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MILITARY ENTHUSIAST
Enthus,asr
Magazine is published by Eshel G.m.b.H., P.O.B. 900 129'
5000 Cologne 90, West GermanY, and distributed world-wide. Contents
O 1983 by Eshel
Dramit Ltd.

Publisher and Editor-in{hief : Lt. Colonel D. Eshel, retd.


Editorial Board: Lt. Colonel D. Eshel, retd.
Lt. Colonel P. Frhr. v. Malapert-Neufville, retd.
Defence Correspondents: USA - Colonel Stanley M. Ulanoff, USAR
UK - Bryan Perrett
NATO - Lt. Colonel Peter Frhr. v. Malapert-Neufville, retd.
Israel - Lt. Colonel Eli Ayal, IAF, retd,
Regular Contributors: Salvador Mafe Huertas (Spain)
c.F.C. McKay (U.K.)
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IN THIS ISSUE

We open this issue with an update on lsrael's new fighter, the


LAVI. lsrael Aircraft lndustries and the lsrael Defence Minis-
try took a major decision last year authorising the program's
go-ahead. The Lavi, which will flv in 1986, will take a large
chunk of the country's defence budget, causing considerable
controversy. There is no doubt that the Lavi will bring a new
dimension to the IAF and the whole of lsraeli industry. At the
moment, new research and engineering have improved lAl's
current fighter, the Kfir, a new model of which, the C7, is also
described here. Lawrence D. Rifkin gives the details of these
new fighters (page ). #'*n"'
On page 10 we continue The Dumbusters story. Researched
from both sides, British and German, this new account of the
famous raid, presented by David Eshel, brings new light to the
story, in a minute-by-minute countdown to the raid'
Concluding the three-part AIF combat series on the Falk-
lands/Malvinas war, S. Mafe Huertas tells the story of the raid
on Pleasant Bay, in which the FAA succeeded in hitting the Cover: Retuming to the doms, Jaguar from Bruggen bssed No'
British landing force at Bluff Cove. Also presented is the com- 3l Sqn passing low over the Eder dam.
plete list of FAA aircraft shot down during the fighting, and
where information is available, the cause of the downins (page CONTENT
22\. Lavi and Kfir C7
Two illustrated reports are also presented, R.H. Brooks' NewlsraelifightersfromlAl ....'page4
COLOUR CENTERSPREAD describing the 1983 AIRTATOO The Dambusters
(page 18) , celebrated at Greenham Common in July, and Barry Second part, new details on the famous raid page 10
Elson's report on RAF Regiment exercising in Germany this lnternational AIR TATOO Page 18
past spring (page 26). COMBAT
Concluding this issue is Maj. P. Francis' account of the his- Third part of the Argentine FAA pilots' stories . . . . page 22

tory of air combat, from I914 to the present time. Mai. Fran- RAF Regiment
cis analyses future scenarios of air combat and the various Cyprus-based units tralning in Germany ... page26
scales of deployment of air power in possible f uture conf licts. Full Circle
FULL Cl RCLE, Page 29. Air combat and air power, yesterday and tomorrow . page 29

Nostalgia this rnonth is dedicated to the BRISTOL SCOUT Nostalgia


C WWI fighter. BristolSCoUTC .. .... Page37
We hope you enjoy this issue. MILITARY ENTUSIAST
The Editor Readers'cornerandbookclub ..... page38

ATTENTION!
On the occasion of the ten year anniversary of the - Strategic aspects of the Yom Kippur War: day-by-
Yom Kippur War, October 1973 - 1983, DEFENCE day chronology.
UPDATE presents a complete issue dedicated to The issue is illustrated with maps and photos, many
aspects of the war. of them new.
Including: Do not miss your copy.
- Battalion Commander on the Golan front. Send $4.95 (f,2.00) for surface mail,
- The first counterattack in Sinai - a detailed study. $5.95 (f,2.50) for airmail
- The air war in perspective. to Eshel Dramit Ltd., P.O.B. 115,45100, Hod Hasha-
- Capture of the Hermon - Golani Infantry ron. Israel.

Military Enthusiast 30
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Klir C7 with bombs ancl Juel tanks, taxies Jbr takeoff at a trcw IAF base itt the iVegev

Lavi and Kfir C-7


lsraels new fighters
Israel Aircraft Industries is now developing a new- The Lavi, which will have a swept delta/canard
generation combat aircraft for the 1990s. It r.vill be configuration, will be powered by a single 20,620lb.
designed for short- to medium-range air-to-ground (wet) thrust Pratt & Whitney I 120 jet engir,e f'ed
missions while incorporating air-to-air combat capabi- through a ventral intake. The manufacturers say its
lities. This plane, which will become the workhorse ol performance will be top rate. Its maximum speed will
the Israel Air Force, will be called the "Lavi". be Mach 1.85, and it will have low altitude penetra-
The Lavi, whose name means "Young Lion" in tion speeds of up to 600 kt. It is expected to have a
Hebrew, will be a natural step upward from IAI's pre- very high sustained tlrm rate. The Lavi will have a
sent production aircraft, the Kfir (in more ways than maximum takeoff weight of 37,500 lb. and will be
one, as "Kfir" means "Lion Cub"). The Kfir, now able to carry Lrp to 6,000 lb. of ordnance in addition
being produced in the C7 version (see box), was IAI's to its two IR air-to-air missiles.
first production jet fighter. The general design was two IR air-to-air missiles.
based on the French Mirage 5, but alter a relatively The Lavi will be structurally stressed for 99 (as
short development period through several models, the compared to the Kfir's 79 abilities). The aircraft will
Kfir emerged very much an original aircrafl. This gave include many components made of graphite epoxy
IAI designers the expertise and experience, never composite materials, including parts of the wings, ver-
mind the confidence, to embark upon a totally new tical stabilizer, the all-moving canards, control sur-
design concept based on nothing else already in exist- faces and various doors and panels.
ence. In short, the Lavi lvill be a small, relatively low- The Lavi's avionics will be of the "home grown"
cost/high-technology fighter, which aside from form- variety. Elta Electronics Industries Ltd., a subsidiary
ing the backbone of the IAF, should have wide over- of IAI, will be prime contractor f or the aircraft's EW/
seas marketing potential. ECM systems. These systems will permit rapid threat
4 Military Enthusiast 30
identification and autonratic flexible response, using
jamming and deception techniques and other EW
resources. A new Elta multi-mode radar will be
fitted, giving the Lavi reliable look-down capabilities
over a broad band of frequencies, as well as high-
resolution mapping. The fighter will also be equipped
with a digital fly-by-wire control system affording it
"relaxed stability" manoeuvring, and a wide-angle
HUD for pilot perlormance. lt

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The Lavi avionics systems will be built around a main (two black/white and one colour). capable of displaying
mission computer which will coordinate the various any information requested by the pilot and available on
devices in harmony. The various computerized systems, the aircraft (such as weapons availability, engine para-
connected by multiplex bus, will interact among them- meters, radar, EW warning signals. navigation and loca-
selves and with the pilot. Feeding f rom the outside data, tion, communications, etc. The most vital information
inertial sensors (internally installed INS - lnertial Navi- such as navigation, target cues and radar. with the most
gation System) will be the primary sensors for flight important flight data, will also be displayed on the HUD
navigation and control. The INS will be augmented by in the pilot's Iine of sight. The HUD will probably be of
the pulse doppler, lookdowncapable AA/AG radar Hu ghes/Marconi wide-f ield-of-view design.
which will allow sharp ground mapping together with all Another innovation in the Lavi will be synthetic voice
other modes. ln fact, the radar will be capable of excep- messages. These will be generated by a special voice syn-
tionally high performance, as it will be programmable thesizer with a limited vocabulary which will further
for new modes as they are developed, through software extend the pilot's information input capability during
rather than hardware changes, thanks to the PSP (Pro- combat conditions, while his uninterrupted attention
grammable Signal Processor) wh ich is bu ilt into the must be given to the target.
radar. lt is to be built with Westinghouse participation, Other systems will be automatically operated, such as
for which the US company has already started studies. the EW system which will be installed internally. ltwill
The various systems will feed the pilot with valuable be highly sophisticated, locally developed, with a few
data needed for the flight. Due to the demanding task imported components (lTT). The system will have a fast
of carrying out sharp evasive manoeuvres in low-level response to electronic threats in real time with a jamming
f light over well-defended targets, no time can be wasted system controlled by a power management computer for
on reading the conventional displays and gauges which mu lti-th reat situations.
are a traditional part of all existing aircraft. The Lavi, The entire fl ight control will be performed through
like many of the new generation aircraft. will have an a computerized "fly-by-wire" system which will auto-
advanced cockpit with three headdown CRT displays matically control the aircraft accord ing to the pilot's
command.

Military Enthusiast 30 5
KJir TC -2 two-seaterversionoJ'theKfirC2. The Lat,i tvill also be det,eloped in a two-seater versiort, ofwhich 60 t'vill pro'
babty be protluced. Tlte simulator, wl'tich is qvailable toda1, Jor tlrc Kfir (below right)will probably be ttptlatecl Jbr the I'avi-
Tltis is a mockup of the Kfir C7 cockpit os seen at Paris Airslrcv'.

As the Lavi will have relaxed static stability, which


means that the aircraft will hardly be flyable if an FBW
malfunction occurs, the system will have only analogue
backup (also computerized) to the digital system, but no
mechanical backup, as this would be of no use with the
pilot unable to control the aircraft manually. The anal-
ogue system is more resistant to damage but less rapid in
its responses. '.1
Most of the computer software used in the Lavi is

compatible with US military specif ications and will


able to accept future US systems.
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Lavi parts made of composites (graphite epoxy) are seen
this schematic view of the Lavi (grey area). s€-{,
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b Military Enthusiast 30
THE LAVI _ AN ISRAELI/AMERICAN VENTURE

Although the Lavi is a "sabra" which will hopefully be


born in lsrael to lsraeli parents - lAl and the lsrael Air
Force - several US companies are expected to assist in
I the process, and will be more than just "godfathers".
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I lsrael has requested proposals for several systems and


-E[tot I -
-
oif oBE3" J----r----i---
@ -i---s airframe parts for the Lavi which will comprise a con-
siderable part of the Proiect.
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_ltr.Ul_ _ l_ _
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_ r_l I I lsrael expects to gain a lot from this relationship,

it oPO which may eventually be transmuted into a technology


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transfer enabling these elements to be produced in lsrael.


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Several of them, however, will certainly have 'Made in


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x-!Kg+-r]
x \_./ tt-- O---p USA' tags on them for a considerable time to come.
Among the main systems already agreed upon are the
PW 1120 engine, a derivative of the successful F-15li6
F100/200 engine. An agreement on technology transfer
The Lqt,i wilt be capable of penetration at high-speed (''38 kt)
enabling the engine to be built by Beit Shemesh Engines
low-level clash speed, ornted witlt eight 750 lb bombs and ttvo
Ltd. has already been signed with Pratt & Whitney. The
IR missiles or, in anotlter configttation, fivo Sidewinders and
engine will share common parts with the F100/200 en-
two Mk 84 2000 lb bombs at 597 kt. Tlrc range specified for
gines already in use with the IAF and therefore a reduc-
such missions is 244 n.m'
tion in operating costs is expected. The PW 1120 is ex-
pected to have improved operational capability, especial-
ly at low speed and high altitudes. lt will have less thrust
SPECIFICATIONS: which will result in smaller fuel consumption.
While the Lavi engine problems seem to be over, the
Type: . ground attack fighter airframe problems are only beginning. Repeated ob-
Designation: ." " Lavi
stacles have been raised to the authorisation of tech-
Manufactu rer: lsrael Aircraf t lndustries nology transfer of composite material construction f rom
Dimensions (ft) :
the US Grumman Corp. to lsrael's newly opened compo-
47.21
Length: site material specialist plant in Beersheva. Grumman won
Wing span: 28.58 the contract fcr the design and initial construction of
Height: 17 '32 the Lavi composite-constructed parts, malnly the wings
Wing area (sq. ft) : 350'00
and vertical stabilizers. Grumman has already signed a
42,0001b.
Weight (max. T/O) :
$100 million contract with lsrael to build an initial 20
" (T/O basic): 21 ,305 lb. (with an option of 30 more) sets of wings and vertical
Combat weight: 18,595 lb. tail sections. Grumman composites are already used in
53.4 U/F2
Wing loading: several of its aircraft such as the F'14 Tomcat. E-2C
Thrust/Weight ratio: . . 1.10 Hawkeye and. to a larger extent, in the X-29 FSW tech-
Fuel capacity (int.) : 600 lb' nology demonstrator (see the article in our last issue) .
(ext.): . ....9,180|b'
consumption:
Specif ic fuel . ' ' 1'86 Besides these main programmes now engaging most of
Engine type: . P&W1120 the pollticans' attention are several additional projects
" thrust(max.): .'.2O,62O1b' also being negotiated for the Lavi.
Max. speed at low level: 600 kt' Among the companies expected to cooperate in the
Max.speed: ... 1'85Mach Lavi proiect are Sundstrand/Garret Air Research, with
Range(operational)- .""244n'm' jet fuel starter, leading edge f laps and the latter's emer-
Max.loadfactor: '"" 99 gency power system and their environmental control
Stores (not including fuel): . 6,000 lb' system developed with Hamilton Standard. The electri-
(Total external stores: . . . 15.180 lb ) cal power system was developed by Sundstrand/Lear
lncluding lR missiles, iron and "smart" bombs, Siegler/General Electric. Bendix will produce the oxygen
EW pods, etc. system, while wheels and brakes will be produced by
Goodyear/Goodrich.
Other types: two-seater fully combat-capable trainer

Military Enthusiast 30
If everything goes according to schedule, the first
of five Lavi prototypes reportedly planned by IAI I

will fly by early 1986. Three of the five are to be


two-seat combat versions. It is estimated that IAI will
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be producing one per month by 1991, and that later Y
on thirty aircraft a year could be rolling off the
assembly lines, depending on export orders. Israeli
orders of the Lavi are expected to be around 300 to
replace the Kfirs and Phantoms now in IAF service.
Since these Lavis will have priority, export orders will
have to wait a few years. IAI says the fly-away price
of the Lavi for foreign customers will be around $ l2
million at current prices; but all exports of the air-
craft, as with the Kfir, will be subject to US approval
on an individual-country basis.
Finances, as with just about anything, will be a
major consideration in producing the Lavi. Its devel-
opment will be a multi-billion dollar proposition, no
drop in the bucket for Israel with its economic prob-
lems. More than 18,000 Israeli jobs will depend on
the Lavi's production as well - IAI is Israel's single
largest.employer. While IAI produces other products,
gearing up for the Lavi would be its most ambitious
undertaking yet; and, while it might be easier to buy
foreign-built aircraft, or co-produce or even build the
whole plane under license, Israel feels it must retain
its independence in its defence industries. It will not
be easily forgotten how France, who was Israel's
{ffi
major supplier of arms, abruptly cut off sales to Israel Klir C7 cockpit. One o|tlte tnost notable lbatures is the multi-
following the Six Day War. ple ntbde CRT disploy, replac,ing the armament sclector used
And while the United States still maintains an open itt previotts ntodels. The uut, WDNS 341 is scen on the right
weapons pipeline to Israel, defence officials in Tel side.

Aviv bristle every time Washington suspends ship-


ments for political reasons, or stipulates just how and
how not these weapons can be used. As the Jerusalem
Post's defence correspondent Hirsch Goodman wrote
last winter: "The effects will be felt throughout
Israel's fragile economic structure for at least the next
15 to 20 years, and there is no prophesying what the
ultimate result will be". But no matter what the
economic outcome, the Lavi will provide Israel and
her custorners with a world-class jet fighter, as good
as or better than anything else in its class'in the air,
and for the cheapest price.

A more powerful power plant is used in the Kfir C7, enabling


b e t te r ac c ele ra tio n and p e rfo nrw nc e.
8 Military Enthusiast 30
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AI
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KJ'ir C7 lrus a ruggetl air Jranrc. w,lticlt catt take hard corttlitiotts itt oJJ-base deplo-\,mettts, Ji'om ttnprepared runways and ft;r-
wartl J'ields.
KFIR UPDATE

Israel Aircraft Industries has come out with a new im- While being equipped with the EL 2001 ranging
proved version ol its already successf-ul Kfir jet fighter. Kllr C7 can also mount Elta's ELiM 2021 ,or
radar, the
Called the C7, it is designed to fill rhe gap between the equivalent advanced pulse-doppler fire-control radar
Klir C2 and the Lavi. ivhich will fly in the 1990s. The with Look-Up/Look Down capability, doppler beam-
C7 is externally almost identical to 1he C2.lts perform sharpened mapping, terrain avoidance/following, and
ance and operational potential, however, have been sea search modes.
much increased. Tlie J-19-JlE engine adds a thousand
pounds ol thrust in atierburner mode, increasing the
Kfir's thrust-to-weight ratio by 4%.Its maximum takeoff
weight is increased by -i,400 lb. There is also an increase Comparison table: Kfir C-2 Kfir C-7
in the aircraft's combat radius. In the interceptor role,
Weights (lbs.):
this is now 419 nml lor CAP missions, 416 nm (with 60
Max T/O: 32,340 36,300
minutes loiter time)l and gLound attack missions can
Max. payload: 9,430 13,390
now be up to 640 nm. An in-11ight refuelling system can
Fuel capacity (int.) 5.670 same
aiso be added on, employing either boom/receptacle or
(ext,) 6,780 8,217
probe/drogue equipment.
Combat weight: 20,660 same
In the avionics department. the Kfir C7 comes with
T/W ratio (in combat
the WDNS 34 I weapons delivery and navigation system
conf iguration): 0.87 0.91
and the new computerized SMRS stores management
Wing loading (UlF2l 55 55
and release system, giving the aircraft enhanced delivery
Engine thrust (AB + lb) 17,860 18,750
accuracy and the potential 1or the addition of "smart"
weapons. The WDNS 341 is designed fbr "hands on Performance:
throttle and stick" operation ivhich, in addition to its Max. speed (S.L. (kt) 75O same
high level of automation, considerably reduces pilot Max. speed (at alt.) : Mach 2.0 same
work load. Weapons delivery, flight and navigational Ceiling (ft.): 58,000 same
data appear on the HUD, whrle armament, radar and Zoom capability: 75,000 same
other systems data appear on the Armament Control Load factor: 7.0 S 7.5 s
Display Panel television screen.
Military Enthusiast 30
BH fi$Hilil.G
THE
DANil$

Ouy Gibson s Laniastei *ut ten minutes away from , tightl ib,p;e6r aaei tfl'rn;fd, ,k ,
,,.sqdd,-q.n!i ,t:alur,b-,, rF
its target at exactly fifteen rninutes.past midnight on as Gibson's nauigator gets ready to drop the bamb in
lTth May. I943. John Pulford. the flight engineer, its prec{se position.
,had just started the Wallis bornb retolving, ar briefed, Gibson, sweating in his seat. but completely tom-
and the navigat<r.t Filot Offic.er, Totger Taerum, was p.osed., n.ow guides the' raiin{'balrcbev:, towards the
making his final adjustments ready to operate the walL, rrhith g"ot s menaeingl! as liti, roars ou'er the
spe.clal sp*t]ights which had been fitted to obtain ex* w ater, C errnan b u {Ie ts p in g o n'.th e'Lh:rl6ait riis'1fuik;
act.altitude required for the bomb run. lagc, but the aircrew, occupied with their duties, are
' On the ground, there was unbroken silence; the hardty eu,ere of the danger.
guards inside the watchtower over the dam's power "Check height * speed contytl -:teady,,:'tici,at,l,t;
s{ati.on cculd hear ther monotono*s sounds of the Pitot Officer Spafford, his face glued, ti t;he bimb
,look<xlt on, the gun positicn s,bove, trying hard not to sigh t, sq ueezes t;ie release button ancl &nnounces
doze off. In the distance a dog could be heard barking ".Lline gone". The German gunn?rs duck as the four'
tn the near,by village, of Guenne down in the valley. engi n e d. Lantaster *, dark;''tltrai atb:ning, fi r e + p it;ti n g
The villagem had long'gone to bed - ignorant of the *ant * thunders ouerltead.i atvnost strapi*g the d"|i:rxi:is
:fate fh&t .awaited them only a few minutes away. as parapet. As it passes with a roar, the wireless operatar,
Wing ecrnmander Gibson's Lancasters roared lorv Flight Lieutenant Hutchinsgn,'adds, Pis share to the
on,the.ir final stretch towards the Moehne dam. pandemonium by firing red Very lights, blinding the
. At twenty-five minutes past midnight, Gibson's daeed gunneri below. As Gib'son hii;i;i,Is the aii:iraft;i
crew saw'the dam wall for the first time as they a tight right turn, the rear gunner, Treuor-Roper,
cleared the hill overlooking the far side of the lake. opens fire,wtt'h his four nar'kiaa:gwns| hining the
The German gunners. awakening to full alert on Germa*.gltnposition., . .,,,,, .,
hearing the engine noise, saw them tco. Now several
things started happening simultaneously. * RAF Bomber Command had used only Morse fype HF sets
The telephone at the 2hmm anti-aircraft gun posi- for air-to-ground communications until the dami raid. Re-
quiremente. to. control suff a diffie$lt operation made,voioe
tions ri"ngs shritly; the duty officer at Schu)ansbell
comrlrunication betwe*n leatiers arrd bpmblng aircraft viki
Castle near Luenen the scclor air defence HQ- an- f*r :tucees*,, Specially.,, adapted ,fi$ter ,rad.io equiprnent,
nou,nt e s h ostite airc raft appro ac h{ng. using modified TR I 143 radios, was fitted into participating
The German guartl yells: "They *re *lready h€re!" Lancasters.
and slams down the rccciuer, racing for couer as ha After overcoming difficulties in achieving medium range re-
comes on the receiuing end oJ' front gunner Ftight sults, the: sets worked-. at nigllt, over l . km diitance ai
extrems low level * not a bad feat,with the ,equipment then
Scrgeant George Deering's twin Brownings.
in usr, 5 17 Squadron aircrew *ere, speoi y,,.traine d ln- KT,
'. fh€, G.e,rlnans are trying to'pierce the d,arhness with i ,Frocedures and code$, usod, to ccfrtf$ #e raid, The ex-
their ey'es, shooting in the general direction of the prrience' gained in the dams r-aid,besHne$e h'.*sis t,.it111.
€ngxne noise, The low-flying bombers, merging with proved RT,r4dio'equi$ent and,eontfol $foted f+s e, r,
the dark wqter, are still inuisible except for the fire path{inders later on ,:.a ital factor. tr eEhieving concen-
o f the Lancasters' gunners.
trations over night targeti.
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The Eder dams at Hamfurth, near lilaldeck, Germnny, as seen before the raid.

At twenty-eight minutes after midnight, Gibson's But now the German gunners, recovering tiom
mine, rotating at 500 r.p.m. and bouncing three times shock, were ready and fighting mad. Hopgood lined
ouer the u)ater, hits the dam wall near the waterline his aircraft up over the far side of the lake and raced
and sinks. A strange silence follows - while the gun' towards the dam wall, a sitting target as his bomb
ners continue to exchange fire. Suddenly there is a aimer lined up the sight. Circling above and just out-
terrific detonation. The blast sucks the air out of the side the German gunners' tange, Gibson flicked open
German gunners' lungs - a 300 meter column of his navigation lights as soon as he saw Hopgood's
water rises into the air with white foam couering the spotlights coming on below - attempting to draw fire
dam from aiew. Gibson and his crew, cruising aboae, from the Germans on the dam.
watch with straining eyes for the uater to subside - The Germans, however, held fast onto the racing
the dam is still intact. bomber, adjusting their fire as it came nearer at high
Ouer the RT* a uoice says: "Good show, leader, speed. Hopgood's front gunner did not remain idle
nice work"; but it is not good enough - the dam is a and a vivid exchange of tracer was made. The German
toueh nut to crack. 20mm shells whipped into the British bomber, and a
Gibson calls the next aircraft in line to attack: "M- flame appeared on the port inboard wing root.
Mother, attach nott) - good luck - ouer". Flight "He's been hit!" hoaffe voices, tsritish and Ger-
Lieutenant John Hopgood, a twenty-one year old man, exclaimsd simultaneously as the flame grew
ueteran bomber pilot, already with a double DFC to bigger. Inside Flopgood's Lancaster the bomb run
his credit, eyits his teeth as he slams Lancaster ED continued in spite of the damage. Pilot Officer Fraser
925 into a uicious turn, dropping low ouer the lahe to dropped his bomb, while Hopgood calmly ordered
aim for the dam. Sergeant Brennan, the flight engineet, to feather the
Military Enthusiast 30 11
t-j,j

ffii
Sffihi

Military Enthusiast 30
burning engine. The hre subsided for a moment but Once again lake and dam shook under the gigantic
rekindled itself, sweeping the whole port wing as the explosion, cascades of water and foam rising sky high.
stricken bomber, relieved of its load, lurched up- It was thirty-eight minutes past midnight. Although
wards. less than ten minutes had passed since Gibson dropped
The bomb bounced once too often, dropped over his bomb, it seemed an eternity.
the dam wall and onto the electric power house be- But the dam's thick wall held once more, defiantly
low. As the now blazing Lancaster came over, the standing, erect, solid and unmoved. The German gun-
bomb exploded with a blinding flash, completely ners, their throats dry, hands shaking with exhaustion,
destroying the powerhouse: reloaded their guns and awaited the next inevitable
attack.
Overhead, Hopgood fought a losing battle with the Not far away on the hillside, two figures, unau)are
controls of his aircraft; groping for height, he yelled of each other, are crouching in the underbrush, fas-
to his crew to bail out. Two made it at the last min- cinated by the drama which is taking place only a few
ute - Fraser the bomb aimer and Tony Burcher, the hundred meters away. Stunned by his fall, lying
Australian rear gunner. Then Hopgood's Lancaster - against a tree, is Flying Officer Tony Burcher - only
blazing like a giant torch - crashed and exploded minutes before a member of Hopgood's crelt). Further
near the village of Ostoennen, a few kilometers west back, also tahing couer, is the power station foreman
of the dam. All aboard were killed.outright.
The Mohne dam, however, survived Hopgood's at- - who escaped only seconds before the place blew
up. Now both are to become witnesses to one of the
tack. Gibson and his crew, having just witnessed the world's greatest b ombing exploits.
tragedy, swallowed hard, but the job had still to be
done and Gibson ordered the next man in turn, Flight Gibson was by now getting impatient. Three
Lieutenant "Mickey" Martin* to start his bomb run. bombs had been placed almost exactly as planned,
Martin, a veteran Austratan pilot with 36 opera- but no results had been achieved. "O.K. Doug - go in
tions over Germany, wasno newcomer to the game, - but be careful, it's pretty hot in there."
and had no illusions as to what was in store as he Squadron Leader Melvyn Young, the American-
pushed his Lancaster down towards the Moehne Lake. born "A" Flight Commander, went in to attack. To
The German gunners, encouraged by their kill, con- draw fire off him, both Gibson and Martin circled and
centrated on Martin's Lancaster. As he was third in a fired on the defences. Young dropped his bomb at
row they now had the range and let fly for all they precisely 00.40 hours - but the dam did not breach.
were worth. Martin's aircraft was hit repeatedly, but
his experienced bomb aimer, Flight Lieutenant Bob Pilot Officer D.ll. Clayton (lejt), Sqn Lclr. D.J. Mattby and Lt.
Hay, DFC, did a good job with Martin expertly Martin (risht).
guiding the bomber.

l The Mohne dam near Soest, one of the most important dams
in Germany, as it guarded the vtater supplies to the heavily irt'
dustrqlised Ruhr Valley. This photo, taken before the raid (1 ),
shows th'e dam with its guard towers, anti-torpedo underwater
netting, and power station below. The RAF system developed
to overcome the anti-totpedo defence is illustrated above. Tlrc
Lancs were flying at 366441m height, determined by the
crosspoint of a pair of floodlights aimed downard. The bombs
would skip over the nets, hit the dam, sink to 9.7m depth and
explode. The results can be seen on the facing page.

* Later to become Air Marshal Sir Harold Martin, KCB, DSO,


DFC, AFC, Air Attache in Tel Aviv in1952.He commanded
RAFG in 1970.-Retiring in 1914,he is now with Hawker
Siddeley and President of the Bomber Command Asso-
ciation.

Military Enthusiast 30
,$I

The attack had by now been going on for quite a pilot crouched in his cockpit. Desperately they fire
long time with aircraft circling the confined target their carbines!
zone continuously. The danger was mounting as Luft- As the giant shadow roars ouer the dam, a huge
waffe night fighters reached the area, scrambled from water waue rushes oaer the wall. The noise is ear-
nearby airfields by sector control. However, they did splitttng but, as the water subsides, the German gun
not dare venture down to low level, where the British commander watches in horror as a crack becomes
bombers operated. In fact the'German air defence aisible in the wall;it widens rapidly and water starts
command had little information as to what was going coming through.
on, as the local telephone network was disrupted From his hiding place Tony Burcher sees it too; the
soon after Hopgood's attack. great column of water is now rushing through the
As for the British, as each aircraft dropped its breach in the wall and, with the air full of foam and
bomb, a coded message was sent to No. 5 Group at spray, it cascades in a giant waae down the ualley be-
Grantham. The last received was the message tapped low. The Mohne dam is breached...
out by Sgt. Nichols, "Dingby" Young's operator. It Above, Gibson watched in fascination. Diving to
was also the last ever heard from the crew, as Lan- get a better view, he circled once more before order-
caster ED 887 crashed in the sea after being hit by ing his wireless operator to send the message of suc-
flak west of Amsterdam on its way home. cess to base. It was 00.56 a.m.
J-Johnny, with Flieht Lieutenant David Maltby at On the ground a catastrophe developed as millions
the controls, was next to attack. of tons of water went gushing down the peaceful
Ruhr valley, spreading wider all the time. Complete
On the ground the German gunners haue trouble: villages disappeared; cars coming along the road,
the reqnaining 20mm gun has failed - breech stop- mainly military transport from the nearby bases, were
page! The gun position is coming under heauy fire flooded and turned over - their headlights dimming
from aircraft on the flanhs and the gunners on the until they flickered out. Dense fog covered the whole
tower are without coaer. area as Gibson ordered the remaining aircraft to the
Down below a single gun is still firing as Maltby's Eder dams - the second objective for the night.
bomber races towards the dam wail - it is so close But there was a third target. Only twenty kilo-
that one of the German gunners has a glimpse of the meters to the south of the Moehne dam was the
14 Military Enthusiast 30
":FNn*

A view of the Eder dam before the attack {I}, holding 202
millian tons of water aboite the Eder valley. The dam was
breached by the bombs (2) which led to the gteat desmtcdon
ofsvast drea (3).

Sorpe, a concrete core earth dam. Containing some 3 a.m. The target was completely enshrouded with
70 million cubic meters of water, it required a differ- mist. After dropping incendiaries and setting the trees
ent method of attack. Originally the Sorpe dam was on both sides on fire, he identified the dam, already
the objective for the second attack formation led by damaged by McCarty's attack of two hours before.
Squadron Leader Joe McCarty, DFC, with four air- Running in, he released his bomb, enlarging the gap in
craft setting out with him from Scampton. By bad the wall.
luck, however, McCarty reached the target alone. Meanwhile a new drama developed as Gibson and
Unknown to him, Sergeant Byers, flying Lancaster four of his remaining Lancasters, three of them with
K-King, crashed in the Waddensee off the island of bombs, raced for target Y - the Eder dam, seventy
Texel, shot down by a l05mm flak. Flight Lieute- kilometers to the southwest. This dam, situated south
nant Barlow's Lancaster crashed after hitting a high of Kassel, held over 200 million cubic meters of
tension cable south of Emmerich on the German- water; 400 meters long and almost fifty meters high,
Dutch border. The bomb was found later intact by it acted as a regulating reservoir for the strategic in-
the Germans, although they did not, at the time, terior waterway, the Mittelland Canal connecting the
understand the Wallis principle. Les Munro and Geoff Ruhr with Berlin.
Rice had to abort the mission. As Gibson reached the Eder lake area around 1.30
Joe McCarty found the Sorpe lake with difficulty a.m. the morning mist had already set in, making
as low morning mist had begun to creep into the val- identification most difficult. The Eder dam was hid-
ley. Once it was identified, he made his first run in den deep in the river valley amongst wooded hills.
across the dam's length, encountering no opposition. According to the plan, the attackers were to make
Realising that, being alone, he had only one chance, their run along the lake - the only way to allow suf-
he made ten runs until he finally released the bomb. ficient space for a bombing run. Gibson, coming in
It hit precisely in the planned spot, crumbling the low, eventually made out the dam wall and radioed
dam wall. Squadron Leader McCarty reached Scamp- Flight Lieutenant Dave Shannon, DFC, who had
ton after an uneventful return trip at 3.23 a.m. reached the target a few minutes later. At 1.39 a.m.
Unknown to him, Flight Sergeant Ken Brown, he started his dive over the 300 meter high Waldecke
flying in the third and reserve group, also received Castle, overlooking the reservoir below, which acted
orders to go for the Sorpe, which he reached around as a clear ground identification.
Military Enthusiast 30 t5
The attack had by now been going on for quite a pilot crouched in his cockpit. Desperately they fire
long time with aircraft circling the confined target their carbines!
zone continuously. The danger was mounting as Luft- As the giant shadow roars ouer the dam, a huge
waffe night fighters reached the area, scrambled from water waue rushes oaer the wall. The noise is ear-
nearby airfields by sector control. However, they did splitting but, as the water subsides, the German gun
not dare venture down to low level, where the British commander watches in horror as a crack becomes
bombers operated. In fact the'German air defence uisible in the wall; it widens rapidly and uater starts
command had little information as to what was going coming through.
on, as the local telephone network was disrupted From his hiding place Tony Burcher sees it too; the
soon after Hopgood's attack. great column of water is now rushing through the
As for the British, as each aircraft dropped its breach in the wall and, with the air full of foam and
bomb, a coded message was sent to No. 5 Group at spray, it cascades in a giant waae down the ualley be-
Grantham. The last received was the message tapped low. The Mohne dam is breached...
out by Sgt. Nichols, "Dingby" Young's operator. It Above, Gibson watched in fascination. Diving to
was also the last ever heard from the crew, as Lan- get a better view, he circled once more before order-
caster ED 887 crashed in the sea after being hit by ing his wireless operator to send the message of suc-
flak west of Amsterdam on its way home. cess to base. It was 00.56 a.m.
J-Johnny, with Flight Lieutenant David Maltby at On the ground a catastrophe developed as millions
the controls, was next to attack. of tons of water went gushing down the peaceful
Ruhr valley, spreading wider all the time. Complete
On the ground the German gunners haue trouble: villages disappeared; cars coming along the road,
the rernaining 20mm gurn has failed - breech stop- mainly military transport from the nearby bases, were
page! The gun position is coming under heauy fire flooded and turned over - their headlights dimming
from aircraft on the flanks and the gunners on the until they flickered out. Dense fog covered the whole
tower are without couer. area as Gibson ordered the remaining aircraft to the
Doun below a single gun is still firing as Maltby's Eder dams - the second objective for the night.
bomber races towards the dam wail - it is so close But there was a third target. Only twenty kilo-
that one of the German gunners has a glimpse of the meters to the south of the Moehne dam was the
14 Military Enthusiast 30
Only a few people below in the Eder valley were
awake at this hour. By sheer coincidence. some hours
earlier a regular local civil defence meeting had raised
the issue of an eventual air attack on the Eder dam,
only to receive a calming response by the authorities
that this was highly unlikely. However. at 1.15 a.m.
the warden was rudely awakened by the noise of 1ow-
flying aircraft, which he identified in the rnoonligirt.
In fact tire bornbers were so low that he saw tire pilot
of one of them looking out of the open cockpit win-
dow.
The Eder dam itself was completely defenceless.
the only Flak unit guarding it having been witl-rdrawn
some weeks earlier.

By now the attack had started, Shannon airning for


the dam wall. levelling out after a steep dive from 350
to 20 meters a difficult manoerivre with a heavily-
laden four-engined bomber. requiring the highest
flying skill. The first run-in failed and Shannon pulled
the Lancaster in a steep turn. climbing harcl to regain
height. He made five mns over the castle. diving into
the dark valley below. until Gibson ordered him to
take a break and called Squadron Leader Henry
Maudsley to try. Maudsley started his run, flinging
Lancaster Z-Zebra into the valley and rtrnning straight
for the dam. Tr.vo more attempts lollorved until he
dropped tire bornb. Gibson and Shannon sarv hinr
clearly as a red Very light sirot out. indicating tliat he
had dropped the bomb. It bounced and overshot.
hitting the parapet and detonating as the aircraft flew
low overhead. Maudsley, his Lancaster hit mortally,
struggled fbr height and set ont for home. only to be
hit by light Flak near Emmerich. cfashing not far
from the place in which Barlow had been shot down
earlier. Gibson and Shannon. rvatching lrom above.
were convinced at the time that Maudsley had actually
crashed on the Eder dam itsell.
By now the population in the Eder valley rvas wide
awake. many racing for cover as the heavy bombers
repeated tl-reir attack runs. actnally scraping their
chimneys. The noise was terrifying and explosions lit breach was achicvcd. causing a huge tidal wave of wa-
the night sky. The German sector air defer-rce was still ter to gush into the valley below.
Llnaware of what was actually going on: conflicting On the road leading up the Eder valley a convoy ol
reports saturated the network and caused confusion. military vehicles advanced. their blr,re black-or-rt head-
Jr-rst before 1 a.m. Dave Shannon tried again, and lamps groping into the morning log as they crossed a
dropped his bomb. resulting in an enormous pillar of nearby village. A despatch rider rode througJr the
water. A gap was seen in the dam but, with tirne main street. screaming for an irnmediate evacuation -
rtinning short now, Gibson ordered Fiight Lieutenant the dam was breached. Soldiers and civilians frantical-
Les Knight. the last bomb camier. to attack. After ly set off for the high ground as the deluge of water
one dummy mn - with Gibson flying right alongside poured down the valley. flooding cellars whicli
- Knight's bornb bounced and hit the dam wall ex- minutes before had been refuges and had now be-
actly in its intended spot. It exploded and a large come death traps. The village and the vehicles on the
to Military Enthusiast 30
Amsterdam

Today: Jaguars of RAF Germany over the No. 20 Laarbruch


Mohne dam.

main road all vanished as the flood engulfed them;


total chaos raged.
From above, Gibson and the remaining crews cir-
cled, watching the gushing, swirling water wall tearing
down the steep valley, sweeping all in its wake. It was
a terrifying and magnificent view that presented itself
in the haunted hours of this fateful moming. After
having spent almost two hours over the dams, the
Dambusters - those who survived - set off for home.
Operation "Chastise" was over.

Military Enthusiast 30 17
INTERNATIONAL AIR TATTOO 1983
by
C.O. BROOKS
(.of AEROPIIOTO)

The Greenham Common International Air Tattoo has 25 such machines formed an impressive static display
long been recognised as one of the world's largest line-up, headed by XT 59J, from the A & AEE, one
military airshows, and this year's event held over the of the first received by the RAF and specially pre-
weekend of 23rd - 24th July proved to be no excep- pared in 25th Anniversary colour scheme.
tion. Another commemorative event was a tribute to Sir
Since the last Air Tattoo in 1981, Greenham Com- Douglas Bader, who, sadly, died during 1982 having
mon has virtually become a household name due to been President of the International Air Tattoo since
the presence of "the peace women" and the various 1976. Sir douglas, of course, flew Spitfires prior to
anti-nuclear campaigns. However. they played little the fall of France in 1940 and after the Battle of
role in the weekend's activities and were vastly out- Britain he also used one to lead the Battle of Britain
numbered by thousands of aviation enthusiasts and Flypast over London on 15th September 1946. A
members of the public. total of eight airworthy Spitfires and two Hurricanes
The action really begins at Greenham on the Wed- fomred a most impressive display as a tribute to this
nesday prior to the weekend as this heralds the start great man.
of aircraft arrivals, and the runway approaches are As has now become customary at Greenham, the
thick with photographers all eagerly awaiting the next world's top aerobatic teams were much in evidence.
exotic aircraft. The previous six weeks of glorious hot The Italian Air Force National Aerobatic Team I1
and sunny weather gave way to a more unsettled Frecce Tricolori debuted their new Aer-macchi MB
period over the airshow weekend although in general 339 mounts in England, and were joined by seven
the rain kept off and there was still a considerable other national aerobatic teams. These included the
amount of sunshine to make the photographers'task RAF I Vintage Pair - a Meteor T-7 and Vampire T-
a little easier. 1 1, recalling the early days of jet fighters, the colour-
This year's central theme celebrated the 25th Anni- ful La Patrouille de France flying Alpha Jets, the six
versary of the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom and T-37Cs of the Asas de Portugal, and the Royal Neth-
t8
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-rt"j|x\

X
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F
ilg
,*
ff
IT

.facing page: The RAF Red Anows


(XfS97) with 25th atmiversary markings painted onitsfuselage

Alouette III "Grasshoppers", the Dutch RNLAF helicopter aerial demonstratiotl teatt in actiott
*

' *

Jorclanian Air Force Mirage F-1EJ lontlirry at Greertlnmcomrnort


Mirage F-18J, lst Sqn, RJAF
I
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I
I

-*:-'.-deh!*<,.-
F *f:'e-

_T:1$r*.*_
-'14 _
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--\
8

Bombs exploding in San Carlos waters near the Continuous attacks drove the British tosk .force to establislt the
second beachhead at Bluff Cove.

One of the war's most outstandingly flown missions Meanwhile, the A-4s had by now rendezvoused
was the attack on the British landing forces at Pleas- with the tankers half way between the mainland and
ant Bay. It was undertaken on June 8th by a relative- the islands. It was then that two pilots, Capt. Carballo
ly small number of aircraft dispatched to bomb land- and 1st Lt. Autiero, discovered their refuelling probes
ing craft thought to be in the Fitzroy area. Involved had frozen. At the same time, 1st Lt. Filippini's en-
were A-4 Skyhawks, IAI Daggers and Mirage IIIs. gine oil pressure began fluctuating. The three Sky-
Two flights of A-4Bs from V Brigada Aerea depar- hawks were forced to retum to base. Capt. Carballo
ted Rio Gallegos at 11:50 hours. Mission leader was tumed over the leadership to "Dogo" flight's 1st Lt.
Capt. Caraballo, who also headed "Dogo" flight Cachon with the words "Take charge of the forma-
which was made up of 1st Lts. Rinke and Cachon and tion and lead it to glory".
2nd Lt. Carmona. "Mastin" flight consisted of lst After the in-flight refuelling was completed,
Lts. Filippini, Galvez and Autiero, and 2nd Lt. Cachon ordered his wingmen to form up in an arrow,
Gomez. The aircraft climbed to flight level 100 with two planes on either side of his aircraft. At
( 1 0,000 ft) to rendezvous with KC-I30 tankers. about 140 km before the target area, the leader used
At 13:00 hours, two three-aircraft flights of Dag- hand signals in ordering his men to follow him down
gers from VI BA took off from Rio Grande. Mission to wave-top level in hopes of avoiding enemy radar.
leader was Capt. Rohde, heading up "Perro" flight When the Skyhawks neared the islands, the Mirages
which was also made up of 1st Lts. Ratti and Gabari. went into action, or rather "inaction". They flew to-
The second flight was designated "Gato", and consis- ward the beachhead from the north at a deliberately
ted of Capt. Cimatti, Maj. Martinez and lst Lt. Antio- low altitude so as to be picked up by the British
netti. Lt. Antonietti soon turned back to base due to picket ships' radar. As was expected, Harriers were
a cracked windscreen. The remaining five Daggers sent to intercept the Mirages, thus freeing the south-
formed up on a civilian Lear Jet 35 pathfinder. em approach route to be used by the incoming Sky-
The SAF command then ordered a diversionary hawks.
flight of Mirage IIIEAs from Rio Gallegos. These air- The five A-4s flew through a number of short rain
craft would hopefully draw CAPs consisting of the showers on their way to the Fitzroy target area. They
deadly Harrier/AlM 9L combination, thus leaving the flew at about five meters over water, and once they
way open for the attacking Skyhawks and Daggers.
22 Military Enthusiast 30
reached land they climbed, however barely, to 10. target. Number 2's bomb ejector mechanism failed,
Three minutes before reaching the target area, 1st Lt. and the pilot was forced to jettison his load on the
Cachon signaled his wingmen to increase their speed way back to the mainland using the emergency re-
to 900 kph. At two minutes from the target area, the lease unit. Number 3's bombs skipped off the ship's
flight turned and successfully eluded a Sea King heli- stern and ended up on shore where they exploded
copter which was probably acting as a surveillance amid personnel and cargo. The second section
platform. At fifty seconds out a Lynx helicopter was launched their bombs successfully but were unable to
sighted but also successfully evaded. When the flight ascertain whether there were any hits due to the
finally arrived over the internal end of Fitzroy Bay. speed of their exit from the scene. Their bombs man-
no British landing ships were to be found! lst Lt. aged to damage the S# Tristram so that the vessel
Cachon decided to fly on over the body of water ended up being towed to Port Stanley for'use as a
looking for the shipping that was supposed to have floating barracks. HMS S,r Galahad, on the other
been there. The formation continued but saw nothing. hand, was so badly damaged that it was scuttled seve-
When the leader decided to egress the area, the flight ral days later. The attack was carried out at 13:50,
was to tum right. Since turns can be dangerous in the exactly two hours after takeoff.
arrow formation at low altitude, the aircraft man- The two flights hurried away from the area, widen-
oeuvred into a left echelon before initiating their ing formation. KC-130s were loitering nearby to assist
right turn. The outermost pilots, climbing to keep any aircraft with fuel problems. The tankers were in-
formation in the turn, then saw what they had missed formed that all was well and their services would not
at the lower level - the antennae and masts of British be needed. The Skyhawks flew their return trip at
landing craft. The LSTs were found in Pleasant Bay, a 1ow level, climbing to 35,000 ft some 500 km from
small inlet south of Fitzroy and separated from it by the mainland in order to conserve fuel.
a narrow peninsula. 1st Lt. Cachon gave the order to Shortly after the Skyhawks departed the target
attack, and since the targets were already so near the area, the two flights of Daggers arrived. The diversion
bombing run was commenced immediately. The air- by the Mirage was still keeping the area free of CAPs'
craft approached perpendicular to the targets, which The aircraft located a Type 12 figate - HMS P/y-
turned out to be HMS Sir Galahad and Sar Tristram. mouth - and dropped their bombs. None of the ord-
Cachon assigned the former to himself and his num- nance dropped by "Perro" and "Gato" flights that hit
bers 2 and 3, and the latter to aircraft 4 and 5. The the target exploded. The pilots said at least four
first section commenced their attack on the Sir Gala- 1,000 lb Mk. 83s hit the vessel. The Dagger's DEFA
/rad. Number I dropped three 500lb Mk. 82s right on 30mm cannon also registered. hits, with one of the

Sir Gallahud cruising to the landing zone on East Falkland's Pleasast Bay, south of Port Stanley

'.i

* *ufl'
{ *..
f,

Military Enthusiast 30
ffi
wru
&.

Argentinian Nav1, a4 Skyhawk being refueltetl in fligltt",Tltis


capabilitl' enablecl the FAA to attack tltc L'asr Falktands and
return home sofeb'.

rounds setting off a depth charge that caused serious sky while the exhausts of Rapier and Blowpipe SAMs
fire damage below decks. Contrary to British reports, lit up the area. Two of the aircralt were damaged, but
all the Daggers got away safely and returned to base. all were able to drop their bombs on defensive instal-
While the "Dogo" and "Mastin" Skyhawk flights lations erected on shore by the British landing parties
were on their way back to base, the SAF command before returning safely to base. This attack wave
dispatched another two flights of Skyhawks - A-4Bs ended one of the FAA's most successful days in the
and Cs - to mount further attacks against the British South Atlantic war, leaving ships and shore positions
landing forces at Pleasant Bay. "Mazo" flight consis- burning brightly into the night.
ted of 1st Lts. Bolzan, Arraraz and Sanchez,and2nd
Lt. Vasquez flying B model Skyhawks. Capt. Caffa-
rati, lst Lts. Zattara and Paredi and2nd Lt. Codring-
ton flew C models in "Tigre" flight.
"Mazo" flight arrived over the target first, finding
and attacking a large landing craft (LCU) which was
ferrying stores. The vessel later sank due to heavy
damage. But by this time, Harriers were back in the
area, having recovered from the diversionary Mirage
III "attack". The British jets jumped the 'oMazo"
Skyhawks and scored hits with AIM-9Ls. I st Lts. Bol-
zan and Arraraz were killed when their aircraft ex-
ploded. 2nd Lt. Vasquez was seen to eject, but was
never found and was listed KIA. 1st Lt. Sanchez was
able to jettison his extemal fuel tanks and bomb
racks, and outdistanced the pursuing Hariers on the
deck. The pilot used up most ol his remaining fuel
during his low-altitude getaway, and had to hook up
with a KC-130 for a mid-air refueling in order to
make it safely home. In this attack, the British er-
roneously reported that they had shot down three
Daggers.
The A4Cs of "Tigre" flight appeared over the tar-
get area at 15:45 hours just as the winter sky was
darkening. Their reception was most spectacular
owing to the twilight - red tracers criss-crossed the
24
AIRCRAFT LOST BY THE FUERZAAEREA
ARGENTINA AND THE CAUSES

A4Bs of V BA
12 May Mirage lll EAs of Vlll BA
1st Lt. Bustos (KlA) Seawolf SAM - HMS Brilliant 1 May
lst Lt. Nivoli (KlA) same Capt. Garcia-Cuerva (KlA) own AA over Port Stanley
Lt. lbarlucea (KlA) same 1st Lt. Perona (ejected) Sea Harrier
lst Lt. Gavazzi (KlA) own AA over Darwin
23 May Daggers of Vl BA
1st Lt. Guadagnini (KlA) 20mm AA - HMS AnteloPe 1 May
25 May 1st Lt. Ardiles (KlA) Sea Harrier
Capt. Palaver (KlA) Sea Dart SAM - HMS CoventrY 21May
27 Mav Lt. Bean (KlA) Sea Cat SAMs - HMS lntrepid/
1st Lt. Velasco (eiected) 40mm AA - HMS lntrepid Plymouth
8 June 1st Lt. Luna (ejected) Sea Harrier
1st Lt. Bolzan (KlA) Harrier/AlM-9 L Maj. Piuma (ejected) same
1st Lt. Arraraz (KlA) same Capt. Donadille (ejected) same
2nd Lt. Vasquez (KlA) same 1st Lt. Senn (ejected) same
Lt. Volponi (KlA) same
A4Cs of lV BA Lt. Berhardt (KlA) Sea Wolf SAM - HMS Broad-
9 May sword
Lt. Casco (KlA) crashed due to bad weather over 24 May
W. Falklands. Maj. Puga (ejected) Sea Harrier
Lt. Farias (KlA) same (Note: British claimed two Capt. Diaz (ejected) same
Skyhawks at this time by Sea Lt. Castillo (? ) same
Dart SAMs from HMS Coventry)
21May Canberras of ll BA
Lt. Lopez (KlA) Sea Harrier 1 May
Lt. Manzotti (KlA) same Capt. Gonzales (KlA) Sea Harrier (Note: both crew-
24 May Lt. lbanez (KlA) men ejected and two good
Lt. Bono (KlA) Blowpipe SAM-HMS Sir Percival chutes were seen, but they were
25 May never found)
Lt. Lucero (ejected/POW) Rapier SAM 13 June
Capt. Garcia (KlA) Rapier SAM (? ) Capt. Pastran (ejected/POW) Sea Dart - HMS Exeter
30 May Capt. Casado (KlA) same
1st Lt. Castillo (KlA) 4.5 in AA - HMS Avenger (? )
1st Lt. Vasquez (KlA) Sea Dart - HMS Exeter Pucaras of lll/lX BAs
1 May
Lt. Jukik (KlA) direct hit by cluster bomb from
Sea King helicopter delivering supplies ashore, seen over the Sea Harrier while taking off
"Sir Tristram" landing support ship, still pouing smoke after from BAM Condor
2l May
the Argentinian raid. Maj. Tomba (ejected) Sea Harrier
Capt. Benitez (ejected) Stinger SAM
28 May
Lt. Cruzado (ejected/POW) Blowpipe SAM
Lt. Giminez (KlA) same
(Note: figures released by the FAA listed five Puca-
earl ier
ras as being destroyed in the air. The ground destruction of
Lt. Jukik's aircraft revises that number to four. Ten other
Pucaras were destroyed on the ground, while another 11
were abandoned in varying states of damage during the
British landings. A continental-based Pucara also crashed
into the sea during a wartime surveillance mission, killing its
pilot, 2nd Lt. Valco)

C-130 Hercules of I BA
I June
Crew missing") Sea Harrier
* Vicecomodoro Meisner, Capts. Martel and Krause, and
NCOs Lastra, Abelos, Cardona and Cantezano.

Lear Jet 35A of ll BA


7 June (crew
* KIA*) Sea Dart - HMS Exeter
Vicecomodoro de la Colina, Maj. Falconier, Capt. Lotufo
and NCOs Luna and Mariza

25
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. Scorpion 6, each with a 76mm gun and a


REGIMENTEXERCISESWITH 7.62mm machine gsfl. with a
ARMOURED VEHICLES crew of three. Called the Support
Far from the sunshine of Cyprus, No. 34 Sguadron, Ftight, it provides the fire sup-
port for the Squadron,
Royal Air Force Flegiment began their annual exercise in
Northern Germany, with their Scorpion and Spartan Spartan 15, an armoured per$onnel car.
light armoured vehicles. The Squadron is normally based rier. The squadron has 3 Cambat
in Cyprus for the defence of RAF Akrotiri airfield, but Flights, each of 5 Spartan. eaeh
they spent a weekend "digging in" around RAF Wii- holding a,cr€w ol ? and a Section
' denrath, in preparation for a station exercise recently. of 5 men, fach Spartan has a
7.62mm machine gun.
The full strength of the Squadron is:
Sultan 1, an arntgured command vehicle
RAF Regtment Scorpion tunk, anned with 76mnt. gm. for the Commanding Offlcer of
this squadron. with crew and a
7 .62mm machine gun.
Samson 1, an armoured recovery vehicle,
fitted with e special hydraulic
winch, spades and recovery equip-
meilt. lt also rnounts onb 7.$2
mm machine gun.
Before they returned to Cyprus, the eguadron went
to the BsrEen-Hohne ranges for field f iring of the 76mm
gu n.

Military Enthusiast 30
EFsg.:'x+1_ffFi
E€FT
*J\ J;;*g-H

Harrier GR3, 3 Sqn, RAFG,


%, ta-x.ies out of its hiding place for a sortie duing art oJJ:base deployment.

8L755 cluster bombs being toacled by Eager Beaver fork lift tntcks Jbr delivery to Hariers hidden in the woods.

Military Enthusiast 30
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FIRST STEPS
The last few years preceding World War I showed
contrasting developments in military aviation in
Europe, which had long-lasting effects.
Prior to 1914, both French and Geman military
aviation surpassed Britain's first efforts. The French
had almost 200 combat aircraft by 1914, and the
huge number of French aviation terms which passed
into the English language (fuselage, elevator. aileron,
etc.) speak for themselves. They had also developed
rotary engines (the Royal Flyirrg Corps also was to
depend upon the Gnome-Rhone for some years)
while the Germans had also produced powerful en-
gines for their elementary aircraft - one reason why
they were to forge ahead with fighters. beginning
with their revolutionary Fokker in 1 9 I 5.
These developments alfected British military think-
ing. The higher commanders would recognise only -
and grudgingly - that aeroplanes might be useful
for reconnaissance - as a new form of cavalry while
the younger generation realised that. however ill-
armed at first, the aeroplane must soon become a
fighting weapon.
In 1914, war burst upon the world. The Royal
Flying Corps - only two years old as a separate en-
tity, having absorbed Britain's very first aviation unit,
the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers - fielded its
90 first-line aircraft in France, and tlie French and
German Annies sent aloft their fleets of elementary WltI air combat: Germatt Hetutoveraner CLII being hit by two
reconnaissance planes. Britislt SE 5As, with a secottd Gennan joining in the melee.
All three
armies proved the immediate value of air
reconnaissance, covering the massive German advance
and the British and French retreats in the early days.
After exchanging fire from rifles and a few mach- Witlt an intercuptor geor errubling tlrc pilot tct "sltoot through"
ine guns, and dropping primitive bombs by hand, the propeller, tlte SE 5A and its counterparts were the first
fighting in the air became more practical. The French rcal cornbatattts oJ lllttl.
fighters now mounted a machine gun to fire forward
through the propeller, with wedges on the blades to
deflect bullets - a rough and dangerous device.
One such aircraft captured by the Germans led
them to call in the services of a young Dutch engin-
eer - Anthony Fokker. He produced a much more
effective interrupter gear for a gun to fire between
the propeller blades while in motion. The famous
death-dealing Fokker fighter was bom.
The basic armament for a fighter - to remain con-
stant for many years - thus became the machine gun.
After the Allies had suffered great losses from the
"Fokker Scourge" the British also adopted an inven-
tion: effective, forward-firing, Constantinesco gun
gear. The battle initiative then depended again upon
superior aircraft design.
30 Military Enthusiast 30
"The Jackals". Air tactics dingram dated April 1918: "The im-
portance of keeptng formation cannot be too strongly im-
pressed upon the pilot. Loss of position is likely to lead to an
adventure with the iackals".

-*-,*^
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:$rr
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The first Fokker type was improved and, in sllcces- Larger numbers of aircraft became involved and,
sion, the Fokker triplane (Richtofen's celebrated finally. whole high-flying "circuses" now roared over-
machine), Taube, Albatross andPfalz aircraft battled head locked in battle, while others were perfecting
against the manoeuvrable French SPAD fighter, the gronncl-strafing. hitting at advancing armies, covering
British SE5 and Sopwith Camel. retreating ones, and blasting communications.
Air combat evolved from single aircraft dog fights. When the last big German advance in Spring l9l8
in which brilliant individual pilots built up top scores broke up trench warfare, the British retaliated witll
of aircralt destroyed, while less fortunate ol1es. an unrecognised minor blitzkrieg - tanks operating
pushed too rapidly through training, survived only closely with aircraft in quantity for the first time to
days or even hottrs in the air. push the Germans back. Like many of their pioneer
efforts before and since, they failed to exploit this
technique fully at the time, subseqttently neglecting
6 o'clock defence wss avqilable to two-seaters with the ob- after 1918 the lessons learned about arrnour plus air-
server's machine gun as tvitlt this Bristol fighter. craft, and paved the way for Dunkirk 1940.
Before the guns of the Great War roared for the
last time, howevet, from elementary wood and string
aircraft in primitive battle, the skies had seen Zep-
pelins, and then the first real heavy bombers, Gothas,
raiding London and carrying enough bombs to do real
damage, while, over the Western Front, fleets of fight-
ers fought the armies and each other.
Tactics had advanced, from dealing with single
fighters duelling, to units of 30 to 40 aircraft each
patrolling and challenging.
Yet, from 1919, the rival war machines were de-
ffi

ffi
molished overnight, almost as rapidly by victors as by
p defeated. Years of economic penny-pinching would
E
a then curtail development until the new warlike de-
t cade beginning in the mid-1930s.
31
Military Enthusiast 30
a&'
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A large formation of Hurricans seen during the "Battle of Britain".

1935 heralded a revolution in aircraft design. First, ly a commercial airline, Lufthansa was founded,
the Spanish Civil War 193611939, to which Germany which enabled the General Staff to build a reserve of
and Italy sent "volunteer" formations which were airmen.
entirely composed of regular airmen and soldiers, In 1935 open reaffnament provided. within the
gave the Luftwaffe's Condor Legion in particular air space of four years, a fully expanded Luftwaffe.
combat experience. The result was that they aban- From constant trairring and experiment with Army
doned their last biplane fighters, and brought the new armoured and mechanized units, the Luftwaffe devel-
monoplane ME109 into immediate service. The oped close support to a degree which neither France
Italians failed to learn their lesson: Caproni biplanes nor Britain achieved. and soon this new weapon hit at
were excellent aircraft, but later no match for the Poland and France with revolutionary effect.
Spitfire and Hurricane in World War II. Messerschmitt and Focke Wulf fighters equalled
Secondly, the RAF expanded, and their new the Spitfire in many respects, and were slightly supe-
monoplane fighters and bombers reached the front rior to the Hurricane, while France's flrst modern
line squadrons. monoplane fighter, the Dewoitine 520, took to the
The Luftwaffe gained one advantage by perfectitrg, air just too late.
from Spain's Civil War onwards, their close support of The British fighters had two decisive advantages,
the Army, but failed to develop heavy, long-range, irowever: armour to protect the pilot, and the razor-
strategic bombers - which the RAF did. like effect of eight machine guns firing simultaneous-
ly to slice through a wing or cause an engine to ex-
WORLD WAR II plode. These won the Battle of Britain. but with only
The stage was now set for the first real blitzkriegs. the slightest edge.
After 1918, under the greatest difficulties and denied Tactics again altered. VIC formations were replaced
all military aviation, Germany had secretly created, by line abreast in combat. Still the ideal firing position
and preserved, the nucleus of new air power - initial- lor a victory - on the enemy's tail, and often coming
ly in the 1920s, with the help of Soviet Russia, who out of the sun. derived from World War I.
permitted the use of an airfield near Moscow for In one respect, 191 8 was repeated larger and
training the first pilots. Then, so-called "sports clubs" larger formations of fighters and bombers became the
were created in Germany for light aviation. and, final- rule, and 1945 gave perhaps the last opportunity for
32 MilitarY Enthusiast 30
commanders to handle huge air formations. First, the
change to jet propulsion, and then conditions peculiar
to localised wars since 1945, caused a reversal.

KOREA _ THE TURNING POINT


In Korea, for the first time, jet fought jet in quantity.
Their speed, and the limited time for aiming weapons
which resulted. showed that jet fighters needed tight-
er tactical control, and to operate in smaller units.
A finger-four formation, two to aim forward, the
other two flying higher and guarding their tails from
flank and rear, came into use. First of the "Century" fighters, the F-L00 Super Sabre, firing
u Sidewinder AIM-9A missile.

VIETNAM To neglect rugged fixed wing light aircraft, more


In Vietnam, US aviation faced the problems of ( 1) ac- expendable and easily replaced, and which can carry
curate and heavy flak and missile fire, (2) the Army's an equal amount of weaponry, may represent short
need for close support on a large scale, and (3) sightedness. The losses in a localised air war nearer
stronger opposition from the Communist air forces home could be colossal in the first battles - witness
armed with a first-class fighter, the MiG-21 , with pilots the massive anti-airbraft and fighter opposition avail-
who proved better than their predecessors in Korea. able in Europe!
Army Attack aviation found that jets effected less
IIiG-15
damage on enemy troops and ground targets than
older types of slower but manoeuvrable piston-
engined aircraft. Helicopters and helicopter guns ships
played a big role, but their losses ttuder sophisticated
missile and flak attack were considerable. It appears
probable that a localised war in Europe would reveal
the hidden weaknesses of helicopters. At the moment,
perhaps too much reliance is placed upon them by all
services !

Spitfire

i#,, .t:ll.r'.t-: ': r1,:, ',1

Military Enthusiast 30 33
LOCALISED WARS AND THE FUTURE
Vietnam, the Arab/Israeli wats, especially the Yom
Kippur war of 1973, tt'e Indo-Pakistan wars, and even
the Falkland battles, have brought out the following
points for serious consideration.
1. Missiles have not, as was sometimes believed, pre-
saged the end of manned aircraft. It is the human
factor which can still give a split-second advantage
in evasion and making a counterattack.
2. On the other hand, aircraft losses against today's
anti-aircraft fire can be sudden and massive.
The Israelis suffered very serious losses in 1973,
calling for quick aircraft replacement. Also, far
more ammunition was used up in such battles than
was anticipated.
3. The real need in close support flying is for a mass
of light aircraft, heavily armed for their size, not
for relatively few high-performance but high-cost The first British-made heat-seeking missile, the Red Top,
sophisticated weapons systems. loaded on a Javelin (RN fighter) and Lightning (RAF fighter).
The Harrier may be the best aircraft of its type,
but against both bad weather and a 700% effective
anti-aircraft defence, could suffer prohibitive
SI.]MMARY
damage, while a simpler, cheaper aircraft, in quan-
tity and carrying adequate fire power, could com- We may now review the vital requirements of an air
plete the same missions equally well. power fit to fight and win campaigns likely to emerge
4.When Air Force is battling Air Force, small fighter even in the next ten years, having regard also to the
formations remain the best to exploit fully modern way in which largers powers are even now organising
and experimenting.
speed and fire power.
First, types of warfare possible or likely:
Situation 1A - Conventional Forces against Conven-
tional Forces and/or Guerrillas
This often means localised war between compara-
tively developed Third World countries using non-
First model of the radar-guided Sparrow missile (AIM-7A) un- atomic weapons;
der a F-7U wings.
OR
One such country, or a medium Western power,
fighting a counter-insurgency campaign against guer-
rillas.
The Arab/Israeli wars, the Iraq/Iran war, the Indo-
Pakistan conflicts. plus the war between Ethiopia and
Somalia, and the independence wars in Zimbabwe,
Angola, and Mozambique, are all varying examples.
In such wars, there may be (a) little or no air
opposition (Zimbabwe, Angola).
(b) Moderate, equal, or heavy opposition - Indo/
Pakistan, Israeli/Arab, Ethiopia/Somalia - when regu-
lar forces only engaged - Iran/Iraq.
Zimbabwe, Angola, Mozambique -The need was
for attack aircraft, plus transport, air ambulance, re-
connaissance and similar missions. (Parachute medical
teams were a feature, and helicopters used for search
and destroy and many different missions.)
MilitarY Enthusiast 30
Currently, the RAF figltter interceptor force is armed with the
radar-guided "Sky Hash" missile.

Indo-Pakistan, etc. - Each side possessed fighters Situation 1B -


and bombers, and some capacity for airborne mis- A conventional localised war between two industrial
sions. The need was to contend with air opposition countries of medium power. This might occur in
and to carry out both close suppofi and interdiction. South America or as a new conflict between Greece/
Points which emerged from studying these cam- Turkey. Both call for medium size air and land forces,
paigns were: and neither is immediately likely.

(l) Indiamade excellent use of aircraft numerical


Situation lC -
superiority in two ways: Preparation by power blocs for large scale conven-
(a) The GNAT light fighter, manufactured on tional warfare plus limited use of tactical atomic
licence for quite some yeam, plus India's own weapons only.
Hindustan light tactical fighters, operated suc- A sudden .Soviet political move coupled with
cessfully against more expensive Pakistan air- armed force in Europe could produce this.
craft in lesser quantity. So could a Soviet-Chinese armed confrontation, or
(b) The Indian generals proved expert at Ar- a new Indo/China one (similar to 1962).
moured/Air cooperation, producing a blitz- In all these cases, the airpower available on both
krieg in East Pakistan (since Bangladesh). sides comprises:
(2) Iran/Iraq The Iranians made a surprising recov- 1 Some kind of strategic bomber force with long-
-
ery from the political disorganisation which had range capacity, varying in size.
harassed their Air Force, and their pilots proved Z.Important taclical forces of attack aircraft air-
skilful. bome and troop capacity (at present using many
Iraqi bombers and fighters, however, both proved hehcopters).
effective, and slowed down what looked like be- While this air power exists, shared between national
coming a devastating Iranian counterattack and air forces and army aviation, a final larger develop-
invasion. ment is in progress.
While in the West paratroops have more often than
not since 1945 been employed as elite corps in
counter-insurgency (Alergia, Northern Ireland, An go-
la, etc. etc.), the Soviets still believe in carrying out
Military Enthusiast 30 35
large paratroop operations, and the US lTas also held Paratroops and a complete air{anding force - air-
some large scale training exercises. The Indians a- bome infantry with artillery and support services -
tempted one big air drop in the last Pakistan war but, medical. signals. etc., entirely airborne.
due to very adverse weather conditions, it was not a These combined air and air-portable forces. when
success (while their air/armoured cooperation was adequate, could not only neutralise opposing air
splendid). forces and anti-aircraft defences, but seize strong
Rather than using paratroops alone, we are moving points, and hold small advanced areas ready to link
towards the complete air portable army (the US Air up with the advancing armoured thrusts of the
Mobile Division in Vietnern was one example). so that main army.
fnture aerial warfare can be in two layers, i.e. A new, updated, and effective blitzkreig can be
1. The Air War proper, at high altitudes and long dis- born. due to this wide and elastic use of air power
tarlces, waged by strategic fighters and bombers. - the air power which has evolved from such an
2. The tactical Air War carried orit by ground attack elementary basis in comparatively such a short space
fighters and bombers (Air Force responsibility). R of Earth-time - 1914 to the 1980s!
mass of light, simply constnicted. ivell-armed air-
craft used elastically as the tactrcal situation de-
mands, to reinforce the tactical Air Force squad-
IONS.

RAF Regintent soltliers takittg positiorts arotincl q Harier dispersal, during a field deptoyment of No. 3 Sqn, RAFG.
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o Copyright Eshel dranrit Ltd. 37


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BOOK REVIEW
FIGHTER PILOT TACTICS book moves on to between-the-wars progress, then to the test-
The Techniques of Daylight Air Combat ing ground of 1936137 Spain, the conflagration of World War
by Mike Spick II, the "police action" ol Korea, the Vietnam conflict, various
Patrick Stephens Limited, Cambridge, local wars and the Falklands. In this way the reader can not
176 pp. only absorb the advancement of air warfare tactics, but also
come to understand how the whole reaim of air combat has
This book starts with a detailed and diagrammed descrip- evolved from derring-do to a cold science and prof-essional
tion of the Gulf of Sidra action of 1 9 August, 1 98 I , in which business.
two US Navy F-14s downed a pair of Libyan Su-22s. The The reader is helped along by detailed, yet simplified dia-
author then returns to early World War I and the first ever air- grams of specific air-to-air combat manoeuvres, as weil as selec-
to-air combat in which a French Voisin Type 3 destroyed a ted individual combats of such personalities as Ball, McCudden ,
German Aviatik on a recce mission over the battle iines. In this Godlrey, Gentile and Olds.
way, Mike Spick effectively contrasts the intricate science of The author bemoans (as do all military correspondents and
present day air warfare with the touch-and-go,learn-on-the-job writers) the elficiency of the Israeli ceusors, but manages to
methods of the very first combat pilots, and sets the stage for present a short victory narrative of an Israeli F-15 pilot who
a very comprehensive, readable work on the subject at hand. took part ln the June, i982 Lebanese operation, a narrative
FIGHTER PILOT TACTICS pays homage to the romance hrst published, by the way, in BORN IN BATTLE No. 27.
of the early days by describing how the dashing, silk-scarved L.D.R.
young men went up to learn by doing, and then shares with us
the lessons gleaned from their trlumphs and tragedies. The
PLEASE READ CAREFULLY!
NOTICE FOR SUBSCRIBERS AND BOOK ORDERS
Readers'Letters
All ordcrs arc sent by surtace or scagoing mail as soon as possible after
receipt ol order.
Dear Sir,
Internationai mail is erratic in periods and customers should allow for
In Vol. 2 No. 2 of the "Milltary Enthusiast", there is a 8-10 iveeks for arrival at destination, in some areas even more. Orders
photo of a CF-l04 Starfighter in tiger stripes and marking of are despatched after being recorded in our mail despatch book, but we
the Canadian Air Force. I have decided to paint a model of cannot accept responsibility lor loss in transit, or damage,
mine in this striking colour scheme. However, I cannot make ON REQUEST we supply AIRMAIL or REGISTERED MAIL charges
but these are very expensive for overseas destinations. We supply des-
out the markings on the craft and their exact position on the patch dates ON REQUEST after a lapse of 8 weeks ONLY. In spite of
body. Have you any fulther graphic information on this sub- international postal disorders, WE DO OUR BEST to ship you your
ject that is available? (page 20, second from top) order by fastest carder available. We do hope for your understanding.

. Yours sincerely,
Jason Walford
To: Eshel Dramit Ltd., P.O.B. I 15,
Hod Hasharon 45100. Israel.
Dear Mr. Walford,
We traced our photo library back to 1980 and eariier, to BOOK ORDER FORM
find more photos of the Tiger Squadron (439th, RCAF). We
found several frames of tlie F- 1 04s , but as these are transparen- Photocopies are also accepted.
cies they cannot be reproduced due to budgetary reasons.
I wish to order from the above list (please mark books
However, we bring here a left side view of the same Starfighter required).
we published in issue 12, which gives a good view of the in-
Enclosed is payment :
scriptions and tiger insignia. We pass your request to our read-
ers. If anyone has further information regarding the Tiger Name :

Squadron, please send us photos, etc. and we shali be happy to


publish it. We shall also continue to look for further informa- Address :

tion on this subject.


We invite our readers to send material or questions. We shall
try to answer all of them in this column.
NOTE: Allow 6 - l0 weeks, including handling, shipping,
and arrival by surface / seagoing mail according to coun-
The Editor
tries. Publishers are not responsible for loss in mail transit.

RCAF F to4, to11./


'rt|.t tgn, (raa19)
DEFENCE UPDATE INTERNATIONAL*
One of the most widely read international defence
magazines, bringing unbiased and well researched
professional opinions on Mid-East and intemation-
al military issues in a popular-professional style, en-
abling the student and layman to understand even
the most intricate problems of modern warfare and
weapon systems.
Lavishly illustrated with action photos, tables and
a wealth of information - DEFENCE UPDATE is
a must for every reader interested in modern mili-
tary and political issues.
Subscription for 12 issues, 1983 $56 including
surface mail.

MILITARY ENTHUSIAST MONTHLYE


The popular companion magazine, depicting mod-
em military events and armed forces in full colour;
illustrations specially selected for enthusiasts on all
matters pertaining to )ircraft, arrnoured vehicles
and ships. Special feafures on the Israeli, Arab and
Soviet armed forces are published frequently.
Subscription for 12 issues, 1983 $26 including
-
surface mail.

* Worldwide distribution by the International


Herald Tribune.

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Eshel Dramit Ltd., P.O.B. 115,45100, Hod Hasharon, Israel.

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