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USA PASSION DEVELOPMENT

CONFERENCE PROCEEDING

EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

International Conference
of Civil Engineering,
Mechanical Engineering &
Robotic Application
(ICCEMERA 2018)

0
International Conference of Civil Engineering, Mechanical
Engineering & Robotic Application
(ICCEMERA 2018)

22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018


BANGI-PUTRAJAYA HOTEL, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA

Copyright © 2018

USA Passion Development Sdn Bhd (1279049-D)


No. 30-3A,Tingkat 4, Jalan Putra 8, Taman Putra Kajang,
43000 Kajang, Selangor.

All rights reserved. No part of this proceeding may be reproduced or

transmitted in any form or by any process without the prior written

permission of the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations

for Review.

EISBN : 978-963-2273-00-4

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EDITORIAL BOARD

EDITOR IN CHIEF

Prof. Dato' Sri Dr. Ashgar Ali bin Ali Mohamed

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (International Islamic University of Malaysia)

EDITOR

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd. Faizal Mohd Isa

Universiti Utara Malaysia (North University of Malaysia)

CO-EDITOR

Dr. Zul Ariff Bin Abdul Latiff

Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (University of Kelantan Malaysia)

MANAGING EDITOR

Siti Syaiedatul Assilla Binti Azian

USA Passion Development Sdn. Bhd.

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CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

PRELIMINARY FRAMEWORK OF LOGISTICS PERFORMANCE 1


MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS FOR OCEAN FREIGHT INDUSTRY
By Fatin ‘Izzati Ishak, Azanizawati Ma’aram, Rozlina Md. Sirat, Anis Anizah
Mohamad Baba

POTENTIAL USE OF UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUE FOR 4


CADASTRAL MAPPING: A REVIEW
By Room, M. H. M and Ahmad, A.

ASSESSMENT OF A PRELIMINARY HYDRO RESERVOIR OPERATION 8


PLAN DEVELOPED USING DETERMINISTIC APPROACH BASED ON
DESIGN DATA AND SIMULATION
By Lee Chai Hoon

DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS UTILIZING ZINC SULPHIDE-COATED 13


TITANIUM DIOXIDE FILMS PHOTOANODE: EFFECT OF IMMERSION
TIME ON ITS PERFORMANCE
By S.N. Sadikin, M.Y.A. Rahman, A.A. Umar

AUTOMATED HOME SECURITY SYSTEM BASED ON ARDUINO 16


By Heiriz Iskandar Mohd Shamlan, Yufridin Wahab

DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMENARY ANALYSIS OF ADSORPTION 19


COOLING SYSTEM BASED ON SILICA GEL-WATER PAIR
By Fauziah Jerai

BIOENGINEERED AND BIOCOMPATIBLE ZIRCONIA BASED CERAMICS 23


FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
By G. Sankar, S. Meenaloshini, R. Dinesh

THE EFFECT OF HOLDING TIME ON THE MECHANICAL AND 26


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TITANIA-WOLLASTONITE-
HYDROXYAPATITE COMPOSITES
By D. Ragurajan, M. Satgunam, U. Sankar, M. Golieskardi

3
EVALUATION OF PARAMETER REGIONALIZATION METHODS FOR 30
FLOOD SIMULATIONS IN KELANTAN RIVER BASIN
By M.F. Chow, M.M. Jamil, and F. Che Ros

PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL AND NATURAL ANTIFOULING 35


EMBEDDED IN ROSIN MODIFIED COATED ON WOOD SURFACE
By Asmalina Mohamed Saat, Syajaratunnur Yaakup, Muhamad Taufiq Razak,
Hanisah Johor, Fatin Zawani Zainal Azaim, Mohd Iqbal Lokman

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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING &
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22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

PRELIMINARY FRAMEWORK OF LOGISTICS PERFORMANCE


MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS FOR OCEAN FREIGHT INDUSTRY

Fatin ‘Izzati Ishak1, Azanizawati Ma’aram1, Rozlina Md. Sirat1, Anis Anizah
Mohamad Baba1

1Department of Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering,


Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor.

Abstract: Two third of ocean freight industry in Malaysia are classified as small and medium enterprise
(SME) which they are currently struggling to stay in industry caused by the merging of global shipping
alliances. The merging of alliances has impacted the SMEs in terms of competitiveness in getting
business opportunities, where SMEs have to compete alongside established companies with well-known
reputation. Therefore, differentiation is becoming very crucial factor in order to leverage their capabilities.
Without differentiation factor, SMEs are unable to identify their competitive advantages that distinguishes
them from competitors, hence causing difficulties to survive in the industry. Another issue arises is the
absence of a unique Logistics Performance Measurement System (LPMS) that takes into account the
particularities of ocean freight industry, consequently causing slow adaptation of LPMS despite the size
and maturity of this industry. Thus, this research attempts to develop a preliminary logistics performance
measurement system (LPMS) framework for ocean freight industry and incorporates differentiation factor
in the developed LPMS. The preliminary framework is developed based on extensive literatures in
logistics performance measures, and consists of three logistics performance measurement dimensions
(efficiency, effectiveness and differentiation). However, this proposed framework is only a starting point
for integrating the views of logistics operators in the analytical processes.
Keywords: Performance measurement; Logistics; Ocean freight industry; Shipping.

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INTRODUCTION

Realignment of global shipping alliances has taken a toll on Malaysia’s logistics performance, especially
in the ocean shipping industry. Consequently, the overall pool of competitors has become smaller due to
the merger of the shipping conglomerates (Bailey, 2017). The formation of three main alliances has
resulted in bigger monopolies in local ocean shipping environment due to the merger of multinational
companies (MNC) that are berthing in Malaysia, and bigger companies won bigger contracts. This
situation has caused the SMEs to receive less attention in ocean freight selection by importers and
exporters of the country. Other than that, the industry apparently has been very slow on adopting
Performance Measurement System (PMS) despite the size and maturity of their industry, due to the
absence of a unique framework that takes into account the particularities of ocean freight industry (Konsta
& Plomaritou, 2012). Shipping companies are still experimenting with various performance measurement
system (i.e. KPI, Performance Prism, Balanced Scorecard) in the absence of a common, uniform
measurement system that will apply to all sectors of the ocean freight industry (Otheitis & Kunc, 2015).

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this research is to develop a preliminary Logistics Performance Measurement System
(LPMS) framework for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in ocean freight industry.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Fugate, Mentzer, & Stank (2010) analysed the relationship between logistics performance and
organizational performance, stating that logistics performance is multidimensional and is a function of the
resources used in logistics, according to outlined objectives and outcomes against competitors. In this
context, the authors theorized that analysis of logistics performance should be based on evaluation of a
set of dimensions of the activities carried out by the logistic function, which are namely, efficiency,
effectiveness and differentiation. Efficiency is a factor related to the use of resources allocated to the
logistic function, effectiveness can be defined as the extent to which objectives are achieved and
differentiation is understood as the value that can be generated by the elements of customer service in
relation to competitors.

METHODOLOGY

The preliminary framework is developed based on extensive literatures in logistics performance


measures.

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FINDINGS

Figure 1: Preliminary Logistics Performance Measurement Framework

CONCLUSION

In summary, the logistics performance measurement system (LPMS) for small and medium enterprises
(SME) is a response to the need to support those entities in the area of tools which enable effective and
efficient management. The starting point for this study was an analysis of the existing models and
frameworks of LPMS. The LPMS model and its implementation will help to bridge the gap between theory
and practice as well as to spread the significance of LPMS among SMEs in ocean freight industry.
SELECTIVE REFERENCES
1. Bailey, M. (2017). Ocean Carrier Alliances Expand. Retrieved October 25, 2018, from
https://www.sdcexec.com/sourcing-procurement/article/12379713/ocean-carrier-alliances-
expand

2. Fugate, B. S., Mentzer, J. T., & Stank, T. P. (2010). Logistics Performance: Efficiency,
Effectiveness, and Differentiation. Journal of Business Logistics, 31(1), 43–62.
https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2158-1592.2010.tb00127.x

3. Konsta, K., & Plomaritou, E. (2012). Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Shipping Companies
Performance Evaluation: The Case of Greek Tanker Shipping Companies. International Journal
of Business and Management, 7(10), 142–155. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n10p142

4. Otheitis, N., & Kunc, M. (2015). Performance measurement adoption and business performance:
An exploratory study in the shipping industry. Management Decision, 53(1), 139–159.
https://doi.org/10.1108/MBE-09-2016-0047

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

POTENTIAL USE OF UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUE


FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING: A REVIEW
Room, M. H. M1 and Ahmad, A.2
1,2Department of Geoinformatic, Faculty of Geoinformation & Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, MALAYSIA.
(E-mail: mdhafisroom88@gmail.com, anuarahmad@utm.my)

Abstract: A cadastral is an official record of information about land parcels. Cadastral surveying is work
involving determination of boundaries and area of a lot of land or more. There are many techniques that
have been employed for producing map or plan of cadastral boundary around the world. An example of
these techniques are conventional survey, conventional photogrammetry, satellite imagery and
unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry. Among these techniques, the most common used
technique for cadastral mapping is conventional survey. This technique was used for a long time ago and
can provide very high accurate output, however, it has constraints from the aspect of time consuming
and expensive cost. Rapid development around the world especially in developed countries cause the
changes of techniques for mapping cadastral boundaries. Therefore, mapping the cadastral boundaries
for update purpose needs to be performed regularly or many times. Due to the development of robotic
industry, UAV system which utilised robotic concept and system can be used as a platform for data
acquisition in the field of geospatial and photogrammetry. UAV offers many advantages such as portable,
rapid data acquisition, efficient, low-cost and produces accurate results. All these advantages are
suitable, valuable and significant for cadastral mapping application. Development of UAV has grown very
rapidly where many new types and model of UAV were developed which can use many types of sensor.
This situation encourage the use of UAV in many applications especially for mapping application.
Therefore, this paper reviews the potential of UAV system used in cadastral mapping by examining
related research done around the world and at national level using UAV system for cadastral mapping.
This review will also focus on the quality of final output, methodology used and hopefully it can be used
as a guideline for future work on the implementation of UAV system in cadastral mapping.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, Cadastral, Mapping, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System,


Sensor.
__________________________________________________________________________

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INTRODUCTION
Recently, the demand of unmanned aerial vehicle system have increases due to the rapid development
and production of robotic system. Many fields have used UAV as a data acquisition platform to collect
the geospatial data. UAV system have advantages instead of conventional photogrammetry. UAV have
capability to produce a high resolution digital imagery, no cloud cover, rapid data acquisition, low cost
system and able to generate high accuracy photogrammetric product. Cadastral is land information
system. Meanwhile, cadastral survey is the process of determine and measure the position, size and
boundary mark of a piece of land parcel. Cadastral is very important for society and government.
Basically, cadastral is partially of process to register the property of person. Nowadays, cadastral survey
demand the accurate, low cost and faster method to reduce the period of registration the land or property.
Therefore, UAV system seen have potential to fulfil the demand in cadastral survey. However, the
exploration of the system for cadastral survey is still lacking and new especially in Malaysia. Hence, this
paper is to review ability of UAV system to use in cadastral application.

OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this paper is to review the potential of unmanned aerial vehicle system or UAV
used in cadastral application. The capability of UAV used in cadastral application is evaluated and
reviewed from the past publications have been made by researchers around the world related to UAV
and cadastral mapping.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be defined as a system used to capture the aerial
photograph or collect any information on the earth surface with no pilot on broad.
According to (Bailey, 2012), UAV is a motorized aircraft system controlled remotely by
remote control devices or completely autonomous with aid of on-broad system of
navigation and ground control station. UAV can described as a device for collecting
remote sensing data where it allow flexible manoeuvre, produce high resolution image, can
fly under cloud cover, easy to operate, rapid data acquisition and low cost. Due to these
advantages, UAV has been used in various application such as mapping, monitoring,
mining, scientific research, agriculture, archelogy and others. Over last few years,
there are many types of UAV with special sensor such as digital camera that have been
produced by the manufactures around the world. Until today, UAV can carry many sensor
such as Lidar, multispectral, thermal, hyperspectral, compact digital camera and real time
kinematic (RTK) GPS receiver. RTK UAV is the latest systems designed to generate a
very high accurate output ranging to a few centimetres.
Manufacturing of RTK UAV create a chance and potential for UAV system to be
used in application like cadastral mapping. Cadastral is the field that is used to determine
the position, size and boundary mark of piece of land as the property of a person. While,
cadastral surveying work is for the purpose of land ownership and registration in
accordance with Government Regulation. According to Cadastral Rule Survey 2009,
cadastral survey is to produce as issued in the State Land Act 1965, Licensed Land

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

Surveyors Act 1958 and Regulations of the Land Cadastral Surveying Department. Multipurpose
cadastral is an example of cadastral application. Multi-purpose cadastral can be
defined as cadastral overlay delimiting the current status of the property owner. The
individual building block for the overlay is the cadastral parcel, an unambiguously defined
unit of land within which unique property interest property interests are recognized. The
overlay will consist of a series of maps showing the size, shape and location of all cadastral
parcels within a given jurisdiction. Figure 2 shows an example of cadastral boundary in
Zurich, Switzerland (Manyoky et al., 2012)
Accuracy of final product are very important aspect in this application where every
measurement or survey must follow the standard operating procedure (SOP) has been set
by national surveying department and the final output needs to checked and endorsed.
There are various technique that can be used for application of mapping cadastral boundary
around the world. Among the techniques are conventional survey, conventional aerial
photogrammetry, high resolution satellite imagery and UAV photogrammetry. In Malaysia,
conventional survey is the most common technique used to map the cadastral boundary
from the colonial time until today. Conventional survey such as total station and Global
Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can produce a very high accuracy in term of
generation the output in the form of points and lines, however they have constraints from
the aspect of time consuming and required expensive cost (Harintaka, Susanto and
Hartono, 2009). Therefore, demand of fast and efficient surveying method caused a new
method or system needs to be explored to support and helps to fulfil that demand. The
system can fulfil that requirement is UAV photogrammetry.

FINDINGS
The findings is UAV has bright potential to be use in cadastral application. Many publication states the
UAV system have advantages over conventional methods in term of costing, time consuming, less man-
power and able to offer additional information rather than conventional methods. Accuracy of final
products is very important aspect in cadastral mapping. Every final product must follow and achieved the
existing standard accuracy stated by National Department of Survey. In this case, UAV system also able
to fulfil that requirement.
CONCLUSION
This review aims to explore the potential use of UAV photogrammetry in mapping
cadastral boundary. Three aspects are discussed in this paper which have relation
between each other. However, these aspects are very important element in cadastral
application and as an indicator to study and analysed the potential use of UAV system
for this application. As a conclusion, UAV system really has great potential to be used in cadastral
mapping due to the advantages offered by the system as compared to conventional method. The national
surveying department could benefited from UAV photogrammetry for producing rapid, fast, low cost and
accurate cadastral map.

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SELECTIVE REFERENCES

1. Ahmad, A. et al. (2013) ‘Digital aerial imagery of unmanned aerial vehicle for various
applications’, in Control System, Computing and Engineering (ICCSCE), 2013 IEEE International
Conference on. IEEE, pp. 535–540.
2. Bailey, M. W. (2012) Unmanned aerial vehicle path planning and image processing for
orthoimagery and digital surface model generation. Vanderbilt University.
3. Colomina, I. and Molina, P. (2014) ‘Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote
sensing: A review’, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Elsevier, 92, pp.
79–97.
4. Crommelinck, S. et al. (2016) ‘Review of automatic feature extraction from high-resolution optical
sensor data for UAV-based cadastral mapping’, Remote Sensing. Multidisciplinary Digital
Publishing Institute, 8(8), p. 689.
5. Darwin, N., Ahmad, A. and Akib, W. (2014) ‘The potential of low altitude aerial data for large
scalemapping’, Jurnal Teknologi, 70(5).
6. Eisenbeiß, H. (2009) ‘UAV photogrammetry’. ETH Zurich

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ASSESSMENT OF A PRELIMINARY HYDRO RESERVOIR


OPERATION PLAN DEVELOPED USING DETERMINISTIC
APPROACH BASED ON DESIGN DATA AND SIMULATION

Lee Chai Hoon1

1TNB Research Sdn. Bhd., Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. chaihoon.lee@tnb.com.my

__________________________________________________________________________________

Abstract: This paper proposed a deterministic approach to develop preliminary operation plan for a
hydro reservoir with limited inflow data and then assessed its performance. Two key parameters,
namely expected reservoir yield and target reservoir elevation that are required to decide the planned
reservoir release for the predetermined planning horizon were identified for the hydro reservoir. Due to
the lack of quality data to acquire and/or back-calculate inflow, the expected reservoir yield was
estimated based on design data. Subsequently, target reservoir elevation was obtained based on
simulation. From simulation, key performance indicators namely potential energy utilization index,
average gross head, average reservoir elevation, production volume, spillage volume and percentage
were assessed too. By comparing the simulation results between proposed method and actual
condition, it was found that the proposed method produces 7812 J/m3 (3.04%) higher potential energy
utilization index, 0.037 m (0.14%) higher average gross head, 0.175 m (0.12%) higher average
reservoir elevation, 8.041 x 109 m3 (37.16%) higher production volume, 6.092 x 108 m3 (88.93%) lower
spillage volume, 2.81% (91.70%) lower spillage.

Keywords: reservoir operation planning; deterministic; simulation

INTRODUCTION
Hydropower is a proven and thus popular renewable energy source. While human’s thirst for energy
continues to grow, getting the most value from all energy sources including this reliable yet flexible one
is becoming more important.
Hydro optimization is a wide research area. It includes reservoir operation planning and management
whereby the amount and time of reservoir water release, as well as its target water level, were decided

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for each planning or scheduling period. Another component is economic load dispatch in which number
of operating turbine-generator units, unit selection and their respective generation were decided in real
time. Optimizing the performance of turbine-generator units in the hydro power plant through effective
and efficient maintenance at appropriate timing through predictive analytics or other approaches is only
a subarea.
This paper focuses on reservoir operation planning for a reservoir that is located downstream of the
main flood control reservoir in a cascaded hydro system. As its role in flood control is less significant,
inflow was not measured and the back-calculated inflow (based on generation and water level) was
also not available in the quality and size fit for inflow forecasting. For this reason, design data of the
reservoir, which are often the result of hydrological investigation for sufficiently long period, is more
suitable and thus used for inflow estimation.

OBJECTIVES
To develop a preliminary and ready-to-use reservoir operation plan for a hydro reservoir lacking quality
inflow data based on design data and simulation

LITERATURE REVIEW
Reservoir operation optimization problem are computationally hard to solve considering the uncertainty
associated with inflows, possibility of having multi objectives and inclusion of nonlinear functions such
as hydropower generation, evaporation and other losses (Rani and Moreira, 2010).
There are two main methods in reservoir system optimization, namely deterministic and stochastic. In
deterministic methods, a single set of fixed boundary conditions (flows and demands) and results are
considered. On the other hand, stochastic formulations require explicit representation of probabilistic
inputs, parameters and outputs. Nevertheless, deterministic models can become probabilistic when run
many times using different inputs based on representative hydrology from synthetic stream flow
generator or historical records and report results spanning a broad range of conditions (e.g. Monte-
Carlo simulation and implicit stochastic optimization) (Harou et al., 2009, Rani and Moreira, 2010). Rani
and Moreira (2010) also summarize the pros and cons of both methods. As summarized, deterministic
methods are better than stochastic methods as they can be formulated to represent a problem more
closely. However, stochastic methods fare better in dealing with extreme operating conditions such as
severe flood or drought. Overall, stochastic methods are more appealing but it requires great
computational effort regardless of using classical optimization techniques (e.g. linear programming,
nonlinear programming and dynamic programming) or artificial intelligence based techniques (e.g.
evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy set theory and artificial neural networks).
To minimize the computational effort, Othman (2002) proposed and implemented TNBR’s deterministic
method for optimization of water release successfully for Temengor reservoir in Sungai Perak
Cascaded Hydro Scheme.

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METHODOLOGY
TNBR’s deterministic method for optimization of water release (Othman, 2002) was applied to Bersia
reservoir, which is located downstream of Temengor reservoir in Sungai Perak Cascaded Hydro
Scheme. This method can be expressed as follows:

 Objective function: Maximize Potential Energy Utilization (PEU) Index as shown below.
𝛒×𝐠×𝐕 ×𝐇𝐠𝐫𝐨𝐬𝐬
𝐏𝐄𝐔 = 𝐕 𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 +𝐕
(1)
𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐬𝐩𝐢𝐥𝐥
where
 = water density of the reservoir = 997 kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration at the site = 9.781 m/s2
Vproduction = production volume (m3)
Hgross = gross head of the hydro power plant (m)
Vspill = spillage volume (m3)
 As shown in (1), PEU index can be maximized by optimizing Vproduction and maximizing Hgross.
 The production volume can be expressed as shown below.
𝐱@𝐭=𝐟
𝐕𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 = 𝐕𝐲𝐢𝐞𝐥𝐝 + ∫𝐱@𝐭=𝟎 𝐀𝐱 𝐝𝐱 (2)
where
Vyield = expected reservoir yield (calculated based on design data)
𝐱@𝐭=𝐟
∫𝐱@𝐭=𝟎 𝐀𝐱 𝐝𝐱 = storage change to achieve target reservoir elevation
 The expected reservoir yield was calculated from design annual average energy production
considering design overall efficiency, water density of the reservoir, local gravitational
acceleration and rated gross head.
 The gross head can be expressed as shown below.
𝑯𝐠𝐫𝐨𝐬𝐬 = 𝑭𝑩𝑬 – 𝑻𝑾𝑳 (3)
where
FBE = fore bay elevation
TWL = tailrace water level
 Since tailrace water level is a dependent variable that is proportional to turbine discharge,
maximizing gross head literally means maximizing fore bay elevation, subjected to design limits
of the reservoir.

To employ this method for maximization of PEU index, a simulation model was developed. By fixing
target reservoir elevation (i.e. fore bay elevation) to find out the required storage change and using
expected reservoir yield to compare against actual inflow, the resultant production volume and final
reservoir elevation for each time step were calculated and passed to the next time step for 8 years from
1 September 2008 to 31 August 2016. At the end of the simulation, key performance indicators, namely
potential energy utilization index, average gross head, average reservoir elevation, production volume,
spillage volume and percentage were assessed. This process was repeated by varying target reservoir
elevation. Finally, the optimal target reservoir elevation, which gives the maximum PEU index, was

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found. For comparison, the key performance indicators were also assessed based on actual reservoir
conditions for the same time period.

FINDINGS
Table 1 shows the results of simulation for optimal and actual conditions and comparison between
them.
Table 1: Key Performance Indicators for Optimal and Actual Conditions

Condition Potential Average Average Spillage Production Spillage


Energy Gross Reservoir Percentage Volume Volume
Utilization Head (m) Elevation (%) (m3) (m3)
Index (J/m3) (mSLE)

Optimal 2.6444780E+05 27.188 140.855 0.25% 2.9683E+10 7.5811E+07

Actual 2.5663572E+05 27.150 140.680 3.07% 2.1642E+10 6.8496E+08

Difference 7.8121E+03 0.037 0.175 -2.81% 8.0411E+09 -


(value) 6.0915E+08

Difference 3.04 0.14 0.12 -91.70 37.16 -88.93


(%)

Based on design data, the expected (daily) reservoir yield is 1.0199E+07 m 3. Meanwhile, from
simulation, it was found that the optimum target reservoir elevation is 140.855 mSLE.

CONCLUSION

A preliminary reservoir operation plan for a downstream reservoir of a cascaded hydro system has
been developed based on design data and simulation using TNBR’s deterministic method for
optimization of water release. Based on the results of simulation for 8 years data from September 2008
to August 2016 between the proposed reservoir operation plan (optimal) and actual reservoir operation
condition, it was found that the optimal plan yields better performance in all aspects, particularly PEU
index and spillage volume or percentage.

11
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22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
BANGI-PUTRAJAYA HOTEL, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

SELECTIVE REFERENCES

1. Harou, J. J., Pulido-Velazquez, M., Rosenberg, D. E., Medellín-Azuara, J., Lund, J. R., & Howitt,
R. E. (2009). Hydro-economic models: Concepts, design, applications, and future prospects.
Journal of Hydrology, 375(3-4), 627-643.

2. Othman, A. B. (2002). Final report for TNB R&D project titled “Optimum Utilization and
Optimization of Hydro Energy for SSJSP”. Kajang, Malaysia: TNB Research Sdn. Bhd.

3. Rani, D., & Moreira, M. M. (2010). Simulation–optimization modeling: a survey and potential
application in reservoir systems operation. Water resources management, 24(6), 1107-1138.

4. Unit Generation, Plant Fore Bay Elevation and Plant Tailrace Water Level for Temengor and
Bersia Hydro Power Plants. (2008 – 2016). In Generation Plant Management System (GPMS).
Retrieved from TNB Generation Division GPMS Database.

5. Unit Generation, Plant Fore Bay Elevation and Plant Tailrace Water Level for Temengor and
Bersia Hydro Power Plants. (2008 – 2016). In Stesen-Stesen Janaelektrik Sungai Perak (SSJSP)
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA). Retrieved from SSJSP SCADA Database.

12
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING &
ROBOTIC APPLICATION (ICCEMERA 2018)
22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
BANGI-PUTRAJAYA HOTEL, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS UTILIZING ZINC SULPHIDE-


COATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE FILMS PHOTOANODE: EFFECT OF
IMMERSION TIME ON ITS PERFORMANCE

S.N. Sadikin1, M.Y.A. Rahman1, A.A. Umar1


1Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600,
Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
*E-mail addresses: mohd.yusri@ukm.edu.my (M.Y.A. Rahman)

Abstract: This work deals with the use of ZnS-coated TiO2 films as photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar
cell (DSSC). The effect of immersion time of ZnS precursor on the photovoltaic parameters of the device
has been investigated. The immersion time has been varied from 30 to 90 minutes at 15 minutes interval.
The sample prepared with 60 minutes of immersion time shows the highest optical reflection in the visible
region while the sample prepared with 45 minutes of immersion time possesses the highest optical
absorption in the UV region. The DSSC utilizing the photoanode prepared with 60 minutes of immersion
time demonstrated the highest η of 0.80%, Jsc of 2.990 mA cm-2, Voc of 0.650 V and FF of 0.412. This is
due to this device has the smallest charge transfer resistance at the interface of Pt/electrolyte (Rct1) of
0.480 Ω.

Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cells, photoanode, ZnS-coated TiO2

INTRODUCTION
The performance of dye-sensitized solar cell can be improved by utilizing modified metal oxide
photoanode. The photoanode can be modified via several ways, namely, coating photoanode with
another metal oxide, introducing composite struture consisting of two metal oxides and doping metal
oxide with metal or metal. In this work, TiO2 films have been coated with ZnS and then utilized as a
photoanode of the device.
OBJECTIVE

The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of immersion time of ZnS precursor that is zinc nitrate
hexahydrate on the optical properties of ZnS-coated TiO2. The next objective is to study the effect of
immersion time of zinc nitrate hexahydrate on the photovoltaic parameters of the device has been
investigated.

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

LITERATURE REVIEW

Hu and his group reported that the recombination of electrons with holes was depressed by introducing
strontium oxide (SrO) shell coating on TiO2 and consequently increased the power conversion efficiency
of the device [2]. Zhu and his co-workers found that the efficiency of the device was improved upon
utilizing graphene-TiO2 composite photoanode due to the increase in photocurrent density and voltage
[3]. Dong and his co-researchers employed silver-loaded TiO2 composite as a photoanode of DSSC and
found a significant increase in the efficiency of the device [4]. TiO 2-coated ZnO has been applied as
photoanode of DSSC and demonstrated the power efficiency of 5.65% [5]. TiO2-coated ZrO2 has been
employed as a photoanode of the device and the short-current density (Jsc) has been improved by two
times compared with the device utilizing TiO2 potoanode [6]. The DSSC employing TiO2-coated Nb2O5
demonstrated the efficiency of 7.23% due to the significant increase in the short-circuit current density
[7].

METHODOLOGY
TiO2 films were grown twice on ITO substrates via liquid-phase deposition technique [8]. The ITO
substrates were immersed in a solution containing 0.2 M boric acid, H3BO3 and 0.1 M ammonium
hexafluorotitanate, (NH4)2TiF6 for 25 h. The growth temperature was maintained at 30 °C. After 25 h, the
TiO2 samples were left to dry. ZnS solution was prepared separately by dissolving zinc nitrate
hexahydrate and thiourea in ethanol with molarity ratio of 1:1. Then, the TiO2 Samples were immersed in
0.01 M ZnS solution for 30 min. Finally, the sample was annealed at 400 °C for 1 h. These procedures
were repeated for preparing ZnS-coated TiO2 with other precursor immersion times, namely, 45, 60, 75,
and 90 minutes. The samples were characterized by UV–Vis to study its optical absorption and reflection.

0.5 mM of N719 dye solution was prepared as the photoanode sensitizer. ZnS-coated TiO2 films were
immersed in the dye solution for 15 h at room temperature. The counter electrode of the device was
platinum film grown on FTO substrates. Redox electrolyte containing iodide/triiodide was injected into the
space between TiO2/ ZnS-coated N719 and platinum counter electrode. The devices with an active area
of 0.23 cm2 were tested in dark and under the illumination of 100 mW cm−2 light. The light source used
was tungsten halogen lamp. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed on the
devices to determine the charge transport properties and carrier lifetime.

FINDINGS
The use of ZnS-coated TiO2 has been found to improve the performance of the DSSC. The performance
of the device is significantly influenced by the immersion time of zinc nitrate hexahydrate.

CONCLUSIONS
The ZnS-coated TiO2 has succesfully been prepared via liquid phase depostion technique assisted spin
coating technique and employed as photoanode of DSSC. The device utilizing the photoanode prepared
with 60 minutes of immersion time demonstrated the highest η of 0.80% and Jsc of 2.990 mA. This is due
to this device has the smallest charge transfer resistance at the interface of Pt/electrolyte (Rct1) of 0.480
Ω.

14
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22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

SELECTIVE REFERENCES

1. S.K.M. Maarof, M. Rusop, S. Abdullah, Adv. Mater. Res. 832, 763–766 (2014)
2. Q. Hu, C. Wu, L. Cao, B. Chi, J. Pu, L. Jian, J. Power Sources 226, 8–15 (2013)
3. M. Zhu, X. Li, W. Liu, Y. Cui, J. Power Sources 262, 349–355 (2014)
4. H. Dong, Z. Wu, Y. Gao, A. El-Shafei, S. Ning, J. Xi, B. Jiao, Org. Electron. 15, 2847–2854 (2014)
5. C. Xu, J. Wu, U.V. Desai, D. Gao, Nano Lett. 12, 2420–2424 (2012)
6. T.C. Li, M.S. Góes, F. Fabregat-Santiago, J. Bisquert, P.R. Bueno, C. Prasittichai, J.T. Hupp, T.J.
Marks,J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (2009) 18385–18390
7. H.-N. Kim, J.H. Moon, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 5821–5825 (2012)
8. A.A. Umar, M.Y.A. Rahman, S.K.M. Saad, M.M. Salleh, M. Oyama. Appl. Surface Sci. 270, 109–114
(2013)

15
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING &
ROBOTIC APPLICATION (ICCEMERA 2018)
22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
BANGI-PUTRAJAYA HOTEL, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

AUTOMATED HOME SECURITY SYSTEM BASED ON ARDUINO

HEIRIZ ISKANDAR MOHD SHAMLAN1, YUFRIDIN WAHAB2, MASRI ZAIRI MOHD


ZIN3

AMBIENCE, Universiti Malaysia Perlis,.SME Bank Complex, Kuala Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia
1,2,3

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Abstract: Burglary means gaining an unauthorised access into others building or premises with intent
to steal goods. It can be done by using shere force to break into the house, using false keys or other
ways. Most residential breaks-in occured by targeting single family houses as its most frequent targets.
Normally, these breaks-in does not result in conforntation or injuries with the people who reside in the
house as most breaks-in occur when the resident is out of the house. But in uncommon cases, some
burglar will enter the premises when it is occupied and will threaten them with violence. Nowadays
house buglary cases had risen in a wary ways. These problem can be solve in an effective method
which is to use an automated home secutrity system. House security system become the most efficient
solution to overcome the house intrusion problem which are happening quite often this day. As we
know, most security house system are expensive and difficult to use. Therefor many people choose to
neglect the implementation of a house security system in their house. For that particular reason, an
effective smart house security system at low cost is build where user can also program the security
system on their own. The project consists of several components namely the Arduino board as a
microcontroller, the ESP8266 module as a Wi-Fi module, an Infra-Red (IR) sensor, vibration sensor and
force sensor as a device to detect intrusion and the light emitting diode as a signal for any intrusion. In
this project the sensors will detect for any kind of intrusion and then will alert the user via a smartphone
application. In addition, all the data from the sensors will be stored in a cloud application called
ThingSpeak. Consequently, users can monitor the house from everywhere via their mobile application..

Keywords: Home Automation, Home Security, Arduino

Introduction
Burglary means gaining an unauthorised access into others building or premises with intent to steal
goods. It can be done by using shere force to break into the house, using false keys or other ways.
Most residential breaks-in occured by targeting single family houses as its most frequent targets.
Normally, these breaks-in does not result in conforntation or injuries with the people who reside in the
house as most breaks-in occur when the resident is out of the house. But in uncommon cases, some
burglar will enter the premises when it is occupied and will threaten them with violence. This project is
focusing on developing a smart house security system.

16
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING &
ROBOTIC APPLICATION (ICCEMERA 2018)
22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
BANGI-PUTRAJAYA HOTEL, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

OBJECTIVES
The main aim of this project is to design and develop a smart house security system with the
implementation of Arduino Uno. There are several main objectives of this project in order to achieve the
aims, which are:
I. To create a system that can detect any home intrusion with the use of various kind of sensors
II. To create a code that is able to capture input from sensors to be processed by Arduino Uno
III. To deploy a home monitoring system that can be done by using smartphone

LITERATURE REVIEW
According to the Malaysian federal police Crime Prevention and Community Safety Department, a total
of 38,877 crimes involving properties were recorded in the first quater of 2016 and a total of 6662 cases
involving house breaks-in [1]. Fully gated residential area with a 24-hours guards monitoring the area
did help to prevent the breaks-in from happening. Netherless, it still didn’t fully help to prevent and solve
the breaks-in from occuring. This because the security that implemented still have human-error that
cannot be altered. So as the solution for this problem is to apply a fully automated home security
system that can monitor and alert the resident for breaks-in.
Nowadays, house security system become the most efficient solution to overcome the house intrusion
problem which are happening quite often this day. As we know, most security house system are
expensive and difficult to use. Therefor many people choose to neglect the implementation of a house
security system in their house. For that particular reason, an effective smart house security system at
low cost is build where user can also program the security system on their own. Automation is a
scientific and technological ways of manufacture of machine where its take over most work that was
done by humans. The manual security provided to property of individuals is cost more in term of money
and labor. In addition of human errors also may affect the whole security system and a single mistake
may fail the whole system. Hence automation in security purpose is necessary.

METHODOLOGY
This project is focusing on developing a smart house security system with an active infrared motion
detector, pressure sensor and vibration sensor which are controlled by using Arduino Uno. Then all the
information that were identified by sensors, is informed to web server and then to mobile apps. This
information is sent to central web-server using Wi-Fi network in real time, and user can know about the
security of their house from anywhere whether they are at home or not. The overall project is divided
into two main part. The first part which concern on hardware development. While, the second part is
mostly about the programming of software to operate the hardware structure. As the result of both main
part, the infrared detector, pressure sensor and light sensor are capable of detecting motion and in the
same time the programmed Arduino Uno is capable to control the whole operation of the security
system.

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

KEY FINDINGS
The experimental result did meet expected result. The system work in desired condition and running
smoothly. Several debugging had been made to the hardware and software so that they meet with the
expected result.

CONCLUSION
This smart house security system is hoped to fulfill all the host’s demand and make the home as safe
and comfortable as possible. With this system, the security of the house can be increase and be more
efficient. With the addition of mobile apps that can keep the user an up to date information about their
house’s security, user can be more calm and comfortable to leave their house for a period of
time.Farmer, education and research are often stressed because it is important to realize that there are
many more actors in the food chain that directly influence decision making of farmers and their
innovations.

SELECTIVE REFERENCES

1. H. S. Shahrudin, “News Strait Times,” 7 May 2016. [Online]. Available:


https://www.nst.com.my/news/2016/05/144196/malaysias-crime-index-sees-46-cent-increase.
[Accessed 13 March 2018].

2. K. Madhuri, B. L. Sai and B. S. Sirisha, “A Home Automation System Design Using Hardware
Descriptive Tools,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), vol.
2, no. 7, pp. 385-393, 2013.

3. E. Brown, “Linux.Com,” The Linux Foundation, 13 September 2016. [Online]. Available:


https://www.linux.com/news/who-needs-internet-things. [Accessed 13 March 2018].

4. K. Won Min, M. Seo Yeon and P. Jong Hyuk, “An enhanced security framework for home
appliances in smart home,” Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences, vol. 7, no. 6,
2017.

18
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING &
ROBOTIC APPLICATION (ICCEMERA 2018)
22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
BANGI-PUTRAJAYA HOTEL, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMENARY ANALYSIS OF


ADSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM BASED ON SILICA
GEL-WATER PAIR
Fauziah Jerai 1

1FakultiKejuruteraan Mekanikal, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40000 Shah Alam, Malaysia, E-mail :
fauziahjerai@salam.uitm.edu.my, Tel: 03-55436458

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Abstract: Adsorption system has become one of the good alternatives to replace vapor compression
refrigeration system in the world. The system has an ability to utilize solar energy that can lead to significant
energy saving and environmentally friendly system. However, the system has some drawbacks such as the
system is too bulky and expensive to be commercialized. Many studies have done to improve the performance of
the system. Evaporator and adsorber are two of issues that have been studied to improve the system. This
article presents the preliminary study of the development and testing analysis of evaporator and adsorber for
adsorption cooling system application, which employing silica gel – water as the adsorbent – refrigerant pair. The
silica gel-water pair was selected because the pair required low grade heat sources and low regeneration
temperature to activate the cooling system. Here, the adsorber are made of U-shape copper heat exchanger
attached with 9 numbers of aluminium fins. Whilst the evaporater was made of four-pass arrangement copper
tube heat exchanger with a total tube length of 1.43m. Firstly, the evaporator and adsorber were design and
fabricated based on the most suitable design founded from the literature. Then, the performance of an adsorption
cooling system has been experimentally investigated by varying the heat source temperatures ranging from 70 to
80°C and chilled water temperature ranging from 15 to 25 C. From the results, it was shown that increasing the
heating source temperature gives significant results on the adsorption heat value, hence COP. The main
conclusion can be drawn here is that the system developed can be used to produce cooling using low heat
souse such as solar heat source and engine waste heat.

Keywords: Adsorption system, silica gel-water, evaporator, adsorber, COP

INTRODUCTION

Adsorption system consists of few components which are the adsorber bed, a condenser, an expansion
valve and an evaporator. Unfortunately, most of the design of the system is bulky that makes it impossible
to commercialize to be use widely. Hence, this project is focusing on developed an improved system of
evaporator and adsorber to maximize the performance of adsorption cooling system based on silica gel-
water pair. The design required maximum adsorption to ensure the system works well with the adsorbent.
To implement the improvement, a study needs to be done to identify a suitable design, characteristics
and problem that may occur during the work to make sure the propose designs of evaporator can be
produced and the performance of the adsorption cooling system can be maximized. Therefore, it is

19
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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

important to apply this system in Malaysia to reduce the effect of global warming by implementing a
suitable improvement to the design of the heat exchanger component in the adsorption application.

OBJECTIVE

This project devotes towards development and analyzes the preliminary performance of an adsorption
cooling system applying silica gel-water as the adsorbent-refrigerant pair. The focus is on the parametric
study where the operating conditions of the hot water source are varied.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Recent studies by Cheppudira Thimmaiah, P., et al. (2016) have reported a few findings regarding the
design of the evaporator consisted of capillary-assisted tubes. The tubes with continuous parallel fins on
their outer surfaces had significantly higher heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficients relative to
plain tubes, as shown in Figure 1. The findings also include that the highest transfer rate can be achieve
if the refrigerant height in the evaporator is less than the tube diameter. The interior volume above the
enhanced tubes of the capillary-assisted evaporator also did not have a significant effect on evaporator
performance. They also reported that the fin with the highest density and height provided the highest
external heat transfer coefficient.

Figure 1: Capillary-assisted evaporator tubes; (a) side view and (b) cross-sectional view (Cheppudira
Thimmaiah, P., et al., 2016)

Various types of heat exchangers as adsorber have been used in an adsorption system such as shell
tube heat exchanger, flat pipe heat exchanger, flat plate heat exchanger and plate-fins heat exchanger
(Attalla, M., & Sadek, S., 2014) and (Ng, K. C., 2001). Caciola, G., et al., 1992, reported that plate-fins
heat exchanger could be a good solution to overcome the various thermal resistance which is usually
made of aluminum and easy to fabricate. He also mentioned that this type of heat exchanger is suitable
for refrigerant and heat pump applications.

METHODOLOGY

The ideal cycle of adsorption refrigeration system is shown in Figure 2(a) whilst Figure 2(b) shows the
typical experimental set-up for one bed adsorptionn cooling. At first, the liquid refrigerant is evaporated
in the evaporator using chilled water supply which is circulated from a chilled water bath. The adsorber
is depressurized first using cooling water during pre-cooling process to a temperature (Tadsorption), which
causes the vapor pressure of the adsorbed refrigerant decreasing to the evaporator pressure
(Pevaporator).Then the evaporator and adsorber is connected by opening valve 1 to start the adsorption
process. The evaporated refrigerant will be adsorbed by the adsorbent and the heat is removed by the
cooling water. The adsorption process is ended by shutting valve 1 and the evaporator is isolated from
the adsorber. The process continues with pressurization pre-heating where hot water is circulated through

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

the adsorber. Valve 2 will be open to allow the desorption process and the required heat input is taken
from the hot water source.
P Condenser T
Cool heat
Cool heat
transfer
transfer
fluid in
fluid out
V2
P

ADSORBER Refrigerant
BED
tank
T
M Hot / Cool heat
F M
transfer fluid
T
V1
P T V3

Chilled heat Chilled heat


transfer transfer
fluid out
Evaporator
F Flow meter T Thermocouple M Mixing chamber

P Pressure gauge

(a) (b)

When the temperature in the adsorbent rises up to a temperature (T desorption) which causes the vapor
pressure of the desorbed refrigerant up to the condensing pressure (Pcondenser), desorption at constant
pressure is initiated, the desorbed vapor is condensed and collected in a refrigerant tank. Finally the
condensed refrigerant will be accumulated in the refrigerant receiver tank and valve 3 is used to control
the refrigerant supply into the evaporator.

FINDINGS

Increasing the heating fluid inlet temperature to the adsorber beds from 70 to 80°C increases the SCP
from 0.18 to 0.9 W/kg. Increasing the temperature of the heating fluid to the adsorber beds during
desorption causes faster heat transfer to the adsorbent material and, consequently, the rate of desorption
of the adsorbate from the adsorbent material increases, and more adsorbate is desorbed. Accordingly,
the drier adsorbent material adsorbs more adsorbate from the evaporator during the adsorption process.
Therefore, higher cooling power (or SCP) is generated, hence will increase the COP.Also, by increasing
the chilled water inlet temperature from 15 to 25°C, the COP of the adsorption cooling system increases
from 0.08 to 0.19, because the adsorbate uptake capability of the adsorbent material increases with the
increasing the evaporator pressure during the adsorption process.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The prelimenary study on the adsorption cooling system using silica gel-water was carried out to
investigate the influence of heating water temperature on the system performance. This study has shown
the increment of the heating water temperature enhances the cooling performance of the system and
affect significantly on the SCP and COP. It was shown also that the proposed system can be used to
recycle the waste heat and produced cooling even though the COP is low. For further research, it is
required some modifications to the components of adsorption system so that the value of COP can be
improved.

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

MAIN REFERENCES

1. Cheppudira Thimmaiah, P., Sharafian, A., Huttema, W., Osterman, C., Ismail, A., Dhillon, A., &
Bahrami, M. (2016). Performance of finned tubes used in low-pressure capillary-assisted
evaporator of adsorption cooling system. Applied Thermal Engineering, 106, 371–380.
doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.06.038

2. Fernandes, M. S., Brites, G. J. V. N., Costa, J. J., Gaspar, A. R., & Costa, V. A. F. (2014). Review
and future trends of solar adsorption refrigeration systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews, 39, 102–123. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.081

3. G. Cacciola, G. Cammarata, A. Fichera and G. Restuccia, (1992), Advances on innovative heat


exchangers in adsorption heat pumps. In Proc. Syrup. Solid Sorption Refrigeration, Paris, pp.
221-226.

4. Goyal, P., Baredar, P., Mittal, A., & Siddiqui, A. R. (2016). Adsorption refrigeration technology –
an overview of theory and its solar energy applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews, 53, 1389–1410. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.027

5. Habib, K., & B. Saha, B. (2013). Performance evaluation of solar driven activated carbon fiber-
ethanol based Adsorption cooling system in Malaysia. Asian Journal of Scientific Research, 6(2),
146–156. doi:10.3923/ajsr.2013.146.156

6. Lanzerath, F., Seiler, J., Erdogan, M., Schreiber, H., Steinhilber, M., & Bardow, A. (2016). The
impact of filling level resolved: Capillary-assisted evaporation of water for adsorption heat pumps.
Applied Thermal Engineering, 102, 513–519. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.03.052

7. Li, W., Wu, X.-Y., Luo, Z., & Webb, R. L. (2011). Falling water film evaporation on newly-designed
enhanced tube bundles. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 54(13-14), 2990–2997.
doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2011.02.052

8. Ng, K. C., Chua, H. T., Chung, C. Y., Loke, C. H., Kashiwagi, T., Akisawa, A., & Saha, B. B.
(2001). Experimental investigation of the silica gel–water adsorption isotherm characteristics.
Applied Thermal Engineering, 21(16), 1631–1642. doi:10.1016/s1359-4311(01)00039-4

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22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

BIOENGINEERED AND BIOCOMPATIBLE ZIRCONIA BASED


CERAMICS FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
G. Sankar1, S. Meenaloshini2, R. Dinesh3

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, 43000, Malaysia,


sankarsaisanjay@gmail.com
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, 43000, Malaysia,
Meenaloshini@uniten.edu.my
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, 43000, Malaysia,
dineshragurajan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: The densification behaviour, mechanical properties, and microstructure of high-purity


titanium oxide (TiO2) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-doped Y-TZP with different weight percentage of
TiO2 varied from 0 to 10wt% and a fixed percentage of 15wt% for tricalcium phosphate were
investigated in this research work. The samples were pressed uniaxially at 200MPa into rectangular
bars and discs and pressureless-sintered at temperatures ranging between 1200˚C to 1400˚C for 90
minutes holding time while the microstructure was characterized with a scanning electron microscope
(SEM). The mechanical properties in terms of bulk density, compressive strength, and Vickers
hardness were also measured. The results indicate that the addition of dopants accelerated the
densification parameters, reinforced and toughened the obtained bodies. The maximum values for the
mechanical properties of the TiO2 and TCP-doped Y-TZP ceramics were 4.89Mgm-3 and 10.67GPa for
density, and Vickers hardness, respectively, which are higher than those of the undoped samples for
the composition of 10wt% TiO2/15wt% TCP and 75wt% ZrO3 sintered at 1400˚C with 90 minutes holding
time.
Keywords: Titanium Oxide, Tricalcium phosphate, Zirconia, Mechanical
Properties, Microstructure

INTRODUCTION

Bioceramics are used for biomedical applications in the recent era. However, the production of scaffolds
is a challenge in the technology of biomaterials (Salemi et al., 2014). The biomaterials are used in
various areas, especially bioceramics that are widely used for medical applications, specifically for
orthopedics implants and dental implants (Sakka et al., 2014). For the past years, Tricalcium Phosphate
(TCP) has been known as the most valuable implant material that is being used to repair bone defects.
On a contrary, the use of TCP for biomedical implants has some limitations as their mechanical
properties make the material brittle and poor fatigue resistance. (Elliot, 1994; Hench, 1998). Generally,
the mechanical properties of tricalcium phosphate, is quite inadequate for load-carrying applications.
(Bouslama et al.,2009).

23
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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

OBJECTIVES

The research objective is to find the most optimum TiO2 and TCP additives
content into Y-TZP and the best sintering temperature for 1.5 hours holding time
to maintain the best mechanical properties results i.e bulk density, Vickers
hardness and compressive strength.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Inert ceramic oxides like zirconia have high tribological properties (E.C Subbarao et al., 1981). This
being the reason, zirconia has drawn attention as its possibility to obtain a nanograined bulk ceramic
and a controllable microstructure. In addition to that, zirconia possesses other intrinsic physical and
chemical properties like hardness, wear resistance, low coefficient of friction, elastic modulus, chemical
inertness, ionic conductivity, electrical properties, low thermal conductivity, and high melting
temperature. (E.C Subbarao et al., 1981). Hence, zirconia can be mixed with tricalcium phosphate to
make bioceramics composites, which would combine the biocompatibility of the tricalcium phosphate
and high tribological properties of zirconia. The addition of TCP in zirconia matrix increases the
mechanical properties and partially prevents the inverse allotropic transformation of zirconia (Salemi I,
2013). However, there is tendency of poor mechanical properties of zirconia and TCP composites due
to the allotropic transformation of zirconia from the tetragonal to monoclinic phase (Salemi I, 2013).

In order to retain the biocompatibility and mechanical properties, it is necessary to introduce a reinforcing
agent like ceramic oxides that would contribute towards the enhancement of mechanical properties. In
comparison to ceramic oxide agents, Titanium Oxide (TiO2) has been used widely in orthopedics
applications especially, because of its excellent biocompatibility and its chemical stability in aqueous
environments and chemical inertness (A. Ravaglioli et al., 1992). Due to this property, TiO 2 has been
chosen as the agent of reinforcement in this research work. It would be discussed in this paper the
influence of titania on the densification, hardness, and microstructures. The titania content would vary
from 0wt%, to 10wt%. The samples were sintered at 1200˚C, 1250˚C, 1300˚C, 1350˚C and 1400˚C with
a holding time of 60 minutes, 90 minutes and 120 minutes.

METHODOLOGY

The TiO2 and TCP doped zirconia (Y-TZP), with different TiO2 and TCP contents were synthesized
through co-precipitation method. Various weight percentages of TiO2 and TCP were mixed with Y-TZP
by wet milling in ethanol in an ultrasonic machine. Then after, the mixture was ball milled for 1 hour, after
which the slurry was dried at 60°C in an oven for 12 hours. The dried mixed was then sieved through a
212μm mesh stainless steel sieve to obtain a ready-to-press TiO2-TCP-YTZP powder. The mixed
powder was pressed in a hardened steel circular (20 mm in diameter) and rectangular (80 x 50 x 8mm)
mold and die set under a hydraulic pressure of 500 MPa. The samples were subsequently subjected to
cold isostatic pressing (CIP) at a pressure of 200MPa with a holding time of 5 minutes.

Pressing was followed by the consolidation of the samples by ambient pressure sintering performed in
air using a heating furnace (ModuTemp) at various temperatures ranging from 1200˚C to 1400˚C. The
sintering profile set to sinter for all samples were at a ramp-rate of 10˚C/min for both heating and cooling
and holding time of 1-2 hours prior to cooling to room temperature. All samples were polished using SiC
papers (120, 240, 600, 800) from coarse to rough, followed by polishing with a diamond paste to 6µm,
in order to obtain an optical reflective surface.

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Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction (Geiger-Flex, Rigaku Japan) of the powders and sintered samples
were carried out under ambient conditions using Cu-K as the radiation source. The fraction of the
monoclinic (m) phase present in the ceramic matrix was determined using the method of Toraya et al..
The morphology of the powders and micro structural evolution of the sintered samples were studied by
using a Scanning Electron Microscope (Philips XL30 ESEM).

The bulk density of the sintered samples was measured based on Archimedes’ principle using an
electronic balance retrofitted with a density determination kit (Mettler Toledo, Switzerland).

Vickers hardness measurements (Future Tech., Japan) were made on polished samples using the
Vickers indentation method. The indentation load was kept constant at 98.1 N and a loading time of 10
s was employed. The values of KIc were computed using the equation derived by Niihara et al. (Niihara
K et al.,1982). Average values were taken from five measurements. The microstructure of the samples
was examined by JSM-6310 scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

FINDINGS
The best additive content into Y-TZP is 10wt% TiO2 and 15wt% TCP at a sintering temperature of
1400˚C. The mechanical properties results obtained were good, the bulk density is 4.89Mgm-3
approximately 80% of the theoretical density value, 10.67GPa for the Vickers hardness and a
compressive strength of 4100MPa respectively. Based on the SEM test results for this research, there
isn’t large grain size that are causing microcracks on higher sintering temperature. In addition to that,
the addition TiO2 has in fact made the microstructure stronger.

CONCLUSION
This research work investigated the effect of TiO2 and TCP additions to improve
the physical and mechanical properties of zirconia. The results show that the
properties were significantly enhanced by additions of 10wt% TiO2/ 15wt% TCP
and 75wt% ZrO3. The highest value of density obtained was about 4.89 g/cm3,
approximately 80% of the theoretical density value (6.10 g/cm3). The Vickers
hardness and compressive strength achieved were 10.67 GPa and 4100MPa
respectively. Sintering at high temperatures, 1350˚C to 1400˚C was seen to be
the optimum temperature to achieve the best mechanical properties. The
microstructure evaluation also showed a smaller grain size achievement.

MAIN REFERENCES

1. Ibticem Ayadi, Foued Ben Ayed (2015) Sintering and the mechanical properties of the tricalcium
phosphate-titania composites. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 49, 129-140

2. Sallemi, J. Bouaziz, F. Ben Ayed Elaboration and characterization of bioceramic based on


tricalcium phosphate and zirconia Int. J. Curr. Eng. Technol., 3 (5) (2013), pp. 1691-1700

3. Sakka, S., Bouaziz, J., Ben Ayed, F., (2014). Sintering and mechanical properties of the
alumina-tricalcium phosphate-titania composites. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 40, 92-101

4. Siwar Sakka, Jamel Bouaziz, Foued Ben Ayed (2014) Sintering and mechanical properties of
the alumina-tricalcium phosphate-titania composites. Mater Sci. Eng. C 40, 92-101

25
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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

THE EFFECT OF HOLDING TIME ON THE MECHANICAL AND


PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TITANIA-WOLLASTONITE-
HYDROXYAPATITE COMPOSITES

D. Ragurajan1, M. Satgunam2, U. Sankar3, M. Golieskardi4


1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, 43000, Malaysia,
dineshragurajan@gmail.com
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, 43000, Malaysia,

Meenaloshini@uniten.edu.my
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, 43000, Malaysia, sankarsaisanjay@gmail.com
4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, 43000, Malaysia,

mohsen_golieskardi@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: The effect holding time and various amounts of additives on the TiO2-HA-CaSiO3
composites was investigated this study. TiO2/CaSiO3/HA composites were prepared and characterized
by means of physical and mechanical properties. The addition of TiO2 and HA to wollastonite was studied
by means of bulk density and Vickers Hardness. The wollastonite composites containing TiO 2 (10-30
wt%) and HA (20-40 wt%) were sintered between 1230-1270°C, with a ramp rate of 10°C/min and a
holding time of 1,1.5 and 2 hours. The results indicate that a higher sintering temperature and a holding
time of played a significant part in enhancing the physical and mechanical properties as compared to
results shown by pure wollastonite, especially for composites containing higher TiO2 (25-30wt%) and
lower HA (20-25wt%).

Keywords: Wollastonite, Mechanical and Physical Properties, Sintering


Parameters, Holding time

INTRODUCTION

The regeneration of long load-bearing bones like femur tibia, brings about a major concern in orthopedics
because biomaterials and scaffolds that are unable to take part to the biological processes. These
biological processes are responsible of bone formation and remodeling. It is known that, bone is a
dynamic connective tissue that supports the system with structural\ framework and flexibility to the body
[Copp et.al.]. In order to regenerate the bone, different types of biological events by the signaling
molecules, growth factors and cells migration onto the site of injury are needed [Freyman et.al.].

26
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22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

OBJECTIVES

The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of holding time on the physical and
mechanical properties of TiO2-CaSiO3-HA composites.

LITERATURE REVIEW

As there are many accidents and wounding that happens to the skeletal system due to trauma, fracture
and natural defects, there are many patients who are in need of aid for an internal fixation device or
artificial joints to curb the bone problems. In these recent days, wollastonite has been studied as a good
implant material as it is bioactive, non-toxic and compatible with hard tissues. The apatite layer that is
formed is dense and uniform on flat and curved surfaces [Hata et.al.]. Ding and Liu have prepared
Titania/wollastonite composites to improve pigments as they studied the bioactivity and compatibility
properties of non-heat-treated titania-wollastonite composites. Based on the research, the phases
produced were rutile and anatase, besides wollastonite in a lamellar structure [Zhao et.al.]. The samples
with higher content of wollastonite formed an apatite layer on the substrate, after being immersed in SBF
and these samples demonstrated osteoblast proliferation resulting in cytocompatible materials [Liu
et.al.]. Generally, higher elastic modulus and higher chemical durability than silicates and phosphates
are shown on ceramic compounds based on titania.

METHODOLOGY

The TiO2 / HA doped Wollastonite (CaSiO3), with different TiO2 /HA were synthesized through co-
precipitation method. Various weight percentages of TiO2 and HA were mixed with CaSiO3 by wet milling
in ethanol in an ultrasonic machine. Subsequently, the mixture was milled for 1 hour, after which the
slurry was dried at 60°C in an oven for 12 hours. The dried mixed was then sieved through a 212μm
mesh stainless steel sieve to obtain a ready-to-press TiO2 / HA powder. The mixed powder was pressed
in a hardened steel circular (20 mm in diameter) and rectangular (80 x 50 x 8mm) mold and die set under
a hydraulic pressure of 500 MPa.

Pressing was followed by the consolidation of the samples by ambient pressure sintering performed in
air using a heating furnace (ModuTemp) at various temperatures ranging from 1230ºC to 1270ºC. The
sintering profile set to sinter for all samples were a ramp-rate of 10ºC/min for both heating and cooling,
and holding time of 1, 1.5 and 2 hours prior to cooling to room temperature. All samples were polished
using SiC papers (120, 240, 600, 800) from coarse to rough, followed by polishing with a diamond paste
to 6µm, so as to obtain an optical reflective surface.

The samples were immersed in distilled water to measure density using the Archimedes’ method using
a Mettler Toledo Balance AG204 densi-meter. The Vickers hardness was tested on the polished samples
by means of the Vickers indentation method. The indentation load applied to the samples was kept
constant at 98.1 N with a loading time of 10s. The compressive strength was determined using
rectangular bar samples in order to determine compression at maximum load.

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

FINDINGS

The best holding time found to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of the TiO 2-CaSiO3-HA
composites was found to be a 1.5 hours with a ramp rate of 10°C. The best sintering temperature range
was seen to be at low sintering temperatures (1230-1250°C), with 1240°C being the optimum
temperature. The mechanical properties results obtained showed that the bulk density was slightly
enhanced to 3.15 g/cm3, approximately 9% higher than the theoretical density value (2.90 g/cm3). Also,
the Vickers hardness also showed increase to about 4.4GPa, slightly higher than the theoretical value
of 4.1GPa.

CONCLUSION

The present study investigated the effect of holding times on the TiO 2 and HA additions to improve the
physical and mechanical properties of wollastonite. The results show that 2 hours holding time the
properties significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of wollastonite. The highest value of density
obtained was about 3.15 g/cm3, approximately 8.6% higher than the theoretical density value (2.90
g/cm3). The mechanical properties of wollastonite also showed an increase above. Sintering at low
temperatures (1230-1240ºC) with a holding time of 2 hours was seen to be the optimum temperature
and holding time to achieve the best properties. Sintering above 1250ºC was found to cause detrimental
changes to both physical and mechanical properties.

MAIN REFERENCES

1. D.H. Copp, S.S. Shim The homeostatic function of bone as a mineral reservoir Oral Surg. Oral
Med. Oral Pathol., 6 (1963), pp. 738-744

2. T.M. Freyman, I.V. Yannas, L.J. Gibson Cellular materials as porous scaffolds for tissue
engineering Prog. Mater. Sci., 46 (2001), pp. 273-282

3. K. Hata, T. Kokubo, T. Nakamura, T. Yamamuro Growth of a bonelike apatite layer on a


substrate by a biomimetic process Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 78 (4) (1995), pp.
1049-1053

4. J.Z. Zhao, Z.C. Wang, L.W. Wang, H. Yang, M.Y. Zhao The synthesis and characterization of
TiO2/wollastonite composite Materials Letters, 37 (1998), pp. 149-155

5. J.Z. Zhao, Z.C. Wang, L.W. Wang, H. Yang, M.Y. Zhao Differences between two
TiO2/wollastonite composites with wollastonite having different particle sizes Materials Letters,
41 (1999), pp. 32-36

6. X. Liu, C. Ding Plasma sprayed wollastonite/TiO2 composites coatings on titanium alloys


Biomaterials, 23 (2002), pp. 4065-4077

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7. X. Liu, C. Ding, P.K. Chu Mechanism of apatite formation on wollastonite coatings in simulated
body fluids Biomaterials, 25 (2004), pp. 1755-1761

8. X. Liu, C. Ding Morphology of apatite formed on surface of wollastonite coating soaked in


simulated body fluid Materials Letters, 57 (2002), pp. 652-655

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

EVALUATION OF PARAMETER REGIONALIZATION METHODS


FOR FLOOD SIMULATIONS IN KELANTAN RIVER BASIN

M.F. Chow1*, M.M. Jamil2, and F. Che Ros3

1*Institute
of Energy Infrastructure (IEI), Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000
Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.E-mail: Chowmf@uniten.edu.my
2Universiti
Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail:
mar88nie@yahoo.com
3Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)
Kuala Lumpur, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.E-mail: crfaizah@utm.my

ABSTRACT: Parameter regionalization techniques are widely used to estimate the parameters for
calibrating the hydrological models in ungauged catchments. This study is aimed to evaluate two
regionalization methods (global average and regression) for estimating input parameters for Integrated
Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model in Kelantan River basin. The calibrated IFAS parameters were
obtained from a number of gauged catchments. The model performances obtained using both methods
were evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for peak flow, runoff volume and wave shape for flood
event during period Dec 2006 – Jan 2007. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient values
obtained were greater than 0.7 (indicating good model performance) for regression-based technique
and 0.4 for global averaged technique, respectively. The results suggest that it is possible to estimate
the IFAS parameters using regression-based techniques for flood simulation.

Keywords: flood simulation, hydrological modeling, parameter regionalization, ungauged catchment

INTRODUCTION
Usually, flood with various recurrence intervals in catchments with long gauge records can be estimated
by using extreme value statistics. However, the results for flood estimation are noticely influenced by
many factors, such as the choices of theoretical extreme value distribution function, parameter
estimation method and ignorance of processes governing individual flood events (Klemes, 2000). Other
than that, short record or absent of local runoff data that used for calibrating model parameters would
become the main challenge on flood estimation in ungauged catchments. For solving this problem,
parameter regionalization method is widely used to estimate the parameters for calibrating the
hydrological models (Fernandez, 2000; Szolgay et al. 2003; Hundecha, Y., and A. Bardossy, 2004;
Lamb, 2000; Wagener and Wheather, 2006).

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

LITERATURE REVIEW
Typically, the regression models are used to relate the model parameters with catchment attributes and climatic
characteristics to determine the regionalized parameter values (Jarboe, 1974; Karlinger, 1988; Merz, 2004).
Other commonly used methods are including global average (Merz and Bloschl, 2004; Kokkonen et al. 2003);
average based on expected similarities in watershed hydrologic responses (Schmidt et al. 2000) and kriging
(Vogel, 2006).

OBJECTIVE
In this study, we evaluated two regionalization methods (global average and regression) for estimating the input
parameters for Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model.

METHODOLOGY
Study Site
The Kelantan River basin is located in the north eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia between latitudes 4° 40'
and 6° 12' North, while longitudes 101° 20' and 102° 20' East.

Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS)


IFAS is a deterministic model which developed by ICHARM (International Center for Water Hazard and Risk
Management) of Japan for flood modeling on river basin.

Regionalization methods

Regionalization 1: Global average-based parameter regionalization


The global average parameters were determined by computing the mean of each of the parameters from
selected gauged catchments.

Regionalization 2: Regression
In the regression approach, model parameters are related directly to selected catchment attributes.

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

Model efficiency

The model performance is evaluated by using the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) for peak flow, runoff volume
and wave shape.

∑ ( −
=1 ′)2

=1−( ) (2)
̅ 2
∑ =1(
− )

Where Qi is the measured value (stream discharge), Qi’ is the simulated value,is the average measured value,
and n is the number of data points.

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Performance analysis of parameter regionalization methods
Table 4. Comparison of model performance statistics

Nash-Sutcliffe
Coefficient

Time period Items Default Calibration Global Regression


average

Dec. 2006 – Jan 2007 Peak flow 0.45 0.80 0.40 0.70

Runoff volume 0.50 0.77 0.56 0.68

Wave shape 0.60 0.74 0.60 0.73

CONCLUSIONS
In general, the results suggest that it is possible to estimate the IFAS parameter using regression-based
techniques.

MAIN REFERENCES

1. Kokkonen, T.S., Jakeman, A.J., Young, P.C. and Koivusalo, H.J. (2003). Predicting daily flows in
ungauged catchments: Model regionalization from catchment descriptors at the Coweeta Laboratory,
North Carolina, Hydrol. Process., 17, 2219-2238.

2. Lamb, R., J. Crewett, and A. Calver. (2000). Relating hydrological model parameters and catchment
properties to estimate flood frequencies from simulated river flows. Paper presented at 7th National
Hydrology Symposium, Br. Hydrol. Serv., Newcastle-upon-Tyne, U.K.

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

3. Merz, R. and Bloschl, G. (2004). Regionalisation of catchment model parameters, J.Hydrol., 287, 95-
123.

4. Szolgay, J., Hlavcova, K., Kohnova, S. and Danihlik R. (2003). Regional estimation of parameters of a
monthly water balance model, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 51, 256-273.

5. Wagener, T. and H.S. Wheather. (2006). Parameter estimation and regionalization for continuous
rainfall- runoff models including uncertainty, Journal of Hydrology, 320, 132-154.

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL AND NATURAL ANTIFOULING


EMBEDDED IN ROSIN MODIFIED COATED ON WOOD SURFACE

Asmalina Mohamed Saat1, Syajaratunnur Yaakup1, Muhamad Taufiq Razak1, Hanisah


Johor1, Fatin Zawani Zainal Azaim1, Mohd Iqbal Lokman2

1Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Lumut Perak,
2Bina Integrated Industries Sdn Bhd, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
E-Mail: asmalina@unikl.edu.my

ABSTRACT:Rosin based paint is one of natural source of paint matrix essential in combination of natural
biocides for greener and efficient antifouling paint. Performance of new natural lemon biocides and commercial
biocides embedded in rosin modified antifouling paint were evaluate by referring to ASTM 3623 – 78a for 30
days. Natural lemon biocides with concentration of 2%, 4% and 6% observed that increase in biocides
concentration reduce the percentage of marine growth. Natural lemon biocides with 6% concentration observed
similar performance as in commercial antifouling on wood surface due to good interaction. This concluded that
natural lemon biocides have a great potential as new natural biocides on wood vessel hull surface.

Keywords: natural antifouling; immersion; marine growth; rosin modified

INTRODUCTION

Antifouling coating or also known as underwater hull paint commonly used to protect and slowing the microorganism
growth, plant and animal that attached to the ship bottom hull. This microorganism has detrimental effects on the
performance and endurance of vessel by increased the hull surface roughness, results to drawback in power increase
up to 10-16% and 86% at cruising speed for light fouling diatom slimes and heavy fouled respectively [1]. Analysis
conducted earlier reported that approximate maintenance cost of hull fouling system (coating, cleaning for heavy slime
fouling level) for Arleigh Burke DDG-51 destroyers was $56 million per annum [2]. Ships with steel hull increase in
cost due to frequent dry docking needed [3]. However, in the near coastal voyage such for cruise ship, wooden boat
and composite fiberglass boat, hull scrubbing is not possible, effective antifouling material is critical for fuel saving and
sustaining a clean near coastal environmental [4]. The antifouling paint are divided into soluble, insoluble and biocides
matrix. Insoluble matrix paint also known as contact leaching or continuous contact-based polymer that does not polish
or erode in seawater. Example of commercial insoluble based paints are insoluble vinyl, epoxy, acrylic or chlorinate
rubber polymer [1].

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EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

METHODOLOGY

Chengal wood with 1625m2 surface area sanded with 120 grit sand paper before application of 3 and 2 layer of
primer and various antifouling coating respectively referring to ASTM 3623 – 78a [8] . Six panels were prepared with
primer, mixture primer with natural and commercial antifouling are summarize in Table 1. Primer used was from
Jotun Primer for wood surface, rosin modified antifouling paint was from BINA PAINT SEAGUARD 06, commercial
antifouling was Diuron, Preventol A6 from Lanxess and natural antibacterial fresh lemon juice was obtained filtration
of cleaned squeezed lemon. The panels were immersed for 30 days and recorded every 5 days to evaluate the
percentage of marine growth and weight change. Regression analysis was conducted to analyses the correlation
between performance of antifouling and time.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Table 1: Summary of percentage of marine growth and weight change on with primer (A), natural antifouling (B,
C and D) and commercial antifouling (E and F)

Types Label p-value R- Coefficient Linear Equation


Descriptions
square Correlation
Percentage A primer 0.0209 77% 0.8796 y = 0.0749x – 0.2002
marine B primer +2% natural 0.0092 85% 0.9205
y = 0.0314x – 0.0814
growth antifouling
C primer +4% natural 0.0008 95% 0.9767
y = 0.0211x – 0.0351
antifouling
D primer + 6% natural 0.0131 82% 0.9049
y = 0.0189x – 0.0549
antifouling
E Wood surface + primer +2% 0.0004 97% 0.9833
y = 0.0109x – 0.0255
commercial antifouling
F primer + 4 % commercial 0.0123 82% 0.9078
y = 0.0143x – 0.0410
antifouling
Percentage A primer 0.0191 78% 0.8849 y = 0.1515x + 1.3689
of weight B primer +2% natural 0.0007 96% 0.9781
y = 0.1168x + 0.9606
change antifouling

36
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING & ROBOTIC
APPLICATION (ICCEMERA 2018)
22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
BANGI-PUTRAJAYA HOTEL, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

C primer +4% natural 0.0033 91% 0.9530


y = 0.0947x + 1.2974
antifouling
D primer + 6% natural 0.0011 95% 0.9725
y = 0.0884x + 0.2607
antifouling
E primer +2% commercial 0.0033 91% 0.9527
y = 0.0648x + 0.5165
antifouling
F primer + 4 % commercial 0.0055 88% 0.9391
y = 0.0660x + 0.7375
antifouling

CONCLUSION

Both percentage marine growth and weight change shows decreased observation as concentration of
antifouling increased. Natural lemon antifouling with 6% concentration observed similar performance as
commercial biocides in both percentage of marine growth and weight change. Thus, concluded that natural
lemon antifouling have good interaction with rosin modified matrix and wood surface. This finding also
enhanced the potential of natural lemon as new biocides in marine for wood structure surface.

REFERENCES

1. Jim Seidel, “Antifouling 101 A Comprehensive Guide from Interlux,” 2012.

2. J. A. Callow, “Trend in development of environmental friendly fouling resistant marine coating.”

3. Y. K. Demirel, M. Khorasanchi, O. Turan, and A. Incecik, “On the importance of antifouling coatings
regarding ship resistance and powering,” Low Carbon Shipp. Conf., vol. 44, no. 0, pp. 1–13, 2013.

4. J. Kavanagh, “The future of antifouling,” The marine Professional, 2018

37
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING &
ROBOTIC APPLICATION (ICCEMERA 2018)
22ND TO 23RD DECEMBER 2018
BANGI-PUTRAJAYA HOTEL, SELANGOR, MALAYSIA
EISBN: 978-963-2273-00-4

38