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Contents

1. SST Template............................................................... 5
2. RL Template..................................................................6

3. SST Real Exam Questions…………………..…………..……………7

4. RL Real Exam Questions……………………………………..…….20

5. Summarize Spoken Text & Re-tell Lecture Devices…..…37


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SST Template by Faraz Tajfirooz:


The lecture was about N1, which comprised N2 as well as N3. The
spokesperson described N4, and the fundamental essence of N5 emphasized
the significance of N6. Ultimately, although both N7 and N8 could be inferred
evidently from N9, the corresponding impacts of N10 were acknowledged .
( 46 words (
Grammarly score : 100
N= Noun phrase

‫ این کار باعث‬.‫ فراز هم برای این بخش می توان استفاده کرد‬SWT ‫ از تمپلیت‬:‫نکته‬
.‫ را برای هر دو تسک امتحان حفظ كرده و استفاده كنید‬SWT ‫خواهد شد فقط تمپلیت‬

SWT Template by Faraz Tajfirooz:


Whereas the fundamental essence of N1 emphasizes the significance of N2,
the corresponding impacts of N3 such as N4 and N5 are acknowledged, and N6
could be inferred evidently from N7, which the potential implications of N8 as
well as N9 are presumed.
( 43 words (
grammarly score : 100
N= Noun phrase
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RL Template by Faraz Tajfirooz:


This lecture shows CONTENT
It also shows CONTENT
.
.
.
It also shows CONTENT
Overall it can be seen that CONTENT
In addition to this information you may notice that
CONTENT
On the other hand another visible feature is that CONTENT
From the lecture it is quite clear that CONTENT
Lastly it's very surprising to see that CONTENT
To conclude it is quite clear that CONTENT

‫ استفاده کرد و حتی چه‬RL ‫ فراز هم میتوان برای بخش‬DI ‫ از تمپلیت‬:‫نکته‬


‫ مثالا‬.‫ فقط میتوانیم یکی از جمالت فوق الذکر را بگوییم‬RL ‫ و چه در‬DI‫در‬
‫ را بگوییم و‬Finally it is ‫ و یا‬Lastly it is ‫ و یا‬It also shows ‫جمله‬
‫ را جلوی آن بگذاریم و یا هر جمله دیگری که بتوانیم به صورت‬content
‫ فقط اعتماد به نفس و نحوه بیان صحیح‬.‫ هیچ تفاوتی نمی کند‬،‫صحیح بیان کنیم‬
.‫این جمالت حائز اهمیت می باشد‬
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1. Biology 
The lecture was about biology, which studies life and living organisms.
Although all the creatures such as humans, butterfly and dolphin look different,
they are closely interconnected. They all rely on DNA and RNA, which are used to
pass and store energy. In the end, the speaker stressed that cells are foundation
of building organs, and they react similar to use and convert energy.

2. Talent shortage
The lecture was about the main reasons of talent shortage. The speaker
explained about an increase in retirement of baby-boomers, which has led to a
significant decrease in the number of skilled people. In addition, the collapse of
loyalty has deteriorated the situation because people would change their job
because of higher income. In the end, there was a conflict between what
education produces and what business needs.

3. Typhoid Fever - Mary Mallon


The lecture was about Mary Mallon, who moved to New York in 1893. Mary
was an excellent cook and she lived with her friends. Although Mary was
diagnosed by Typhoid fever, which could transit through water and food, she
always denied her sickness. In the end, the speaker concluded that Mary had
infected 21 people, and one of them died.

The spokesperson explained about Mary Mallon's life the first American who
identified with typhoid fever with minor symptoms. Between 1900 and 1907. She
was working as a cook for wealthy families, but she infected her employee's
family members to typhoid fever, and some of them died with more severe
symptoms. She arrested and hospitalized by public health authorities twice.
Hence, she died after nearly thirty years living in the isolation.

4. Prescription medicine
The lecture was about the advertisement on prescription medicine. The
speaker stressed about a significant increase in the number of medicine
advertisements, and people will buy a product if they have seen its advertisement.
Although these advertisements might be technically accurate, they are
misleading in the tones. In the end, the speaker concluded that buying medicine
is not like buying a soap and TV is a mass marketing.
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5. Sound receptor
The lecturer explained about the Sound receptor, which is a little spiky device
to translate an ear vibrational energy into fluid and physical motion. Meanwhile it
can hurt an eardrum. He delineated that it is very impressive that the physical
motions of sound can be translated to electric signals in the ear. Hence, the
speaker invited MIT students to learn more about this remarkable device and
genetic neuron.

6. Cocoa beans
During the Aztec and Maya era, Cocoa bean were used for various aims.
Cocoa was consumed as a hot and cold beverage with different flavors and
additional ingredient. Moreover, Cocoa bean were also counted as a currency
and for tax payment, and it was used for religious and medical purposes such a
propitiating God or for skin care. Furthermore, it was a popular drink in wedding
ceremonies and it was a sign of wisdom.

7. Seed & pesticide in India


The spokeswoman highlighted that increasing the price of seed and
pesticides led to the dramatic increment in Indian peasants’ debts over the past
year in five large area in India. They cannot payback their liabilities, as they have
no capital, which force them to purchase expensive seed. On the contrary, those
companies that lend money to peasants are the same companies that sell
expensive pesticides. Therefore, large companies are creditors.

The lecture was discussing the problem associated with Indian peasants. The
speaker mentioned that Indian peasants are too poor to buy seeds and
pesticides. She also explained that they have to get loan from companies which
are the main sellers of chemicals and seed, while the debt is so huge. In the end,
she concluded that these peasants become poorer and this cycle will continue,
while it is one effect of globalization.

8. Mr. Green - Amory Lovins


The lecturer talked about Amory Lovins, an American consultant
experimental physicist, and he has been active at the nexus of energy, resources,
economy, environment, development and security in more than 50 countries for
over 40 years. In addition, he pays attention to energy saving and how to use
energy in a more efficient and sustainable way. Hence, the speaker concluded
that he built a house with plenty of energy-saving concepts.
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9. Government information disclosure


Citizens should be well informed or Government trick, policymaking-rule
book throw by govt.: The lecturer explained about the government information
disclosure. He mentioned that citizens should be well-informed by their
governments, and however, some western democratic countries took it for
granted. The speaker also argued that they use tricks in the book to cover up the
things that already happened. Finally, the speaker concluded that the
government's misleading policies are to hide information to keep their citizens.

The western countries are democratic countries, but the government policies
are often interpreted in a wrong way and misleading people, but in some society
people are deliberately hidden from the truth. Governments do all trick in the book
to cover their mistakes.

The lecture is about the government information disclosure. Although it is


supposed that citizens in democratic countries are well informed about their rights,
the government uses tricks to deliberately hide the information and mislead the
people in the wrong direction. In the end, the speaker concluded that politicians
use tricks in the book to cover up their mistakes.

10. Harry Bergson


The lecture was about an unusual person called Harry Bergson. The speaker
also delineated that Harry was not from the academic world. Moreover, He run a
consulting company and was regarded as a genius. Hence, He was dedicated to
save energy and solve problems by using existing technology.

11. Language distinguish or Small Language extinction



Language accelerates to distinct. Now languages distinguish with an ever-
fast rate. Globalization contributes to it, as more people are go to urban to live
and work. Urbanization makes small language hard to survive.

The lecture was about small language extinction. Little languages are
disappearing at a rate that has never been before in history. The main reason for
the disappearing is urbanization where people are moving to cities and being
influenced by mainstream language. The ideal place for little languages to survive
is in isolated areas.

The lecture was about the extinction of small languages. It first stated that
small languages are disappearing at an accelerated rate due to urbanization. It
then followed by addressing the fact that people are increasingly moving to the
big cities in order to find more opportunities, which has detrimental impact on
small languages. In the end, the speaker concluded that small languages could
survive in isolated areas.
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12. International environmental legislation and law



The lecture was about new environmental law, which is launched by the
British government to control the humans' impact on the environment. The law
enforcement was an aggressive regulation innovation aiming to improve the
environment both locally and globally. Companies applied the Adam Smith
theory to increase their profitability. However, managers were unsatisfied, as they
would pay more money to meet law requirements making them less competitive.

The lecture is about environmental law. British government launched such


law to control the humans' impact on the environment. The enforcement of
environmental law was an aggressive regulation innovation, which aimed to
improve environment locally and globally. Companies applied the Adam Smith
theory to increase their profitability. Managers were unsatisfied about
environmental law because companies would pay more money to ensure the
health of their employees under the environmental law, which made companies
less competitive in the market.

13. Modification of governments or democracy



One aspect is devolution, transfer power from federal government to state
government. Democratic parties, big government and titled. Republicans, people
state, one hidden part is private power.

Reducing government/modifying government, there is an issue of moving


power to people, moving away power from state. The power system is private
power.

The lecturer explained about the modification of governments. He/she stated


that there is a need to modify government powers, and this can be achieved by
devolution. He also highlighted the different opinions holding by both Democratic
and Republican Parties. While the Democratic Parties claim that the big power
and entitlements should be held by the government, the republicans believe that
government should share its powers with the states and people.

The lecture was about different views in regard to government power. The
spokesman stressed that although there seems to be a vital need to modify the
government power, there are various opinions holding by the democratic and
republican parties. In the end, the speaker concluded that while democrats
believe government should hold the big power and entitlements, the republicans
claim that the power should be shared between states and people.
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14. Computer and artificial intelligence



Human brain is a simple/symbol processor. Computer reply on analyzing
messages into work, similar to human brain. Computer has potential to bring
computer intelligence.

People have been talking about symbolic representation of computers long


before they were invented. If we can know more about how human manipulate
and work with symbols. Just like computers works with bits and bytes. Computer
has a high potential to develop intelligence.

This lecture is about artificial intelligence. Before computer invention, people


have been talking about symbolic representation of them as human brain that is
similar to computer processor, which acts as brain for computer. In term of
operation, both human brain and computers are similar, since human works with
symbols and computer manipulates bit and byte. Finally, from speed and
accuracy aspect, computer has high potential to develop intelligence.

The lecture was about the way human brain and computers operate. It first
stated that people have been talking about symbolic representation, long before
the advent of computers. It then followed by addressing human’s brain
mechanism, which operates (works) based on symbols, whereas the computer in
a similar way analyzes (manipulates) the messages into bits and bytes. In the end,
speaker stressed that computers have a high potential to develop artificial
intelligence.

15. Famous novelist



The lecture was about a famous novelist who started writing in 1951. She wrote
non-fiction novels until she was inspired and encouraged by a renowned novelist
from Mississippi. Although she took detours along the way, she never gave up
because she truly believed in what she was doing. In the end, in 1992, the first
chapter of her novel named the secret Life of Bees was finished.

The women was be a Nonfiction writer, and she has detours 10-12 years, and
then turn into a novelist. She was guided by a great novelists, (which will be say
very slowly in the radio, but cannot remember…) Finally, she published her first
chapter in 1992 , which is called “secret life of bees”
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16. Globalization

The lecture was about main definitions of globalization. First of all, it would
mean international communication and trading between countries, which
consequently leads to a significant growth in travelling and the relationship of
international companies. Secondly, the speaker stressed about the importance of
having an integrated economy strategy, which increases the interdependence
between the economies of different countries. Finally, he explained about
transaction, consuming and producing goods.

Has various definition and meaning and three of them would be mentioned.
International trading between countries / communications, including growth in
travel and more multi-national (international) companies. More transactions
among countries / Consuming and producing between people / transportation.
Integrated economics strategy / organization integration, different countries
consume or produce different goods, so countries would depend on the economy
of other countries.

There are three definitions. Transactions across the world. More transactions
among countries. Growth in travel. More international companies.

17. Competition faced by LSE



two factors, English and funding of government. Five main kind competitions:
for students, academic staff, research funding, research contracts, pound against
other currencies.

The lecture was about competition faced by LSE University. The speaker
mentioned that there are two main factors there. The first one is to speak English
and the other is funding of government. He also argued that there are 5 main kinds
of competitions: for students, academic staff, research funding, research
contracts, Pound against other currencies. Finally, the lecture provided some
information about competition faced by LSE.

The lecture was discussing the fierce competitions faced by LSE. The speaker
mentioned that there are two main factors there, which are Speaking English and the
governmental funding. In the end, he concluded that there are five different
competitions, which LSE may encountered: for students, academic staff, research
contracts, research funding and Pound against other currencies.
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18. Stanford university conference



A lecture held by Stanford University stressed the importance of management
and leadership in the business school. Learning management and leadership was
introduced as the educational purposes by the lecturer. Students should be
responsible and accountable for the management performance and identify how it
could happen appropriately. In the end, the speaker concluded that
accomplishments should be attained by people themselves instead of depending on
the others.

The lecture is about the importance of management and leadership in business


school. It is argued that students should be responsible and accountable for the
quality and performance of management, and learn how it could be properly
achieved. In the end, the speaker concluded that accomplishments should be
attained by people themselves instead of depending on the others.

19. Student loan



The lecture was about a woman faced with massive repayment of student loans.
Although she believed having a college degree plays a pivotal role in finding a job,
she claimed this could happen at a high cost. She explained that her kids would join
the class of citizens who cannot rely on their parents' income. In the end, she
concluded that her debts would pale in comparison to her future career.

The lecture was discussing about student loan. She explained that she is 43 years
old and has ten thousand of dollar student debt from her school, which is three times
more than she paid for her car. She also mentioned that her children went to financial
classes to use the governmental support. In conclusion, she clarified that although 4-
year college study helps to find her current job, it would be better to study in an
affordable college.

20. CEO opinion in companies



The lecturer explained about a survey to identify the CEO opinion on
company’s operations. The speaker stressed about the main question of the
survey, which was which area of activity, is the important part of the company. He
also mentioned that 58 percent of CEO agreed on IT, which is the most time-
consuming and complex part of any organization. Finally, he described other two
aspects, marketing and financial management.
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21. Population growth and resource consumption



The lecture was about population growth and resource consumption. It first
stated that the population has increased from 1.5 million to 6 million between 1900
and 2000. It then followed by addressing the increase in the energy consumption,
which is about 16 folds. In the end, the speaker concluded that mega cities have
50 percentage of population, but they consume 70 percentage of energy sources,
and produce tons of waste.

22. Marshmallow test



The lecture was about a Marshmallow test to measure the ability of children
against temptation. It first stated that the kids who could resist to not eating the
candy for a longer time are more likely to achieve high competency later in life.
This ability is not necessarily innate, and highly depends on environment. In the
end, the speaker concluded that previous experiences could delay the
gratification longer.

23. Bomb calorimeter



The lecture was about bomb calorimeter used to calculate the amount of
calorie. It first stated that the food chamber is used to measure the heat, whereas
the water chamber could absorb the heat when food is burned. It then argued
that thermometer, air space and insulation are deployed to calculate the energy
as well as preventing the heat loss. In the end, the speaker concluded that this
device could not measure the exact amount that absorbed.

24. Animal surviving



The lecture was about animal surviving and reproducing in general
conditions. It was argued that animals are able to adjust their body temperature
under water, and tolerate different temperatures and seasons. It then explained
about a research that indicates a frog could adjust its body temperature
according to the change of water temperature. In the end, the speaker
concluded that animal’s habitat, daily activities and behavior.

25. Urbanization and agriculture



The lecture was about the relationship between urbanization and agriculture.
It first stated that a tremendous number of people move to city in order to find
more opportunities. It then followed by giving an example about agriculture
(farming), farmers could grow food in countryside, which could benefit many
families in the city. In the end, the speaker concluded that many people tend to
live in city even if they lose their jobs.
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26. Einstein theory and universe



The lecture was about the motion of universe and Einstein theory. Although
people used to believe that universe is fixed and unchangeable, Einstein claimed
that stars and planets are continuously expanding and changing over the time. In
the end, the speaker concluded that while some people know this theory as a
discovery of Einstein, Edward Hubble was the first person who proposed this theory.

27. Humor and laugh



The lecture was about the importance of laughing on people’s health. It
mentioned that laughing was existed in Europe a long time ago, and jokes of Berlin
wall were used as an effective therapy method. The lecturer also argued that
laughing is both the simplest and cheapest method to deal with stress because it
could relieve the blood pressure. In the end, the speaker stressed about the
importance (significance) of self-respect and identity.

28. Sea creatures


The lecture was discussing sea creatures, which are the latest devices to
generate power from ocean waves. First is Oyster installed on the ocean floor and
generate power from closing and opening when waves pass over it. The second
is Anaconda, which is look like a snake made by rubber, and has 200-meter
length. The last one is like Anaconda but made from steel. The speaker concluded
that these three devices power generators from green sources of energy.

29. Citizenship curriculum



The lecture was discussing the importance of teaching citizenship curriculum
in schools rather than the past. The speaker explained that despite the importance
of citizenship education, it is ignored by many schools. He also mentioned that
this course can enable students to face the changing world, become more self-
confidence. In the end, he conclude that the lack of capacity and expertise are
the main problem of skipping this syllabus.

The lecture illustrates the importance of citizenship curriculum; however, it is


neglected by many schools. There are only 1/5 of schools introduced the course
to campus and allocated less time than other subjects. Moreover, the professor
pointed out if given enough time in citizenship curriculum; students are more likely
to feel confident when they face the changing world, it also helps students to build
up their leadership skills.
Criticism about citizenship education in schools argues that merely teaching
students about the theory is ineffective unless schools involve students in the
process of making a decision. The competition has compelled universities to raise
more funding from both private and public sectors.
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30. Vitamin D

The lecture is about the vitamin D concentration in people. There has been
advancements in technologies that could measure the fat content of Vitamin D,
which has shown that people often suffer from Vitamin D deficiency because of
the their diet or reducing the sun exposure. In the end, the speaker stressed that
we should be aware of fat-soluble vitamins, which could produce intoxication.
Vitamin D is not a real vitamin but one type of hormone, it is produced by the
skin when skin is exposed to sunlight, then it can travel via the bloodstream to
have effects on other parts of the body. The formation of Vitamin D can be affected
by climate. For example, people need more Vitamin D supplements during winter
when they wear more clothes due to the lack of sunshine. Some regions where
people are less exposed to sunlight don't have enough Vd compared to those
who live near the equator.

31. Coffee industry



The lecture is about the changes that have taken place in coffee industry.
The speaker mentioned coffee production has increased from 6 billion to 30 billion
during 10 years and America has made Vietnam the second biggest producer,
which has greatly affected Columbia’s production. He discussed the output of
Central America is witnessing significant decrease; however, people’s drinking
habits have been also changed. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the
changes that coffee industry has witnessed.

32. Pavlov’s experiments with dogs



This lecture talks about a phenomenon, which described how the brain
works. It answers a very old question how motivation works. In an experiment,
Pavlov studied a dog. When the dog hears sounds, the salivation increases with
the noise. This is an experiment that tries to reveal why the brain works in this way.

33. Dogs tell growls


In this video, when a dog approaches some food, different snarls are played
back. Sometimes a dog doesn’t stop from taking the bones when hearing the
voices, in other cases, it will be deterred. Therefore, a dog can fell different growls.
The lecture introduces an experiment showing that dogs use different barks
and growls to communicate different things. Researchers recorded an "alone
bark," a "stranger growl". Where a dog was growling at the approach of a stranger,
and a "food growl" where a dog was growling to protect its food. The researchers
played these different growls to a dog who was approaching a plate of food. The
dogs were more hesitant to approach if they heard the food growl rather than the
stranger growl or the alone barks. The experiment shows that dogs could
distinguish between different types of growls, and react to them accordingly.
17

34. (Edmund Wilson) American literature


This lecture talks about Edmund Wilson. He comes from a very different world
and is the focal point an American culture. He believes that literature is a part of
life for everyone as for conversation. In over 50 years, he is a dedicated literary
journalist.

Edmund Wilson (May 8, 1895 — June 12, 1972) was an American writer and critic
who notably explored Freudian and Marxist themes. He influenced many
American authors, including F. Scott Fitzgerald, whose unfinished work he edited
for publication. His scheme for a Library of America series of classic national works
came to fruition through the efforts of Jason Epstein after Wilson's death.

35. Melk Monastery, Austria


 This lecture mainly talks about Melk Monastery is not typical. There are four
reasons: Firstly, it is very grand. Also, it is found in the countryside. Thirdly, it has
substantial land. Lastly, it lies in Austria.

36. Fossil Fuels


The lecture is about the use of fossil fuels in developing countries. There are
different motivations for them to utilize fossil fuels, which include financial
incentives and easy access. However, the detrimental effect of fossil fuels on the
planet should not be ignored, such as climate change. As fossil fuels are running
out very fast, we should look for a green source to replace it to achieve
sustainable development.

37. ATM
Some people forget to take their cards after taking the money from ATM
because more often than not, they just focus on the money only. The United
Kingdom has restructured the new ATM, and cards will be released by machine
before cash are dispensed. Although you would forget to take your cash, it is more
catastrophic to lose your card because it can access your account.

38. Role of Language


Languages develop unconsciously when people try to communicate with
each other. The rule of language is the convention. Every language is unique,
valuable and translatable; moreover, languages represent different ways of
thinking and understanding. It is important that a simple language should be
documented for human beings.
18

39. Visual culture in science


It is said that the visual culture is a minor, sub-culture, but a change since the
introduction of a movie called Star War. Although the story/logic of the movie is
stupid and aggressive, the visual/special effect is distinctive. Lastly, the speaker
said the visual effect is a significant factor in the fiction movies.

40. Tea & Coffee in London


Coffee is popular in London. Coffee is becoming expensive to buy. People in
the coffee house have conversations, meet friends and do businesses. The use of
Coffee is easy to take home. For example, a man can take a cup of coffee to his
wife. Three hot drinks in the UK: tea, coffee, and hot chocolate Which one is the
most favorite?

41. Three primary Colors


This lecture mainly talks about magic natural color. To answer where natural
colors come from, the speaker talked about three primary colors. Firstly, the
yellow comes from many plants. Secondly, reds come from the ground, and some
insects can provide reds. Finally, the only natural source of blue is indigo.

42. A museum for kids


Special museums are open for families with kids since sometimes it is hard to
control kids’ behavior. There was a mom with three kids visiting British Museum but
were asked to leave because one of the kid was scared by a statue and
screamed out loud. The mom was angry and complained. As a result, she receives
more than 500 emails from families who had the same experience and requested
for the right of kids.

43. Social Contract


Firstly, this lecture mentioned the definition of social contract, which refers to
the interactions between people. Secondly, it mentioned the example of animals.
Lastly, it said that people enjoy working together on the same project.

44. The utilization of robots


This lecture was about developing of robots, which applied to car
manufacturers in the factories. Many robots service in the home for the general
purpose. The special purposes change. Vacuum robots have been purchased by
many bachelors. 25000 robots have been sold out in a year.
19

The lecture talks about robot application. In the beginning of the lecture, the
speaker says that there are many industries such as car manufactory nowadays
using robots. Robot can replace human doing many heavy and hard works.
Instead of robots for general purpose, robots for special purposes such as vacuum
cleaner robots have been purchased by many bachelors. The number of robot
will increase rapidly in next few years.

45. How A Poor Girl Ideology Changed The Country


Economy
The talk delineates a detailed picture regarding how a poor girl's ideology
has contributed to altering the facet of a country's economy. It is by implementing
the girl's proposal of converting/modeling tourism to a source of income that the
country has not only generated heaps of revenue but also compensated the girl
for her contribution.

46. Winston Churchill


Winston Churchill was a British statesman, known as prime minister the United
Kingdom during the Second World War. Some of his peacetime decision was
disastrous as restoring the Gold standard in 1924. Churchill saw himself as a
champion of democracy and was profoundly aware of his role and destiny.

47. The Challenge for Conservation


Professor Bill Adams works on relations between society and nature,
particularly on rural development and conservation. Much of his work focuses on
Africa. His work on the history and development of nature conservation,
particularly about sustainability, is shaped by a primary interest in the power of
social constructions of nature to affect the way the environment is understood,
transformed and managed. His most recent book is Against Extinction The Story of
Conservation.

Poor people should not pay the price for biodiversity protection. As for the
impact, it is about whether it can achieve a win-win solution, which means we can
achieve economic growth which brings wealth to cut poverty without damaging
biodiversity. The argument is that if you want to protect biodiversity, you have to
focus on that as a goal, by doing so, you run the risk of hurting the poor and
inconveniencing or reducing economic growth. The lecturer used developed
countries or industrialized countries to see this argument. For example, a
government wishing to start drilling for oil in place which is full of wildlife and
wildlife conservation society is urging them not because it is wilderness refuge.
20

1. Air pollution

The lecture was discussing the difference between air pollution in 1950s and
recent years. She explained that in 1950s, factories were the main source of air
pollution releasing visible black smoke and fog, which caused many diseases
and even death; however, they stopped after imposing clean act regulation. She
also mentioned that these days, the source of air pollution has been changed
and people are still struggling with new invisible pollution released from cars and
Lorries because people are more vehicle dependent.

2. Thermodynamics

The lecture was discussing thermodynamics, which is about transferring of
heat, temperature, and their relation to energy and work. The speaker
mentioned that most of the thermodynamics laws are firmly constant and
unchangeable; however, there are some exceptions. He mentioned that these
exceptions happen when kinetic energy of molecules takes into account, which
is about the random motions of atoms. In conclusion, the lecture described some
of the thermodynamic processes.

3. Monkeys and Typewriters theorem



The lecture was discussing the monkey and typewriter theorem, which
express people belief that if a monkey hitting random key of typewriter, a
complete work of Shakespeare takes more than 600 million years, while
computer can do this within a day. The speaker conclude that this assumption is
just possible in mathematics not in reality.

4. Joseph Lister

The lecture was discussing a non-famous academic person inventing
medicine used to prevent infection during operation process. The speaker
mentioned that Lister successfully found carbolic acid in order to sterilize surgical
instruments and to clean wounds, which led to a reduction in post-operative
infections and made surgery safer for patients.
21

5. Frogs

The lecture was discussing experiments conducted in different regions
which show that frog’s metamorphosis have existed for many years. The speaker
exemplified the case that frogs have more limbs or less limbs, the number of
mutated frogs is increasing, which has become a global issue. In conclusion,
human beings are worrying about the quality of water, which may have impact
on human's health.

6. Schizophrenia

The lecture was discussing schizophrenia epidemiology. The speaker
mentioned that one-half of all hospital bed, one out of ten thousands of people
are diagnosed by schizophrenia. She explained that millions of people in US are
suffering from Schizophrenia once or twice during their life, while the age is
different for men and women. In the end, he concluded that although
schizophrenia seems to be a mental disorder, its risk factors are as the same as
diabetes.

7. Community service

The lecture was discussing the importance of providing training for
community service workers in India. The speaker mentioned the community
workers require some advice about some diseases, particularly HIV. Some large
organizations and hospitals provide some consultation preventing from
spreading diseases, however seminars are not necessarily and suitable in some
cities.

8. Disempowerment (NGOs)

In the face of disempowerment, there is surprisingly no decline in
involvement of people in organization sharing wealth and opportunities. Most of
these organizations are struggling with financial problems. These nonprofit
sections worth more than one trillion dollars and 700000 of them are in Australia
which only 37000 of them are recognized by UN which just 3500 of them received
accreditation. He also explained that the best predictor of governmental
success is the strength and density of these associations.
22

9. Watching TV

The lecture was discussing the impacts of TV on children under 3 years old.
The speaker mentioned that children under 2 years old are not recommended
to see TV and more than two years should watch less than 1 hour. He explained
that in the first 2 years of life, the brain is tripled in size and its extraordinary period
of brain growth. He also added although children can learn to speak language
fluently, if they are not exposed to certain sounds early years in life, they will
never sound like a native speaker. He concluded that the more television that
children watch before age 3, the more likely they have attentional problems at
school age and also later in their life.

10. Truck space



The lecture was discussing a shuttle designing to be a space truck used as
a multi-purpose vehicle. The speaker mentioned that the main application of this
incredible vehicle is launching satellites, repairing them and bringing them back
in orbit or even the earth to repair. In the end, he concluded that this space truck
is used internationally to build an international space station.

11. Development of physics



The lecture was discussing three major developments of physics in 19th-
century. Firstly, it is energy conservation law, which means the total energy of
isolated system remains constant. Secondly, the law of Thermodynamics which
are related to temperature, energy and entropy characterizing thermodynamic
systems at thermal equilibrium. In conclusion the last one is Kinetic theory means
that to accelerate a body of a given mass energy is needed.

12. Eukaryotes & prokaryotes



The lecture was discussing two different types of cells with different
functions, which are eukaryotes, and prokaryotes. The speaker mentioned that
human body cells are eukaryotic, and bacteria are an example of prokaryotes.
He explained that Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multi-celled which
organized different functions during the organelles, while this structure is not exist
in prokaryotes. In the end he conclude that the biggest difference between two
different types of these cells is that Eukaryotes have nucleus.
23

13. Similarities between language and cognitive skills



The lecture was discussing the similarities between language and other
cognitive skills. The speaker mentioned that it is wrong to exaggerate the
similarities between cognitive skills and language, because they stand apart in
several ways. First of all, using language is universal, even children can speak at
east on language. Secondly, not everyone can be proficient in mathematics skill
or even painting wall. Since everyone can speak one language it seems to be
simple, however it is one of the most complex cognitive abilities.

14. Hallucination

The lecture was discussing the different types of hallucination. The speaker
mentioned most of the people who are diagnosed by schizophrenia
experiencing hallucination. The speaker explained that there are two types of
hallucination including auditory or visual. He exemplified that auditory people
may hear voices and sound around themselves and visible counterparts see
movement in their peripheral. In the end, he concluded that experiencing both
hallucinations is common in schizophrenia.

15. Creativity

The lecture was discussing the definition of creativity, which is the
phenomenon of generating new valuable ideas. The speaker mentioned that
there are three Ps representing people, process and product, which the process
is the key. He explained that existing things are assets as sometimes new idea
comes from the existing things. In the end, he concluded human can survive due
to the creativity.

16. Making Error



The lecture was discussing two factors that tell people how to do things
right. Firstly, he mentioned that people do things right if there are appropriate
designed tasks. Secondly, he explained distraction is the main factor leading to
doing mistake. In the end, he concluded by an example which shows people
may leave original papers when they are doing photocopy if something distracts
their thinking process.
24

17. DNA

The lecture was discussing the genes development. The speaker
mentioned that DNA has two lines and genes provides proteins.

He also explained that each cell has two million proteins, however we cannot
conclude which cell perform what types of function. He clarified although
cognitive skills development is the main differences between present and our
ancestors, only a small number of genes are different between present and our
ancestors from 5000 years ago. He also concluded people piss exactly in the
same way of our ancestors.

18. Learning more than one language



The lecture was discussing the importance of learning language. The
speaker mentioned that there is a controversial debate among people that
learning second language is beneficial in some ways. He mentioned that firstly
it would enhance communication skills. Secondly, it is advantageous in terms of
employment because it is one of the valuable skills that employers looking for.
In conclusion, second language is one of the most valuable skills in the fact-
changing world.

19. Sea trouble



The lecture was discussing about the article that clarified what happen in
the ocean and seas during the last decades. She also explained that we
managed to consume almost 90 percent of big fish like swordfish and sharks
during the last decade. She also mentioned that human changes the nature of
the ocean and now they try to back the atmosphere to the oceans. In conclusion
she emphasized that the ocean is in trouble and it is not a minus problem.

20. Nutrition guideline



The lecture was discussing the best simple nutrition guideline, which is
offered by American Cancer Society. She explained that first guideline is eating
more plant sources food, second is limiting animal and high fat source of food,
third is keeping the normal weight by increasing physical activity level and the
fourth is limiting the alcohol and beverage consumption. She also added some
information about a five a day recommendation, which means five serving of
various fruit and vegetables, should be consumed per day. In conclusion, she
told these guidelines could reduce the risks of cancer.
25

21. Wind power



The lecture was discussing the wind turbine device, which can convert wind
into mechanical energy as a main source of power to generators and pumps.
He explained that the amount of generated power is based on wind speed,
number of sails and the angle of the sails. He discussed that if the blade was flat;
they just bent, while if they had an appropriate angle, wind can turn them. In the
end, he concluded that he wants to build a small windmill to generate electricity.

22. Grand project in Paris



The lecture was discussing about a grand project in Paris in 1890, which was
commissioned by Napoleon and directed by Husman. The speaker mentioned
that Nap instructed the Husman to bring air and light to the center of city and
also plant more trees, build boulevard and drain sewages to make the city more
clean and beautiful. The reason for doing this was that Paris had many problems
such as overcrowding, diseases, and crimes. In conclusion, the lecture was
related to the constructions that napoleon had done.

23. Welsh Language



The lecture was discussing about welsh language in the year 2005. The
speaker talked about a recent survey which indicated that many people were
able to read, write and speak this language, however, there is a number of
people who were able to understand this language but cannot write and read.
He explained that welsh speaking percentage improved from 2% to 30% from
1987 to 2005. In conclusion, the lecture was related to a current survey, which
showed that there has been a significant increase in the number of people who
could speak welsh language.

24. Boys and Girls performance



The lecture is about how boys and girls score marks in English and Math. He
mentioned that girls perform better than boys in English around 10 percent
higher, however, there is no clear difference for math exam. He discussed their
performance highly depends on their cognitive, physical and social factors. He
explained that they develop the cognitive knowledge during pre-schools. In
conclusion, the lecture was related to the performance of girls and boys in math
and English exam.
26

25. Expenditure in UK

This lecture is about the education expenditure of UK, compared with other
European countries. The speaker mentioned that UK has only spent 1% of its total
GDP on the tertiary education, which was insufficient as compared with other
European countries such as Finland and Denmark. He discussed the expenditure
of Spain is close to UK however, Denmark and Finland spent much more than the
other European countries. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the education
expenditure of UK in compare to the other countries.

26. Darkness between galaxies



The lecture is about darkness between galaxies. The speaker mentioned
that the gaps between galaxies are not dark. He explained the reason why we
cannot see is that our eyes are not able to detect the infrared light. He discussed
that the darkness between galaxies still remain mysterious to us. In conclusion,
the lecture was related to the reason behind the darkness between galaxies.

27. Brain Development


The lecture is about brain development. The speaker mentioned that
different brain regions with different functionalities appear to develop on different
times. He discussed that low development such as sense and touch begins at
the embryo phase and stop around 1 year, and last for longer. He explained that
high development such as cognitive would take longer time and low
development will have impact on the future high development. In conclusion,
the lecture was related to the steps that will take place in the process of brain
development.

28. Remote technology



The lecture is about the development of remote technology. The speaker
mentioned that remote technology plays a pivotal role in observing fish reactions
without being physically there. He discussed that these detectors could be
installed underwater to monitor fish reaction to feeding. He concluded that this
technology also helps to identify the water quality as well as change the feeding
strategy when fish do not react to the feeding.
27

29. Rat Experiment



The lecture is about rat experiments with low and high LG. The speaker
mentioned that some mother rats spend a lot of time for licking, grooming and
nurturing their off springs, while others seem to ignore them. He discussed that
highly nurtured off springs tend to grow up to be calm adult, while some others
who received little nurturing has proven to be anxious. He finally concluded that
the offspring of high LG rats have better ability to deal with stress and alcohol,
but low LG did not.

30. Economic Development



The lecture was discussing about the economic development in Latin
America. The speaker mentioned that in the past 20 years, there is significant
increase in the economic development at about 80 percent, however, after
globalization and reform, there is a considerable decrease from 80 percent to
10, which made the economic unsustainable. He explained that there are plenty
of others who begin to ask the question whether the reform is positive or negative.
In conclusion, the lecture was related to the development of economic in Latin
America.

31. Opening borders



The lecture is about border opening. The speaker mentioned that
developed countries should open borders for other countries, therefore people
from developing countries could visit the developed countries, which would
consequently lead to an improvement in the economy of less developed
countries. He explained that that this would also result in promoting peace and
freedom in developing countries. In conclusion, the lecture was related to how
border opening can benefit the countries.

32. Multi dimension



The lecture is about multi dimension, which are required to describe a
position. He talked about four major dimensions, which are Longitude, Latitude,
Altitude and Time. Longitude is required for describing a position on equator. If
describe a position on the earth, latitude and longitude is required. Longitudes,
latitude, and altitudes denote for a position over the earth. She explained that
when describing a position in the space, time will be taken into account. In
conclusion, the lecture was related to how different dimensions describe a
position.
28

33. Childbirth rate in Europe



The lecture is about childbirth rate in Europe. The speaker mentioned that
in the recent years, European females have no interest to give birth to the babies.
This particularly is the case for people under age of 30. He explained that these
phenomena have had serious detrimental effects on development of males. He
finally concluded that low birth rate causes some family issue and
unemployment.

34. Australia’s changing role

The lecture is about Australia’s changing role. The speaker mentioned that
Australia has changed its role in trading with the world. He discussed that in the
past Australia was isolated from UK and USA, but it has now become a famous
destination due to rise of Asian countries especially china. He explained that
Japan is ranked in the first position and China will become the number one in
the future. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the role of Australia in trading
with world.

35. Universe civilization

The lecture was discussing universe civilization. The speaker mentioned
that the universe produces 100 of planets annually, however, only an average of
seven planets are suitable for high civilization. He discussed that most of planets
are not suitable for living since they are either so cold or hot. He explained that
only 20 percent of planets can support human to survive. In conclusion, the
lecture was related to the possibility of living in the other planets.

36. Immigration effects


The lecture was discussing the immigration effects. The speaker mentioned
that these days, the immigrants who work in industrialized countries, are able to
save and send money to their home country about 200000 dollars. However, they
money that they receive from their government is about 100000 million dollars.

37. Earth's last climate shift



This lecture talks about the earth's last climate shift. The speaker first
mentioned that climate is defined as consistent pattern of weather over the
significant periods of time and changes when energy balance of the earth is
disturbed. Then he said the system is complex and it would involve several
different mechanisms operating at the same time. Finally, one example is
mentioned that when volcanos erupt, they disperse particles into upper
atmosphere and cools the earth's surface.
29

38. The business essence



The lecture was discussing the essence of business entity, which is
exchange. He explained that you exchange your goods to other goods. He also
mentioned that the goal of marketing is transfer products from supplier to
consumers to meet the demands of customers. In the end, he concluded that
Capital gain is very important because only if by marketing profits, company
would reinvest and produce more.

39. Light speed



Many scientists tried to calculate and measure the speed of light last
century but until someone (name) designed a method (name) to figure it out.
Then we have light speed. Later, experiments found this is still not accurate.

40. The economic structures change of Europe

The lecture is mainly About a change in economy structures in Europe. After


industrial revolution around the 19th century, the machinery was widely used in
the manufacturing, so the production in factories increased. As a result,
circulation of goods became faster, and this led to more accumulation of social
wealth. Because of this, the population of middle class expanded and this
resulted in the additional accumulation of wealth.

41. Black Hole


The lecture provides a virtual video of a black hole; it can be seen that
middle area of the video is dark, which is a black hole. We can see stars, planets
and other heavy bodies are spinning around the boundaries of the black hole.
On the right side of the video, it can be observed that some planets cannot
escape from the black hole and are being drawn in. We can also observe a
bright ring around the black hole because that is the edge of the black hole so
that the light can escape from it. Lastly, the lecture mentioned that different
theories could be experimented in the black hole and further research should
be conducted to better understand the facts of the black hole.

42. Human behaviors


The lecture talks about human behaviors. There are so many psychologists
are interested in explaining that human behavior. The internal and external
factors can affect human behavior. The personal factors are internal, and the
environmental factors are external. The personal factors include people's belief
and their thinking. The environmental factors include temperature, air pressure
and so on. In conclusion, human behaviors are determined by himself and
environment.
30

43. Climate change



This lecture talks about the influence of climate change. According to the
speaker; climate change will make less production and less food. It is difficult for
developing countries to deal with climate change due to their financial status
and other issues. Many people are living in hunger, especially in Africa. The
climate change will also have negative effects on the world economy.

44. Media

Some media exaggerate the truth while reporting, although some news
happens globally they should be reported locally. People from different
countries have the different understanding about news, which depends on
whether they have relevant knowledge or not.

45. Australian Migration

Australia's location is essential for the world's export; its international trade
is also vital as Australia has a broad territory. Australia is the most urbanized
country in the world, 58% of people are living in major Australian cities such as
Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane. Perth is the largest isolated city in the world,
and there are two leading companies such as Telstra and Qantas which are
based in Perth.

46. Narratives

The comics I show you with lots of people chatting around in a room is a
form of description. We use different kinds of methods to describe a situation.
Sometimes we have to use visual description, mainly when we do not witness the
scenario. I was born during the Second World War, and my hometown is XX, for
example when I asked my mother about the war, I always ask her you have
mentioned this or that when you talked to me ... when asked her about the
shelter, I asked her what the shelter looks like and when did you go to the shelter.
From her response, I could get more visual evidence as I can to write my book.

47. Children Overweight

The lecture talks about the overweight problem. There are 20% of children
today have the overweight problems, which bring the heart diseases are more
and more common in children, the smallest is five years old. This situation makes
the heart attack and other health problems become earlier and earlier. This issue
needs to be solved because the overweight problems will result in more severe
situations such as diabetes type 2 and blindness.
31

48. metal and heat


This lecture talks about metal's response to the heat. At the beginning of
the speech, the speaker mentioned that people used to think that metal is
supposed to blend under the heat, but sometimes it doesn't behave so because
atoms in the metal have random processes. The heat can accelerate the
processes but won't change the essence of random, so it could violate what we
used to think.

49. Dissociation of Personality


The powerful influence of Stevenson's text on the discourse of dissociation
is strikingly apparent in the work of American physician and psychologist Morton
Prince. Rieber credits Prince with pioneering "the phenomenon of popularizing
MPD as embodied in a spectacular case". Prince's Dissociation of a Personality
(1905) tells the story of Miss Christine Beauchamp, a pseudonym for Clara Norton
Fowler, who, according to Prince, "is a person in whom several personalities have
become developed".

50. Loggerhead Turtles


Geomagnetic cues help young loggerhead turtles navigate the open
ocean during their epic 8,000-mile journey between leaving their natal beaches
in Florida, and returning 5-10 years later to breed. Researchers have just worked
out how they do it.
Hatchling loggerhead sea turtle is tethered via a soft cloth harness, or "bathing
suit," to an electronic tracking system that monitors its steering in response to
different magnetic fields.

51. Tanks

This lecture talks about two kinds of tanks. According to the speaker, there
are two kinds of tanks, one named panzer tiger, the other one named T-34. The
panzer tiger is better than T-34 in firepower, armor and mobility. But in the end,
the T-34 defeated the panzer tiger because the number of T-34 is larger than that
of the panzer tiger.

52. Conscious Competence Model



The Four Levels of Learning describe how a person learns a new skill.
Unconscious Incompetence: you don't know that you don't know something.
Conscious Incompetence: you are now aware that you can't do the ability.
Conscious Competence: you develop skill in that area but have to think about
it. Unconscious Competence: you are good at it, and it now comes naturally.
32

53. The use of web 2.0

 (with a graph on the screen demonstrating the whole speech)


The lecture mainly talks about the use of web 2.0 on helping government
functions better and serve the public better.
There are three steps.
1. The web collects information from users.
2. Two government use the info to understand the public.
3. Make a better connection with citizens and response to their needs.

54. How human use materials around us

 (With a picture of different medical machines, wounded hand stitched by


medical thread)
The lecture mainly talks about how humans use materials around us to make our
life better. Firstly, we use materials to build simple machines and improve our
health and life expectancy. Then when life expectancy increases, we have more
time to study and invent a more the complicated device, and further, enhance
the quality of life. Machine to scan and monitor brain activities.

55. The increasing productivity

 (With a line graph shown on the screen: the dropping cost of computer parts)
The lecture mainly talks about the growing productivity, which means for every
input there is more output_ To illustrate the theory, the speaker talks about the
computer. It is a relatively new thing, so the cost of units decreases even more.

56. The comparison between wages, consumption, and


household
 According to the speaker, the wage increase is 5%, which is very weak. The
fluctuation of use is about 15%, which seems decent. The housing debt is about
40%, which is unusual. But can be understandable alter the wage and
consumption increase.

57. English language change

 2nd was Challenges to change English language why can't we changed it


because it has some standardized spelling and universal education format. So
it's very hard to change the entire language. Secondly, there is variety in the
English language from the number of villages and regions, so it's wise to have a
universal one.
33

58. Poverty in rural and urban areas


Environmental problems including water pollution and the sanitation of
drinking water, indoor smoke and gas emission. Poor people are especially
affected especially regarding their health. The rising demand for energy
consumption is likely to sustain until 2030, which will affect a range of
environmental problems.
59. Stari Most
Stari Most (literally, "Old Bridge") is a 16th-century Ottoman bridge in the
city of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and
connects the two parts of the city. The Old Bridge stood for 427 years until it was
destroyed on 9 November 1993 by Croat military forces during the Croat—
Bosniak War. Subsequently, a project was set in motion to reconstruct it, and the
rebuilt bridge opened on 23 July 2004.
One of the country's most recognizable landmarks, it is considered an exemplary
piece of Balkan Islamic architecture. It was designed by Mimar Hayruddin, a
student, and apprentice of the famous architect Mimar Sinan.

60. Armor
The curator of the National Gallery of Art provides a brief introduction about
the armor in their exhibition. The exhibition includes some finest examples of
Renaissance armor, which were fabricated by master craftsmen and artists over
a 15th-17th century.
Parade armor was made for the show, not combat. That armor represents the
imperial ambition of the Spanish monarchy.

61. Dark Energy


The lecture is about dark energy. Dark energy Is an unknown form of
energy, which is hypothesized to permeate all of space and accelerate universal
expansion. Dark energy constitutes most of the total energy in the observable
universe though its density is low. Two proposed forms of dark energy are
cosmological constant and inconstant scalar fields. A field that is similar to dark
energy and could inflate early universe is called the big bang.

62. City of literature “Melbourne”


In 2008, Melbourne joined the UNESCO Creative Cities Network.
Melbourne's designation as a UNESCO City of Literature is an acknowledgment
of the breadth, depth, and vibrancy of the city's literary culture. Melbourne
supports a diverse range of writers, a prosperous publishing industry, a successful
culture of independent bookselling, a wide variety of literary organizations and
a healthy culture of reading and engagement in events and festivals.
34

63. Randomness of flipping coin



About a decade ago, scientists wanted to find out if the outcome of a coin
flip is a matter of chance. The result of research which is conducted on a
mechanical coin flipper shows a coin lands the exactly same way as it launched.
The randomness in the coin toss is introduced by a human; this is because,
human-generated flip has a different height and speed, and is caught at the
different angle.

64. Biological Engineering

The first group of people that realize we can learn from ourselves is
Engineers.
They invented machines to study the human body, to cure disease and study
physiology. By using those complex machines, they can study how human
brains function and process. The result of their studies can be utilized to benefit
human can solve problems, such as**disease, etc.

65. Journal

There are two kinds of the journal: peer-reviewed and non-peer reviewed.
All articles sent to publications should be testified to ensure all articles are
original and high quality. For anything that is below the standard, they will be
sent back to authors to amend. Both two journals can be searched and
accessed from the library. Only "peer reviewed" can be used in this assignment;
moreover, it has some features, include footnotes of bibliography, no
advertisements, and other features.

66. Straight Sales



Salary Plans are not very common; sales are usually paid a fixed salary, so
the package doesn't tend to offer motivation to salespeople, as there are no
incentives for them to work harder.
Combination plan is the most common plan used today; the package offers
motivation to increase productivity and to achieve goals; moreover, it also
provides more stability. Under Commission plan, salespeople are paid in direct
proportion to sales. There is no guarantee of income, so the package tends to
attract fewer candidates.
35

67. Water on Mars


The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid
water. The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are
essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and
perchlorate. Consequently, we can speculate that water used to exist in liquid
form on the surface of Mars and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.

68. Bee Dance

Honey bees have some unusual abilities, they can communicate by


performing a unique dance. It begins with a scout bee live the hive to find new
food sources and returns to the hive with the information about a newly found
nectar source. The direction and duration of dance indicate the direction and
distance of the resource being advertised by the dancing bee.

69. Bilingual education



Parents should not use two languages to educate their children. Most
parents suppose bilingual education can benefit children, but it is not always
beneficial in reality. Bilingual education can easily confuse children when
parents explain and talk about the same content in two different languages.

70. Traffic Light, Food System

We should categorize food and drinks into three colors including the red
category, yellow category and green category. Each color provides various
health benefits, so labeling food with different colors can help consumers choose
the right type of food as their bodies need and develop healthy diet habits.
Retailers should introduce a color-coding system because traffic light labeling
can guide consumers to make a wise decision while doing grocery shopping.

71. The Large Hadron Collider

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest particle accelerator lies
in a tunnel. The LHC is a ring roughly 28km around that accelerates protons
almost to the speed of light before colliding them head-on. Protons are particles
found in the atomic nucleus, roughly one thousand-million-millionth of a meter
in size. The LHC starts with a bottle of hydrogen gas, which is sent through an
electric field to strip away the electrons, leaving just the protons. Electric and
magnetic fields are the key to a particle accelerator.
36

72. Tree Rings

Dendron- chronology indicates the years of trees through rings, but the
year of tree cut could be ambiguous. The width of rings illustrates the climate
situation of rain and drought that affects tree-growth. The sequence message of
narrow and wide represents hidden information like Morse code. The
information is even richer and more diagnosable for it provides more various
possibilities than dash and dot.
73. Healthcare Workers

According to the World Health Organization, 400 million people worldwide


have no access to essential health care. That's a staggering number of people.
Some of those services include things like basic sanitation and clean water
prenatal care and vaccinations or immunizations for children. Many things
contribute to this crisis sometimes people live to remotely to get timely care if the
emergency occurs even when living in a city the patient to doctor ratio can be
as high as 50,000 people to just one doctor. Making it impossible for that doctor
to meet the demands of health care in that area. These are valuable people
made in the image of God who are physically suffering many of them without a
personal relationship with Christ. So we do this with a week of hands-on training
consisting of a variety of topics like basic sanitation and hygiene taking vital
signs wound care and infection prevention basic birth assisting and emergency
skills. Those who participate in the training then have practical skills in supplies
to care for others in their community in a way that glorifies God and opens the
door for sharing the gospel in a new way brought to you.

74. Sigmund Freud


We live in a world profoundly affected by a famous psychologist, Sigmund


Freud. He had a profound influence on the 20 and 21 century. He was born in 1815,
and he spent most of his life in Vienna, Austria, but he died in London. He is known
for the development and an encompassing theory of mind, and he was a man of
extraordinary energy and productivity because he was a high energy sort of
person.
 
37




Start with the topic X = Words & Phrases
The lecture was about X (TOPIC)
The speaking was discussing X (TOPIC)

Go into details (1) X = Words & Phrases


S/He/She/lecturer was speaking of X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer mentioned X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer talked about X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer discussed X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer described X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer delineated X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer explained (the) X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer emphasized the importance of X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer shared information regarding X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer presented information about X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer provided information on X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer gave details of X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer remarked on X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer continued discussion with X (and X as well as X)
S/He/She/lecturer reported doing X

Go into details (2) X = A complete sentence


S/He/She/lecturer suggested that X
S/He/She/lecturer added that X
S/He/She/lecturer noted that X
S/He/She/lecturer commented that X
S/He/She/lecturer acknowledged that X
S/He/She/lecturer indicated that X
S/He/She/lecturer explained that X

Gap fillers & Cohesive devices Use among the above moves
point which he

n, hence, thus, indeed, etc.

Suggested structures
Complex: although, while, despite the fact that, in spite the fact that, etc.
Compound: FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)