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DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN CHEMISTRY 2

Teacher JENNETTE G. BELLIOT Observer ALAN S. TIONGSON


Position SHT-II Position T-III/SH School Head Des.
Learning Area Chemistry 2 Quarter 4th
Date &Time Observed February 20, 2019 - 2:00-3:00 pm Grade Level & Section 11-STEM

CONTENT STANDARDS- The Learners demonstrate an understanding of acid-base equilibrium and its applications to the ph of solutions
and the use of buffer solutions

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS- The Learners shall prepare a poster on a specific application of one of the following: acid base
equilibrium or electrochemistry.

LEARNING COMPETENCIES-
Identify the characteristics of acids and bases. (STEM_GC11ABIVf-g-153)
I. Specific Objectives:
At the end of the session, students are expected to:
1. Indentify the characteristics of acids and bases.
2. Compare and contrast acids and bases.
3. Give importance of acids and bases and their uses.

II. Subject Matter


A. Topic: ACIDS AND BASES
B. Materials: Pictures
C. Approach: Discussion
D. Focus Science Skills: Demonstrating, Reflecting
E. References: Teaching Guide for Senior High School GENERAL CHEMISTRY 2 pp.499-503

III. Learning Experiences

A. Preliminaries
Teacher’s Activity Students’ Activity
Great morning everyone… Great morning teachers.
Today we have our visitor, our Senior High School Head Designate in Lingig NHS, he is here to
observe our class, let’s welcome sir Alan S. Tiongson.

Before anything else let’s check if who is absent from the class?
Everyone is present ma’am.
Now, let me remind you as we go along with our lesson, if you have any question or if you want
to answer please raise your hands.

Thank you.

B. Motivation
Teacher’s Activity Students’ Activity
1. Can you guess which of these foods contain lactic
and citric acids? (show figure 1)

2. What would be your reaction when you see a


green mango? (Show the real mango, after a few
seconds let them eat it.) 1. figure 1
-lactic- buttermilk, yogurt, cheez
-citric- lemon

2. Salivate

2. At the end of the session, we are expected to:


2. Let the student’s read the specific objectives of the
lesson. 1. Indentify the characteristics of acids and bases.
2. Compare and contrast acids and bases.
3. Give importance of acids and bases and their
uses.

3. Before anything else lets define the following terms 3. 1. acid- is a substance that produces hydrogen ions in a water solution.
of our lesson (let the student read). 2. base- any substance that forms hydroxide ions, OH-, in a water solution or any
1. Acid substance that accepts H+ from acids.
2. Base 3. indicator- is an organic compound that changes color in acid and base.
3. Indicator 4. hydronium ion- when an acid dissolves in water, H+ ions interact with water
molecules for form H3O+
4. Hydronium ion
C. Lesson Proper
1. Activity
Teacher’s Activity Students’ Activity
1. Place a sheet of paper in front of you so the short side is at the top. Fold the
Making a Venn Diagram Study Fold. paper in half from top to bottom.
2. Draw and label, Acids, Salts, and Bases across the front of the paper, as
A Venn Diagram is used to compare and contrast the shown. Fold both sides in.
characteristics of acids and bases. 3. Unfold the paper so that three columns show.
4. Through the top thickness of paper, cut along each of the fold lines to the
topfold, forming three tabs.
5. As we go along with our lesson, collect information about each and write it
under its tab.

2. Analysis
Teacher’s Activity Students’ Activity
1. What comes into your mind when you hear the word acid?
2. Do you think of a substance that can burn your skin or even burn a hole through a piece of 1. acid- is a substance that produces
metal? hydrogen ions in a water solution.
3. Do you think about sour foods like those in figure 1 and a green mango which you have eaten? 2. hydrocholic acid, sulfuric acid
4. Does your mouth water when you think or see biting a green mango or sinking it your teeth? 3. yes, a lemon and pickles
(Show the real sliced green mango previously prepared, and distribute to each of them and let 4. yes.
them eat it).

3. Abstraction

Teacher’s Activity Students’ Activity


Properties of Acids.
When acid dissolves in water, some of the hydrogen is released as hydrogen ions, H+.
An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions in water solution. It is the ability to produce this ions
that gives acids their characteristic properties. When an acid dissolves in water, H + ions interact with water
molecules to form H3O+ ions, which are called hydronium ions.

Acids have several common properties. For one thing, all acids taste sour. The familiar taste of many foods
is due to the presence of acids. However, taste never should be used to test for the presence of acids. Some
acids can damage tissue by producing painful burns.

Acids are corrosive. Some acids react strongly with certain metals as metallic compounds and hydrogen gas
form. Acids also react with indicators to produce predictable changes in color.
An indicator is an organic compound that changes in acid and base. For example the indicator litmus paper
turns red in acid.
b
Common Acids.
Figure 2
Many foods contain acids. In addition to citric acid in citrus fruits, lactic acid is found in yogurt and buttermilk,
When sulfuric acid is
and any pickled food contains vinegar, also known as acetic acid. Your stomach uses hydrochloric acid to
added to sugar, the
help digest your food.
mixture foams, removing
Four acids are vital to industry—sulfuric, phosphoric, nitric and hydrochloric. hydrogen and oxygen
atoms as water and
Table 1. List of the names and formulas of a few acids, their uses, and some properties. leaving air filled carbon.
Three acids are used to make fertilizer—most nitric and sulfuric acid and 90% of phosphoric acid are used
for this purpose. Many acids can burn, but sulfuric acid can burn by removing water from your skin as easily
as it takes water from sugar, as shown in figure 2.

Table 1. Common Acids and Their Uses


Acetic Acid, Food preservation & preparation When in solution with water, it is
CH3COOH known as vinegar
Acetylsalycilic Acid, Pain relief, fever relief, to reduce Known as aspirin
HOOC-C6H4-OOCCH3 inflammation
Ascorbic Acid, Antioxidant, vitamin Called vitamin C
H2C6H6O6
Carbonic Acid, H2CO3 Carbonated drinks Involved in cave, stalactite and
stalagmite formation and acid rain
Hydrocholic Acid, HCl Digestion as gastric juice in stomach, to Commonly called muriatic acid
clean steel in a process called pickling
Nitric Acid, HNO3 To make fertilizers Colorless, yet yellows when
exposed to light
Phosphoric Acid, To make detergents, fertilizers and soft Slightly sour but pleasant taste,
H3PO3 drinks detergents containing phosphates
cause water pollution
Sulfuric Acid, Car batteries, to manufacture fertilizers Dehydrating agent, causes burns Figure 3
H2SO4 and other chemicals by removing water from body Bases are commonly
cells found in many cleaning
products used around the
home.
Bases.
You are not familiar with bases as you are with acids. Although you can eat some foods that contain acids
you don’t consume many bases. Some foods, such as egg whites, are slightly basic. Other basic materials
are baking powder and weak bases, such amines found in some foods. Medicines, such as milk of magnesia
and antacids are basic too. Still, you come in contact with many bases every day. For example, each time
you wash your hands using soap, you are using a base. One characteristic of bases is that they feel
slippery, like soapy water. Bases are important in many types of cleaning materials, as shown in figure 3.
Bases are important in industry also. For example, sodium hydroxide is used in the paper industry to
separate fibers of cellulose from wood pulp. The freed cellulose fibers are made of paper.
Figure 4
Aluminum hydroxide is a
Bases can be defined in two ways. Any substance that forms hydroxide ions, OH -, in a water solution is a base used in water-
base. In addition, a base is any substance that accepts H + from acids. The definitions are related, because treatment plants. Its sticky
the OH- ions produced by some bases do accept H+ ions. surface collects impurities,
making them easier to
Properties of Bases filter.
One way to think about bases is as the complements, or opposites, of acids. Although acids and bases
share some common features, the bases have their own characteristic properties.
In the pure, undissolved state, many bases are crystalline solids. In solution, bases feel slippery and have a
bitter taste. Like strong acids, strong bases are corrosive, and contact with skin can result to severe burns.
Therefore, taste and touch never should be used to test for the presence of a base. Finally, like acids, and
bases react with indicators to produce changes in color. The indicator litmus turns blue in bases.

Common Bases
You probably are familiar with many common bases because they are found in cleaning products used in the
home. These and some other bases are shown in Table 2, which also includes their uses and some
information about them. Figure 4 shows two uses of bases that you might not be familiar with. Some drain
cleaners contain NaOH,
Table 2 Common Bases and Their Uses which dissolves grease,
Name, Formula Use Other Information and small pieces of
Aluminum Hydroxide Color-fast fabrics, antacid, Sticky gel that collects suspended clay aluminum. The aluminum
Al(OH)3 water purification as shown in and dirt particles on its surface. reacts with NaOH,
figure 4A producing hydrogen and
Calcium Hydroxide Leather-making, mortar and Called caustic lime dislodging solids as hair.
Ca(OH)2 plaster, lessen acidity of soil
Magnesium Hydroxide, Laxative, antacid Called milk of magnesia
Mg(OH)2
Sodium Hydroxide, To make soap, oven cleaner, Called lye and caustic soda; generated
NaOH textiles and paper heat (exothermic) when combined with
water, reacts with metals to form
hydrogen
Ammonia, NH3 Cleaners, fertilizer, to make Irritating odor that is damaging to nasal
rayon and nylon passages and lungs

Life Science Integration: Some ants add sting to their bite by injecting a solution of formic acid was named for ants, which make up the
genus Fomica. Still ants are considered tasty treats by many animals. For example, one woodpecker called a flicker has saliva that is basic
enough to take the sting out of ants.

4. Application
Teacher’s Activity Students’ Activity
1. Which four acids are important for industry? 1. Four acids are vital to industy—sulfuric, phosphoric, nitric and hydrochloric.
2. How do bases important in our home and industry? 2. Bases are important in many types of cleaning materials. Bases are important
in industry also. For example, sodium hydroxide is used in the paper industry to
separate fibers of cellulose from wood pulp.

IV. Assessment.
1. Name three important acids and bases and describe their uses.
2. What is indicator?
3. Compare and contrast the characteristics of acids and bases base on your venn diagram.

V. Assignment
Using a Data Base.
Make a data base that compares acids and bases. Include the following: home, and commercial uses, properties, where they are found.

Prepared By: Checked and Observed By: Verified By:

JENNTTE G. BELLIOT (SGD.) ALAN S. TIONGSON (SGD.) WILLY C. DUMPIT, PhD


SHST-II T-III/SHS Asst. School Head Designate School Head