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SUBJECT- Organization Theory and

TOPIC- Behaviour Modification

Submitted To:
Submitted by:
Mrs. Harmeet Kaur
Sharandeep Kaur
M. Com (1stsem)
Organisational Behaviour Modification
The organizational behaviour of modification
theory (mainly called as OB Mod) is used in order
to modify the behaviour of the employees in
organisation. It deals with the changing
behaviour of employees through rewards and
punishments that are essentially contingent on
performance. A good manager can influence and
change an employee’s behaviour through proper
scheduled rewards and punishment. It intends at
effective measurement of employee
performance, and then linking superior
performance with appropriate reward. This
technique is used by the managers in an
organisation with the intension of maximizing
the motivation, productivity, effectiveness and
efficiency of the employees.
In other words, we can say this concept is an
application of this concept ton individuals in
work settings for proper functioning of
organizational goals by decreasing unwanted
behaviour and help employees to show suitable
According to Stephen P. Robbins
“OB MOD is a programme when managers
identify performance related employee’s
behaviours and then implement an intervention
strategy to strengthen desirable behaviour and
weaken undesirable behaviour”

MOD Positive Reinforcement is a commonly
used element by managers. It is a way to
encourage employee behaviour because it refers
to recognizing an employee for doing something
good. For example, giving praise in front of other
staff for achieving more than the set standard or
by giving rewards to employees for their extra
hard work.

Negative Reinforcement, a response or

behaviour is strengthened by stopping, removing
or avoiding a negative outcome or aversive
stimuli. For example, there is no longer requiring
employees to check in twice a day when their
performance meets desired standard.

Punishment is far by least favourite reinforce.

The purpose of punishment is to try to decrease
the unwanted action by imposing an undesirable
punishment. When punishment is used, it means
that an employee has done something wrong and
have to make sure that act is unacceptable. For
example, cut off wages when production
standard is not achieved.

Extinction is the elimination of a behaviour. This

type of behaviour modification should be
reserved for the most damaging behaviors. When
you want an immediate and complete stop to
unwanted actions, such as smoking on the job or
using sexual innuendo, offer the most severe
punishment, such as firing, if you see any more
of the behaviour. You should make the
consequences clear and make sure employees
know there will be zero tolerance.

A-B-C’s of Behaviour Modification:

An ABC chart is a direct observation tool that can
be used to collect information about the events
that are occurring within an environment. It
further helps us to understand how environment
contingencies influence behaviour. In this model

 ‘A’ refers to The Antecedent or the event

that immediately precedes a problem
 ‘B’ refers to Observed Behaviour.
 ‘C’ refers to Consequences or the event
that immediately follow a response.

What happens before the What happens after the

What person say or do Behaviour

This recording format is easier to use than other

observation formats. The data gathered provides
a lots of information about employee’s behaviour
and environment.
Fred Lathan’s and R.Kreitner developed and used
a behavioural approach toEVALUATION
management of human resource for performance


this step managers need to identify which
behaviours are highly desirable in
organisation and which are desirable in
organisation. The managers need to specify
which behaviour is wanted or need to be
changed for the sake of organisation. If the
behaviour can be seen or measured than
only second step is applied otherwise it
cannot be applied.
For E.g.:absenteeism, tardiness and
promptness, complaints or criticism etc. are
the behaviours that should apply

2. Measurement of Behaviours: After the critical

behaivor are identified, these are measured
in terms of the rate at which these are
occurring. If the rate of occurrence is within
the acceptable limits, no action may be
required. However, if it is more, it requires to
be changed. Measurement of behaviours can
be through either by observing and counting
or extracting from existing records.

3. Identifying behavioural consequences: This

step consists of a details examination of
present behaviours being shown by
employees to determine what consequences
each product and what conditions leads to
their occurrence, etc. Contingent
consequences of behaviour should be
identified because these consequences have
impact on subsequent behaviour. For e.g. If
any employee in an organisation word hard
than gets reward or not, or just gets tired.

4. Develop and Apply Intervention Strategy:

Once the critical behaviours have been
identified and their circumstances which
cause such behaviour have been determine,
the next step will to develop an effective
intervention strategy. There are several
strategies that can be used at this stage.
These include positive or negative
reinforcement, extinction, punishment. The
use of particular strategy will depend upon
the type of situation faced.

5. Evaluate Performance: This is the last

stage or final step involved in organisational
behaviour modification process. The main
focus of this step to identify the success or
failure of OB MOD program. In this step
manager evaluate whether the intervention
strategies are working properly or not which
will show whether the undesirable
behaviours have been substituted by
desirable behaviour or not.

 Can be put to testing: Ob concentrates on
person’s external behaviour and this allow
a manager to realistically observe and deal
with outward manifestation of behaviour.
Since it deals with observed behaviour it
can be put to testing.

 Development of Employees: OB Mod

presents a set of tools by which people can
learn new behaviour and skill there by
replacing undesirable behaviours. Positive
reinforcement can be used to encourage
desirable behaviour of employees.
 Easy to understand and use:
understanding of Ob Mod techniques is
comparatively easy. Managers can use these
without much problems. OB Mod has received
great attention from several organisations in
recent years.

Limitations of OB Mod:
a. Behaviour modification is an overall structure and
ignores, individual difference.
People have different
needs, desire, values and abilities. They cannot all
respond to the same stimuli in the same manner.
For example, not all people value praise for their
performance as a desired reinforcement.
b. Behaviour modification programmes assume that
extrinsic rewards are the key factors in behaviour
modification and they ignore the fact that
employees can be intrinsically motivated. The
extrinsic rewards in the form of money and praise
Perception and Learning primarily satisfy the lower
level needs, while there are some people who strive
for higher level needs such as self-esteem and self-
actualisation which are satisfied by the nature of
the job and pride in accomplishing such a job.
c. Behaviour modification ignores prevailing work-group
norms. It is important for the management to
recognize the power of work-group norms. Most
people working together tend to be emotionally
attached to each other, thus sympathising with
each other’s needs. For example, strike and