not sample oil after repairs.
ing repairs.

Gauge reads too low or Shut off valve not fully open. Open shut off valve fully
needle never rises over
time.
Plastic skirt missing from bot- Replace element.
tom of element.
Incorrect tap-in port chosen on Unit requires hydraulic pressure
hydraulic system (pressure of between 100 and 3000 psi, re-
may be dropping to less than install shut off valve.
100 psi).
Flow control valve is clogged. Remove valve clean and check
flow rate, replace if not to specifi-
cations.
See page 6-11 for flow rate.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 219


MAINTENANCE:
Oil Sampling.

Regular oil sampling is recommended to monitor the state of the hydraulic oil in the machine,
records kept over the course of a few months will indicate any deterioration in the machine or in
oil quality.

Laboratory testing of oil samples will provide the following information:

Particle count - The number of actual particles, listed by size, in one millilitre of oil.

Viscosity classification - This number is a leading indicator of hydraulic fluid condition, and
should be compared with the original specification.

TAN (Total Acid Number) - The measurement of the amount of oxidation that hasoccurred in
the oil.

ISO Code - The two part number indicates the cleanliness of the hydraulic fluid,
the first number is the total number of particles greater than 5
microns and the second number indicates the total number of parti-
cles greater than 15 microns in a one millilitre sample. The greater
the ISO number the greater the potential for wear.

Water Content - The amount of water in a one millilitre sample as a percentage.

Spectroscopic Analysis - This lists the wear metals and additives in the oil sample and are
specified in parts per million, this information is useful in tracking
build up of certain metals in the fluid which may indicate excessive
wear in a particular part of the machine.

Careful attention should be paid to the oil analysis charts of each machine and any signification
rise in metals present in the oil sample noted.

A prediction can be made, based on the oil analysis information, of an imminent failure of that
machine and preventive action could be taken to prevent any other damage to the machine.

Other information contained in the oil analysis chart can indicate when an hydraulic fluid is coming
to the end of it's useful life and requires changing.

220 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5 HYDRAULIC MOTORS
ENGEL injection molding machines use hydraulic motors to convert hydraulic energy into rotary
mechanical energy in order to turn the plasticizing screw.

The tooth ring motor below shows a gearwheel set with a fixed gear rim and an inner gear wheel.

A B C

1 GEAR RIM INNER GEAR GEARWHEEL SET


2
7 2

6 3

5 4 6
O
15 CARDEN SHAFT OUTPUT SHAFT

In response to a pressurized flow of oil, the inner gear would be forced away from a tooth slot and
would rotate about its axis towards the following tooth slots. As the inner gear rotates towards the
following tooth slot, this area would be connected to tank to allow the fluid contained in this area
to escape. The pressurization and connections to tank are accomplished through a spool valve
built into the output shaft.

The rotation of the inner gear is transmitted to the output shaft via a "Carden shaft" which is
connects the inner gear and output shaft but is free to float and follows the orbit of the inner gear.

In the figure above, assume that the inner gear wheel is turning counter-clockwise, .the relative
positions of the inner gear are shown as the gear rotates around the inside of the gearwheel set

"A" shows the gear wheel in a position just before the bottom tooth engages tooth slot 4.

"B" shows the gear wheel in a position just before the extreme left tooth engages tooth slot 6.

"C" shows the gear wheel in a position just before the upper right tooth engages tooth slot 2.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 221


MAINTENANCE:
The motors used on Engel machines, have rollers on the gearwheel rim, permitting higher
operating pressures and providing a longer operating life. Instead of a spool valve providing the
pressure and tank connections, this motor type has a separate disc type distributor valve that
performs the pressurization and tank venting functions.
When changing a leaky retaining ring on the Danfloss OMR motors, care should be taken not to
disconnect the output shaft from the carden shaft . If the shafts do become disconnected they
must be oriented as shown in figure 6.4A, or the motor will not function correctly.
To achieve correct orientation, the keyway in the output shaft must be set at 15o from an
imaginary line drawn down through the center of the inner gear.

Danfoss Motor (30 - 300 Ton)


Engel machines of 30 to 300 Tons are usually equipped with the Danfoss Screw Drive Motor.
(types OMA, OMR, OMV)

DANFOSS SCREW
DRIVE MOTOR

Figure 6.11

Rotary Piston Motor (Sauer)

Previously Engel machines of 400 Tons and up have used the Sauer rotary piston screw drive
motor (optionally on the 300 Ton).

ROTARY PISTON
SCREW DRIVE
MOTOR
Figure 6.12

222 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Description of Operation

Shaft rotation is accomplished; high pressure fluid flows through axial ports in the shaft. The
eccentric on the crankshaft has two opposing flats and ports the fluid to the pentagon, then
through the hollow piston and into the cylinder chamber. The result is that the high pressure fluid
produces a force on the lever arm of the eccentric and turns the shaft.

Force is not transmitted by the piston, but by the hydraulic pressure acting directly on the
eccentric. The piston provides a sleeve for sealing the cylinder chamber. The pentagon does not
rotate, however, it does move in an eccentric pattern as high pressure shifts from one cylinder to
another.

1 2

3 4

Figure 6.13. Rotary Piston Pump.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 223


MAINTENANCE:
5.1 HYDRAULIC PUMPS.

All Engel machines (30-450 Ton) use variable displacement pumps and some Engel machines
(300-450 Ton) use a combination of both variable displacement and fixed displacement pumps.
The larger Engel machines (550 -3500 Tons) employ a configuration of fixed displacement pumps
employing a load sensing pressure relief system.
The flow of variable displacement pumps can be adjusted to accommodate for varying system
requirements.
The flow of fixed displacement pumps cannot be varied, unless the input speed of the electric
motor is varied. All the electric motors used run at a constant 1800 RPM, so the output of the fixed
displacement pump will be constant as well.

5.1.1 VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS


To save energy, all Engel machines use a variable displacement pump equipped with a load
sensing control. The load sensing control virtually eliminates heat related problems in the
hydraulic system. Machines 150 Ton and up, use radial piston pumps and smaller machines use
in-line axial piston pumps.
Radial Piston Pump.

The radial piston pump is an internal admission, pilot valve controlled reciprocating pump with
pistons arranged radially in a star-shaped cylinder block which abuts an eccentric stroke ring
through hydrostatically balanced slipper pads. The output delivery of the pump can be varied or
reversed by altering the eccentricity of the stroke ring with the control pistons.

224 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Mode of operation
The drive torque is transferred from the pump shaft to the star-shaped cylinder block free from any
transverse forces via a cross-disc coupling. The cylinder block is supported on the control journal
which rotates on the pump shaft. The radial pistons in the cylinder block is supported in the stroke
ring with hydrostatically balanced slipper pads.
Piston and slipper pad are joined by a ball and socket joint which is held in place by a lock ring.
The slipper pads are guided in the stroke ring by two overlapping rings and, when running, are
forced against the stroke ring by centrifugal force and oil pressure. As the cylinder block rotates,
the pistons perform a reciprocating motion due to the eccentric position of the stroke ring, the
piston stroke being twice the eccentricity. The eccentric position of the stroke ring can be altered
by means of two diametrically opposite control pistons in the pump body. The oil flow to and from
the pump passes through ducts in the body and control journal. The flow is controlled by the
suction and delivery ports in the control journal.
The pressure forces generated inside the pump are absorbed by surfaces which are almost fully
hydrostatically balanced. The rolling bearing supporting the drive shaft is subjected to external
forces only.

Figure 6.15. Radial Piston Pump - Stroke Control.

Hydraulic stroke-ring adjustment


The hydraulic control pistons 1 and 2 are used to vary the eccentricity of the stroke ring. The
effective areas of the two pistons differ by a ratio of 2:1. The pistons are arranged vertically to the
direction of delivery flow. The smaller piston (2) is constantly subjected to high pressure and
presses the stroke ring against the larger control piston(1). Depending upon the operating state,
the larger control piston is either blocked by the control valve or is subjected to pressure or is
relieved of pressure. As a result, the stroke ring is either held stationary or moves in one or the
other direction accordingly. When doing so, it "rolls" on the inside of the housing wall.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 225


MAINTENANCE:
The control pistons are so designed, that under all circumstances they are powerful enough to
master the reaction power of the drive unit, the forces of gravity and the frictional forces. On
pumps with one direction of flow, the control pressure is taken directly off from the high pressure
channel in the control journal. From here, it passes through additional control bores to control
piston 2 and to the control valve.
The direction of rotation is determined by the position of the control-oil bore on the "shrunk-on"
control journal, and cannot be changed.

In-line Axial Piston Pump

Figure 6.16. In-line Axial Piston Pump

The in-line variable displacement piston pump develops a flow rate, dependent upon the angle of
its controlling swashplate. As the angle of the swashplate increases from vertical, the
displacement of the pump increases. Similarly, as the angle decreases the displacement of the
pistons decrease towards a position of zero pump output.
As the cylinder block rotates, it carries along each of the reciprocating pistons. During half of the
revolution, the pistons are being pulled from their bores causing oil to be drawn into the pump.
During the other half of the revolution, the pistons are being pushed into the bores causing oil to
be forced out of the pump.

Load Sensing Controls


Load sensing controls react to the pressure drop across the flow valve and so if the pressure drop
can be controlled, then so can the flow rate. The pressure drop, and therefore the flow rate, can
be affected by the following variables:
1. If the flow valve inlet is assumed to remain constant and the load pressure at the outlet
increases, the pressure drop would decrease. The net effect would be a system slowdown
resulting from the increased load.

226 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
2. If the flow valve inlet pressure increased while the outlet pressure remained constant, the
pressure drop would increase. The net effect would be a system speed-up.
3. By opening and closing the flow control valve the resistance to flow is changed. The lower
the resistance, the less pressure drop is needed from the inlet to the outlet for any
particular flow rate.
4. The temperature of a fluid affects its viscosity and, therefore, its resistance to flow. Hot oil
flows more easily than cold oil through a given restriction.
The load sensing control is based on the idea that if a constant pressure drop is maintained
across an orifice, then flow control will be constant as well.

Figure 6.17. Load Sensing Diagram.

In Figure 6.17 a pressure drop of 10 bar is shown across the flow valve (measuring orifice). The
lower pressure occurs after the flow valve and the higher pressure occurs from the pump to the
flow valve inlet.
The higher pressure of the flow valve inlet is also felt on the slide valve working against the spring.
The lower pressure of the flow valve outlet is felt in the spring cavity and when this pressure is
combined with the psi rating of the spring, the pump is in balance, delivering just enough flow to
maintain the 10 bar pressure drop across the flow valve.
If the load at the actuator was reduced, an immediately drop in load induced pressure at the flow
valve outlet would be evident. Since the pressure drop would increase, the higher pressure of the
flow valve inlet side would shift the slide valve to the left causing the larger control piston to be
vented to tank. The smaller piston would then be able to shift the pump stroke ring to a position of
lower flow capacity until the 10 bar pressure drop was re-gained.
If the load induced pressure increased, there would be a decrease in the pressure drop and the
system would slow down unless the pump could increase the pressure drop again.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 227


MAINTENANCE:
The increase in load induced pressure would increase the pressure acting on the slide valve
forcing it to the right and loading the larger control piston with system pressure. This causes the
pump to increase its output flow until the resistance to this flow creates a pressure at the inlet of
the flow valve, 10 bar higher than the pressure at the outlet.

The pressure pilot valve (see Figure 6.17) limits the maximum feedback pressure to the load
sensing control. When the load induced pressure exceeds the pressure pilot valve setting, the
valve opens and limits the maximum force available to push the valve to the right. As soon as the
pressure at the pump outlet exceeds the limited load induced pressure plus spring force, the slide
valve moves to the left causing the pump to go into "deadhead". The pump compensates and
supplies only enough fluid to maintain system pressure and replace leakage losses.

The calibrated orifice limits the control oil flow when the pilot valve operates. If too much flow
potential were allowed in this control line, the pressure override characteristic would adversely
affect the proper operation of the pump. Pressure override is the difference between full flow
pressure and cracking pressure.

On smaller machines, the Rexroth in-line axial piston pumps are used, which are functionally
different to the radial piston pumps of Bosch. The load sensing unit, however, works in the same
manner for both pumps.

228 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Balanced Vane Pump
When a fixed displacement pump is required on an Engel machine, a balanced vane pump is
often used. Figure 6.18 below shows the major components.

Figure 6.18. Balanced Vane Pump


The balanced vane pump comprises a rotor, an eccentric cam ring, and vanes. The rotor is
generally keyed to the drive shaft and is turned by the prime mover. Around the circumference of
the rotor are machined slots which hold the vanes in place. Only the drive shaft, rotor and vanes
move when the pump is in operation. All other parts remain stationary.

When the rotor initially turns, centrifugal force causes the vanes to follow the contours of the outer
eccentric cam ring. Therefore, each vane is fully extended and fully collapsed during each
revolution. This pump is termed "balanced" because it has two pressure outlets and two suction
inlets.

As the rotor turns, at the inlet port, a vane starts to extend and collects an increasing volume of
oil. The vane continues turning towards a position in the cam ring which, because of its
decreasing volume, pressurizes the fluid and forces it out through the outlet port. The same action
is occurring at the other side of the pump which has the effect of offsetting any hydraulic forces or
loading on the rotor and pump bearing.

After the vane starts to "pick up" fluid from the inlet port, the back of the vane is subjected to
"system pressure" which forces the vane out against the eccentric cam ring. This prevents the
fluid, which will be subjected to the decreasing volume area during pressurization, from escaping
the pressure area.

At Engel, we use the dual vane design which provides a double seal between the pumping
chambers and allows for hydrostatic balancing of the vane which reduces vane tip loading.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 229


MAINTENANCE:
5.2 CHECK VALVES.

Basic Check Valve.

The check valve comprises a stationary seat, moveable poppet and spring as shown in figure
6.19.

The valve is initially closed against flow until the pressure at the inlet, working over the exposed
area of the poppet, is sufficient to overcome the spring.

Once the poppet is unseated, the fluid flows around and through the poppet to the outlet

BASIC CHECK VALVE


CHECK (NON RETURN) POPPET
VALVE
SYMBOL

A6411540

INLET OUTLET
SPRING

Figure 6.19.

When flow stops, pressure in all parts of a hydraulic circuit equalize. As the pressure equalizes,
the hydraulic forces on both sides of the poppet become nearly equal.
The valve actually closes when the output pressure plus the spring tension is equal to the input
pressure, the output pressure is in fact lower than the input.
The function of the check valve is to capture a column of fluid prevent back flow.
Check valves are available in various designs, but the guided poppet type is preferred for two
reasons:
1. The guided poppet always makes contact with the seat squarely and in the same position.
2. The guided poppet does not chatter at high flow rates, unlike the unguided versions.

230 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

TYPES OF CHECK VALVES

BALL POPPET GUIDED CARTRIDGE


POPPET

Figure 6.20

5.2.1 PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVES.


The pilot operated check valve performs as a simple check valve, in that it allows free flow in one
direction and checks the flow in the other.
The pilot section allows the check valve to be piloted open at times when reverse flow is required.

PILOT
CONTROLLED
CHECK ACTUATOR
VALVE

HYDRAULIC
SYMBOL DIRECT
CONTROL
VALVE

Figure 6.21
As shown in figure 6.21 the pilot piston area is larger than that of the check valve poppet and
therefore exerts a greater force which will unseat the check valve and allow reverse flow.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 231


MAINTENANCE:
With the direct control valve in the central position the load is held in a static position because:
• The pump flow is divert to tank through the relief valve.
• The check valve traps a column of fluid under the actuator piston.
• The pressure on the faces of the pilot piston and check valve poppet is vented to tank.

With the direct control valve extended to the left the load will be raised because:
• The pump flow and pressure is applied to the face of the check valve poppet.
• The valve is unseated and allows fluid to flow through to the actuator.
• The top side of the actuator and pilot piston are vented to tank.

With the direct control valve extended to the right the load will be lowered because:
• The pump flow and pressure are diverted to the top of the actuator.
• The pump pressure is also applied to the face of the pilot piston.
• The check valve is unseated.
• The face of the check valve poppet is vented to tank.
• The fluid from the bottom of the actuator can flow through the check valve to tank.

Applications of pilot operated check valves:


1. Load holding; when the check valve is the only sure way to lock a suspended load, which
is affected by gravity, in position.
2. Preventing cylinder chatter; when the load has a tendency to run ahead of the load.

232 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Sandwich mounted twin pilot operated check valves.
A sandwich mounted twin pilot operated check valve is mounted conveniently between the
directional control valve and the sub-plate to provide two way load holding capability.

LOAD SIDE
A1 B1 SPRING

TWIN
CHECK
VALVES

DIRECTIONAL
VALVE

A B POPPET
PILOT PISTON
DIRECTIONAL VALVE SIDE

A6411544

Figure 6.22

With the directional valve in the central position, both sides of the pilot piston and the face area of
the check valves are vented to tank.
The cylinder is positively locked against motion in either direction as the check valves are closed
and have trapped a column of fluid on both sides of the actuator.
When the directional valve is shifted to the right the actuator piston extends because:
• The pump flow and pressure are diverted to the face of the right-hand check valve
poppet.
• The right-hand poppet is unseated and the fluid flows to the actuator.
• The pressure also shifts the pilot piston to the left.
• The left-hand check valve poppet is unseated.
• The left-hand section of the actuator is vented to tank.
• The left-hand section of the pilot piston is vented to tank.
• The fluid from the left-hand side of the actuator flows to tank.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 233


MAINTENANCE:
When the directional valve is shifted to the left, the actuator piston retracts because:
• The pump flow and pressure are diverted to the face of the left-hand check valve poppet.
• The left-hand poppet is unseated and the fluid flows to the actuator.
• The pressure also shifts the pilot piston to the right.
• The right-hand check valve poppet is unseated.
• The right-hand section of the actuator is vented to tank.
• The right-hand section of the pilot piston is vented to tank.
• The fluid from the right-hand side flows to tank.

234 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.3 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES.

The purpose of a relief valve is to limit the maximum pressure within a system to which it is
connected.

Relief valves are normally placed near to a load, such as a pump, and connected in parallel with
the load. The oil has two possible paths to flow in, either into the system or through the valve to
tank, depending upon which path has the least resistance.

Therefore any problem or blockage ahead in the system restricting flow and thereby pressure can
be vented to the main reservoir tank, once the pressure has overcome the setting of the relief
valve.

The figures below show in simplified form the pressure relief valve in circuit and the symbols found
on hydraulic circuit diagrams

G LOAD
G LOAD

RELIEF VALVE RELIEF VALVE

p p

PUMP PUMP

A6411554

TANK TANK

Figure 6.23

Directly operated pressure relief valves are simple in design and effective in low flow high
pressure applications such as thermal expansion relief or where an infrequent safety duty is
required. they are also highly effective as pilot relief valves for pilot operated pressure control.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 235


MAINTENANCE:
5.3.1 PILOT OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES.

The pilot operated pressure relief performs the same function as the directly operated valves in
that it serves to protect the system components from over pressure, but is capable of relieving
more than 75 GPM.
The pilot operated pressure relief valve is basically two relief valves in one unit. One section
handles high pressure, low flow and the other handles high flow, low pressure.
In the figure below of a pilot operated relief valve, the system oil pressure is applied at the bottom
of the poppet, but because the top of the poppet has trapped oil working on a slightly larger
surface area plus a spring the poppet stays closed.
When the system pressure increases passed the setting on the pilot valve, the pilot opens
relieving the oil on top of the poppet and allowing the system pressure to open the poppet even
further until the pressure decreases and the pilot valve shuts thereby closing the poppet.

VALVE
ADJUSTMENT

PILOT RELIEF
VALVE

SIMPLE PILOT
OPERATED RELIEF

MAIN VALVE

POPPET

SYSTEM PRESSURE

Figure 6.24.

236 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.3.2 DIRECTLY CONTROLLED PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE
The pressure reducing valve is designed to maintain a secondary circuit at a constant pressure,
usually lower than the primary circuit.
The pressure is set by an adjusting screw and spring tensioner at the end of the valve.
The valve is a normally open device and while the primary pressure is at or below the preset value
of the valve, the aperture will remain fully open. Any pressure increase in the secondary circuit is
sensed at the valve and when the increase overcomes the opposition of the spring tensioner, the
spool is moved up the valve causing the output aperture to be restricted reducing the flow and
thereby the pressure.
As the pressure is reduced the force acting on the spool is reduced and the hydraulic pressure is
balanced against the spring. If the pressure within the secondary circuit drops the aperture will
open allowing greater flow and thus increasing the pressure.
The reducing valve aperture continually varies in response to pressure changes in the secondary
circuit to maintain a constant pressure.
If the pressure build up in the secondary circuit increases, even though the reducing valve
aperture is completely shut off, the excess fluid is vented to tank either via a bleed arrangement
into the spring area or by a third stage of the valve whereby another aperture opens as the spring
is compressed further beyond the normally shut position.
When flow rates exceed about 12.5 GPM it is recommended that a pilot operated pressure
reducing valve is used to handle the greater flow rates.

DIRECTLY CONTROLLED
BLEED OIL PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE
PASSAGE SYMBOL

TO SECONDARY
CIRCUIT

PRESSURE
SENSING
LINE

EXCESS SECONDARY CIRCUIT PRESSURE


FORCES SPOOL UP AGAINST SPRING

Figure 6.25

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 237


MAINTENANCE:
5.3.3 PILOT OPERATED PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE.

Pilot operated reducing valves must be used for higher flow rates, since the increased spring
force, with the increased displacement that would be required with a direct control reducing valve
would make them impractical and have an adverse effect on performance.
The valve comprises a pressure reducing valve and a pressure relief valve for pilot control.
The pilot operated valve senses the secondary system pressure at the outlet port, and as long as
the relief valve stays closed, pressures are equal above and below the main control spool.
The light spring force holds the spool in a fully open position, and remains open until the
secondary system pressure overcomes the spring setting of the relief valve.
When the relief valve sense an increase in pressure above the set value, the relief valve opens
relieving the pressure behind the spool to tank.
The pressure imbalance on the spool cause the spool to be moved up because of the higher
pressure acting on the front face. As the spool closes it restricts the opening that the fluid can flow
through and in doing so reduces the pressure. When the pressure has been reduced to the set
level on the relief valve, the valve closes
The pressure behind and in front of the spool are now balanced and the spool will opened under
the small force of the spring.

Figure 6.26

238 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.4 DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES
One of the most important advantages of hydraulics is the ease by which energy transfer can be
made to occur. For example, once we extend a cylinder, we might want to redirect the flow of
energy to retract the cylinder after it has performed its work. In the diagram below, simply by
switching the control valve from one position to the other, we are able to effect cylinder extension
and then retraction.

EXTEND RETRACT

P T P T
Figure 6.27.

Directional control valves are not only activated by solenoids. but also springs and mechanical
cam rollers can be used to initiate control valve switching. The diagrams below show three
methods of control valve switching. The valve on the top can be activated by the solenoid for one
position and, when the solenoid de-activates, switching is done by the spring return. The diagram
on the bottom shows a mechanical cam roller to switch one way and a spring return for the other
direction. The drawing on the right shows a cutaway view of the cam roller.

SPRING SOLENOID

CAM ROLLER

CAM ROLLER
SPRING

Figure 6.28.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 239


MAINTENANCE:
The working ports of the directional control valves are generally labelled with the letters 'A' and 'B'
while the pressure and tank connections are labelled 'P' for Pressure and 'T' for Tank, respectively.
The solenoids are generally labelled with lower case 'a' and lower case 'b' if there are two
switching solenoids.
These valves are often referred to in a "way-position" manner as shown below:

SWITCH
POSITIONS
ACTIVE
PORTS
A
2/2
POSITION
VALVE
P

A
3/2
POSITION
VALVE
P T

A B
4/2
POSITION A6410129

VALVE T
P

Figure 6.29

NOTE!

The number of ways in a valve refers to the number of active


ports in each valve.
The number of positions refers to the mode of each port with
respect to the fluid (i.e. fluid flowing or blocked).

240 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
There are a large number of possible valve configurations. The diagrams below show various
examples of way valves.

2 WAY VALVE

3 WAY VALVES

4 WAY VALVES

Figure 6.30.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 241


MAINTENANCE:
The diagram shows the internal workings of the directional control valve and how it changes flow
direction in response to various spool positions.

A B

P T

T A P B

Figure 6.31.

For example, if the spool were switched to the right, port 'B' would be connected to pressure and
port 'A' would be connected to tank. If the spool were switched to the left, port 'A' would be
connected to pressure and port 'B' would be connected to tank. If the valve was left in the middle
position, all ports would be blocked.
A large number of different flow directions may be produced from the same casing design by
varying the spool design as shown in the figure 6.32 below.

A B A B

P T P T

A B A B

P T P T

A B A B

P T P T

Figure 6.32.

242 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.4.1 PILOT OPERATED DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES.

Because of their design, direct acting directional control valves are limited in their flow capacity.
Sometimes it is necessary to use another four way valve, known as a pilot valve, to effect the
switching of the main directional valve rather than just a solenoid. The pilot valve will be switched
by the solenoid and then the pilot valve will cause the switching of the main directional control
valve.

PILOT VALVE
(SOLENOID ACTUATED)

B A

T B P A R

MAIN VALVE
(PILOT ACTUATED)

A6411538

Figure 6.33.

The higher flow directional control valve is somewhat larger than a direct operated directional
control valve; if it wasn't pilot operated, the solenoid actuator would have to be excessively large.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 243


MAINTENANCE:
5.5 PROPORTIONAL VALVES

Some solenoids simply switch on or off, other solenoids work on a principle of proportional force
application. In response to a certain level of current, these solenoids apply an amount of force to
cause a particular valve to move a distance proportional to the force. Generally, the valve spool is
backed up by a light spring.
The more current that is applied to the solenoid, the more force (and travel) is effected in the
valve. In this way, we can control certain valve functions in a proportional manner.
For example, in the diagram below, an analog output is sent to the appropriate valve driver card
causing a current to be applied to the solenoid.

SOLENOID
SIGNAL
ANALOG PA88 K+
OUTPUT /PA89
K-

K VALVE
(PRESSURE)

FEEDBACK
SIGNAL
TANK
Figure 6.34.

The above schematic shows an analog output to the driver card which then sends a particular
current level to the solenoid of the K-valve. The signal is sent via the K+ and K- leads to the
proportional solenoid. The other leads provide feedback of the valve spools actual position in
order to correct errors in position.

244 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.5.1 PROPORTIONAL PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE

The main system pressure control valve used on Engel machines is a proportional valve, referred
to as the K-valve. As discussed in the last section, the force exerted by the solenoid can be
increased or decreased simply by increasing or decreasing the current supplied to the solenoid,
respectively. Therefore, an increase in current would cause the solenoid to exert more force
against the spring, which would increase the relief pressure.
The graph and the drawing below illustrate the above principle.

VALVE POPPET

CURRENT
SOLENOID PRESSURE
SPRING

TANK

RELIEF PRESSURE

Figure 6.35.
The input current produces a proportional deflection of the solenoid armature which acts on the
valve poppet through a compression spring. The pressure on the poppet governs the oil pressure
therefore the oil pressure is proportional to the input signal.

POSITION TRANSDUCER VALVE POPPET


VALVE SPRING
VALVE SEAT

PROPORTIONAL SOLENOID T P

Figure 6.36

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 245


MAINTENANCE:
5.5.2 PROPORTIONAL FLOW CONTROL VALVES

The position of the valve spool, which is acted upon by the solenoid, can be varied between a full-
flow position and a no-flow position simply by increasing or decreasing the current supplied to the
solenoid, respectively.

The graph and drawing below illustrate this principle. (The drawing at the bottom of the page is a
more accurate representation of an actual valve).

TO SYSTEM

CURRENT

SOLENOID SPRING
VALVE SPOOL
FROM PUMP
FLOW IN GPM
Figure 6.37.

The input current produces a proportional deflection of the solenoid armature which acts on the
valve spool. The higher the current delivered to the solenoid, the higher the flow.

Figure 6.38.

246 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.5.3 PROPORTIONAL SOLENOID WITH POSITION TRANSDUCER.

Speed and pressure are critical on Injection molding machines. For this reason, position
transducers are used on proportional valves to guarantee that a set value of pressure, or speed
is actually achieved, with minimal error.

When the proportional solenoid receives a signal to move to a particular position, a certain
amount of error is generated. For example, this error could be caused by friction in the moving
part.

The position transducer, is mounted on the end of the valve spool and sends a signal back to the
amplifier corresponding to the actual position of the valve spool.

The feedback signal (i.e. actual position) and the set value signal (i.e. set position), are compared
electronically. A corrective signal will be sent to the solenoid if there was a difference between the
set value and the feedback signal value.

The position transducer is also known as a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). The
LVDT produces an electrical output proportional to the displacement of a separate movable core.

PROPORTIONAL
AMPLIFIER
SET
VALUE
INPUT
PRESSURE
CONTROL
LVDT

FLOW PROPORTIONAL
CONTROL SOLENOID

Figure 6.39

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 247


MAINTENANCE:
5.5.4 PROPORTIONAL DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES (PILOT OPERATED)

Pilot operated proportional directional valves are often (depending on machine size and options)
used for improved control in the clamp circuits. The main stage is a modified directional valve with
metering notches. The pilot valve moves through 4 positions and is controlled by a solenoid. Both
the main spool and pilot spool positions are sensed by transducers. The feedback signal from the
main spool is superimposed upon the pilot valve control circuit. This configuration helps to
minimize or eliminate the effect of disturbances such as flow forces and friction at the main spool.

The pilot valve meters oil flow to the main spool as it shifts between 3 operating positions when
the solenoid is energized. When the solenoid is not energized oil pressure at the main spool is
relieved and the centering springs cause the main spool to move to the center position. This is a
fail-safe for Emergency off conditions.(Refer to symbol section of manual for hydraulic diagram).

DIRECTIONAL VALVE
PILOT VALVE
PILOT SPOOL
PILOT SPOOL
POSITION
TRANSDUCER

MAIN SPOOL
POSITION MAIN SPOOL
MAIN VALVE
TRANSDUCER
Figure 6.40.

248 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Two-stage proportional directional control valve

PILOT VALVE

A6411575

MAIN VALVE CENTERING SPRINGS


Figure 6.41.

5.6 OPEN LOOP VERSUS CLOSED LOOP (MOOG VALVE)

Some ENGEL machines are equipped with a "Moog" valve for precise injection speed, hold
pressure and plasticizing control.

In a closed loop system, feedback from the output is sensed, compared with the intended output,
and if the two "values" are different corrective action is automatically taken by the appropriate
electronic control circuit.

The crucial difference between an open and closed loop is simply feedback. The actual output of
the Moog valve is monitored and compared with the intended output. Whether the output, is
measured by pressure and velocity transducers the data is fed back to be compared with the
intended values.

In this way, the injection pressure, hold pressure and plasticizing processes are precisely
controlled in order to increase the probability of perfectly molded parts, every time.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 249


MAINTENANCE:
5.6.1 MOOG VALVES

Figure 6.42.
Principle of Operation

An electrical command signal (setpoint UQS) is supplied to the integrated control amplifier which
drives the pilot valve. The flow from the pilot valve moves the main spool. The position transducer
measures the position of the main spool (actual value ULI) and produces a feedback voltage
which is fed back to the control amplifier and compared with the command voltage. The control
amplifier drives the pilot valve until the command voltage and feedback voltage are equal. The
position of the main spool is proportional to the electrical command signal. To simplify matters, the
spool position is taken as the flow rate command. The actual flow Qx depends on the electrical
command UQS and the valve pressure drop DPx.

PILOT VALVE

POSITION
NOZZLE FLAPPER CONTROL
NOZZLE AMPLIFIER
SPOOL
POSITION
TRANSDUCER

A6481578

Figure 6.43.

250 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.6.2 TWO STAGE MOOG VALVE WITH CLOSED LOOP POSITION CONTROL

PILOT STAGE

STROKE TRANSDUCER
MAIN STAGE

P B T A P

A6411579
External pilot oil connection
with built-in rotary disk filter

PILOT STAGE

External pilot oil


connection with
built in tube filter
Y

External pilot oil


X outlet to tank

MAIN STAGE

T A P B
STROKE TRANSDUCER

Figure 6.44.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 251


MAINTENANCE:
5.6.3 THREE-STAGE MOOG VALVE WITH CLOSED LOOP POSITION CONTROL

1ST STAGE (torque motor with


mechanical feedback )

2ND STAGE (with tube filter)

X 3RD STAGE
SET VALUE STROKE TRANDUCER
U = + 10 V

COMPARATOR ACTUAL VALUE


T A P B
Figure 6.45.

252 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.7 CARTRIDGE HYDRAULICS

Engel introduced cartridge technology into its hydraulic systems for the following reasons:
• improved switching behavior
• reduced piping
• higher flow capabilities
• multiple operating modes
• reduced leakage
• high reliability
• fast operating times
• more compact, easy to maintain

The introduction of cartridge hydraulics has allowed for many complex valve functions to be
achieved through a relatively small number of basic elements. Although the cartridges must be
mounted in a custom manifold block, their simplicity solves many technological and economical
hydraulic problems.

The Components

Pilot valve

Cover plate

X Y
Ring

Valve body
Spring
B
Valve poppet
(or spool)
Manifold block
A6410148
A
Oil port

Figure 6.46.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 253


MAINTENANCE:
Within the manifold block, many different control borings are possible.
Examples of some of the possibilities are shown below.

F X F F Y

B B B

A A A

X F Y X F Y X F Y

B B B

A A A

Figure 6.47.
The drawing of the cartridge below shows three separate areas for the pressure of the system to
operate upon, A,B, or F. Depending on the pressure on F, A and B, the valve might be fully open,
fully closed, or in some modulating position between fully open or closed.

AREA F=1.6

B B

AREA B=0.6

AREA A=1
Figure 6.48.

254 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
You will notice that area A=1, area B=.6 and area F=1.6, or area A plus area B equals area F.
A force acting on area F would tend to seat the valve, while a force occurring at A or B could open
the valve if area F was vented to tank.
This valve type is mainly used for directional functions (open-closed function).
A variant of the 1 : 0.6 : 1.6 cartridge valve is equipped with precision control notches and allows
"soft opening and closing".(see diagrams, below left).
Yet another variant has a connection from B to the spring chamber and together with a simple
covering plate, with no bores, can be used as a check valve.(see diagrams, below right).

F F

B B
A A

PRECISION CONTROL NOTCHES BORE


Figure 6.49.
In some situations, we use a cartridge valve with a 1:1 ratio. The diagram below shows two
examples of this valve.

F F

B
B B B

A A
Figure 6.50.

System pressure acts on the 'A' port only, and not the 'B' port. The 'B' port is reserved strictly for
a tank connection. The valve on the left (i.e. with the nozzle) allows a small amount of flow from
the 'A' port, through the cartridge, to the spring side. This has the effect of equalizing the pressure
on both sides of the valve, cushioning its opening and closing.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 255


MAINTENANCE:
To control pressure while hydraulic fluid is flowing through the valve, we employ a slide valve with
an effective working ratio of 1:1. This type of cartridge valve is shown below and can be normally
open (fluid flow) or normally closed (no fluid flow).

F F

B
B

A A

Figure 6.51.

256 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
The cartridge valve is inserted into the manifold and held in place by the cover plate. The cover
plate provides the porting for the appropriate connections to the directional control valve.

a b c

X X X
A B A B A B
DIRECTIONAL
CONTROL
P P T P
T T
VALVE
P A T P A T P A T

COVER PLATE
X F Y X F Y X F Y
Y Y X Y

B B B
CARTRIDGE
VALVE
A A A

ED91.641.7777E.P18

The diagram above shows three separate methods of controlling the pressure holding the valve
closed. In both examples (a) and (b) the pressure applied to the top of the valve is acting on area
'F', a larger area compared to 'A', so the higher applied force will keep it closed.

In (b), the pressure applied to the top of the valve is also acting on area 'F', a larger area
compared to 'B', so again the higher applied force will keep it closed. In (c), the pressure applied
to the top of the valve is also acting on area 'F', however this pressure comes from an external
source (i.e. X pilot line). It is assumed that the pressure here is high enough to keep the valve
closed.

All three valves will open to their inlet pressure and flow if each respective directional control valve
is activated. This will occur since the top area of the valve will be vented to tank and the only
downward force will be the light spring.

Example (a) shows flow going from 'A' to 'B'.

Example (b) shows flow going from 'B' to 'A'.

Example (c) shows flow as going either way.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 257


MAINTENANCE:
Switching Time Influence

In order to limit pressure "spikes" at the valve during opening and closing, throttling orifices are
used in the control lines. These orifices also cause a delay in valve response, the larger the orifice
the less effect it will have on the valve.

The diagram below shows three different throttling possibilities. The movement of the valve will be
affected in the following manner:
14. will affect valve closing
15. will affect valve opening and closing
16. will affect valve opening

A B

P T

P A T

1 2 3

X F Y
Y

34

258 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.8 CARTRIDGE VALVES EXAMPLE

The drawing below shows how a directional valve can be used to pilot a series of cartridge valves
to control the extension and retraction of a cylinder.

This figure is provided as an exercise to determine the sequence of events after the energization
of either solenoid "a" or "b". Use a red pen to mark the pressure lines and blue pen to mark the
tank lines.

P T
a b

C1 C2 C3 C4

T
A6410135
A B

The following two pages explain the circuit for extending and retracting the cylinder.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 259


MAINTENANCE:
Extend the cylinder

P T

a b

C1 C2 C3 C4

T
A B

A6410135

PRESSURE
TANK
When Solenoid "a" is energized, pressure is connected to tops of cartridge valves 1 and 3 and the
tops of cartridge valves 2 and 4 are connected to tank or zero pressure.

System pressure is applied to bottom of cartridge valves 2 and 3. Cartridge 3 valve is under
pressure at top plus spring tension so the system pressure will not open the valve.

Cartridge valve 2 is open to tank at the top and the pressure at the bottom will open that valve
allowing pressure to point "A". Pressure at point "A" will extend the cylinder.

Oil that is expelled from the cylinder will flow from point "B" to cartridge valves 3 and 4.

Cartridge valve 3 is held closed by oil pressure at the top plus spring tension. Cartridge valve 4 is
open to Tank at the top and the pressure from the oil being expelled will overcome the spring
tension and lift the valve allowing oil to flow to tank.

260 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Retract the cylinder

P T

a b

C1 C2 C3 C4

T
A B

A6410135

PRESSURE
TANK

When Solenoid "b" is energized, pressure is connected to tops of cartridge valves 2 and 4 and the
tops of cartridge valves 1 and 3 are connected to tank or zero pressure.
System pressure is applied to bottom of cartridge valves 2 and 3. Cartridge 2 valve is under
pressure at top plus spring tension so the system pressure will not open the valve.
Cartridge valve 3 is open to tank at the top and the pressure at the bottom will open that valve
allowing pressure to point "B". Pressure at point B will retract the cylinder.
Oil that is expelled from the cylinder will flow from point A to cartridge valves 1 and 2. Cartridge
valve 2 is held closed by oil pressure at the top plus spring tension. Cartridge valve 1 is open to
Tank at the top and the pressure from the oil being expelled will overcome the spring tension and
lift the valve allowing oil to flow to tank.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 261


MAINTENANCE:
5.9 PRESSURE GAUGE.

All Engel machines are equipped with a pressure gauge to monitor various locations throughout
the hydraulic system. Having this capability is invaluable to the operator or serviceman since
knowing the pressure reading at a particular point is a clear indication of exactly how the machine
is functioning.

The gauge itself has six separate reading points numbered 1 to 6. By adjusting the indicator knob
to the required position, the pressure occurring at that point in the hydraulic system can be read
from the pressure gauge located in the center of the indicator knob. The specific point in the
hydraulic system pertinent to each indicator knob position is clearly indicated on the hydraulic
diagram supplied with each machine.

It is important to note that when a pressure reading is not required, the gauge should be moved
to a '0' position, located between each pressure position on the gauge. Adjusting the gauge to a
'0' position relieves pressure from the working ports of the gauge. Failure to do so, could ultimately
result in gauge malfunction.

0
3 4

0 0
150
100
1500 2000

1000 2500

2 5
50 3000 200
500
psi 3500

0 250
0 bar
0

1 6
A6410132
0
PRESSURE GAUGE
IN BAR AND PSI
Figure 6.52.

262 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.10 HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR

An Hydraulic Accumulator, is a steel tank which contains a rubber bladder pressurized with an
inert gas, usually Nitrogen.
Initial operation of the accumulator requires that the oil port be vented to atmosphere and the
bladder charged with nitrogen. the charging causes the bladder to expand until it reaches the
walls of the steel tank and closes the bladder protection valve, to prevent further expansion down
the oil port. During operation, the accumulator within an hydraulic system allows fluid under
excess pressure to enter the tank, compressing the bladder, the flow into the tank is damped by
the nitrogen filled bladder. The fluid in the tank is now under pressure, from the compressed
bladder, and at times of low pressure the fluid is returned to the system.
Because of the relatively small mass and low friction properties of the bladder it can respond
quickly to changes in system pressure.
The properties of the accumulator offer several functions within an hydraulic system:
• Energy storage to aid pumps in systems with intermittent operation.
• In cases of pump failure, provides an emergency energy reserve.
• Shock and vibration absorber.
• Volume compensation in a system exposed to temperature and pressure changes.
• Compensation for fluid loss in a leaky system.

WARNING!

DO NOT USE OXYGEN TO FILL BLADDER - OXYGEN + OIL = EXPLOSION!


Before working on or putting accumulator off line, ensure pressure is at zero bar

Figure 6.53.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 263


MAINTENANCE:
When the main machine hydraulic system is shut down the accumulator will automatically
discharge.
Check the accumulator pressure on the manometer selector switch / pressure meter, the pressure
must be at zero bar.
After the system has been shut down and when the accumulator is equipped with:
• SAFETY AND SHUT-OFF MANIFOLD
Close the main isolation valve first and then open the relief valve.
• ACCU MANIFOLD
Open the relief valve.

Figure 6.54 Accumulator Shut Off Lever.

264 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5.11 HYDRAULIC TROUBLESHOOTING
Engel machines are fully tested before shipping to the customer and should provide long periods
of trouble-free operation.
The normal operation of the machine however, introduces wear into the system. Inevitably, parts
do deteriorate over time and require servicing or replacement.
Much time and effort has been invested developing an efficient hydraulic system design, care
must be taken when replacing any separate component. Always replace components with the
correct type or recommended alternative.
All Engel machines are equipped with pressure gauges plugged into specific test points
throughout the hydraulic system. This feature will aid in any hydraulic troubleshooting.
An important prerequisite to effective troubleshooting, is to know the system and how it should
function. All machine functions should be analyzed to understand how and why they work. When
problems occur, it will be easier to understand why a particular function is not occurring and which
component might be causing the problem.
Excessive heat and/or noise are indications of trouble, and their cause should be investigated
without delay.

NOTE!

Over 60 % of all hydraulic problems can be directly or indirectly traced to dirt


in the system.

System performance, efficiency and life are most greatly affected by three basic procedures,
central to any preventive maintenance program. These are:
1. Use clean hydraulic oil of correct grade and viscosity
2. Have a regular program of changing filters, cleaning strainers and tank.
3. Maintain tight connections to exclude air from being drawn into the system. Do not over
tighten to the point of component distortion.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 265


MAINTENANCE:
The following list includes samples of hydraulic problems, their likely cause and suggested
solution. It is not a complete list, but an adequate guide to assist you in troubleshooting.

PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSE SUGGESTED SOLUTION

Noisy Pump Cavitation Pump starving for oil-filter?


Housing leaking Check for tight connection,
cracks
Suction line leaking Tighten clamp
Coupling miss-aligned Align shafts
Noisy Motor Coupling miss-alignment Align shafts
Coupling worn or damaged Replace or Repair
Noisy Relief Valve Setting too low Increase pressure setting
Setting too close to another Increase pressure setting
relief valve differential
Pump heated Relief setting too high Adjust valve
Relief valve defective Inspect and/or replace
Cavitation Check filter and strainer
Worn or damaged pump Inspect and/or replace
Motor overheated Relief setting too high Adjust valve
Relief valve defective Inspect and/or replace
Excessive load Obstruction at outlet?
Relief Valve overheated Valve setting incorrect Adjust valve
Worn or damaged valve Inspect and/or replace
Fluid overheated System pressure too high Monitor and adjust pressure
Relief setting too high Adjust valve
Incorrect fluid viscosity Check viscosity rating
Cooling system defective Check for correct operation
No Flow Fluid not getting to pump Check inlet, filter, strainer
Pump drive coupling broken Replace and check
alignment
Electric motor turning in Reverse rotation
wrong direction Check breakers
Electric motor not operating Check for flow obstruction
Entire flow passing over relief downstream
Pump damaged Inspect and/or replace
Low Flow Flow control set too low Adjust
Relief valve set too low Adjust
Leak in system Inspect system and repair
Flow valve defective Inspect and/or replace
Load sensing control on V.D. Inspect and /or replace
pump defective

266 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSE SUGGESTED SOLUTION

Excessive Flow Flow control set too high Adjust


Load sensing control on V.D. Inspect and /or replace
pump defective
Flow valve defective Inspect and /or replace
Improper size replacement Replace with correct unit
pump
No Pressure No flow See "No flow"
Defective K-valve Inspect and/or replace
Low Pressure Defective K-Valve Inspect and/or replace
Damaged cylinder Inspect seals and/or replace
Pressure reducing valve Inspect and/or adjust
set too low
Erratic Pressure Air in fluid Bleed air, check for leaks
Worn relief valve Inspect and/or replace
Contamination in fluid Check fluid, filters, etc.
Accumulator defective Inspect and re-charge
or lost nitrogen charge if necessary
Excessive Pressure Pressure reducing valve Inspect and/or replace
maladjusted
Load Sensing Control Inspect and/or replace
on V.D. pump defective
No Movement No flow or pressure See "no flow", "no pressure"
Mechanical bind Locate bind and repair
No command signal to sole- Check signal sequence
noid
Slow Movement Low flow See "Low Flow"
Fluid viscosity too high Check viscosity, temperature
Worn or damaged cylinder Check seals
Error in Amplifier signal Check Amplifier output
Erratic Movement Erratic pressure See "erratic pressure"
Air in fluid Check for and repair leaks
Erratic command signal Adjust or replace amplifier
Defective feedback trans- Inspect and/or replace
ducer
sticking flow valve Inspect and/or replace

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 267


MAINTENANCE:

PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSE SUGGESTED SOLUTION

Valve Jams Valve under stress Loosen screws and retighten


Oil temperature too low Preheat system
Valve defective Inspect and/or replace
Dirt in system Inspect and/or replace
Incorrect oil type Check viscosity rating
Solenoid defective Inspect and/or replace
Spring defective Inspect and/or replace
Valve Flutters Valve defective Inspect and/or replace
Pilot control defective Inspect and/or replace
Dirt in system Inspect valve, clean system
Incorrect oil type Check viscosity rating
Oil Dirty System dirty Clean tank, replace oil
Air filter defective Inspect and/or replace
Incorrect air filter Check requirements
Oil Foams Air in oil Check for leaks
Oil level too low Fill oil to level
Return line above oil level Extend return line
Incorrect oil type Check oil requirements`
Water in Oil Heat exchanger defective Inspect and/or replace
Fluid supply contaminated Check oil storage procedure

268 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
TROUBLESHOOTING EXERCISE
The diagram below shows a simple hydraulic system that has experienced a loss in pressure and
speed. Any component could be at fault.
Review the basic troubleshooting procedures that should be employed to determine the problem?

PRESSURE
GAUGE

C E

A BASIC HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


B D

= MECHANICAL CONNECTION

1. Suction Filter? clogged.


check for damage and clean the strainer.
check for leaks at point A.

2. Pump or Relief Valve? disconnect at points B and C, run the pump against the relief
valve.
observe the flow at point B.
if the pump is faulty, the flow will decrease as the relief setting is
increased.
if the pump is not faulty, inspect the relief valve for correct oper-
ation, check for blockages, spool binding, spring operation, etc.

3. Cylinder? extend the cylinder and leave it under pressure.


disconnect at point E and check for any significant leakage.
retract the cylinder and leave it under pressure.
disconnect at point F and check for any significant leakage.

4. Directional Control Valve? disconnect at points D,E and F.


plug E and F.
switch to working positions and check for leakage at point D.

16/12/05 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 269


MAINTENANCE:

270 6. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM.

Main Power

Electric Transformer
Motor Main-240V

Transformer Moldheight Lubrication 240V 240V-24VDC


240V-120V Motor Motor Receptacle Power Supply

Heat Card Analog Card ECG Card Card Rack


Supply Supply Supply Power Supply

24VE Switch 24VK Digout 24VR SSR Digin Card


Supply Supply Supply (triac) Supply

Motor Start Power Supply Emerg. Stop Moldheight


CON 115 CON 117 CON 120 CON 124,125

Heat Receptacles VE,VK,VR Fans &


Monitor
CON 129 120VAC CON 136 Lights

Figure 7.1 Electrical Block diagram

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 271


MAINTENANCE:
1. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OVERVIEW.
Three phase power is supplied to the injection molding machine at between 575 / 460 Volts AC,
this supplies the main induction motor which drives the hydraulic pump for operating the system
hydraulics.
The three phase supply is stepped down by an auto transformer to 230 Volts AC to supply the
Mold Height Motor, Lubrication Motor, Card Rack Power Supply and Barrel Heaters.
The 230 AC volts is stepped down to 115 volts AC to supply the Contactor and Relay coils,
Indicator Lights, Fans, Hour Meter and Machine Alarm.
Various electrical outlets receptacles are provided at all the different voltage levels according to
individual requirements, the standard locations are shown on figure 7.13.
Two electrical outlets receptacles are always fitted, one at 230 VAC for the external disk drive and
one at 115VAC for the printer.
Operating the main switch, on the cabinet, applies power to the step-down auto transformer which
is dropped to 230 Volts and supplies the 230/115 Volt step-down transformer which is required to
operate the contactor coils.

With the "Control Voltage" switch in the ON position the following facilities are enabled:
1. Electrical cabinet cooling fan.
2. Electronic cabinet cooling fans.
3. Hours run meter.
4. Card Rack 24 Volt dc power supply.

With the 24Volt dc power supply enabled the following facilities are available:
1. Operation of the mold Height Motor.
2. Operation of Main Motor Enable relay.
3. Operation of Lubrication Pump.
4. Operation of Barrel Heaters.
5. Operation of Gate Closed relay.
6. Machine alarm.

If the following conditions are satisfied the "Motor Start" switch can be operated to "START" and
the main motor will start.
1. Emergency Stop push-button is set (if the button is pushed in, twist it to release).
2. Control Voltage switch on panel is set to ON.
3. Non Operator side safety gate is closed, limit switch E3 is held closed and E4 is not
operated.
4. Operator side safety gate is closed, limit switch E1 is held closed and E2 is not operated.
5. Gate Closed relay (CRE) is energized.
6. Mode Select switch is set to MANUAL.
7. Motor Enable relay is energized.

If any one of the above conditions is not met, the motor will not start.

272 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
If the motor is running, opening any of the safety gates, pushing in the emergency stop button,
turning off the Control voltage switch or if the Main motor thermal overload trips the motor will stop.
Check all the conditions exist if the motor will not run or the motor stops for an unknown reason.
If the Mold height motor will not run check that the following conditions exist:
1. Limit switch E22 and E23 are closed.

NOTE!

If either limit switch is open the mold height adjustment has reached the limit
of adjustment.
2. CRFG relay is energized.
3. CRFK relay is energized.
4. Both mold Height contactors are initially de-energized.
5. Varistors across contactor coils are not short circuit.

3 φ 3 φ
M
MAIN
HYDRAULIC
MOTOR

3 PHASE
MAINS

230V
3 φ MOLD HEIGHT
M MOTOR

3 φ LUBRICATION
M MOTOR

3 φ 230VAC / 24Vdc ELECTRONIC


POWER SUPPLY CONTROL

3 φ 230V 120V
SWITCHGEAR

1 φ HEATER
CONTROL HEATERS

Figure 7.2 Simplified Electrical Circuit Diagram

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 273


MAINTENANCE:
1.1 HOW TO READ THE ENGEL ELECTRICAL SCHEMATICS

Each electrical schematic page has a page number (PG#1) located at the bottom right of the title
block. The total number of pages in the document is also given in this area.
Each page has up to 96 line numbers, the number incorporates the page number and line number
(e.g. 101 - 196).
Components are identified by their location within the:-
• drawing package
• physical location on the Injection Molding machine
• location on the page
• type of component

For example =ELE+6CL-515CR is a control relay (CR) found on page 5, line 15 (515) and is
physically located on the operator side of the injection base on the cabinet liner (+6CL). the
drawings can be found in the electrical section of the drawing package (=ELE).

Drawing packages: ELE = Electrical HYD = Hydraulic PNE = Pneumatic

1.1.1 PHYSICAL LOCATION NAMING CONVENTION

Example: +1MC + = Physical location The physical location of the item is


1 = Clamp base - Non Operator side the clamp manifold on the
M = Manifold operator side of the clamp base
C = Clamp

First Character 1= Clamp base - Non operator side


2= Clamp base - Operator side
3= Stationary platen - Non operator side
4= Stationary platen - Operator side
5= Injection base - Non operator
6= Injection base - Operator
7= Main injection unit
8= Injection unit parallel to main injection unit
9= Injection unit 90o to main injection unit (horizontal)
10 = Injection unit 90o to main injection unit (vertical)
11 = Injection unit 45o to main injection unit (vertical)
12 = Clamp unit
Second Character B= Box
M= Manifold
C= Cabinet
A= Auxilliary device
Third Character A= Accumulator
B= Box “B”
C= Clamp
E= Ejector
H= Heat
I= Injection
L= Liner
P= Push button panel
R= Control rack

274 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
1.1.2 ELECTRICAL LINE TYPES

Line Type Function


Solid Electrical power AC and d.c.
Dash, dot Grouding

1.1.3 PAGE AND LINE NUMBERING

501
Page and line number to identify component.
502
The last two numbers identify the line number.
I
The number(s) before the last two, identify the page number.
547
For example: -515CR is found on page five, line 15 and is a Control relay
578

1.1.4 TYPICAL EXAMPLES EXPLAINED

Represents the engineering chapter that determines the device name


Represents the physical location of the component
Represents the page and line location of the component within the
document package
Represents the type of component being identified (CR = Control
relay)

Function of relay (software designation)

Child symbol (device identification is determined by parent)

Components that have the same device identifcation, are linked


together throughout the documentation package.

Parent symbol
Page and line number is used for device identification

Cross reference symbol shows page and line reference for child sym-
bols associated with parent.
The control relay is on line15 of page 5 and the contact associated with
that relay is on line 5 of page 5.

Function of relay (software designation)

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 275


MAINTENANCE:

Cable core designation.


Cable names consist of the prefix “W” which is followed by the page
and rung numbers of the first core used.

Example: Quick disconnect plug controlled by the electrical chapter,


physically placed in location 4.
18501PL represents a pin chart drawn on page 185 line 01

276 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
Table 7.2 Commonly used electrical symbols

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 277


MAINTENANCE:

NORMALLY CLOSED PUSHBUTTON

NORMALLY OPEN PUSHBUTTON

NORMALLY OPEN SWITCH

NORMALLY CLOSED SWITCH

NORMALLY OPEN CONTACT

NORMALLY CLOSED CONTACT

HEAVY DUTY CONTACT

CONTACT BREAKER WITH THERMAL OVERLOAD TRIP

THERMAL OVERLOAD TRIP

NORMALLY OPEN LIMIT SWITCH

NORMALLY CLOSED LIMIT SWITCH

NORMALLY OPEN LIMIT SWITCH HELD CLOSED

NORMALLY CLOSED LIMIT SWITCH HELD OPEN

PROXIMITY SWITCH

278 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 279


MAINTENANCE:
2 THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS.
The majority of induction motors used on Engel machines are of the squirrel cage rotor type,
which are highly efficient and run at an almost constant speed under normal load conditions.
The squirrel cage motor consists of two main parts:
1. Stator.
2. Squirrel cage rotor.

Stator.

The stator consists of a fixed steel laminated frame with slots arranged radially around the inside,
into these slots three coils are wound alternatively and are set 120o apart.
The ends of the windings are brought out to a terminal box to be connected to the mains supply.

Rotor.

The rotor consists of solid copper bars arranged in a drum shape and short circuited at each end
with a copper ring. The conductors are lightly insulated and placed in slots in the laminated iron
core.
This type of rotor has no external connections, which eliminates the need for slip rings and
brushes, and that makes for a cheap and reliable motor.

Operation.

The three phase induction motor operates on the principle of a rotating magnetic field, each phase
current flowing in a phase coil induces a magnetic field which varies sinusoidally in intensity as the
current varies, as one phase reaches a peak, the other phases will be at some lesser value and
in opposition to the first. As each phase in turn reaches a maximum value and the other two are
reduced in value, a rotating magnetic field is set up which is equal to the frequency of the electrical
supply.
The R.P.M. or Synchronous speed of the field can be found using the formula: Ns = 60 f /p

where: Ns = synchronous speed of the field.


f = frequency of the supply.
p = the number of pairs of poles.
Multiply by 60 to convert to minutes.

eg.: Ns = 60 x 60 / 1
Ns = 3600 / 1
Ns = 3600 r.p.m.

280 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
If each phase coils where split up so that there were effectively two coils wound at 90o from each
other, the machine would be said to have four poles. As seen previously the number of poles
determines the synchronous speed of the motor.

Four pole machine Eight pole machine

Ns = 60 x 60 / 2 Ns = 60 x 60 / 4
= 3600 / 2 Ns = 3600 / 4
= 1800 r.p.m. Ns = 900 r.p.m.

Torque or turning motion.

The rotating stator field induces an E.M.F. in the rotor conductor which in turn produces torque
that turns the rotor in the same direction as the field.

The direction of the magnetic flux is from the stator to the rotor, and an E.M.F. will be induced in
the rotor conductor. The current flowing in the conductor will produce a magnetic field around that
conductor. The field of the conductor will react with the field from the stator, strengthening the field
on one side and weakening the field on the other. The stronger field will push the conductor
towards the weaker side, similar forces will be applied to all the conductors on the rotor producing
torque and causing the rotor to rotate.

If the rotor reached synchronous speed, then there would be no relative motion between the rotor
and stator, a null would have been reached where there was no torque applied to the rotor. So
therefore the rotor can never quite reach the speed of the stator field, this difference between the
two speeds is called "slip". Slip may range from 2 - 5% of the synchronous speed, i.e. for a four
pole machine the slip may be between 36 and 90 R.P.M. depending upon the size of the machine.
Bigger machines usually produce less slip.

Starting torque is usually low for squirrel cage rotor machine, this usually caused by design as a
low resistance rotor makes for a more efficient machine with less slip, but less slip means lower
torque. Conversely increasing rotor resistance increase torque and slip and therefore is a lee
efficient machine, commonly these types of machines are started off load or with very light load.

Starting an Induction motor.

Initially at start the motor acts like a transformer with a short circuited secondary, so the starting
current may be anything up to five times the normal full load current.

The majority of motors employed by Engel use the direct-on -line start, where the motor is
connected directly to the mains supply. Starting currents are high and may cause interference to
other users.

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 281


MAINTENANCE:

THREE PHASE SUPPLY

CONTACTOR
START

STOP OVERLOAD
COILS
OL TRIP

INDUCTION
MOTOR

Figure 7.3 Direct on line starting.

More powerful motors of 40 HP. and above running on 230 V AC or 208 V AC, use WYE - DELTA
starting. This method employs the six connections to the three stator windings, which are all
brought out to the starter contactor.

RUN b c a MOTOR
S c b a
U
P
P
L
Y
C B A
START
A B C

Figure 7.4 WYE - DELTA Starting.

282 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
For normal running the windings are connected in DELTA, but for starting they are connected in
WYE. This reduces the starting voltage per phase to 58% ( or 1 over the square root of 3) of the
running voltage.

The change over from WYE starting to DELTA running is made by a double throw switch with
interlocks to prevent starting from the run position.

Squirrel cage induction motors are highly efficient and an almost constant speed machine under
normal running conditions, but has poor starting torque and must be start off load or with a very
light load.

Supply voltage variations must be kept to a minimum as a small drop in voltage can seriously
effect the torque output of the motor.

Induction Motor Tests.

Keeping a record of the normal load current in each phase, ideally the currents should all be the
same, taken periodically is a good indicator of impending problems or deterioration of the motor.

Two tests can be made to determine if an induction motor is serviceable:

Continuity.

Continuity of the phase windings must be performed with the mains supply off and locked out and
the leads to the motor disconnected. The test can be performed using a continuity tester or an
accurate resistance meter.

Insulation.

Use a "Megger" insulation tester of at least 500 Volts, 1000 Volts would be better if available, to
check for any insulation breakdown that may occur when the motor is subjected to high voltage.

Insulation test between each winding and the metal motor casing and between each phase
winding should give a reading of at least 1 M W for ambient temperatures up to 40oC and at
altitudes of up to 3000 feet. A reading of less than 500 KW will indicate an insulation breakdown.

Motor Maintenance.

The grease nipple and grease relief are mounted at each end of the machine in the bearing
housings to lubricate the shaft ball or roller bearings.

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 283


MAINTENANCE:
Table 7.3 Trouble shooting Induction Motors.

PROBLEM CAUSE POSSIBLE SOLUTION

Motor will not start Overload tripped Wait for overload to cool try stating motor
again, if "no go" check the following.
Power connected? Connect
Open circuit stator or Check with continuity tester.
rotor
Short circuit stator Check with ammeter for balanced phase cur-
rents.
Loose connections Tighten connections
Winding grounded Check between windings and ground with a
Megger or other insulation tester.
Too much load Disconnect load, and try again.
Wrong connections Reconnect
Incorrect supply volts Check nameplate, ensure motor voltage
requirement is matched to supply voltage.

Motor noisy Motor single phasing Stop motor try to restart (motor will not start
single phase) check windings as before
Vibration Disconnect load and try motor again if still
noisy motor needs to be re balanced
Air gap not uniform Possible new bearing required.
Noisy ball bearing Grease or replace
Object caught in fan Check fan end cover and remove any debris
or foreign objects.
Motor loose on founda- Tighten motor mounting bolts
tions

Motor running tem- Motor overloaded Check load current with ammeter, if current is
perature too high greater than rated full load current reduce
load.
Restricted ventilation Clean air passages and remove any obstruc-
tions.
Incorrect voltage Check nameplate, ensure motor voltage
supply requirement is matched to supply voltage.
Stator shorted or check as before
grounded

284 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
3. MOLD HEIGHT MOTOR.
The Mold Height Motor is a three phase induction motor equipped with helical gearbox for slow
running applications.

The Mold Height motor is connected up to run in both directions, to allow mold height to be
increased or decreased. The reverse motor function is achieved when the "decrease" switch is
operated, two of the three phase windings are reversed by the "decrease " contactor.

The Mold Height Motor Unit has a 24 Volt dc operated brake to give the motor a positive stop
when adjusting the mold height. The dc brake circuit is protected from back EMF by a diode
across the dc coil.

As the brake is switched off the collapsing dc field will generate a voltage spike of several hundred
volts, which will cause arcing at the nearest set of open contacts, the diode causes the back EMF
to flow in the coil and the energy is dissipated as heat.

The speed reducing units are sealed to prevent oil leakage and also the ingress of moisture and
dust. The units are either fitted with one oil filler plug or on larger models a filler/level and drain
plugs.

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 285


MAINTENANCE:
4. TRANSFORMERS.
Single phase transformer.

A simple single phase transformer consists of two windings, primary and secondary, electrically
insulated from each other but wound on a common laminated core.

MAGNETIC
FLUX

SUPPLY LOAD

SIMPLE TRANSFORMER

Figure 7.5

The Primary and Secondary windings are usually wound on the same limb to minimize magnetic
leakage.

The alternating current (AC) supply produces an alternating magnetic flux in the iron core, the
alternating flux induces the same electromotive force (E.M.F.) in each turn of the secondary
windings. The secondary voltage output will be dependent upon the number of turns in the
secondary coil, for all practical purposes the voltage ratio of the transformer is equal to the turns
ratio. If the primary coil has twice as many turns as the secondary coil, the transformer has a turns
ratio of 2:1 and the output voltage will be half of the input voltage.

Three Phase Transformers.

The three phase transformer is similar to the single phase version, except that it has three sets of
windings on three limbs.

The three phase voltages have a 120o phase difference from each other and therefore the three
secondary voltage outputs will be a ratio of these phase displaced voltages. The secondary
voltage output on a particular limb will be in phase with the primary on that limb.

The primary and secondary windings can be connected in either WYE or DELTA depending upon
the application required. The most common configuration is DELTA - WYE, the secondary WYE
provides a neutral point which can be grounded, and will supply both balanced and unbalanced
loads.

286 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

SECONDARY - WYE NEUTRAL

PRIMARY - DELTA
THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER

SECONDARY - WYE

NEUTRAL
PRIMARY - DELTA
Figure 7.6 Three phase transformer.

Auto Transformers.
The auto transformer has only one winding for both primary and secondary, the secondary is
supplied by means of taps off the primary. Auto transformers are ideal for providing a small raising
or lowering of the input voltage, they are smaller and cheaper than the double wound transformer
because they only have one coil.
Auto transformers do not provide the electrical isolation of a double wound transformer and any
fault on the auto transformer could cause the full primary voltage to be applied to the secondary
circuit. However auto transformers are ideal where a small difference in voltage is require, and the
savings in weight and cost can be quite considerable, in practice the transformer ratio used is
never greater than 3:1.

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 287


MAINTENANCE:
Figure 7.7 shows a single phase auto transformer representation, a three phase version would
just be three of the windings shown connected in either WYE or DELTA configuration.

OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
OUTPUT GREATER THAN
INPUT VOLTAGE INPUT
VOLTAGE LESS THAN VOLTAGE
INPUT
VOLTAGE

Figure 7.7 Single phase auto transformer

Transformer tests.

Continuity of the windings; this test must be performed with the mains supply off and locked out
and the leads to the transformer disconnected. The test can be performed using a continuity tester
or an accurate resistance meter. The resistance of each winding should be approximately the
same.

Use a "Megger" insulation tester of at least 500 Volts, 1000 Volts would be better if available, to
check for any insulation breakdown that may occur when the transformer is subjected to high
voltage.

Insulation test between each winding and the metal casing and between each phase winding
should give a reading of at least 1 M W for ambient temperatures up to 40oC and at altitudes of
up to 3000 feet. A reading of less than 500 KW would indicate an insulation breakdown.

Transformer maintenance.

Check that all electrical connections are tight. Heat discoloration around the terminals indicates
the possibility of a loose connection.

288 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:
5. CARD RACK POWER SUPPLY UNIT.
Three phase transformer, with four primary taps and three sets of smoothed dc output. The four
primary taps are provided to be able to select a suitable tap to give the required output of between
28 and 32 Volts dc.

+
+
28 TO 32 VOLTS 2 AMPS

+ +
+
28 TO 32 VOLTS 18 AMPS

- + - +
+

SECONDARY 28 TO 32 VOLTS 5 AMPS


TRANSFORMER
WINDINGS

Figure 7.8 Card Rack Power Supply.

Figure 7.8 shows the secondary side of the card rack power supply, the transformer output on
each phase is 27 Volts AC and the three windings are rated at 2, 5 and 18 Amps. The AC voltages
are full wave rectified and smoothed by the large reservoir capacitor and a small capacitor to
eliminated most of the AC ripple associated with producing dc voltages from AC.

The smoothing and full wave rectification also has the effect of raising the dc voltage above that
of the AC for a voltage of 27 Volts AC the dc voltage will be approximately 32.

The primary input tap best suited to give an output voltage of between 28 and 32 volts dc should
be chosen.

16/12/05 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 289


MAINTENANCE:

NOTE!

Ensure that the power is isolated from the transformer before changing taps.

6. RELAYS.
The relays used on the injection molding machine are either 115 VAC or 24 V dc operated and are
designated on the machine electrical drawings by CR or CRXX depending upon the application.

The relays are usually enclosed in a clear plastic case and oriented in such a manner that the
contacts can be seen, this enables the maintenance personnel to observe the relay contacts to
determine whether the relay is energized or not.

The 24 Volt d.c. relays are four pole double throw and have a coil resistance of approximately
165 Ω, using a good quality, high impedance multimeter this value can be checked to determine
the serviceability of the relay.

If the coil operating voltage is measured across the coil connections but the relay is not energized,
substitute the suspect relay for a known operational one of the same type to prove if the relay is
faulty or not.

7. SOLID STATE RELAYS.


Solid State Relays are usually single pole devices with a response time in the microsecond range
because they are a semiconductor device with no moving parts.

The Solid State Relays have the ability to switch high currents up to 90 amps at voltages of up 480
VAC.

Two possible types of SSR's are be used in the control of the barrel heaters:
9. Triac (Bi-directional Thyristor).
10. SCR (Silicon Control Rectifier).

The four pin package contains basically the components shown in figure 7.9 or 7.10 and on the
injection molding machine barrel heater control application usually have a varistor mounted in
parallel with the Triac to protect it from transient spikes.

The Triac at the heart of the SSR is a three terminal bi-directional device which blocks current flow
in both directions in it's "off" state, until it is triggered by a gate signal, when it conducts in either
direction.

The triggering input is a dc. voltage of 3 to 32 volts derived from the Heat Control Card E7.

290 7. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. 16/12/05


MAINTENANCE:

CURRENT
LIMITER

PHOTO TRIAC
DEVICE LOAD

L.E.D. TRIGGER

VARISTOR

Figure 7.9 Triac Solid State Relay

The SCR is similar to a diode in that when the gate is triggered it will only conduct one way and
blocks the other, before the gate is triggered the SCR will block in both directions.

As with the Triac the gate requires between 3 to 32 Volts dc. to trigger the device.

In the Figure 7.10 two SCR's are connected in parallel to provide the function of conducting in both
directions, thi