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Analysis of Double-Row Tapered Roller


Bearings, Part I - Model

Article in Tribology Transactions · April 2003


DOI: 10.1080/10402000308982622

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Spiridon Cretu Daniel Nelias


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Vol.46 (2003). 2. 228-239
.**

Analysisof Double-Row TaperedRollerBearings,


Part| - Model*
l. llliRcEn lnd S. CRI:'ItJ
'lichnic:al
Univclsity"(ih. Asnchi"ol' hsi
l;lcttlty
Mcchanicallr'ingirrccrirrg
l)cpartnrult<rtMrtchincl)csign & lribolttgy
66(X)-lasi.Rotnania
antl
D. NEI,IAS
l-.ahoratoircdc Mdclrrriquctlcs (irttlltcls
( : N R St J M R5 51 1 .l N S n d c 1 . Y ' e t n
(r9(r2I Villcurbattttc (c<lcx. l;ritttcc

'l'h<, ln:rlyscs lhal cottsitlcr thc cllccl ol thc ccnlrillgal lirrccs anti
.lir::t lurl ttl' this ltt'rt-purll:4tlr(rPrcs(nlsart uttul\firul
its wcll its lhc intcrrral bearirrg gctxnt-tly' Thc
gyroscopic r't'tonlettls
nuxk! tu pt'cdirt lhr P.q1ornk,il.'(sol ltntlrlc-ttttt' lttlx'rc'tl nillct'
thcorctical lritsisol tt qutrsi-stitlicntrxlcl lirr hoth ball 1p1lc:ylirldri-
lx,urin.gs(l)Rl'RB).'l'ln' nultl hds lrl"rl'tt slrurlurcl in lun nu.iu'
cal rollcr lrcirlings was l'irst proposc(l by Joncs (24) ltttd (251.
purrs:( Ih A rotn'ctrtionulqna,si'stulitarrrrl.1'ur l.) d(t.'rrnitt(llt.'
Rclcrcncc (/, wils itlllollS lhc I'irst to study low-s1rcctl ta1^-rcd
int<,nulload listril:iltirtn.tlt( l,cilriil* :itillitt'rsmil tlrc.filrisilclili'
nlller hcitrings. rvith rt vcctttr bascd rrellrtxl to descrihe lhe inler-
urul (2)- A quusi-dvnauilartnh'sisu'hich inlagratt'stlte dilli'ran' 'l'his
nul gcontctry. tlis;rlitccntcnls an(l li)rccs. anllysis rvas litlcr
tial <,tpntionsJitrt<tth lrtring dtnu'nl in <ntlu kt rlctuniru'lhe cxtctr(lc(fh y l . i u ( 1 7 ) c r x r s i t l c r i r r t
g h c c l l ' c c t s ol hilrh rrrlatiorral
atrtounttl'skitfuling,tlrc.liirtion !tnt'cs utul ntntenls und rot$e' specrl. rt:urtcly tlrc ccrttlilirgirl lilrcc atttl the lyrosctlpic lllolllclll
qucntly thc heut dis,riptttitn.'l'heprupos<'dtrtuld ulkn'.s one trt acting on caclt rollcr. ltr contritsl to thc ilti)rclnclltioncd models.
tuke into et'ounl u !!tncr<il e.rlcrnul Iotling (slul't tilting D e M u l . c l i l l . ( . 5 ) ,( 6 ) h a v c p r c s c n t c dl t g c r l c r a l a n t l c o n s i s t e n l
nnnotls, rat!fu1an,l u.t'itil ltxuls). tlrt ittitiul u't'itl nnnltr<'ssiur llrathcnralicitl nrtxlcl of high nrodular cltitrlctcr. More recently.
intnuluccd v'hil<'rnountin(, thc qx'rutittg .tpeetlunl tht luln'iutnt lloupc:rl (?.1) hus proposccl a sinrplc and analytical ilpproirch lbr
in tlt<'stuntl b o t h b l l l i t n ( l l o l l c r l r c a r i r r g sl.i r l i t c d t o s t a t i cc q u i l i [ ) r i r r r t[rr u t r v i t h
lrop(rli('s, S(),n(nunrt'it'(l nsulls ut'<'1tt'r':;tttt<tl
high caplhilitics to (lcscribc lhc trlcchilnicill interactions betweett
ytrt ttf lltis lu'(r'lr.Jftlrdlr.".
tlrt'bcarirtg. its ltousing rrnd the shnft. hetrcc eusy to iniplenrent in
ilny n(nr-littcitr t:.t:.A. plckage. lntlcperrdcntly ol'thc fatiguc lil'c
KEYWORDS
'l cstinruliort. thcr l'r'iclion torqtlc or tht' hcat gcncriltion iJ ilnothcr
lpcrr,rtl Rollt'r' llclrings: ltol Iing Lilclrrt:nl llclrlings
irnportlnl rcsult rvhich rcllccls tltt: ovclnll rrllling truaring pcr-
litlnrancc. A dynlntic rttritlysisol'the rvholc bclring is the starlirll:
INTRODUCTION
'l'ltc point lirr irny ;rnltlytic:rltttclhrxl lo itccoullt lirr sliding ilnd ll'icliotl
i n t c l n t l d c t s i g no t ' r r r l l i l r g b c l r l i r t g s h l t s i t l i t n t l i t t u r ' t t l i t l
lirrccs lrud nr()nlcntsirnrl lhctcltrrc l() Prc(licl tcasotlitbly thc inter-
i u l ' l u c n c co n t h c i r o v c r i t l l p c r l i r r r l t a n c ca t t t l l i f c . C o r t s c q r r c n t l yt h
.c
lritvirrg r'otitting ilrc n a l h c i t tr l i s s i p i r t i o ni t s w c l l a s l l t c c o n l l i b u l i t l t to l ' c a c l t b c a r i r l ge l c -
cl'l'icicrrcy an(l rcliitbility ol'nrrtcltirtcs litrls
n r c l r t . S [ c h d y n i r n t i c t ' t t o t [ ' l st t t t t s l i n t c g | a t c t h e ' d i l l c r e l r t i a lc - t 1 u i l -
stlongly rlel^*rr<lcntttrt thc clroice antl tlcsign trl' hcilrirtgs rrscd,
t i o n s o l ' n r r r t i o no l ' t h c d i l l c r c n t b e l t r i r r gc l c n r c r t l si n o r d c r t o i l l l o w
with a dircct link on srrl'ctyitnd cnvit'otttnt'nl c()tlccm$.Tltc cvcr
il n)orc rcirlistic cstilniltion ol' thc slip velocities between the
increlsiltg cosl of ex1;'-ritrtctttltlwtrrk ltlxl tlrt' ltccd to shtrrtcn lltc
rollcrs lntl tlrc racr:rvuys. Many thcorcticll studics ol' frictional
conccpti(nl slngr' rcqtlirc lhtr tlcvt'krllrllcttt ol'thcorcticirl nlcth().ls
torquc in lollirrg hcitrirrgs ltavc beett pcrlbrnred by lr numher ol'
lntl sirnulirtirrtt ttltrls.
invcstigittors rvhich rrseddill'crrrtt nreth{)dologiesto calculiltc thc
t n t h e p a s t .t h c a p p l i c l t i r r t tt t l ' t l t : r l z ' s ( ! l i t s t i c( : o r l l i l ( :tlh c o r l "a r t t l 'l-hus^
rrlcti(nr li)rccs rlt'r,elopedin EHL conjurlctions. Halris ( I /).
the use ol'sjovall's irtlcgr:rls (-i7) wcrc at thc or'igirrol'trnalytical
( / r \ J h a s s t u t l i e t l t h c q u r t s i - d y n a r n i cc c p r i l i b r i u r no f c y l i n d r i c r l
nlct.hods to calculitle thc intcrrral lorrtl clistlihtrtiorr in u rrrlling
roller bcirrings ant'l trlll bc'aringsconsidering the EHI- theory and
bearing and subsc'quc'utlyto pretlict its stillitcss:rnd tirtigue lil'e
:r Neu'tonirn lrehu,ior for the lubricant. Casscl and Pirvics (//J
(see lbr cxantltls (25t, (29)\. With lhe tirst dcvclopmcnt of cont-
lncnlioned the peltbrnrances ol' the conrputer program
puters. this upproach has evolvt'd itrttl coltventiomitl tluasi-stltlic
SHABERTH - tbr SHAft BEaRing THernral lnalysis oi hearing
-
s)'stems. including bnll, cylindricll ttnd tapcrcd roller bc:lrings
Presentedat the 56lh Annual Meellng
In Orlando, Florida pcrtbrmcd b;- Clecelius 1?) to analyze conrpeling dcsigrt concePts'
Itley 20-24,2001 l-at^r Guptu (/l) rnd (/.1) has introdtlced a non-Newtonian fluid
FinalmanuscriptapprovedMarch7,2002
rnorlel rvhile tleveloping a sophisticittcd ttrodcl ADORE - lor
Revlew led by Wiuism Crecelius
l:8
'firpctetl 229
Anatysisof Doublc-Rorv Rollcr Bcarings:[)alt l--Motlcl

Nomenclaturc = irritill :rxill ctrrttprcssitlrt.


nt
r = rtrllcrseini-concanglc:trr-[J)/1.rlttl
u = scrni-rnajor txis ol the rollcr elld-flangcconlitct'llr = thcrnurlrctlue:liott lirctorlirr thc lubrictnt lilrn thickness
A = HcrtTianconllcl trc:1.llr- q, = rtdill ruisalignrnL'nt ilrUllcof tollcr. ntd
h = scrni-rninuraxis o[ tlrc rrrllcrend-llirngcconti[t' lll = ntisaligurucnlanglcarotlndthc Y lnrl Z--lxis'luspcctivl-ly
C,, = dmg coctlicicrtt rltl
I),, = largc-cnddianlctcrot'rollcr.ttt )' = nlcilnc()ntilcltnglc: 1rt+ll)/2.rtttl
t),, = rneilttcliamrrlcrol'rtrller. tlt = lulrrictntsltcitrtittc.s''
2e = distirncebetwecrtrorv rollcr liitntcs (Xrrrn,.Y,,..n,.Zw.n,).,tl 4 = lubriclnt dynlntic viscosity.Pa's
". = axial loculionof the f istitlnlbrce hltlancecelrlcr.ln , = hulf lttgular cxtcncto[ sphcricalrollerend.rad
L' = Young'sruotlttlusof bodiesI and 2. rcspectivcly' N/nt- A = lubricrrrttilur plraurctr:r:hn,/tt
" t.2
lt' = equivtlentYoutl-{'smodultls: , l. = coelTicicnt ol' liiclion (lhcti(rn)
E ' = ' ) l K 1 - . r ' t 1 \If\ + ( l - r ' j ) / / : : 1 .N / n t - l'l.-' = Poisson'srttitr ol hodicsI lrn<l3. rcsl^-ctivcly
F = friction ftrrce due lo ilsPclity contirct.N viscosityol' thc lubtiqilnt
= kirterttatic
{ = lubricant dntg fbrcc. N ltt = lotationll speed.ritd/s
,{I
= hytlrodynarnicpressurelirrce. N tlt = azimuth angle ol roller. rad
tl
F' = rollinS tiiction force. N (t = courpositesurlhceroughness (llMS). rtl
F' = sliding liiction tirrcc, N t = lubricantshcarslrcss.Itit
l:tr = roller centrifugal force' N T,, = chanrctcrislic lutrricanlsllcitrslrcss(l]yling strcss)'Pa
,i- = rrxialappliedloacl.N o = opening{ngle ol the innerling {1ltrrge. rld ,
t-' = radialapplictlload.N = clcnsilyof thc luhricant-g.iN mi)ilorc' K8/nl'
P,O
.t = lil eunniidulusof luhrictrrt.N/nt:
6* = notr<lirlensional mittc'r'ialpitlilnleter:.r,,,t' Matrix and Ye.lor Notalians
ll = nlinimuurlubricantl'ilm lhickness,ln
ib = heat gerteratiott,W t = v0ctolctosspl'oducl
= nronteutof inertiaol'rollcl tbout its owtt axis (X*-axis). {}., : colunlnvccl()rcxpllsscdl)y rrlslncllls
s' = tratlsposcd c(lltllllnvcclot
Kgnr- {}'
K = loirJ-detlectio:rtlctor: Nln''/l-fbr poirll contact'ilnd n.,. = nulrix expresscdby clcnunl:
NTml(f'-tbr linc contact u' = transfx)sL'dn]iltrix
= trilnslbntlittiollnlatrix litlnt rollut'lo ittcrlinlliilntc
I = activelengthof line coutact'rn t^t lh'tl
/,,. = nonind roller length, m f*'S, = initinl positionsof raccwayond rollcr.rcsPL-clivcly'
I = fatiguc lifc associatedwith90Vo reliability. hn come lnlo contitcl
"to
M,t = tluicl drag rnomentabout the roller axis, N.nt (veclorslocittingin thc incni0l thnlc)
Mr = roller gyroscopicmoment.N.m f,* ,s, = final [xrsirionsof tncc*"y tnd roller, rcspcctivrtly,thi(
Ms = mon'rentof spin, N.m coureinto cotrlacl(veclorslocatingirt thc inertialliitttie)
= belring rot.ttio,nalspeed,rpm I' = innerring,vcctor
p = prcssurc,N/m- A = inner ring disPlacertlenlvccltrr
lro = maximum Hertzian pressure,N/m? a = roller vectOr
q = load per unit length, N/m n = unit vcctorllonnal ttl tltc ritccwayliurtldc
= roller displacetnenlvuctor
o = contactnormal load, N
= roller caSepockEtnornralforce, N
U
Q..
Qc = basic dynamic capacitY,N Iunux SYato/-J tNn AnnarvuttttNs
o,. = race equivalent load, N
= pitch radius of the beat'ing,m I = row number I ol bearing
It = equivalentradius of curvaturein the Y*- direction,m 2 = row number 2 of bearing
Re = Reynoldsnumbet u = asperity-to-asPcritY contacl
R\ = cuivature racliusof the roller large cnd surface,m = cage
T = inlet lubricant temperature,C f = guiding f'langc
T* = contactmoilent' Nm i = lnncr raceway
il, = avemgetrntrainingvelocity, rn/s J = rollerorbital position
u* = non-dirncnsiortitlparanteterof speed:4,,V//r!R k = rirccway:iurcr (k = i): outcr(k = o) rrxl l'langc(k = l)
= roller disphccmcnt.tn - hcaringnlw: low I (rn = l) arld luw 2 (nt = 2)
U llI

v = surf'acevelocity in moving tlircclkrn, m/s o = 0utcrraccwily


AV = slidingvebcity, In/s I = t { h s l i c cr t l l i n c c u l t i l c l
w* = non-drmcnsionalpurumeterof load: Q//';'lR-tilr linc contlct = rollor
and Q/Ii'R-for Point contact .T = tlirc{,:tiotl palirllclto X-axis
z = total number of rollers per row .v = rlircctionparallelto Y-axis
a = outer racewaysemi-coneangle,rad = direclionplrullel to Z.-axis
Q, = pressure-viscositycoelTicient EIID = clastohydrodynanric
p = inner racewaysemi-concanglc, rad tvR = isoviscous-rigid
= tiustion of initial axial compression,7o PVE = piezoviscous-claslic
5
6 = contaclcompression,m PVR = piczoviscous-rigid
6", 6)..6, = inner ring <lisplacemcntuklng the X , Y and Z-axis. DRTRB = bouble llow'fapered Rollcr llcaring
respectively,m SRTRB = SinglcRow'l'apcredRollcr Bclliug
230 l . l l l t r r r . l . ) .N r r r \ : . , . . rj ! " ( ' r r r !

I o t l l l r t t l t l c l l i t r l t t t t c l t i c\ l l l { l i c \ ' l l r ) l l l ( ( r l l l i l ( ' l ( i c { ( } r l l t i l l l o l l si t l l ( l
'
q u l s r - r l t ' r t ; t t n ttc: t l u i l i l r r i t r nct t l t t i t l i o t t si t t ( ' e \ p t t ' : \ c ( l t r l r t r i r t . rr:' c t
I o r t r r t t lt n a t r i x t t o t a t i o t t s . ' l h c l r a t : l i o r tl i t r c c s t t t ' < ' t l c i
t n
l l l t r : d ! t t l t t t t -
i c c t ; r r i l i l t r i r r l tht i t v c l t t t t o h t l r i n c < rl t s i r t l ll t \ o l t \ t ' r ' l o t t i l t t r l l c r r -
\)^, l o g i c i r l r n o r l c l . l h t : e l l e ' c to l ' s u r ' l ; t c cr o t t l ' h t t t ' s sl u t s b c c t t i r l c l t r r l e i l
in thc trlctlittiorr ol'llaction lirrct's.
Ftlxol I FLAIIG! 2

r o ' u DESIGNCONSIDERATIONS
l)ouhlt:-rorv tlpcrctl rollcr hcitrings (l)R'l'RU) may ltavtr rollcr
Fr r'
t l fn"r rows in b:rck-to-ltitck (rlcsiglrirtion sullix L)lJ) trr in lircc-to-litcc
Bccirg curmlin F1
( d c s i g n l t i r x r s u l l ' i x I ) l ; ) a r r i t t t g c l n c : n ll.n D I ) - u r r a n g c n l c n t .l h c
kriul lirrtrsol thc hcaring tlivctjc lou'rrnls thc beilring axis u'hile
- * "
tlte hratl lirttrs lirt' [.)l-ltrrttngcttrcnt cotlvcrgc towrrds the bcitring
a x i s . ' l ' h c rl i r n t t t : rr l e s i g r tl l t r t v i d c ss t t h s r a n l i arlc s i s l i u l c cl o l l l o l n c n l
k r a t l i r t g{ l h ; t l i s . h i g h s t i l l i r c s s ) .r t h c t s i t sl h c l ' l t t c t ' p r o v i d c sg r c i l t c l '
Flg. l-schematlc vl€w ol I doubl€-row tapered roller bearlng In DB'
arrangomonl. t b i l i t y t r r i r c c o r t u t t o d a ttrtrr i s l t l i g n t n c n(l t c l r t t i v c l' l c x i b i l i t y ) .
A s i r u p l i l ' i c r lc n r s s - s c c t i o t ot l ' a I ) R T R I ] ( t t l I ) [ ] - a r r n n g c n l c n l )

Advanccrl [)yntnrics Ot l{ollirrg ljlcrncttts to ohtain l lirll s l t o u ' i n l l h c c s s c n t i a l b c a l i n g c o t t r ; x l l l t - l l l s( i n n c I r i l t g t t t r ' o r i r ' .

tlynanric sinrull(iolt, in rcll-tirnc. lilr varitxtstypcs ol'bcarings. o u l c r r i n g t t t ' r ' t t y ra t t d g u i t l i n g s l x r u l t l c r o r . / / r r r r . r , itto' )g c t h e r w i t h

including thc tlpcrcd rollcr bcarirrg.onc. Sitlcc lhilt work. nlilny s o r n cs e o r r t e t r i c a<l l e l l n i t i o n si s g i v e n i n I ' i g . l . ' f h e t l c f i r r i t i o no f

nllling hcaring uurlyscs prcscnlc<lin thc litcraturc hitvc ttscd non- cuch syntbol is givcn in llre notrtenc:laturc.
'l'hc
N c r v t o n i l n l l u i d r r t r x l c l s( o l ' v l r i t t t t s l y p c s ) t o c s l i n t . t t ( ' l h ct f t t c t i o l l conical rlccwity surlitccs ol'lltc cottc arttl cup have a conr-

l'<rrccsaud ulonrcnls duc lrt lttbricattt slrcaling. lts lilr crxatnplclhc n l ( n l l p c r a l P ( ) i n tn | ( k r r r o w l ) a n d A . ( l i r r r o w 2 ) a s i l l u s t r a t c r d

work ol'Ndli:rs. et xl. (.1.1,)


:ur(l 1.lli on high-sperrdnrller hclrrings i n l ; i g . l . W h i l s t r h c l p c x c o i r r t : i d c sw i t h l h c c c n t u r - l i n eo l ' l l t c

artd ball bearings.r(t:rpctivcly.'[hcy gaveiit melh(xl to idcntily thc hc:u'ing it is possil'rlcto tlclcrnrinc tlrc nr:titl gconlctl'icill pal'alllc-

c$trihulion ol citch inleraclion bctwccn bcaring clcntcnts to thc trrrs r'.\.lhc rollcr nr(lius iln(l thc bcitfing illlg.les:

totul crlcrgy dissipatctl. lt should bc crnphasizcdlltat thc rltcolog-


. l r i t c h r a r l i u s( o I d i v i d i n B r i l ( l i u s )o l ' t h c b c i l r i n g
ical nrodcls uscd to dcscribc thc lluid bchnvior irrc scnti-cmpirical
:rs thcy ncctl dat:r dcduccrl l'nrnt cx1:crintcttlilltl'ilcli(nl cut'vcs. ln it [)',,si n(^1\
dilltrrcnt Inanrtcr Zh()u rrn<lllocpriclr (41, hitvr' ;lrrtposcd it ttt'w
' tll
") 2lrrtt.(t)
rurcth{xl(o cstinratc tlrc trictirxr lortluc rrl'llpcrctl rollcr htritrillgs.
. rollcrlclivc lcngth
b a s c d < x rn r i x c t l - l . i l I [ .l u b r i c l t i o n w i t h : r c o r t l r i l ) r t l i ( ] ro)l ' ( l r y c o n -
tacts lxtrvccn aspcrilic.slo thc (tvcrilll li-iction lirt'cc. Such il tnodcl 1 , . - ( r ' 1* r ' . . , ; )
,
should bc uscd whcn thc luhriclnt lilnr thickrrr:ssis krw in corn- ('o.s(sI
t2l
parisrxt lo lhc sur'lltccnrughncss. i.c. lirr low spcc(l :lpl)liciltions.
Morc rcccntly Wrng, cl ul, (J/) hlvc l)t'csctltc(lit nl('lho(l t(l prc-
rlir:t tlrc tortpte rtttrlltr:ul ilcn('rilli()tl in t:qrcrc<lrttllcl lxrrllirlgs with u'hcrc r', itnd r, lttc thc rollcr charttl'crs lrrrnt the litrgc antl sntlll

lully-or parli.tlly-.iltnltllctl rollcrs. lrt lhis litst w()rh. lllc c(rnlilct c r r t la l i l s c x t l c n t i t y . r c s p c c t i v c [ ] ' .

bctrvccrr lhr: tollt:rs ltn<l lhc: ruccrvays is ltssttlttctltlry lrrbricirlctl


whcn lhc'tclltpct':ttulc ('xcccds 190 (' irntl lhc lritclion bchavirlr is MECHANTCAL (OUASI-STATIC
INTERACTIONS MODEL)
s i n r p l y t l c s e r i b c dt r y l l i ' i c t i o nc o c l l i c i t ' n t v i r r v i r t gw i t h t l t c s l i d i t l g A contprcltcrlsivc qullsi-stillictnotlcllo obtitirlthc lord distri-
vcltrity. hutitrnanxrrrgnrllcrs.thc klrd distrihutitrnalongthc rollcr length.
'fhc :rrttlrolatiotr)betwcen
s t a t i c .c l u i t s i - s t a t i cq,u l s i - d y n a n r i cr r n dl i r l l < l y n r r n t i ict n i t l l ' - luxl tlrc rclutivc nlovemcntlclisplaccrrtcnt
sr.s hcrc lhlvc-rtlcrntioncd wtrtc pc'rtirrrttrl litl single-rrrrvrrllling hcrc.This l'irstnlo(lclis 0lr inlerntc(liirlc
r'ingsis l)r1'scntctl slcp in
be:rrings. with linritt:tl loittl c:rrryirtg clrplcity itt ctttttpltrisott to tlrc tlcvr'loprncntof a qurrsi-dynilmic nnxlel. ln order to sintplily
doublc-row rollirrg ht'urings. Whcrr thc lold is vcrv high in both thc iutalysis.thc tollowing ilssurnptiutshavc'becnntitdc:
irxial lnd raditl dir'cctiorts antl wlrctr thc lvlillrblc sprtcc is too
srrrall lor two singlc row rolling bcttrirtgs. thc rrsc of tloublc-row . tlrc lrearingclcnlcntsarc matlclirxtr a lrttrelvclasticntaterial.
tupcrcrl rollct' hearings TDRTRB) tcplcsents thc bcst prilctictl . trxh rollelsand ruccwiryshrvr.-rr-ctilincarproliles.
solulion. Although the DRTRB is useclin ntany itpplications (such . intr'rnalfriction lbrcesand rromctltsare i,grrored.
as rvhccl bearings. nltchine totlls. helictlpter atrd itttttttrtolivegear- . thc-clfbcl of lhc cagcsis neglected.
ol'
hoxes etc.) the iltletttiotl to dytlitnlic sirrrul:rtiortlor this t1'pr-" . the outsrlinEris irssumedro be fixetl in space.
bearing has been sntlll t:onrparcd with th.u orr othcr rolling belr-
ing tvpes. Thc lirlkrwingmain coonlinrtteslstctnshavebecnintroduced
1'hc presenl pilpcr prolx)scs n culrPl'r'hctlsivt'tnodt'l lirr lirr convenience: lhe inertialrettrettcecoorclinate (X,. Y,.
51'stgur
DRTRB irllowing onc lo pr(:(lict lhcit'pr:rlirnttltrcr;s ltnd lo pcr- Z,) lixcclto lhe outer ring anclrvith its origin irt thc rniddlecross-
Rollcr Rclrirlgs:Palt l-Model
Anllysis ol' Dorrtrlc-Row'l:rpc'rt'il
231

n,het-e
4.,
t I , ' . r , ,- - -2
d.. +

-t,-l; ) l l
1 1. [r',.,1.(rI.,
(fu.r,.,..,1.,,
I6
('
d : . r=' d .+ 1 u '1 , ,T ( d .+, + ) l
Fo F" FO
r+4 v (-

and A' is the tolal iuitial axill comprcssion of bt'aring,6,. 6y.0/.


F. y" antl 1, arc lhe linear and itngulardisplac:cmcnts of thc shali
r*r7r 7 mcusure<lwith respectto thc inertial tiarne. the upper sign ret'ers
to row I (m = l) andlhc lower sign.
re{'ersto low 2 (nr = 2)'
Innerring
Thrustflange . rotationvector

T', 1'= {(}.1y.f.i1 l3bl

Tr, With rcspcctltl llre rcllcl ctxrrdittitlcsysl!:llts(X.".u'.Y*.n,'


ltt = T3. theetluilibritrnrpositiortol'thc rollcrsis tlcsclibed
Z*..,,,).
by the tollowing veclols:
Fig.2-Co-ordinatesyslemsandexternalloadlngtransmllledtromthe
shaftto lhe b€aring.
. displacetnent
vector

sectionof the bcaring, the cone coordinatesystem(Xil, Y,r,,Z,n) IJrrr: rt".r,,}l


{tr..,.,r,,.0. t4al
and the rollcr coordinfltesyslem(Xw.!r.Y*.u,,Z*.n,).The subscripts
m denotesthe bearingrow; thus m = I refersto row I and In = 2 . rotntionvector
refers to row 2.
The bearingis subjectcdto the action of the lbllowing cxternal iD- : {0. g,.n,,{l}'t' l4bl
loads:
The magnitudeof the vectorcomponenlsirr Eqs'l4al and [4bl
l. First an axial preloading(F ) expresseclin terntsof the ini- dependson its angularposition(azinrulhangleqr).The total elas-
tial total axial compression(A ), tic defbrmationtbr each Hertz'iancontactis expressedin termsof
2. Secondan externalloading with tive components: the bcaringinternalgeometryand thc displacenrent and rotation
- the axial force, F. = F,, which acts in the positive vectorsabove-defined.
directionof the Xt - axis.
- rwo radial forces, F," = F, and F,, = Fr..which act along NominalPositionVectors
the Y, - axis and thcZr- axis' respectively.
Thc tlistlnce lirrnr thc X*. -axis ol' thc rollq' lo lhc inneralld
- two lilting monlellls,M, and M,, whichact aroundthc Y,
outcr rilccwilysis rlcl'itlcd[ry:
- axisand the7,r- axis.respectively.

All cornponents ol'the externalloadingabove-mentiuted irc


applied on the shaft at the middle cross-section of the bcaring' -. f
1t1,(t:) , ;;,h, tr= i.o
.")icn(,:) lsl
;i,ii;l
They are presentedas well as the coordinalesystemsin Fig' 2'
A generalextemal loadingproducesrnechanicalinteractionsat
the roller/racewayand roller/guidingflange contactsthat diftbr for whercx ( 0< x < | ) is theaxiulcooldinalcirlongthorollcrandc
each row and eachroller. Conscquently,the bearingcomponents is the nonrinalcleafitncc.
(inner ringsand I'ollers)arc translatedand rotateclfrom their ini- On inner and ltutcr racewaystlrf'aces:lor an lrhitriu'yangu-
y lar coorrlinaterp. the norninalpositionvcctor Rk (k = i.o) litr a
tial positions.With respectto thecoordinatcsystem(X,". r,'Z,n),
the equilibriumpositionsof the inncr rings are described by thc poinl on lhe racewayol'the concor cup is cxprcs'sed with rcspect
following displacement and rotation vectors: system(X,,,.Y,,,,Z,n)by:
to the co-ol'dinatc

. displacetnent
-til,)-{ ::;:i;;,::ikl},,'u,
r3arR*,.(",,,'d,,i
vector

A* : {d,..r,,,d.y,r,,'
d".ru.}?
232 I. Bnncnn.D. NEI-lns,rxt>S. (lttutt.i

where the upper sign refers to the inner colltacl (k = i) and thc
lower sign to the outer contact(k = o), aud c,,,is an intlex tlrat
'''* *"'},,,
dependson the row; cr = - 1 fbr nrw I and cu = I lin row 2'
The nominalpositionvectorR, of a flangesurl'irce
comesinto contactis:
point that { ";,:.i'tr;"lil:t:T,"' tl2l

On roller surface:asa consequence of the rollerdisplacement


f,-'l ( k:tll^.tt.t?-Il^ c o s 1' r r r 4 ) , , , , )
= = 1i r , l =,-{ p,,,-Il^.cor,\.*izt t / l ^ . s i r r { l l s i r r q i}
and tilting, the positionvectorS**1 (k = i,o,l) can be written in
Rr,,"(rl") t7]
lrt" ),,,
-
[ [ . , , , l t , . r r r r . \ . r t l t r 1* l l , . s i n ? l v s t ' ) , , , the (X*.*, Y*.n,,Z*.n,)- coordinatesystemas:

whereI is the half angularextendof the sphericalroller end, i.e.,


lr = arcsin(*)
S*.k.m : Sw.k+ Um + {D* x S*,P t t3l
On roller surface:lhe nominalpositionvectorS*.n(k = i,o) of
SubstitutingEqs. [4] tnd [9] into Eq. I I 3 L one obtainsthe fol-
the analogouspoint that comesinto contacton the roller riurfaceis
lowing expression:
expressedin the roller f)arne(X*.,n,Yr.r, Z*.,n)by:

S*,p=(
( r
t)
I
I I8l *'--{;;; :f:'.*;,1
s']''' ll4al

[ +nr(r)J
where the signs"-" and "+" relbr to the inner (k = i) and outer (k
where the signs"-" and "+" refer to the inner (k = i) and outer (k
= o) racewaycontacl, respectively.
= o) racewaycontact,respectively.

(
.| - -
f R"[rrs.\ rns('y fl)]
'l
r: { ii,"\':;.
sr'
"::" :'"l
s * , f = ",r,
{ . s , , , r , } * 1_ g . tel u4bl
[ ",,r,J " , )I
|. -n" . sir{1- 0)

Equationll5l is used to expressthe roller surfaceposition


Final PosltlonVeclors vector R',",n (k = i,o,f) in the (2,, Y,, Z,) inertial frame;
whentheinner
surfaces:
On theinnerandouterraceway
ringsaredisplacedand misaligned,the veclorRt, which givesthe
R*,k,m: W* + [Al,"S;,k,^ tl 5 l
final position of any pnint of the cone surf'ace,is expressedin the
where [A]n, is the transfotmation matrix from the (X*.n,, Y**,
system(X,, Y,, Z,) as:
Z,.n,) - roller coordinatcsystemto the (X,, Y t, Z) - ilenial coor-
dinate system.The vector W locatesthe roller systemorigin with
["1] respectto the inerlial system.
Ri,- = { Rt.* *r* + A,,, +I X Ri... =
";" }:
|.'i"J 'W-
: {Tcru r't'rrrsirt'$, r'- t:os({)lr tt6l
where the uppersign relbrs to row I and the lower sign to row 2.
( ,',., + 6, - ri" '1y * r'io ' 'y" T c,' l
'oo* - "t'i't'''Yz ttot
\ {' I LOADS AND DEFORMATIONS
( ,'r" + dz + I'it''f.y ) ,,,
Once the final position vectorswithin each Hertzianconjunc-
wherer. is thepositionvectorof theconeframesrclativeto the tion surfaceare known, the normal contactdeformation0* (with k
inertialt'rarne = i,o, and f) can be determinedas the projection on the unit vec-
tor (normal to contactingsurfaccs)of the differencebetweenfinal
rr-: {1c',0,0}? position vectors:
The outerring is assumed to be fixed in space,theretbrethe
nominalandfinal positions
of any pointin contactareidentical:
'x,^(r,d) : +(Ri,* - Rlu,r.,*)tu,mrk: i,o ll7al
Rl,rr,: Ro,- tlll

ln a similar way than for Eq. [0], the final position of any = (Ri,- - Ri;.*)n1,m
61.^(4r) il7bl
point of the inner ring flange is given by the following vector:
The signs "t" correspondto inner and outer racewaycontact,
respectively,and nu reprcsentsthc normal unit vector at the con-
Ri,., :
{fi} = Rr.," + r,,, * A.,, f I x R1... = tact point on rhe raceways (k = i,o) and guiding flange
i\ntlysis ol' Double-RowTaperedRollcr llcalings:Prrt l-- Modcl 233

(k = fl. The expressions of t\* arc prcscnlc(lin dctail irr Appendix ( f l.',,): (l .. 1.'--- r'1:r3't.1;i'(/,,
r(r")ros|r/t:''
A.
Accordingto l-lcrtz'sthcory,the norrnalloitdltrttlrntttttclllarc I .1.;"e,,..:(t.)rrrstr/r' [20cI
!.,;"u
lirrkcrtlto the contaclelasticdelilrmitlions:
i! '- )j,, ,
.\/,,,) :tl . ,11,,

:1;u
Qft,,,(q,) - t'o
r,i')d'r'L: | | ti.rl trr';..,,,sltttt
tf;.t,;t"Jil{/,,.,,,( t20dl
I r'i,.,,,,ttsttr'""t";r/'r'r1u'}
.ln',I1"/*'i.r'.
1 ! i i / . ,) : ( )- - J I - Il,. ,
- /t.r'
Qr,,,.(0) ll8bl
4/'(.,i') -1"t'.1.'..,,,rrtstts1'11i)r/'rrlf')
ti:+ .t,;"J,Jtt,,.,,(* r,1,,.,,,'sirttt l20el
rl fl
Ti.,,: I r1(t:,rlt)rd:r: 1\i.., / ,i,'11l*'(t,,'vi),,,dtt IlScl
Jo .lo
Equationsl20dl and l20cl wereotrtaincdsrliling tionl the fbl-
The contactstif'tnesscsK,' K. artd K,. which dependon thc
lowirtg n:athenratical firrnrulttionof lltc lolcl intcnsitycorttribu-
materialpropertiesdndcolltilct geometryat the roller'-racewayand
tion (c1,)to thc rcsistanltilling tnonrc.nt:
roller-flangccontacts,respectively.are given by Harris( I9)' Fot
detailedcxprcssions of Eqs. IlSrtl-llttcl the reitdernlay rcl'erto
AppendixB.
&,.r, Xeo- ,,,( "';,::;',,'",]lili',
,,:1,,,;ililil'.i""
)
Quasi-Statlc Equilibrium \ 1 , , , , , , , , , " i , , ,I' r , , . , . , , , t ' r t s r t t i t t t/. '

The contact forccs and molnents must balanceeach bearing


element(rollers and ring of eachlow). ln thcscetlualitrnsthc uppcrsign rcf'urslo rrlw I (rtr= l) and
Roller equilibrium: threequasi-staticequationsof equilibri' thc lowcr signto row 2 (nr = 2).
um areneededto determinetherollerdisplacements (u^,9r, ur) as The lirce-to-taceorrilngcmcnl(tlesignrrted by thc suflix DF)
defined bv Eq. t4l, i.e., two equationsof forces and one oI wherethe loadlincsconvergctowardsthc bclring axisconsistsof
moment(for eachroller) expressedin the roller coordinatesystem two bearingswith an intermc<liatc ring belweenthe two outer
(x*,Y*,2*): rings. unlikc the back-to-backarratrgetnetlt (DB) fbr which the
intennediatering is put bctwcenthe two inner rings.The quasi-
stltic modelpresentcdabovelbl DB-arrangcmcnt, carrbe easily
qy,u")* F" : f)
Qu,-{',r*, I l9al ildaptedto DF-arrangcmenl try applyingthc initial axialconrprcs-
I
k sion to the outerrings.

Iti,*(r", * M, :6
pt1,u.) t l9bl BEARING LIFE
&
In currentengineeringapplicationsof a rolor supprted by
wherc Q* is the contact load; F. and M* are the centrit'ugalforce
rolling bearings,thc calculatiorrof individualbearingfatiguclife
and gyroscopicmolnent,respectively,and T n representsthe con-
is rnatleusingthe ISO standardmcthod basedon thc Luntlberg
tact moment.Detailedexprcssions of Eqs'Il9al-ll9bl aregiven rncthodusedby narr-
an<lPalnrgrctt /2,3)theory.Thc standarclized
elsewhereby Crctu,ct al. (-i) tbr a singlcrow taperedroller bcar-
ulirclurcrsin thcir catalogucsl() cillculittc;t dynanticccluivalcnt
ing.
load is subicctcdlo ntnnytcslriclitxtssuchas;zcro inlertlalclcat'-
Bearing equilibrium: the quasi-staticequilibriumcqualions tll'lhc inncrantlttttlctrings:lrndno
lncci parallclt.lisplitccntents
of the completebearingare nccdcdto lincl the linear and angrrlar
ccntrilugallilt'ccandgyrosctrpic lllolllclll.
displacements 0*, 6y,6,, Yyand1, of the shaftat thc middlecross- scctionis to evitluatetheopcratingheat'ing
The purposct>fthis
sectionof the bearing. distribrrtiorras obtaincdby the prescnt
lif'eusingthc internat loacl
A conrbinedload appliedto the shaft inducesdilferent loadson
quasi-stulicanalysis.Itr nornraloperatingconditionsthe guiding
eachcup.The sum of the inrcrnalloadsresultingon eachcup must to il pro-
flangcol'eachbearingrow is Iightly loadcdandsubjected
balancethc cxtemal loading.The quasi-static equilibriumol'the
nouncedsliding. Scuflirlg may occtlr at this conlactbut is not
DRTRB in DB-arangement,which includesthe contributionol' lil'c lating melhod'
includctl in thc Lundhcrg-Palrrrgrcn
eachrow, is given by: the lif'eof'thc guidingI'langcis itssurnctl inlinitc'
Conseqttentty,
Thc presence of a rclativernisalignmcnt hetween the inncrand
(tn,) : o: F* - L#" Ii" Q",r0il"o",;,tl'!,+ outer rings modifiesthc loac'ldistdbution atnong rollct's antl lhc
loadtlistributionat fhe rollcr/raceway u()ntircls. ln thc slicing tech-
z'tT" .[i" e,,,2(t!t\
t:os(:tt(t [20a1 length of a linear contact is divided into
niqueused,theeffective
a nuntbern ol'clisks with thickncss Al. Thc probahility of survival
(D l;,) :0 = Fv - z#!t .l;?"(),,,1(ri.,)sinrilt!t-
lbr thewholebearingis predictedts thc Productot survivalprob-
abilityofeachslicc.
' l20bl
iT" Ii" Q,.2(l;)sinti"itt'
234 I. BcRcn,q. S. (ilrritl'
D. N6t.tes.cstr

The L,o - latiguelife of a racewilyelcmentaryslicc is (in mil- rt.7')l


r.l23: --:1,19(i* It -?()l
. t
lions of revolutions): , + [ ( f .rteJ)^L]?rrt
.
(#f#f
Lt'r,u,.t: lztl
as:
viscosityv I calculatc(l
with thekirrernatics
whereQ..*.r.,is thc basicdynamiccapacg (ftrr l(f revolutions)
of a roller- racewaysliceof indext (t =1. 1r),ftrr the row of index 4r'-r00nfiX)
-,u lbr N < 1000
,i : rPm
nr (flt = 112) ana contactof index k (k = i,o). WOV
'15t)o
= D'A'
Qc:,t.,,., (#)2/'rD?u/'?
N7/!z-ttt t22l ui - frr N > looorom
ffi##
\/ Nd
where B is a constantdependingon the material quality
(B = 551.2for 52100 air-meltsteelaccordingto units in N and where N and d are thc rotationalspeedand bearingpitch diameter
(in mrn).respectively.
mm); Dt is the disk diameterat index U d, is the corresponding
Finally,the lifb ol'cach bearingrow and subsequentlythat of
pitch dianretero{'the bearing,and ir. is a stressconcentrationf'ac-
tor accordingto Rumbargerand PoPlawski( 1994):l"- = 0-6I fcrrt the whole DRTRB can be preclictedin tcnnsof hoursas:
= I andn, and)r"= I fbr I =2,tt' - l.
Qu.*.r.,it theequivalentloadfor the samcroller-raccways'lice,
x 106
-Loro.,,,(rrer)
:
L11v,,,.(h'rs) ,nr,:rt t3ol
row and contact,expressedas: 60xN
ttt=2
- for rotatingraceway(the innerring in the presentanalysis):
Lrc.onrn,':tt t',].!|1-"/' t3lt
ltt=\
r2t
/\ : rr,2r,lo
VE.i,rn.t
l rI4\'/n
(1;.,,,,1L!.)n 1231
TRTBOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS (OUASI-DYNAMIC
MODEL)
- for stationaryraceway(theouter ring in the presentanalysis): A fine descriptionol'the interactionsbetweenthe various
rolling bearingelementsis required(i) to evaluatetherisk of con-
t rZn tact failurc (fatigue, scuffing, wear), (ii) to estimate the total
rr I power lossand its sourcelocation,and (iii) to determinethe veloc-
ulll,o,r1,t.:Ln 7r1u,u,,,,LL)'/t,t'4tlt/u l24l
Ju ity of eachbearingelementtaking into accountsomeskidding of
as:
TheL,,,-lif'eof thewholeracewayis determined the cage or skewing of lhe rollers. Of course' thesethree impor-
tant issues alE not independent'Coming back to the primary
Ltr,k,,,:tf ril(:,,,rl t/n I2sl objectives of the study the models presentedbelow are those
requiredto estimatethe magnitudeand the origins of heat gener-
The L,,,- life of a singlerow tapereclroller bearing(SRTRB) is: ation within the bearing.
The heatdissipatedinto the bearinghasthreeorigins:the fric-
l:-0 tion forcesandmoments,the rolling forces,and the churningand
vt t u. ., .r ]
_
- f \- r-glrrl-n/O L26l drag forces (or windage losses).Except for the bearing type and
L/:r"*,tn t
ft=i size which are always intportant,the heat dissipatedby tiiction
by Debognie(1982)the L,,,- life
Using the relationproposecl dcpcndsrnainly on the intemal geometry,operatingconditions
of a DRTRB is given by: (speed, ternpcratureand load ranked in order of importancc)'
lubricationtype (grease, jet oil, rnistor dry lubrication)and lubri-
cant propertiesand quantity; Thc rolling forces acting againstthe
= tI
Lto,pnrnn r;1/,ll-'/o 127) movemenlof rollers depends mostlyon the load level;Finallythe
rrr:l churning or drag forces and moments are directly connectedto the
To accounttbr thc eff'cctsof reliability, material and lubrica- amountof lubricant deliveredby the lubrication system.
tion, adjustmentfactorsmay be appliedto the life of SRTRB.The The significant contributions to the total heat generatedare
adjustedlife becomes: listedbelow dependingon their location:

Lan.s nr nB = atazt Ln.S Rr RB t28l . tiiction forcesbetweenrollers and mceways


where a, is the reliability factor (ar = I for a reliability of 9QVo) . friction forcesand momentbetwecnroller endsand flanges
and q., is a coefticientdependingon the ratio betweenthe oil vis- . friction forces betweenrollers and cagepockets
cosity v. at 40 C and the viscosity v, required for an.adequate . rolling forces acting at the roller-racewayconlacts
lubrication at the operating temperature'The ar. r's, v /v , dia- . lubricant drag forces and moments
grant is given by the bearing manufacturersin their catalogs
(FAG, 1988;SKF, 1989:etc.).An equivalentrelationshipmay be It shouldbe noted that evcn if the bearingis well lubricatecl
obtainedby interpolation: somemelallic interactionsbetweenasperitiesusually occur at the
RolL'r I]eitrings:I'irrt l-:lr4odcl
i\rrllr sis nl'[)ouhlt:-Rou''lrrpercd 23s

/2, ll ,.,., :t cit,.i [32a1


lz* td.L!t txo
CLrlR(tWlY
Yq
-
vq- [TRt/. ,. ,
/
/--\
\ ' I I Ytl ., Tb.'--t'
iorrrN/ /qi g$ yw
CL+ 5i q.*,"' ' - '. lli).,./ l i ' . r 1 . . . r - 'r r ' , , , t 1
I t')*', - l';'"-, I,nbl
[V "''''.x' I/
1
- - " ,- ; \ u'
' l ,^.! whercrtr,is thc irrrtert'ingrotittiottill:pc'ctl.tu,*is thc rollLlfilngtl-
\_/_*0,
------=--.---.<-vtr .r
$i'o' "*o> - lar spcetlabouti{sowtt ;.lxisXr. ut,.is thc clg,ettlgtrlittspcr':t'|. atrd
t'
c(xl t{tw^Y dr dr ., raatn'ag
". .
y- is dctinecli15;-.' ,f',1'"-ars(i)
(a)
-rt- (b)
Thc rollcr-ritccw.ty corltitctlrclr is divitledittlo it nttnrbertt of
sliccs,On each slicc. tltu tclirtivcvclocitytlistritrutionis arssttntetl
unilbnn.
Flg.3-Contactingsurtacevelocityandretativerotationalspeeds.
contacts
(a)roller-raceway Concerning the rollcrcnd - llangccontuct,theresuhingcontact
llangecontact
(b)rollerend-guiding point detbmrsuntlerloittl to lbrm a narrowcllipsc witlr a scrni-
nrajor axis along thc direction of nrotiott.A combinationof
rolling. slidingand spinning()ccttt's ilt lhis contlct. As shown in
rotlcr cnd-f'langedue to telativcly high roughnessfound thcre. Fig. 3(b) thc spin movctllL'rltcottsislsol' an angularspcedto-n
Metal to nretalinteractionstnry alsooccllr ilt the rollcr-ruceway aboutthc X,.axiscontribtrtingttl hoth colnpon!'nts ol'sliding vt:c-
contactat low rotating spec(lor nt ltigh operatingtcmperilturc(or tor AVr., and AVr.,.llong lhc Y, and 2,. -ttxis,tcsl'lcrctivcly. Firr lt
with low viscositylubricarrts) despitcthe bcttcrtluulityol'the j
givcn rollcr ol intlcx thr'scirrlgulalancl lincitrspcctls ltrc dclirlctl
compo$itcsurf'accroughness. lty;
Frictionlbrcesanctmoulelllsdepcrrdon the relativevelocities
throughoutthecontactarca.LocalslidingresultsI'nrma conrbina-
tion ol'slidingalongthe rollingdirectit'rn andspinning.The lbrmer : (u; --a,.)uts| - u,,,..iuts(1- 0)
(.,ror,.j li3al
may be due to cageskidding (i.e. the cagespeedis lowcr thanthe
expectedone duc to the chuming torque) or to inertiaeffectswhen
the roller is entering the loaded zone. Continuous spinningoccurs LVu.t: (,.r;-,.;,.)r7'*.,,.y/i. sia(i - 0l - w",,:1 l33bl
at the roller end-t'langecontactwhilc altemativespinningmay
appearat the rnller-raceway contact when the loller skews. The
mathernaticalprocedureusedto calculatethe friction forccs ttncl L,V.,i : de "!ll l3.lcI
momentsshouldbe last enoughsinceit is perfbrmcdfor eachcon-
tact and at each iteration during the convcrgenceof tlre set of where (yr, zr) rcprcsantslhe curtent point of calculationwith
equationsgoverningthe rollingbcaringbalance. As a complomise respectto the(Xr. Yr. Zr) - tnrnrcantlr' thc tlistanceliom the bear-
betweenaccuracyand efliciency of the computirrgcode the fol- ing axisof thecontactpointbetwcentltc rollcr endandthe flange:
aremade:
lowing assumptions
't' : rrn-
I R'[co's)'sirl1 - s'irt?]
(a) Thc Hertz theory and EHL formulaeare usedto describethe
'Ihe
contactdinrensionsand lubricanttilm thickness. cageangularvelocityof eachrow is updatedal'tereach
(b) The contactpressltredistributionuse<lin the quasi-dynanr- iterationby usingthe rclationprc$cntcdin AppendixC.
ic analysisis assumcclthe sanreas the one resultingliom
the quflsi-stalicequilibrium. Roller Dynamics
(c) Thc lubricationlcgines are assurned to bc EHD (clastohy- Thc tarrgcntiallirtccs itntl tllolllcllls lctittgi ott lt rtlllcr lre
drodynamic)ul the roller - racewaycontacts,PVR (piez-o' lirrccsal tltc rollct'-ruccway'I'ollcr
shownirt Fig.4. 1'hcl'r'iction
viscousrigid) at theguidingllangc- rollerendcontactsand end-tlangeandrollercage colrlilctsincludcthc cll'cctsol'sliding'
IVR (iso-viscous rigid) at thc roller - cagecontacts. rolling andusperityilltcritctions:
(d) In a first step, thc roller skewing Inotion is ignorcd.
Ii.j = Flr,i'.; -l li',.x.j + /1,,,fr..i l34al
Howcvcr, this rcstrictive assumptionhas linle cf'l'ectbotlt
on the tatigue lil'e and on the total heat generation.The FI.j - f,.I.j -l- Ii,,.l..t t34bl
stuclyof roller skew is a complcxtaskand wiil be investi-
I'i,i = F"., ,j 'l l;',,.,'.i 'l' I'\'."j l34cl
gatedseparatelyin the future,

wherc the index a, r ancls relbr to aspcrity.rolling and sliding


Surface Velocities Thc inclext (= i, o) | lnd c
componentof friction, rcspectively.
The roller-raceway contactis dividedinto a nurnberof n slices. refer to ouler,
inner, llunge andcagc, rcspcclively'
A cross-scctionof a roller conespondingto the t-th slice is shown Fach line contactis sliccdinto n elementaryclisks'Thc' axial
in Fig. 3(a). coonlinatcol'caclteletnenraryli'ictionl'olccis givcrtlry:
Sliding velocitiesalong the Y* - axis, AVij and AV.,r' are
det'inedpositive when the tangentialvelocity of the racewayis
l - .l lJ l' li \'.,'/ ,.' \( r )/ 'l . r t l r
greaterthan that of the rollcr: 'E.r
* Jll l?s|
l-'.'I

I/,i.;I
236 l. [Jetct:'r,D. Net.trsn*tr S. Cnt;t'ti

Thc rollcr cr;uilibriurnclesclibcdthrurrghEqs. [374[-l37cl


Yl tll<lwsthe detcrrninationol' the lollowin€lpllamclers:
iffir&

.: . nornlrl lbrcc Q" betweentlre roller anclthe cagcpocket.Eq,


-l'i
:
r?f-:_ 137a1
kr- -;"
I . axial stxrrclinatc tlre pressurecenterof tlre fl'ic-
c""clescribirrg
_ 1,"* ll Ll'l' -,
Xw

,;\:-'ii,;_'i tion lbrce belweenthc rollor and thc cagc pockct F., Eq.
1 [37b],
. roller rotationalspeedor*, Eq. [37c]

fz*
of FrictionForcesand Moments
Description
(b)
Thc forccs and nlonrentsof friction that act on each bearing
componenlarc prcscntcdbelow.
Sliding traction forces and spinning Inoment: the sliding
tractiorl tbrces cluc t.o lubricnnt shcaring are calculatcd by inte-
grating the shearslresswithin the contact.Figure 5 shows lhe
lubricantthrougha roller-tlangeidealizetlcontact.To calculatethe
Xw
tractionforceF*.,.,and spinningmomentM.,r.*,the contactareais
discretizcdin rcctangularelements,as shownin Pig. 5-

F",r,u: |3 8 1
.[ Io,""uo,
(c)
t l
A ' 1- " J , " .I: I ( r p . l t f - r r y ' 2 1 ) < l A 7 i39l
Fig.4-lsnn"nttal torcesandmomentsactingon a loadedroller. .t .t;t,
(a)plane(Yw,Zw)
(b) plane(Xw,Zw) A f'astcornputersolulion asdevelopedand appliedto ball bear-
(c) plane(xw,Yw) ings by Houpe* (2 I ) and then usedby Cretu, et al. (3) to tapered
roller bearingsis also appliedto determinethe distributionsof the
shearstresscomponentsin DRTRB.
where f.,,., is the friction force per length unit that actson the t-th The rheological behavior of the lubricant is describedusing
sliceof the conjunctionk. Johnson and Tevaarwerk's non-linear viscoelastic model (26)
The roller diarnerercorrespondingto the axial coonlinatec" is: which relatesthe strain rate and shearstressby the equation:
DxJ=D,,-2ci,;tan(e) t36l
. ltlr
From Fig. 4, the quasidynamicequilibriumof roller relieson '- + k sinh(L) t+ol
Gdt ,l to

the lollowing vectorequations:

. Sutrrot'F'orccsalong tlre Y* - Roller A.ris where11is the lubricantviscosity,G is the lubricantshearmodu-


lus andt,, is the Eyring characteristicshearstress.
4,",' I'i.j + /j1,.,+ /'),.i..i* I'\,.,,.i+ |j'i * Q,'.i The cennal film thicknessthat appearsin the shearstrain rates
= 0 "y = AVr/rr is calculatcd with the fomrula given by Hanrrockand
sino,..jr:ns€ * fl.r:o.srr,..i+ fi [37a]
Dowson (16) for the piezoviscousrigid (PVR) - lubrication
where the index h and d refer to the effect of hydrodynamicpres- regime. The methodologymentionedabove is also applied to
sureand lubricantdrag,respectively. roller-racewaycontacts:sliding and Iubricantf'low occur alongthe
Y*-rolling direction and the lubrication regirne is assumedto be
. Sum of Momcilts ahout the Zro- Rollar Aris piezoviscouselastic (PVE or EHD). At theseconjunctionsthe
central fihn thicknessh,.ois given by Dowson's formula (8).
lA4"*: fi..ici,,+ L:".it:i,.t
* I'1,.i.ictj.i.i* Rolling resistance forces: the rolling resistanceforce comes
F'nr,,iei1,o.5
* I'at:i t Q sbttt,,iei; from (i) the offset of the cenuoid of the EHL pressuredistribution
"t:ose
from the geometric contact center, (ii) the resultantof the EHL
*Fr..icoscrr';c|,y*F",y;[cos('y-d)-cos,\]:0 [37b1 pressuredistribution along the tangentialaxis, and (iii) the lubri-
cant shearingin the inlet zone. At the contact betweenthe roller
. Suntof Montentsahout the X* - Roller ,Lris end and the flange the rolling resistanceforce may be neglected
since it is lightly loaded.Concemingthe roller-racewaycontacts,
! A'l,.,: l(Fi,,iDi,i + Fn.jDo.j+ 4,.iD";)+ the expressionof thc rolling resistanceforce is due to Zhou and
- 0)+ tr!,1= t".d* t
F*.1.iR"sil\1- 0) * r1,l-.y,ico.s(f t37cl Hoeprich (42):
lirpeled Rollul llcarings:Plrt l--"Modcl
Anllysis rrl'L)txrbk-Rorr'

h) thc prcscntstudy thc ltrbricationrtginrc tor this lightly


lxt loitdcdr:otttitctis itssrurttrclto hc isoviscottsrigid (lVR). The film
ayrt
r I l L7u
I tlrickncssis given by thc lclltiort cstlhlishctlby Mrrrtin('it?).The
vnrF Il u' as
sliding antl rtrllittglcsistltttccltrtcr,lsll.. itnd lir.. r'"-spcctivcly,
t -..*-=--! - :]--z
Yr
.
br' M.;,
I rr, rwry
tr-...-
usctlin tit1.ll.lcl urc dclcrntirtctlitcconlirtgto lhe rttotlclpt4rosed
ttt
corllltcls
lotcc tlLtcto as;:rct'ily
,.i-,jlr- l ,
'-.
' , '

\i/
l r t
-
r )
Yr
lry Iltruperttl.l). lrinlllv llto lt'itctirrrt
vmlkrd Xt
(F.,.)is cirlculirtcdwith 14. [4]1.
l,ubricanl clrag force irnd monlenl: tlulirrgbelrillg l'()lilli()n.
(a) (b)
drlrg lirrcctluc to tltc transla-
cachnlllcr is sulrjcctt'rllo it visc'otts
tion o[ thc rollcr throughil gilscousrrlixlurc.Thc uxprcssion ol'this,
lirrce wttsploposcdhy Hlrris lntl Mindlrl {lOJ and theu trscdby
Fig.$-Typical lubrlcantllow throughthe rollerend'tlengeconiunctlon'
(a)plane(X' Yr) et al. (.i(r):
Rurrrhargcr.
(b) plane(Yr,Zr)
fl, : /),,,I (./),,,c,',.)?C,1 l44l
irr,,,
whcK:p,,,is thc lubriclnt-gusntixttttctlcnsity{6t,,, = p,,.,x Oil vol-
umcflbtll voluntr). D,,,is tltc rrllcr ttlclttttliitntcterlrndC,ris thc
?o9 | -" ,"t ll,^.
: rtlag cocliicient(connecle(lwilh lulrricurttl)ropcrtiesirnd rollel
- ( Y"'"r (t
F-r^. l r; ! - or,u1c-u^*)()'(i481.1r*tt l4l I
dinrcnsions).
'Ihc
valueol'thc dlitg cocl'licit'ntC,,.tatrulltctlits it lttnt:tiortol'
whcrc t is the sliceindex:G.. U* atrdW* ilre thc non-dimcnsional thc Reynolclsttutttbcr(/3,),cirnlrc cxprcsscdas:
pal'ameters ol' materiill. speedand load. respectively:R is tlte
equivalentradiusof curvlture in thc rolling direction,crnis the f i t 7 l ) l ( i 1 ? r ' ' 1 . 3 : 1 8 8 4 . i r ll 3
pressure-viscosity coeffrcicntancl<D.,.
is the thennal reductionfac- (-,1: Ll(i42- -}:::+ ' -+=-- t45l
ttr"rrr(,llc') JN' Ilr
tor proposed by Murch ancl Witson(J/)'
Traction forces due to asperity contacts: when the bcaring I'loweverit shouldbc notcdth.rl at r()liltiollalspcctlsusctlirt
operatesat low value of A (lambdaparameter,A = h,,r/o).the trac- this stutly (lessthan ?.500rpm) the lubricantdrag lirrce is snlall
conrparedto othgrresistance lorcesin the hcaring.
tion force due to asperity-to-asperitycontactscan be a significant
part of the total forces Fu {k = i,o,f). According to Zhou and Evcntuallythe rollertlragrltomentM. thatactson a plitnctrot-
et al. t1973).
mal to the rollet axis is given by Rtrrnbargcr.
Hoeprich (42) the ratio of asperity contact load to total load
appliedis an exponentialfunctionof A:
HEAT GENERATION
The contributionofcach frictionlorce(rollerdrag,tractioncluc
: enp(-CrA(*) t42l to lubricant shcaringand to asperity-to-il\peritycontacts)arld
W resistancemoment(torquedue to fclling rcsislanceantl the tan-
genlialpressureforce) to thc toral heat dissipatetlis straighttbr'-
wherethe consrants C, andC" canbe determincdby intcrpolating warclknowingthc intclnalkinetttuticsof the bearing.
lhe correspondingcurve of the surfaceprotiles usingEq. [421.The
tiiction coefficientp., due to thc contacrbetweenasperitiesis Heat Generation at the RacewaYs
expresscd from adhesionthcoryof tnetalsasa fultclionof'theclit- At tlrc inrtcr'-(tr'outcr-rilccwlty lo tltc
colrtilcllltc uorrlritrtrtion
ical shearstrcssat thc interlirccS,,,theyield stressofthc steclbulk totalhcat tlissipatcd is givcn hY:
P,,(for rnoststeelsS/P.'= 0'2) and the surfhcctilm corrstant<D.'
k = i. o itntlrn = 1.2l4(rl
", otr.,;i"i.,;ltl';,',lr'1.1v),,,lt,itlti'
I[(i1,.,,,
that dependson the lubricantadditives(undernormal opcrating
conditions,@c- 1.0).with thesespecifications the tractiontbrce -
whercAV*,,is thc slitlingveltrcityat the rollcr indttxj rollerracc-
Foobecomes way contact(indcx k=i for innerand k=o lor outer-r'ilcewily coll-
tact),correspon(lingto the t-th rollcr slicc'
t b (
Fup = popQon: =f - Ctlt"'1 t43l
Qre,t:|t( Heat Generation at the Flanges
The total heattluc to liiclion hetwecnthc guidingflarrgclace
Equation[43] is appliedboth to roller cnd-flangecontactand as:
anclthe t'ollercntl is clel'ined
to eachslice of the roller-Iacewaycontacts.
Roller-cagepocket friction force: in many works, the friction . duc to lutrricantshc'aring
cocfficient ol the roller-cage pocket assembly is not conelated
with theoperatingconditionsin termsof load,speedand lubricant r/4'l
l l ( J"1,,,= t; .l',1'l .l' J',r,.,
1(rrr i L'v'vu.1r r1.lA V1".;.)r1"1,1,;
1,,,
properties.Thus, Rurnbarger, et al' {.16)assumcdvaluesequalor
less tlran 0.10 while Gupta (14), (.f.ii useclvaluesin the range
| ,I .l',i:'
\!t,r,nt.,),,,,t, I47l
(0.05-0.30)for thc Couklmb'stypeliiction coefficient.
238 rNr: S. CnE'ru
I. Bnncr.n,D. Ntit".tirs

. due to asperity contacts REFEHENCES


. . ( 1 9 7 1 ) , " l . o n d I ) i s t r i h u t i o ni n a f l l : r
/ / ) A n < l r t a s o nS Rollct llcarittg
r\rrlngcnrcntCrnridering Misalignnrclrt"'Tiih - 6. ll. pp li4-92'
I l'zn /2) Crccclius.W. J. ( 1978)."Rt:scarchl{c1xn liscr's Mlnual lbr SK[; Conrputcr
HGoI,n: F6iLV1',i(o)l,,rl'tit t48l PrograrrSllAlllil{ftl krr lhc Stcady-Statc itlrdTrilnsicnlTltt'nnalAnalystsol'
; J, Sluft flcaring System hlcluding Brll Cl'lindrical and Trprcd Rollcr
For row of index m, the contributionof the guiding Bcarings."SKF Rcpon No' Al,??P015.dcvclopcdunrlcrU.S. Anny CoDtrrct
DAAI)05.
endcontacts
flange/roller is:
to thetotalheatdissipated (.1) Crctu. S., Bcrcca.l. and Mitu. N. (1995), "A l)yrranricAnall'sisof Tapcrcd
Rollcr tlcaring Llnrlcr liully Floodcd Conditions: P.lrt l- Thcorclical
Fomulali<1t,"Waa. lt8. l-2. Pp l-10.

HG^. - IIG"fnr I HCu|n, l49l


(4t Dal]milr.C.,'Icssicr.J. l'. and Dudnrgru'(i. (l9ltl), "Friction lmproverllentin
Cycloidal Molion (lonllcts: Rib-Rollcf End Contact in Titpcrud Roller
'i
Bcarings," it Pttx'. of rhc /lt l.cecl*L,'on.l'vtrrP. dil Trilt, I'tctls' F'ngland'
Heat Generation at the Cage Pockets l9ta0.Dowson.D, et al.. e(1..Bulleruorths.pp 17.5-18-5.
l,t) De Mul..1. M., Vrcc, J. M. and Mass. D' A. (1989a)."Equilibriurn and
Theheatgenerated bctwccncageandrollersis cal-
at contacts Associalcd Loatl Distribution in Ball antl Rollcr llcarings Loadcd in Five
culatedfrornft. [50]: Dcgrccs cf Frcedonr While Ncglcctirtg Friction-Part l: Ccncrul Thcory nnd
Appficariurl(l tlall lterrings,"A,iME,lour.ofT'rih..lll. l. pp 142-148'
(/r) l)c Mul, J. M., Vrtc. J. M. and Mnss, D. A. (l9tl9b)"'Equilibrium and
I fzT 1l Associatcd Losd Distribution irt Bull and Rollcr Bcatings Loadcd in Five
HG-.: +
2tr
I I' I (F,,11LV,,i)dnl,sltlt I50l Degrcesof FrcedonrWhile NcglectingFriction-Panll: APPlicilliorrlo Rollcr
Bearingsln<lExpcrimentllVcrilication."A'SMl').lour.oJTtib'lll. l.ppt49-
Jo .ltt
| 55.
(7) Debognie.J. F. ( l9lt2), "Calcul cl choix du serragcd'une pairc dc roulentcntsir
were AV",. is the sliding velocitybetwccnthe roller and,thecage contact oblique," R evre M iuniqu c. 2a. 3' pp I 7 l - I 82.
(8) Dowson, D. arul'foyoda, S. (1979). "A Central Film ThicknessFormula lbr
pocket co'nespondingto the t-th roller slice (AV'r'r : ryJ). EfnstohydrodynamicLine Conracts"' in Prot' of tha Sthlteds-L.ton S.trnp on
T'ih.. L(cls, Engktnl. |978, Dowson, D. el al.. ed., Butterwonhs, Pp 60-6'5'
(9) FA(i Srandnnl Pntgnuuna Cutalogue (l98li), WL 42510/2EA' FAC
BearingHeatGeneration
Kugell'ischerCcorg SchaefcrKGaA. Schwcinl'un' Cennany.
The totat heat dissipatedwithin the whole double-row tapered (/0) Gadrllah, N. an<lDahnaz, C. (1984)' "Hydrodynamic Luhrication of lhe Rih-
Rollcr End Conlact of a Taprcd Roller Belring," ^.!'.Mli Jour. o! Ii'ib ' 106,2'
roller bearing is obtained by summing all contribution above-
p1t265-274.
mentioned. /,f,f) Gassel,S. S. and Pirvics. J. (1980), "Loud Support Systm Andysis-Fligh SPed
lnpul Pinion Configuration," zlSMf Jour. of Lubr.'l'ct'h.' 102. pp 97-106'
(/2) Gupra, P, K. ( 1984),ndrarul Dllnamit: of Rttlling EleilEnts, SPringer-Verlag'
?
New York.
HG nnt'np= | * HG1,, + IIC,,,,)
tltcr,,, + hLG,,,,, t5l] (/J) Gupra.P K. (19S9),"On the Dynarnicsof a Tapred Rollcr Bcuring"'ASMI
,!=l
Jour. ofTi'ib., lll,2. pp 2'ltl-2t17.
Roller
CONCLUSION l,f4) Ciupta, P. K. (1990), "On tbe Frictionnl lnslabililies in a Cylindrical
Bearing."fiib. n?ls., 33. 3. Pp 39.5-401.
An analyticalmodel describingthe dynamic behaviorof a (/5) Gupta, P K. ( I 99 | ), "Cagc Unbalanccand Wear in Roller Bcarings," Wrur, 147'

lubricateddouble-row taperedroller bearing has bccn presented. | , p p 1 0 5 - l1 8 .


the
116) Hamruck, B. J. and Dowson, D ll98l), Ball Beariils Lilhrintion
The model includesthe contributionsof the various interactions Elaskrlrydtrx|ln(nir of Eltiptical Conroct.r.John Wiley & Sons' Ncw York'
within the bearing such as cage pocket-roller contact or (/7) Hnris.T. A. (1966),"An AnalyticalMcthod to PrcdictSkiddingin High Sped
Cylindrictf Rolfer tlearings," 11SLt Tiuns . 9, pp 229-241.
loller-lubricantdrag. The knowledgeof the internalkinematics
(/8) Harris,'t'. A. (19?l). "An Andlytical Mclhrxl to l'rcdict Skidding in Thrusl-
and normal and tangentialtbrces distribution allows tlne to fore- LoarfcdAngular Contacl llall ttearings." A.!M,l! Jttu. of l,ti>r' Tr<'/t' 9'j' | , pp
cast cither the bearinglife or the power loss for this type of bear- .12-2[i.

ing, dependingstronglyon thechoiceof the initial axial compres- f /9) HariN. T. A. (?ff)l ), Ro//i[.q Bcarrlt.qrlnalt'sru.4th Erj . Jolrn Wilcy & Sons,Ncw
Yorli.
sion (or preload).Such a model could be useful for advanced (?0) Hiris, T. A. {n(l Mindel. M H. ( 1973)."Rolling Elcmert BcaringDynamics"'
applicationsinvolving DRTRB (helicopterand automotivegear' 2J. pp 3l l-3.37.
!'lzc<rr.

boxes,machinetools, . . .). The modelmay bc usedfor exampleto f2ll Houpert,L. (1985,) "filst Nunrcricrl Calculationsof EHD Sliding'Iruction
Forces;Appficatiorr to Rolling Bcarings"' ASME Jour. of Trih ' lf7, pp 234-
optimize the bearing internal geometry.The model presentedfor 24!J.
single and double-row tapered roller bearings can be easily {22) Houpcrt.L. (l9tl7). "Piczovisous-RigidRolling and Sliding
Trrclion Forces'
Applicirtion: The Rolling Elcment'CagePockel Contuct," A SMEJour' ofTrih"
extendcdto multi-row taperedroller bearings(nr > 2), or to other
109. 2, pp 3(13-371.
typesof bearing(DGBB, ACBB, SRB, etc.). {2.1} Houpert. L. (1997), "A Unifomr Analylical Approac} lbr Ball
and Roller
For clarity in the presentationan example of applicationwith BeuringsCrlculations," ASMEJour. of TrrD., 119,4' pp 8'5l
-851i'
(24) Jones,A. B. ( 1959)."Btll Motion and Sliding Friction in Ball Beuings"' zlSMl
some typical and significant resultsis given in the secondpart of
lonr. of Basit Engineering,Sl,pp l-12.
the paper(N6liaset al', 2003). (?5) Jones,A. B. (1960), "A Generd Theory for Elastically ConstrainedBall and
Radial Roller Bearings Un<terArbitrary tnad and SP€edCondilions"'ASME
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Jour. of lJasit Engineelir3, 82. pp 309'320.
(26.1Jotuison, K. L. and Tevaarwerk, J. L. (19??), "Shcar Behaviour of EHD Oil
The authorswould to thank Dr' W J' Crecelius for making
Fif n:s," in Proc. /to; Sot:. (I.ontlon)., Su i es A. 356' pp 2 | 5-236'
constructive colnments and uselul observations that greatly (27)Lirt.J.Y. (1976)."AnalysisofTapercdRoller BcaringConsidcringHigh Speed
improve the formulation presentedin this work. and ConrbinedLoading," ASMC Jour' of ltilr.Teth.,98' 4' pp 564-574'
'fitpe
Analysisol'[)oublc-Rorv ltrl llollcr f+Lrilrings:
Purtl-Model 239

tJSi L,undhrs. G. and I'rlntgrcn. A, (lo.l7). "Dyrtultic ('ilpncil)' of l{ollins whcrc: Ai = sin t
Rcrrings." iltkt Ptll't<thni<'tt, Mc<'hctttit'<tllia.llnrtirri s(rirJ l. l{oyill
Bi = -c'os €
SrvcdishAcathmy ol'LnginceringScicnccs.StockltoltrlSucrltn). 3. p 7.
1.?9)l.untlherg.G. rnd Palnrgrcn. A. 119.52). "Dlnrnric Capacitl'ol Rollt'r[i'lrings"' C, = p," sin t: - x cos r:
ia,gScri('.r.1.Ro)'rl Sscrlislt Acirlcrny
,1rtu Pilttu hui<ct,lrl<t'hunicollin;.1itu'tT I);.u,= l),, co$ f + x sin [ - rr,rcos [3 - e.. sin [t
ol LnginecringScicttccs.Stochholnr(Srvctlcn)..1. p 9(r.
* lr+ir.u,(:os1lr+ f*,r.,,,sill qr I cos [t * r'*,.,,,,sirr
[l
r.10,Mnrtin. tl. M. ( l9l6). "]'hc l,ubricuionof (icar'll'cth." Lirgl&t'ritl.q(Lottdon)'
1 0 2 . r ) ol l 9 - 1 2 1 .
(-i/) Nlurch,1,. E. ilnd Wilstrr. W. R. l). (197.5)."AThcmul Ehstohyrirodynlmic . Roller-outerrrcewayc()ntacl:
Inlct ZoneAmlysis;' LSlvlE,lour. of Luhr.'l'cch..97. F. pp ltl5-l ltl.
'liltrcd
{.J?l Nilias. D.. Bcrccr, t. .lDd Mitu, N. (2{X.13)."Analysis ol' l)onblc-ltow
Roller llearings. Pun ll - Rcsults; Prcdiction ul'Fati.lue- l.ifc and Hcat dr(.r, q1'): .{..u4.,} rt"l},, * 9,,(i,, + [),, lAsl
Dissipation." 7ir[. ?'rrztr. in prr'ss.
{.i.1) NClins, D.. Seabm. J.. Iilanrund. l-. rnrl l)alnraz. (i. (lt)944), "I'owcr [r)ss where: Ao = sitt t
Pretliction in High-Spcri Rollcr Bcarings." ia Proc. o! thc 2dtt l-ectls'Lyxt
Svnp. on
'lrib.,
Lyon (France). 1991. l)owson. D. cl il|. e(i.. Elsevicr, B" = ct-lsI
Anrsterdilrn.'li'ibolo1i,"stin. 27. pp.165-471.|. Cn=-p,"sillt+xcost
(.14)Nilias. D.. S{iusot. P. md Flstnand.L. (1994b). " Porvt'l Loss ot Gcarbox Bnll
D,, = 0* cos t + x sin s + rrr cos G + e,v sin cI
Bcaring UnclcrAxial rud Rildiill l.ouds," 7]'iD. ?i'lrrr.. J7. I, pp tl3-90.
- [r*.,, cos rp + r*.," sin q, I cos c - r*,)*sirl cl
(-15) RuDbrrger.J. Il. and Poplawski.J. V. (199'l). "Concltting Compulcrizcd
Rolling Bcaring Analysir Tcchniquesto thc ISO Standlrrlson Load Rltirrg ;tnd
Lil'c.- fiilt. ?itars., 37. 4. pp 79il-80l.
F4uations[A4l and l45] cun hc rcwrittcnils it linciu'titnclion
(.16)Runrbargcr. J. tl., trilctti.U. (i. aml (iuhcutick.D. (1973)."(;ils'fnrbinc Enginc
Mainslraft Rollcr Beiuing-SystcntAnillysis." A.l?Ili Jour. <l'l.uhr.??c/r.. 95. 3. c,fthe rolleraxialco-oKlitriltex:
pp 401-416.
(.17)Sjovall.H. ( | 931),"t clilstiliilgsti)r{lclnirlgcn
intll Kul-ocltRulhgcr vkl Civtlt
rI;.,,(:r:.q,r)- .l';.,,I t:t1;.,, I A6l
Ynre Radial-ochAxixlbclastningar." ("Tltc Lond Distributkx wilhin B.tll nlld
Roller Bcaringsundcr Givcn Ertemill Rildiill and'l'hrusl L.url").Ii'Oti.t*
Til/r*rry', Mckanik, Sept.,9. . Rollerend-llangecontact:
(lt)) SKF Gcnerul Carrrld.qre( 1989)..10008.A. B. SKF, Cothenburg.Swodon.
(J9) Wang, W.. Wong, P. L. and 7,hang,Z. (1996), -Pilrliill EHL Amlysir of llib
Roller End Contflct in Tapcrcd Rollcr Bearings." Tlib. 1nt.,29. 4. pp 3 l.1-32l. 6y.",Ut): &*A1* u,"[]1 *,prCy't D1.,u lATl
(40) 7lr^r'9,2.. Qiu, X. ord Hong. Y. (1988), "EHL Analysis ol Rib'Roller End
Contilct in TnperedRoltcr Bearing," 71'ih.Tuu.31,4, pp 461-467.
where: Ar = cos(Y-$)
14l) Wang,S., Cusuoo,C. dnd Conry,T F, ( 1993),"A Dynanric Model ofthe Totquc
and Heal-CencriltionRatc in'fapced Roller-BearingsUrrdcrExccssivcSlitling Bi = -sin(T'O)
Conditions." liilr. Iivz.r.. 36, 4, pp 5 t3-524. Cr'= -r*r" sin(1-0)+ r*iz cos(Y-O)
(42)Zhov. R, S. and Htrprich. M. R. (1991),'Toquc of ThFred Roller-Bearings,"
Dr,' = -r*ri cos(Y-0)- rwrzsin(Y-O) + L' '\in(tl)-
ASMli .tour. ol'l't'ih.. ll-7.3. pp 590-597.
cwcos 0 - ff*rirn cosl.p+ r*tirr sill lrl sin (l + ri',,*.,,,
cos{)

APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
Formulation of the elastic deflection at the different roller-
for ContactForcesand Moments
Expressions
raceway contacts(i,e., 6,, Eo and 0,. at the roller-inner raceway,
rol ler--outerraceway,and roller end-guiding tlange,resPectively).
I(i.,,9,," r r l ) / ! ) r=r
The unit vectorsnk normalto thecontactingsurfaces(with k = Qi,,t :
-
* [ ( " l r : , "t x : ' 1 1 , . " , Jo
gi.o Li)
i,o for the roller-inner racewayand roller-{uter racewaycontacts,
and k=f for the roller end-guidingflangecontact)arc given by: Iii.,, I
. ' . ! . . - t ( ),. " r , r l t t / ! l _ . o. .. \ /
I9l1,.
't' t 't'
I tBtl
!;'u lqt
di,r,, : - ft)sp t;i,rul)t t:os{}uts (t} I lAtl
{*.sin,p,
',': {':;,i',,rli*t1,.,,
)/i,.,,,1... . r { . ',
r.r 'r,.,,)" 'r,r, r ,
1,,,,, rr,r./
1t,.,. n,.,,)"'''ll,l
,,
fru'o : - cosft $it txh uts( t) utsltl'l' tA2l
{*s'ino, 1
g!t'-(.i'':rE/e --i)',.tt'/t')lll2l
-- 'J8,J1,,''"' -,i.'t.tn/')-"lir:,''I'''tt:".:u/u
'
fi.1,,n: sirficon!, - si,n0sinlt}1' tA3l lsq;.,, "r'
{!cos7,
where the sign "+" refers to row | (m =l) and the sign "-" refers at small
where dl'], ana r{l representthe contilcl tlefbrmations
to row 2 (m = 2). and largerollerend,respectively.
Substinrting with [Al]-
Eqs.tl0l, tl ll, Il5l, and [6] together
[A3] into Eqs.[17a]and il7bl oneobtainsthe tbllowingrelations APPENDIXC
to expressthe elastic delbrmationsat the diff€rent Hefizian con-
Cage RotalionalSpeed
tacts:
equilibrirtm
of dynanric
Whileaniteration rowis
of a bearing
. Roller-innerraccwaycontact: performed,a ncw cagc angularvelocitya.r(.is obtainediN related
to the roller angularvelocitiesor,,1.
6;.-(t,lt) : u.tAi * u,"Bi t ?oCt * D1.n,, l44l ttnt.(e\..1 fzn
e ) , , r , r : (' l - : : : : i / ) ( - / u , , . . 1 , , , t 1 or r)t,= 1 , 2 t c l l
tut(1)'"2r .Jo

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