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Science in the National Curriculum

Key stage 4 (grades 9 and 10)

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Acknowledgements

The publisher wishes to acknowledge the schools and the teachers who have helped in the
development of the “three term grid” which the two year IGCSE science syllabuses content
are allocated into a three term grid. In particular, we wish to thank:

Name School

Aalima Mohamed Iskandharu School


Aishath Sulthana Aminiya School
Aminath Azza Aminiya School
Aminath Shahadha Iskandharu School
Aishath Waheed Hiriya School
Fathimath Rashfa Hiriya School
Seeniya Musthafa Hiriya School
D. Vimala Mohan Aminiya School
Rashaga Jaleel Imadhuddin School
Hawwa Waheed kalaafaanu School
Fathimath Shazla Thaajuddeen School
Ibrahim Muzaah Iskandharu School
Sobeeha Abdul Latheef Muhyiddin School
George Mary Majeediyya School
Waseema Ali Imadhuddin School
S.K. Anthony Aminiya School
Emmanuel Regan Paul Ghaazee School
Jeneena Ali Ghaazee School
Naazneen Nizar Hiriya School

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Introduction

Rationale

The aim of Science Education in Maldives is to develop scientific literacy. Scientific and
technological literacy is an evolving combination of the science-related attitudes, skills, and
knowledge students need to develop inquiry, problem-solving, and decision-making
abilities; to become lifelong learners; and to maintain a sense of wonder about the world
around them.
To develop scientific and technological literacy, students require diverse learning
experiences which provide opportunity to explore, analyse, evaluate, synthesise, appreciate,
and understand the interrelationships among science, technology, society, and the
environment that will affect their personal lives, their careers, and their futures.

Environment, Science and Technology

The purpose of this key learning area is for students to explore the natural world and its
phenomena through systematic and organized inquiry. It provides the opportunity for
students to question, investigate, predict and explain the events of the Earth and the
universe.
The aims of Environment, Science and Technology are to:
• enable the student to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes so as to develop an
informed and critical understanding of, environment, science and technological issues
• reinforce and stimulate curiosity and imagination about local and wider environments
• enable the student to play a responsible role as an individual, as a family member and as
a member of local, regional, national, global communities
• foster an understanding of, and concern for, the total interdependence of all humans, all
living things and the Earth on which they live
• foster a sense of responsibility for the long-term care of the environment and a
commitment to promote the sustainable use of the Earth’s resources through personal
life-style and participation in collective environmental decision-making
• cultivate humane and responsible attitudes and an appreciation of the world in
accordance with beliefs and values.

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Science in the National Curriculum
The science curriculum adopts the IGCSE Science syllabi to be used for key stage 4. These
syllabi contribute to the development of the student in all aspects along with the other
subjects in the National Curriculum. It aims to achieve the vision along with the eight
principles identified, incorporating the key competencies and also relating to effective
pedagogical approaches emphasized in the National Curriculum.

The Vision
The IGCSE science syllabi has ample opportunities to pave the road to achieve the vision of
the National Curriculum.
The National Curriculum envisions the development of:
• successful individuals who are motivated to learn and explore; who are inquisitive and
eager to seek, use and create knowledge.
• confident and competent individuals who have a firm belief in Islam, a strong sense of
self and cultural identity, and believe in their own capabilities; and
• responsible and productive contributors to their own family, their local community and
the global society.

Science learning experiences assist students to develop and understand scientific concepts
along with process skills and the pedagogical approaches emphasize students to participate
in practical hands-on experiences, exploring the world around them through posing
questions, predicting and finding answers to these gives the student the grounds to develop
themselves as successful learners who are eager to learn and explore.

Science provides many opportunities for students to develop their scientific concepts along
with necessary skills and values that would build their self-confidence and esteem. Students
will be given opportunities to relate learning beyond their classroom, such as visiting and
studying various field sites, opportunities to get engaged with local community members in
various disciplines, opportunities to participate in various school/community organized
tasks. Engagement and involvement in these ensures that student acquire the knowledge,
skills and values to be competent citizens.

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The Principles
The National Curriculum identifies eight fundamental principles that need to be taken into
account when designing and implementing learning and other school activities. Cambridge
IGCSE science syllabi has provisions to taking into account these principles.

The teaching learning of Science highly emphasizes linking Science and Islam. Essentially,
science provides the understanding of natural and other phenomena, events and objects
through the study of inquiry, based on experiments and investigations. Facts, figures and
theories contribute to the understanding of various scientific concepts. It is highly
recommended to link these to Islam to strengthen the faith of students.

Similarly, in depth understanding of scientific concepts and processes ensures that students
develop holistically, and relating these concepts and processes to their real life context
ensuring relevance to students and preparing them for life.

Likewise, a range of content in terms of knowledge, skills and values identified in these
syllabi takes account various learning styles and cognitively differentiated with core and
extended such that every student has the opportunity to reach to personal excellence.

The Key Competencies


The eight key competencies outlined in the National Curriculum encompass knowledge,
skills, values and attitudes and dispositions to be explicitly taught in various key learning
areas and through various school activities. The IGCSE Science syllabi provides ample
opportunities for this in many contexts and it is expected to explore these opportunities to
the fullest. The diagram below gives some examples of how key competencies can be
explored through science.

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Thinking critically and creatively Using sustainable practices
Explore their surroundings, ask questions, use high order thinking Many opportunities to understand issues from both
to analyse and solve issues. It asks students to understand abstract developmental as well as environmental perspectives which can
concepts which require high level of cognition. be explored through these syllabi in a way that students are
encouraged to develop stewardship towards the environment.

Practicing Using Media and


Islam Technology Living a healthy life
Understanding and managing self
Provisions Students need to use Many opportunities to
explore, understand Students are required to carry out several investigations
for linking technology in their
science and practice issues throughout the years and these investigations give ample
learning and identify related to health and
concepts opportunities for students to develop the key
such as best sources to gather healthy life
natural competency, understanding and managing self as they
information; question
phenomena have to be carried out in a systematic and organized
and how the authenticity of the
manner.
body information gathered
systems Relating to people
and also analyse,
work can be This can be addressed
related to synthesise and Making Meaning
through science
Islam. evaluate the practicals, experiments The scientific concepts involve
and investigations vocabulary that requires making
information.
meaning and this can be enhanced
through diagrams, pictures and
symbols.

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Planning, Teaching and Learning and Assessment

The planning Stage

The planning at department level, grade level, class level, as well as at an individual level
need to take place before the teaching begins in each specific subject in science. The
following are some recommended areas of focus which can be used to reflect in planning
the lessons for effective instruction in science which are well aligned with the pedagogical
approaches mentioned in the National Curriculum:

• Priority for practical inquiry in science


• Opportunities to engage in science learning
• Making learning in science relevant and meaningful
• Focus on nature of science
• Integrate local contexts
• Include science pathways for future

Planning teaching and learning becomes more meaningful if we follow a particular model of
teaching. Several models of teaching are presented by various scholars. The science
curriculum places a strong emphasis on inquiry approach to teaching and learning and
hence the model below is suggested for teachers to use in their planning teaching.

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The approach applied in this model is based on principles that underpin effective teaching
and learning in science. It is advisable to use a similar format to plan the lesson for effective
instruction in science.

Effective teaching requires teachers to critically reflect on the teaching and learning
relationship and this model can be used for this purpose too. Such reflections need to look
back on the most crucial aspects of teaching and learning. The following points can be
looked at in this process for meaningful reflection.

• has a strong component of practical experiences


• responsive to students’ prior experiences
• keeps science relevant and makes clear its relevance to students’ lives
• aligns science concepts with the nature of science
• builds skills for lifelong learning
• develops students’ literacy and numeracy skills
• uses technology as a tool to promote student learning
• uses assessment to promote student learning
(Note: The details of this model is given at the end of this section).

Assessment
Quality assessment is central to good teaching and is inevitably a key component in learning
environments that facilitate students’ learning with understanding. The National
Curriculum places a strong emphasis on using both types of assessment: assessment for
learning and assessment of learning.

Assessment for Learning has been defined as: ‘the process of seeking and interpreting
evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where learners are in their
learning, where they need to go and how best to get there.’ (Assessment Reform Group,
2002). Research (e.g. Black and Wiliam, 1998) has indicated that AfL can benefit all
children but is ‘not something added to teaching, but is integral to it’ (Harlen, 2006b
p. 176).

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Assessment of learning: Assessment of learning is generally summative in nature and
intended to measure learning outcomes and reports those outcomes to students, parents
and administrators.

The inter-relationship between planning teaching and assessment is very strong and hence
the following three areas of focus is useful in this aspect:

Focus 1: Focus on teaching


Good teacher planning feeds good assessment. With a focus on good teaching, it is
important to plan for assessment that is “learning oriented, authentic, valid and socially
just” (Hay & Penney, 2012, p.64).

Focus 2: Focus on students


Good assessment addresses the intended student learning and is responsive to group/class
and individual feedback needs.

Focus 3: Focus on evidence of learning


Quality assessment gathers evidence of student progress as a purposeful pursuit. Certainly it
is important for teachers to be knowledgeable and skilled in the use of assessment tools
(technical aspects of assessment), as well as being able to decide on those which provide
‘best fit’ for the purposes for which they are being used.

Focus 4: Focus on future decision-making


A focus on future decision making requires assessment that is authentic for this purpose.
It is evident from these focus areas that effective teachers need to use range pf activities,
both formal and informal to identify students’ strengths and weakness. They also need to
support students monitor their progress and identify what they need to do next to further
students’ learning

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Learn more:

Pedagogy and Assessment Guide (PAG) has more information and ideas relating to teaching
and learning and assessment in the context of the Curriculum.

Recommended Time

The following table shows the allocated time for teaching science subjects (Biology,
Chemistry, Physics and marine Science)

Subject Groups Subjects Recommended Minimum time per week

In minutes In 35 minute periods


OPTIONS OPTION 1 140 4
OPTION 2 140 4
OPTION 3 140 4
OPTION 4 140 4

References
http://www.thescienceteacher.co.uk/teaching-and-learning
https://seniorsecondary.tki.org.nz/
Pedagogy and Assessment Guide /NIE /Maldives

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Appendix

Sample lesson Plan format


Three term Grid (note: The concepts introduced in grade 7 and 8 are shaded
in the grid. Please go through the ks3 syllabus to get details covered)

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A sample lesson plan format that is can be used with Science
EPIBA: a simple approach to support lesson planning in science.
Assessment EPIB What? Why? Time Exam
A (min) ple
Assessment for E Engage (often the Motivate students – 3-5
learning should run Do it Now) provide them with an
throughout opportunity to succeed
as soon as they enter
the classroom and
recap/consolidate key
knowledge from the
previous lesson.
*looking at student Introduce learning objective–
work
Key words:
Knowledge outcomes: Skills outcomes:
*questioning

Key competencies
addressed

*peer assessment P Prior learning Check misconceptions 10


check and set-up and assess prior
knowledge so that the
rest of the lesson can be
pitched correctly.
Assessment for I Introduce new Introduce new 10
learning should run knowledge knowledge. Begin with a
throughout concrete idea or simple
context so that you start
from what your students
already know. Modelling
is important here.
*looking at student
B Build new content Students have the 15
work
opportunity to practice
what they have learnt in
the introduce section to
*questioning
consolidate learning and
develop understanding.
A Apply new Students have the 15
content opportunity to apply
what they have learnt to
*peer assessment
new situations. This will
assess understanding
and consolidate
understanding.
http://www.thescienceteacher.co.uk/teaching-and-learning.

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Usage of the Science IGCSE Cambridge Syllabuses

The IGCSE Cambridge syllabuses are divided into two years (4 term grid) which gives some
ideas for the teachers to choose in preparing the scheme and lesson planning.

Physics

Grade Term Topic Details


9 1
General Physics Core Supplement
• Use and describe the use of rules and
1.1 Length and • Understand that a micro-
measuring cylinders to find a length
meter screw gauge is used to
time or a volume.
measure very small
• Use and describe the use of clocks
distances.
and devices, both analogue and
digital, for measuring an interval of
(Length and time
time.
Taught in grade 7 • Obtain an average value for a small
distance and for a short interval of
and 8. pls go
time by measuring multiples
through the ks3 (including the period of a pendulum).
syllabus to get
details)
1.2 Motion Core Supplement
• Define speed and calculate average • Distinguish between speed
speed from total distance /total time and velocity
• Plot and interpret a speed–time • Define and calculate
graph or a distance–time graph acceleration using
• Recognise from the shape of a speed– • change of velocity time taken
time graph when a body is • Calculate speed from the
o at rest gradient of a distance–time
o moving with constant speed graph
o moving with changing speed • Calculate acceleration from
• Calculate the area under a speed– the gradient of a speed–time
time graph to work out the distance graph
travelled for motion with constant • Recognise linear motion for
acceleration which the acceleration is
• Demonstrate understanding that constant
acceleration and deceleration are • Recognise motion for which
related to changing speed including the acceleration is not
qualitative analysis of the gradient of constant
a speed–time graph • Understand deceleration as a
negative acceleration

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• State that the acceleration of free fall • Describe qualitatively the
for a body near to the Earth is motion of bodies
constant • falling in a uniform
gravitational field with and
• without air resistance
(including reference to
• terminal velocity)

1.3 Mass and Core Supplement


• Show familiarity with the idea of the • Demonstrate an
weight mass of a body understanding that mass is a
(Mass and weight, • State that weight is a gravitational property that ‘resists’ change
force in motion
gravity introduced • Distinguish between mass and weight • Describe, and use the
in grade 7. Pls go • Recall and use the equation W = mg concept of, weight as the
• Demonstrate understanding that effect of a gravitational field
through the ks3 on a mass
weights (and hence masses) may be
syllabus to get compared using a balance
details)
1.4 Density Core
• Recall and use the equation ρ = mV
(Covered in grade
• Describe an experiment to determine
8) the density of a liquid and of a
regularly shaped solid and make the
necessary calculation.
• Describe the determination of the
density of an irregularly shaped solid
by the method of displacement
• Predict whether an object will float
based on density data
1.5 Forces Core Supplement

1.5.1Effects of • Recognise that a force may produce a • State Hooke’s Law and recall
forces change in size and shape of a body and use the expression F = k
• Plot and interpret extension–load x, where k is the spring
graphs and describe the associated constant
(meaning of experimental procedure • Recognise the significance of
forces and • Describe the ways in which a force the ‘limit of proportionality’
investigation of may change the motion of a body for an extension–load graph
forces carried out
• Find the resultant of two or more • Recall and use the
in grade 8. Pls go
forces acting along the same line relationship between force,
through the ks3
syllabus to get • Recognise that if there is no resultant mass and acceleration
details) force on a body it either remains at (including the direction), F =
rest or continues at constant speed in ma
a straight line • Describe qualitatively motion
• Understand friction as the force in a circular path due to a
between two surfaces which impedes perpendicular force (F = mv 2
motion and results in heating / r is not required)
• Recognise air resistance as a form of
friction

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1.5.2 Turning Core Supplement
effect
• Describe the moment of a force as a
measure of its turning effect and give
everyday examples
• Understand that increasing force or
distance from the pivot increases the
moment of a force
• Calculate moment using the product
force × perpendicular distance from
the pivot
• Apply the principle of moments to the
balancing of a beam about a pivot

• Apply the principle of


moments to different
situations

1.5.3 Conditions Core Supplement


for equilibrium • Recognise that, when there is no • Perform and describe an
resultant force and no resultant experiment (involving
turning effect, a system is in vertical forces) to show that
equilibrium there is no net moment on a
body in equilibrium

1.5.4 Centre of Core


mass • Perform and describe an experiment
to determine the position of the
centre of mass of a plane lamina.
• Describe qualitatively the effect of
the position of the centre of mass on
the stability of simple objects
1.5.5 Scalars and Supplement
vectors • Understand that vectors
have a magnitude and
(Scalers and direction.
vectors • Demonstrate an
introduced in understanding of the
grade 7. Pls go difference between scalars
through the ks3 and vectors and give
common examples

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syllabus to get • Determine graphically the
details) resultant of two vectors

1.6 Momentum Supplement


• Understand the concepts of
momentum and impulse
• Recall and use the equation
momentum = mass ×
velocity, p = mv.
• Recall and use the equation
for impulse Ft = mv – mu
• Apply the principle of the
conservation of momentum
to solve simple problems in
one dimension
1.7 Energy, work Core Supplement
and power • Identify changes in kinetic, • Recall and use the
gravitational potential, chemical, expressions kinetic energy =
1.7.1 Energy elastic (strain), nuclear and internal ½mv 2 and change in
energy that have occurred as a result gravitational potential
(Kinetic and of an event or process energy = mgΔh
potential energy • Recognise that energy is transferred
introduced. Pls go during events and processes,
through the ks3 including examples of transfer by
syllabus to get forces (mechanical working), by
details) • electrical currents (electrical
working), by heating and by waves
• Apply the principle of conservation of
energy to simple examples

• Apply the principle of


conservation of energy to
examples involving multiple
stages
• Explain that in any event or
process the energy tends to
become more spread out
among the objects and
surroundings (dissipated)

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1.7.2 Energy Core Supplement
resources • Describe how electricity or other • Understand that the Sun is
useful forms ofenergy may be the source of energy for all
obtained from: our energy resources except
o chemical energy stored in geothermal, nuclear and tidal
fuel • Show an understanding that
o water, including the energy energy is released by nuclear
stored in waves, in tides, and fusion in the Sun
in water behind
hydroelectric dams
o geothermal resources
o nuclear fission
o heat and light from the Sun
(solar cells and panels)
o wind
• Give advantages and disadvantages of
each method in terms of
renewability, cost, reliability, scale
and environmental impact
• Show a qualitative understanding of
efficiency

Recall and use the equations:


efficiency = useful energy
output/energy input × 100%
efficiency = useful power output/
power input × 100%
1.7.3 Work Core Supplement
• Demonstrate understanding that • Recall and use W = Fd = ΔE
work done = energy transferred
• Relate (without calculation) work
done to the magnitude of a force and
the distance moved in the direction of
the force

1.7.4 Power Core Supplement


• Relate (without calculation) power to • Recall and use the equation P
work done and time taken, using = ΔE / t in simple systems
appropriate examples
1.8 Pressure Core
• Recall and use the equation p = F / A
The term Pressure • Relate pressure to force and area,
and its using appropriate examples
dependency on • Describe the simple mercury
area and force is barometer and its
introduced. Pls go • use in measuring atmospheric
through the ks3 pressure
syllabus to get • Relate (without calculation) the
details) pressure beneath a liquid surface to
depth and to density, using • Recall and use the equation p
appropriate examples = hρg

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• Use and describe the use of a
manometer
Gr. 9 T.2 2.1 Simple kinetic Core
molecular model • State the distinguishing properties of
of matter solids,
2.1.1 States of
matter

2.1.2 Molecular Core Supplement


model • Describe qualitatively the molecular • Relate the properties of
structure of solids, liquids and gases solids, liquids and gases to
(Kinetic theory of in terms of the the forces and distances
matter introduced • arrangement, separation and motion between molecules and to
in ks3 pls go of the molecules the motion of the molecules
through the ks3 • Interpret the temperature of a gas in
syllabus for more terms of the motion of its molecules
details) • Describe qualitatively the pressure of
a gas in terms of the motion of its
molecules • Explain pressure in terms of
• Show an understanding of the the change of momentum of
random motion of particles in a the particles striking the
suspension as evidence for the walls creating a force
• kinetic molecular model of matter • Show an appreciation that
• Describe this motion (sometimes massive particles may be
known as Brownian motion) in terms moved by light, fast-moving
of random molecular bombardment molecules
2.1.3 Evaporation Core Supplement
• Describe evaporation in terms of the • Demonstrate an
escape of more-energetic molecules understanding of how
from the surface of a liquid temperature, surface area
• Relate evaporation to the consequent and draught over a surface
cooling of the liquid influence evaporation
• Explain the cooling of a body
in contact with an
evaporating liquid
2.1.4 Pressure Core Supplement
changes • Describe qualitatively, in terms of • Recall and use the equation
molecules, the effect on the pressure pV = constant for a fixed
of a gas of: mass of gas at constant
o a change of temperature at temperature
constant volume
o a change of volume at
constant temperature
2.2 Thermal Core Supplement
properties and • Describe qualitatively the thermal • Explain, in terms of the
temperature expansion of solids, liquids, and gases motion and arrangement of
at constant pressure molecules, the relative order
• Identify and explain some of the of the magnitude of the
2.2.1 Thermal everyday applications and expansion of solids, liquids
expansion of consequences of thermal expansion and gases
solids, liquids and
gases

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2.2.2 Core Supplement
Measurement of • Appreciate how a physical property • Demonstrate understanding
temperature that varies with temperature may be of sensitivity, range and
used for the measurement of linearity
Thermometers temperature, and state examples of • Describe the structure of a
and measurement such properties thermocouple and show
of temperature • Recognise the need for and identify understanding of its use as a
introduced in ks3. fixed points thermometer for measuring
Pls go through the • Describe and explain the structure high temperatures and those
ks3 syllabus to get and action of liquid-in-glass that vary rapidly
details) thermometers • Describe and explain how the
structure of a liquid-in-glass
thermometer relates to its
sensitivity, range and
linearity
2.2.3 Thermal Core Supplement
capacity (heat • Relate a rise in the temperature of a • Give a simple molecular
capacity) body to an increase in its internal account of an increase in
energy internal energy
• Show an understanding of what is • Recall and use the equation
meant by the thermal capacity of a thermal capacity = mc
body • Define specific heat capacity
• Describe an experiment to
measure the specific heat
capacity of a substance
• Recall and use the equation
change in energy = mcΔT
2.2.4 Melting and Core Supplement
boiling • Describe melting and boiling in terms • Distinguish between boiling
of energy input without a change in and evaporation
temperature
• State the meaning of melting point
and boiling point
• Describe condensation and • Use the terms latent heat of
solidification in terms of molecules vaporisation and latent heat
of fusion and give a
molecular interpretation of
latent heat
• Define specific latent heat
• Describe an experiment to
measure specific latent heats
for steam and for ice
• Recall and use the equation
energy = ml

2.3 Thermal • Describe experiments to demonstrate • Give a simple molecular


processes the properties of good and bad account of conduction in
2.3.1 Conduction thermal conductors solids including lattice
vibration and transfer by
electrons
2.3.2 Convection • Recognise convection as an important
method of thermal transfer in fluids
(conduction and • Relate convection in fluids to density
convection changes and describe experiments to
introduced in illustrate convection
grade 8. Pls go

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through the ks3
syllabus to get
details)

2.3.3 Radiation • Identify infra-red radiation as part of • Describe experiments to


the electromagnetic spectrum show the properties of good
• Recognise that thermal energy and bad emitters and good
transfer by radiation does not require and bad absorbers of infra-
a medium red radiation
• Describe the effect of surface colour • Show understanding that the
(black or white) and texture (dull or amount of radiation emitted
shiny) on the emission, absorption also depends on the surface
and reflection of radiation temperature and surface
area of a body
2.3.4 • Identify and explain some of the
Consequences of everyday applications and
energy transfer consequences of conduction,
convection and radiation
3 Properties of
waves, including
light and sound
3.1 General wave • Demonstrate understanding that
properties waves transfer energy without
transferring matter
• Describe what is meant by wave
motion as illustrated by vibration in
ropes and springs and by
experiments using water waves
• Use the term wavefront
• Give the meaning of speed,
frequency, wavelength and • Recall and use the equation
amplitude v=fλ
• Distinguish between transverse and
longitudinal waves and give suitable
examples
• Describe how waves can undergo: –
reflection at a plane surface –
refraction due to a change of speed – • Describe how wavelength
diffraction through a narrow gap and gap size affects
• Describe the use of water waves to diffraction through a gap
demonstrate reflection, refraction • Describe how wavelength
and diffraction affects diffraction at an edge
3.2 Light • Describe the formation of an optical • Recall that the image in a
3.2.1 Reflection of image by a plane mirror, and give its plane mirror is virtual
light characteristics • Perform simple
• Recall and use the law angle of constructions,
incidence = angle of reflection measurements and
calculations for reflection by
plane mirrors

3.2.2 Refraction of • Describe an experimental • Recall and use the definition


light demonstration of the refraction of of refractive index n in terms
light of speed
• Use the terminology for the angle of • Recall and use the equation
incidence i and angle of refraction r sin sin r i = n
and describe the passage of light • Recall and use sin n c 1 =

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through parallel sided transparent • Describe and explain the
material action of optical fibres
• Give the meaning of critical angle particularly, in medicine and
• Describe internal and total internal communications technology
reflection
3.2.3 Thin • Describe the action of a thin
converging lens converging lens on a beam of light
• Use the terms principal focus and
focal length
• Draw ray diagrams for the formation
of a real image by a single lens • Draw and use ray diagrams
• Describe the nature of an image using for the formation of a virtual
the terms enlarged/same image by a single lens
size/diminished and upright/inverted • Use and describe the use of a
single lens as a magnifying
glass
• Show understanding of the
terms real image and virtual
image
3.2.4 Dispersion • Give a qualitative account of the • Recall that light of a single
of light dispersion of light as shown by the frequency is described as
action on light of a glass prism monochromatic
including the seven colours of the
spectrum in their correct order
3.3 • Describe the main features of the • State that the speed of
Electromagnetic electromagnetic spectrum in order of electromagnetic waves in a
spectrum wavelength vacuum is 3.0 × 108 m/s and
• State that all electromagnetic waves is approximately the same in
travel with the same high speed in a air
vacuum
• Describe typical properties and uses
of radiations in all the different
regions of the electromagnetic
spectrum including: – radio and
television communications (radio
waves) – satellite television and
telephones (microwaves) – electrical
appliances, remote controllers for
televisions and intruder alarms
(infrared) – medicine and security (X-
rays)
• Demonstrate an awareness of safety
issues regarding the use of
microwaves and X-rays
3.4 Sound • Describe the production of sound by
vibrating sources
• Describe the longitudinal nature of • Describe compression and
sound waves rarefaction
• State that the approximate range of
audible frequencies for a healthy
human ear is 20Hz to 20000 Hz
• Show an understanding of the term
ultrasound
• Show an understanding that a
medium is needed to transmit sound
waves

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• Describe an experiment to determine
the speed of sound in air • State typical values of the
• Relate the loudness and pitch of speed of sound in gases,
sound waves to amplitude and liquids and solids
frequency
• Describe how the reflection of sound
may produce an echo
4.0 Electricity and • Describe the forces between • Explain that magnetic forces
magnetism magnets, and between magnets and are due to interactions
4.1 Simple magnetic materials between magnetic fields
phenomena of • Give an account of induced
magnetism magnetism
• Distinguish between magnetic and
nonmagnetic materials
• Describe methods of magnetisation,
to include stroking with a magnet, use • Describe methods of
of direct current (d.c.) in a coil and demagnetisation, to include
hammering in a magnetic field hammering, heating and use
• Draw the pattern of magnetic field of alternating current (a.c.) in
lines around a bar magnet a coil
• Describe an experiment to identify
the pattern of magnetic field lines,
including the direction
• Distinguish between the magnetic
properties of soft iron and steel
• Distinguish between the design and
use of permanent magnets and
electromagnets
4.2.1 Electric • State that there are positive and • State that charge is
charge negative charges measured in coulombs
• State that unlike charges attract and • State that the direction of an
that like charges repel electric field at a point is the
• Describe simple experiments to show direction of the force on a
the production and detection of positive charge at that point
electrostatic charges • Describe an electric field as a
• State that charging a body involves region in which an electric
the addition or removal of electrons charge experiences a force
• Describe simple field
patterns, including the field
around a point charge, the
field around a charged
conducting sphere and the
• Distinguish between electrical field between two parallel
conductors and insulators and give plates (not including end
typical examples effects)
• Give an account of charging
by induction
• Recall and use a simple
electron model to distinguish
between conductors and
insulators
4.2.2 Current • State that current is related to the • Show understanding that a
flow of charge current is a rate of flow of
• Use and describe the use of an charge and recall and use the
ammeter, both analogue and digital equation I = Q/t

22
• State that current in metals is due to • Distinguish between the
a flow of electrons direction of flow of electrons
and conventional current
4.2.3 • State that the electromotive force • Show understanding that
Electromotive (e.m.f.) of an electrical source of e.m.f. is defined in terms of
force energy is measured in volts energy supplied by a source
in driving charge round a
complete circuit
4.2.4 Potential • State that the potential difference • Recall that 1V is equivalent
difference (p.d.) across a circuit component is to 1J/C
measured in volts
• Use and describe the use of a
voltmeter, both analogue and digital
4.2.5 Resistance • State that resistance = p.d./current • Sketch and explain the
and understand qualitatively how current-voltage characteristic
changes in p.d. or resistance affect of an ohmic resistor and a
current filament lamp
• Recall and use the equation R = V/ I
• Describe an experiment to determine
resistance using a voltmeter and an
ammeter
• Relate (without calculation) the
resistance of a wire to its length and • Recall and use quantitatively
to its diameter the proportionality between
resistance and length, and
the inverse proportionality
between resistance and
cross-sectional area of a wire
4.2.6 Electrical • Understand that electric circuits • Recall and use the equations
working transfer energy from the battery or P = IV and E = IVt
power source to the circuit
components then into the
surroundings
4.3 Electric circuits • Draw and interpret circuit diagrams • Draw and interpret circuit
4.3.1 Circuit containing sources, switches, resistors diagrams containing diodes
diagrams (fixed and variable), heaters,
thermistors, light-dependent
resistors, lamps, ammeters,
voltmeters, galvanometers,
magnetising coils, transformers, bells,
fuses and relays
4.3.2 Series and • Understand that the current at every • Calculate the combined
parallel circuits point in a series circuit is the same e.m.f. of several sources in
• Give the combined resistance of two series
or more resistors in series • Recall and use the fact that
• State that, for a parallel circuit, the the sum of the p.d.s across
current from the source is larger than the components in a series
the current in each branch circuit is equal to the total
• State that the combined resistance of p.d. across the supply
two resistors in parallel is less than • Recall and use the fact that
that of either resistor by itself the current from the source
• State the advantages of connecting is the sum of the currents in
lamps in parallel in a lighting circuit the separate branches of a
parallel circuit

23
• Calculate the effective
resistance of two resistors in
parallel
4.3.3 Action and • Describe the action of a variable • Describe the action of a
use of circuit potential divider (potentiometer) diode and show
components • Describe the action of thermistors understanding of its use as a
and lightdependent resistors and rectifier
show understanding of their use as • Recognise and show
input transducers understanding of circuits
• Describe the action of a relay and operating as light-sensitive
show understanding of its use in switches and temperature-
switching circuits operated alarms (to include
the use of a relay)
4.4 Digital • Explain and use the terms
electronics analogue and digital in terms
of continuous variation and
high/low states
• Describe the action of NOT,
AND, OR, NAND and NOR
gates
• Recall and use the symbols
for logic gates
• Design and understand
simple digital circuits
combining several logic gates
• Use truth tables to describe
the action of individual gates
and simple combinations of
gates
4.5 Dangers of • State the hazards of: – damaged
electricity insulation – overheating of cables –
damp conditions
• State that a fuse protects a circuit
• Explain the use of fuses and circuit
breakers and choose appropriate fuse
ratings and circuit-breaker settings
• Explain the benefits of earthing metal
cases
Gr.10 Term1 4.6 • Show understanding that a conductor • Show understanding that the
Electromagnetic moving across a magnetic field or a direction of an induced e.m.f.
effects changing magnetic field linking with a opposes the change causing
4.6.1 conductor can induce an e.m.f. in the it
Electromagnetic conductor • State and use the relative
induction • Describe an experiment to directions of force, field and
demonstrate electromagnetic induced current
induction
• State the factors affecting the
magnitude of an induced e.m.f.
4.6.2 a.c. • Distinguish between d.c. and a.c. • Describe and explain a
generator rotating-coil generator and
the use of slip rings
• Sketch a graph of voltage
output against time for a
simple a.c. generator
• Relate the position of the
generator coil to the peaks

24
and zeros of the voltage
output
4.6.3 Transformer • Describe the construction of a basic • Describe the principle of
transformer with a soft-iron core, as operation of a transformer
used for voltage transformations
• Recall and use the equation (Vp /Vs) =
(Np /Ns) • Recall and use the equation
• Understand the terms step-up and IpVp = IsVs (for 100%
step-down efficiency)
• Describe the use of the transformer in
high voltage transmission of
electricity
• Give the advantages of high-voltage
transmission • Explain why power losses in
cables are lower when the
voltage is high
4.6.4 The • Describe the pattern of the magnetic • State the qualitative
magnetic effect of field (including direction) due to variation of the strength of
a current currents in straight wires and in the magnetic field over
solenoids salient parts of the pattern
• Describe applications of the magnetic • State that the direction of a
effect of current, including the action magnetic field line at a point
of a relay is the direction of the force
on the N pole of a magnet at
that point
• Describe the effect on the
magnetic field of changing
the magnitude and direction
of the current
4.6.5 Force on a • Describe an experiment to show that • State and use the relative
current-carrying a force acts on a current-carrying directions of force, field and
conductor conductor in a magnetic field, current
including the effect of reversing: – the • Describe an experiment to
current – the direction of the field show the corresponding
force on beams of charged
particles
4.6.6 d.c. motor • State that a current-carrying coil in a • Relate this turning effect to
magnetic field experiences a turning the action of an electric
effect and that the effect is increased motor including the action of
by: a splitting commutator
– increasing the number of turns on
the coil
– increasing the current
– increasing the strength of the
magnetic field
5 Atomic physics • Describe the structure of an atom in • Describe how the scattering
5.1 The nuclear terms of a positive nucleus and of α-particles by thin metal
atom negative electrons foils provides evidence for
5.1.1 Atomic the nuclear atom
model

5.1.2 Nucleus • Describe the composition of the • State the meaning of nuclear
nucleus in terms of protons and fission and nuclear fusion
neutrons
• State the charges of protons and
neutrons

25
• Use the term proton number Z
• Use the term nucleon number A
• Use the term nuclide and use the
nuclide notation A ZX
• Use and explain the term isotope
• Balance equations involving
nuclide notation
5.2 Radioactivity • Demonstrate understanding of
5.2.1 Detection of background radiation
radioactivity • Describe the detection of α-particles,
β- particles and γ -rays (β + are not
included: β-particles will be taken to
refer to β– )
5.2.2 • Discuss the random nature of • Describe their deflection in
Characteristics of radioactive emission electric fields and in
the three kinds of • Identify α, β and γ -emissions by magnetic fields
emission recalling • Interpret their relative
– their nature ionising effects
– their relative ionising effects – their • Give and explain examples of
relative penetrating abilities (β + are practical applications of α, β
not included, β-particles will be taken and γ -emissions
to refer to β– )
5.2.3 Radioactive • State the meaning of radioactive • Use equations involving
decay decay nuclide notation to represent
• State that during α - or β-decay the changes in the composition
nucleus changes to that of a different of the nucleus when particles
element are emitted
5.2.4 Half-life • Use the term half-life in simple • Calculate half-life from data
calculations, which might involve or decay curves from which
information in tables or decay curves background radiation has not
been subtracted
5.2.5 Safety • Recall the effects of ionising
precautions radiations on living things
• Describe how radioactive materials
are handled, used and stored in a safe
way

26
Chemistry syllabus

Grade Term Topic Details


9 1 1 The particulate nature Core Supplement
• State the distinguishing
of matter • Explain changes of state in
properties of solids, liquids and
terms of the kinetic theory
1.1 The particulate gases
• Describe and explain
• Describe the structure of solids,
nature of matter Brownian motion in terms
liquids and gases in terms of
of random molecular
particle separation, arrangement
bombardment
and types of motion
(states of matter and • State evidence for
diffusion in relation to • Describe changes of state in
Brownian motion
terms of melting, boiling,
kinetic theory • Describe and explain
introduced. Pls go evaporation, freezing,
dependence of rate of
through the ks3 syllabus condensation and sublimation
diffusion on molecular mass
to get details) • Describe qualitatively the
pressure and temperature of a
gas in terms of the motion of its
particles
• Show an understanding of the
random motion of particles in a
suspension (sometimes known
as Brownian motion) as evidence
for the kinetic particle (atoms,
molecules or ions) model of
matter
• Describe and explain diffusion
9 1 2 Experimental • Name appropriate apparatus for
the measurement of time,
techniques
temperature, mass and volume,
2.1 Measurement including burettes, pipettes and
measuring cylinders

9 1 2.2 Purity • Demonstrate knowledge and • Interpret simple


understanding of paper chromatograms, including
2.2.1 Criteria of purity
chromatography the use of Rf values
• Interpret simple chromatograms • Outline how
• Identify substances and assess chromatography techniques
their purity from melting point can be applied to colourless
and boiling point information substances by exposing
• Understand the importance of chromatograms to
purity in substances in everyday substances called locating
life, e.g. foodstuffs and drugs agents. (Knowledge of
specific locating agents is
not required.)
9 1 2.2.2 Methods of • Describe and explain methods of •
purification by the use of a
purification
suitable solvent, filtration,
crystallisation and distillation
(including use of a fractionating
(Chromatography and
column). (Refer to the fractional
fractional distillation
distillation of petroleum in
introduced. Pls go
section 14.2 and products of
fermentation in section 14.6.)

27
through the ks3 syllabus • Suggest suitable purification
to get details) techniques, given information
about the substances involved

9 1 3 Atoms, elements and • State the relative charges and


approximate relative masses of
compounds
protons, neutrons and electrons
3.1 Atomic structure and • Define proton number (atomic
number) as the number of
the Periodic Table
protons in the nucleus of an
atom
(basic structure of atom • Define nucleon number (mass
and periodic table number) as the total number of
introduced. Pls go protons and neutrons in the
through the ks3 syllabus nucleus of an atom
to get details) • Use proton number and the
simple structure of atoms to
explain the basis of the Periodic
Table (see section 9), with
special reference to the
elements of proton number 1 to
20
• Define isotopes as atoms of the
same element which have the • Understand that isotopes
same proton number but a have the same properties
different nucleon number because they have the
• State the two types of isotopes same number of electrons
as being radioactive and non- in their outer shell
radioactive
• State one medical and one
industrial use of radioactive
isotopes
• Describe the build-up of
electrons in ‘shells’ and
understand the significance of
the noble gas electronic
structures and of the outer shell
electrons. (The ideas of the
distribution of electrons in s and
p orbitals and in d block
elements are not required.)

3.2 Structure and • Describe the differences


between elements, mixtures and
bonding
compounds, and between
3.2.1 Bonding: the metals and non-metals
• Describe an alloy, such as brass,
structure of matter
as a mixture of a metal with
other elements

28
3.2.2 Ions and ionic • Describe the formation of ions • Describe the formation of
bonds by electron loss or gain ionic bonds between
• Describe the formation of ionic metallic and non-metallic
bonds between elements from element
Groups I and VII • Describe the lattice
structure of ionic
compounds as a regular
arrangement of alternating
positive and negative ions

3.2.3 Molecules and • Describe the formation of single • Describe the electron
covalent bonds covalent bonds in H2, Cl 2, H2O, arrangement in more
CH4, NH3 and HCl as the sharing complex covalent molecules
of pairs of electrons leading to such as N2, C2H4, CH3OH
the noble gas configuration and CO2
• Describe the differences in • Explain the differences in
volatility, solubility and electrical melting point and boiling
conductivity between ionic and point of ionic and covalent
covalent compounds compounds in terms of
attractive forces
3.2.4 Macromolecules • Describe the giant covalent • Describe the
structures of graphite and macromolecular structure
diamond of silicon(IV) oxide (silicon
• Relate their structures to their dioxide)
uses, e.g. graphite as a lubricant • Describe the similarity in
and a conductor, and diamond properties between
in cutting tools diamond and silicon(IV)
oxide, related to their
structures
3.2.5 Metallic bonding • Describe metallic bonding
as a lattice of positive ions
in a ‘sea of electrons’ and
use this to describe the
electrical conductivity and
malleability of metals
4 Stoichiometry • Use the symbols of the elements • Determine the formula of
4.1 Stoichiometry and write the formulae of simple an ionic compound from
compounds the charges on the ions
• Deduce the formula of a simple present
compound from the relative • Construct equations with
numbers of atoms present state symbols, including
• Deduce the formula of a simple ionic equations
compound from a model or a • Deduce the balanced
diagrammatic representation equation for a chemical
• Construct word equations and reaction, given relevant
simple balanced chemical information
equations
• Define relative atomic mass, Ar ,
as the average mass of naturally
occurring atoms of an element
on a scale where the 12C atom
has a mass of exactly 12 units
• Define relative molecular mass,
Mr , as the sum of the relative
atomic masses. (Relative

29
formula mass or Mr will be used
for ionic compounds.)
(Calculations involving reacting
masses in simple proportions
may be set. Calculations will not
involve the mole concept.)
4.2 The mole concept • • Define the mole and the
Avogadro constant
• Use the molar gas volume,
taken as 24dm3 at room
temperature and pressure
• Calculate stoichiometric
reacting masses, volumes of
gases and solutions, and
concentrations of solutions
expressed in g /dm3 and
mol/dm3 .
(Calculations involving the
idea of limiting reactants
may be set. Questions on
the gas laws and the
conversion of gaseous
volumes to different
temperatures and pressures
will not be set.)
• Calculate empirical
formulae and molecular
formulae
• Calculate percentage yield
and percentage purity

5 Electricity and • Define electrolysis as the • Relate the products of


chemistry breakdown of an ionic electrolysis to the
5.1 Electricity and compound, molten or in electrolyte and electrodes
chemistry aqueous solution, by the used, exemplified by the
passage of electricity specific examples in the
• Describe the electrode products Core together with aqueous
and the observations made copper(II) sulfate using
during the electrolysis of: carbon electrodes and using
– molten lead(II) bromide copper electrodes (as used
– concentrated in the refining of copper)
hydrochloric acid • Describe electrolysis in
– concentrated aqueous terms of the ions present
sodium chloride and reactions at the
– dilute sulfuric acid electrodes in the examples
between inert electrodes given
(platinum or carbon)
• State the general principle that
metals or hydrogen are formed
at the negative electrode
(cathode), and that non-metals
(other than hydrogen) are
formed at the positive electrode
(anode)
• Predict the products of
electrolysis of a specified

30
• Predict the products of the halide in dilute or
electrolysis of a specified binary concentrated aqueous
compound in the molten state solution
• Describe the electroplating of • Construct ionic half-
metals equations for reactions at
• Outline the uses of the cathode
electroplating • Describe the transfer of
• Describe the reasons for the use charge during electrolysis to
of copper and (steel-cored) include:
aluminium in cables, and why – the movement of
plastics and ceramics are used as electrons in the metallic
insulators conductor
– the removal or addition of
electrons from the
external circuit at the
electrodes
– the movement of ions in
the electrolyte
• Describe the production of
electrical energy from
simple cells, i.e. two
electrodes in an electrolyte.
(This should be linked with
the reactivity series in
section 10.2 and redox in
section 7.4.)
• Describe, in outline, the
manufacture of:
– aluminium from pure
aluminium oxide in
molten cryolite (refer to
section 10.3)
– chlorine, hydrogen and
sodium hydroxide from
concentrated aqueous
sodium chloride (Starting
materials and essential
conditions should be given
but not technical details or
diagrams.)

6 Chemical energetics • Describe the meaning of • Describe bond breaking as


6.1 Energetics of a exothermic and endothermic an endothermic process
reaction reactions and bond forming as an
• Interpret energy level diagrams exothermic process
showing exothermic and • Draw and label energy level
endothermic reactions diagrams for exothermic
and endothermic reactions
using data provided
• Calculate the energy of a
reaction using bond
energies

6.2 Energy transfer • Describe the release of heat • Describe the use of
energy by burning fuels hydrogen as a fuel reacting
with oxygen to generate

31
• State the use of hydrogen as a electricity in a fuel cell.
fuel (Details of the construction
• Describe radioactive isotopes, and operation of a fuel cell
such as 235U, as a source of are not required.)
energy
7 Chemical reactions • Identify physical and chemical
7.1 Physical and changes, and understand the
chemical changes differences between them
7.2 Rate (speed) of • Describe and explain the effect • Devise and evaluate a
reaction of concentration, particle size, suitable method for
catalysts (including enzymes) investigating the effect of a
and temperature on the rate of given variable on the rate of
reactions a reaction
• Describe the application of the
above factors to the danger of
explosive combustion with fine
powders (e.g. flour mills) and
gases (e.g. methane in mines)
• Demonstrate knowledge and • Describe and explain the
understanding of a practical effects of temperature and
method for investigating the concentration in terms of
rate of a reaction involving gas collisions between reacting
evolution particles. (An increase in
• Interpret data obtained from temperature causes an
experiments concerned with increase in collision rate
rate of reaction Note: and more of the colliding
Candidates should be molecules have sufficient
encouraged to use the term rate energy (activation energy)
rather than speed. to react whereas an
increase in concentration
only causes an increase in
collision rate.)
• Describe and explain the
role of light in
photochemical reactions
and the effect of light on
the rate of these reactions.
(This should be linked to
section 14.4.)
• Describe the use of silver
salts in photography as a
process of reduction of
silver ions to silver; and
photosynthesis as the
reaction between carbon
dioxide and water in the
presence of chlorophyll and
sunlight (energy) to
produce glucose and
oxygen
Gr. 9 T.2 7.3 Reversible reactions • Understand that some chemical • Predict the effect of
reactions can be reversed by changing the conditions
changing the reaction (concentration,
conditions. (Limited to the temperature and pressure)
effects of heat and water on on other reversible
hydrated and anhydrous reactions

32
copper(II) sulfate and cobalt(II) • Demonstrate knowledge
chloride.) (Concept of and understanding of the
equilibrium is not required.) concept of equilibrium
7.4 Redox • Define oxidation and reduction • Define redox in terms of
in terms of oxygen loss/gain. electron transfer
(Oxidation state limited to its • Identify redox reactions by
use to name ions, e.g. iron(II), changes in oxidation state
iron(III), copper(II), and by the colour changes
manganate(VII).) involved when using
acidified potassium
manganate(VII), and
potassium iodide. (Recall of
equations involving KMnO4
is not required.)
• Define oxidising agent as a
substance which oxidises
another substance during a
redox reaction. Define
reducing agent as a
substance which reduces
another substance during a
redox reaction.
• Identify oxidising agents
and reducing agents from
simple equations
8 Acids, bases and salts • Describe the characteristic • Define acids and bases in
8.1 The characteristic properties of acids as reactions terms of proton transfer,
properties of acids and with metals, bases, carbonates limited to aqueous
bases and effect on litmus and methyl solutions
orange • Describe the meaning of
• Describe the characteristic weak and strong acids and
(Acids and bases properties of bases as reactions bases
introduced Pls go with acids and with ammonium
through the ks3 syllabus salts and effect on litmus and
to get details) methyl orange
• Describe neutrality and relative
acidity and alkalinity in terms of
pH measured using universal
indicator paper (whole numbers
only)
• Describe and explain the
importance of controlling acidity
in soil
8.2 Types of oxides • Classify oxides as either acidic or • Further classify other oxides
basic, related to metallic and as neutral or amphoteric
non-metallic character
8.3 Preparation of salts • Demonstrate knowledge and • Demonstrate knowledge
understanding of preparation, and understanding of the
separation and purification of preparation of insoluble
salts as examples of some of the salts by precipitation
techniques specified in section • Suggest a method of
2.2.2 and the reactions specified making a given salt from a
in section 8.1 suitable starting material,
given appropriate
information

33
8.4 Identification of ions • Describe the following tests to
and gases identify: aqueous cations:
aluminium, ammonium, calcium,
chromium(III), copper(II),
iron(II), iron(III) and zinc (using
aqueous sodium hydroxide and
aqueous ammonia as
appropriate). (Formulae of
complex ions are not required.)
cations: use of the flame test to
identify lithium, sodium,
potassium and copper(II) anions:
carbonate (by reaction with
dilute acid and then limewater),
chloride, bromide and iodide (by
reaction under acidic conditions
with aqueous silver nitrate),
nitrate (by reduction with
aluminium), sulfate (by reaction
under acidic conditions with
aqueous barium ions) and sulfite
(by reaction with dilute acids
and then aqueous potassium
manganate(VII)) gases: ammonia
(using damp red litmus paper),
carbon dioxide (using
limewater), chlorine (using
damp litmus paper), hydrogen
(using lighted splint), oxygen
(using a glowing splint), and
sulfur dioxide (using aqueous
potassium manganate(VII))
9 The Periodic Table • Describe the Periodic Table as a
9.1 The Periodic Table method of classifying elements
and its use to predict properties
of elements
9.2 Periodic trends • Describe the change from • Describe and explain the
metallic to nonmetallic character relationship between Group
across a period number, number of outer
shell electrons and
metallic/non-metallic
character
9.3 Group properties • Describe lithium, sodium and • Identify trends in Groups,
potassium in Group I as a given information about the
collection of relatively soft elements concerned
metals showing a trend in
melting point, density and
reaction with water
• Predict the properties of other
elements in Group I, given data,
where appropriate
• Describe the halogens, chlorine,
bromine and iodine in Group VII,
as a collection of diatomic non-
metals showing a trend in colour

34
and density and state their
reaction with other halide ions
• Predict the properties of other
elements in Group VII, given
data where appropriate
9.4 Transition elements • Describe the transition elements • Know that transition
as a collection of metals having elements have variable
high densities, high melting oxidation states
points and forming coloured
compounds, and which, as
elements and compounds, often
act as catalysts
9.5 Noble gases • Describe the noble gases, in
Group VIII or 0, as being
unreactive, monoatomic gases
and explain this in terms of
electronic structure
• State the uses of the noble gases
in providing an inert
atmosphere, i.e. argon in lamps,
helium for filling balloons
10 Metals • List the general physical
10.1 Properties of metals properties of metals
• Describe the general chemical
properties of metals, e.g.
reaction with dilute acids and
reaction with oxygen
• Explain in terms of their
properties why alloys are used
instead of pure metals
• Identify representations of
alloys from diagrams of
structure
10.2 Reactivity series • Place in order of reactivity: • Describe the reactivity
potassium, sodium, calcium, series as related to the
magnesium, zinc, iron, tendency of a metal to form
(hydrogen) and copper, by its positive ion, illustrated
reference to the reactions, if by its reaction, if any, with:
any, of the metals with: – the aqueous ions
– water or steam – the oxides of the other
– dilute hydrochloric acid listed metals
and the reduction of their oxides • Describe and explain the
with carbon action of heat on the
hydroxides, carbonates and
nitrates of the listed metals
• Account for the apparent
unreactivity of aluminium in
terms of the oxide layer
which adheres to the metal
• Deduce an order of reactivity
from a given set of experimental
results

10.3 Extraction of metals • Describe the ease in obtaining • Describe in outline, the
metals from their ores by extraction of zinc from zinc
blende

35
relating the elements to the
reactivity series
• Describe and state the essential
reactions in the extraction of
iron from hematite
• Describe the conversion of iron
into steel using basic oxides and
oxygen
• Know that aluminium is
extracted from the ore bauxite
by electrolysis • Describe in outline, the
• Discuss the advantages and extraction of aluminium
disadvantages of recycling from bauxite including the
metals, limited to iron/steel and role of cryolite and the
aluminium reactions at the electrodes

10.4 Uses of metals • Name the uses of aluminium: • Explain the uses of zinc for
– in the manufacture of aircraft galvanising and for making
because of its strength and brass
low density
– in food containers because of
its resistance to corrosion
• Name the uses of copper related
to its properties (electrical
wiring and in cooking utensils)
• Name the uses of mild steel (car • Describe the idea of
bodies and machinery) and changing the properties of
stainless steel (chemical plant iron by the controlled use
and cutlery) of additives to form steel
alloys
11 Air and water • Describe chemical tests for • Discuss the implications of
11.1 Water water using cobalt(II) chloride an inadequate supply of
and copper(II) sulfate water, limited to safe water
• Describe, in outline, the for drinking and water for
treatment of the water supply in irrigating crops
terms of filtration and
chlorination
• Name some of the uses of water
in industry and in the home
11.2 Air • State the composition of clean, • Describe the separation of
dry air as being approximately oxygen and nitrogen from
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and liquid air by fractional
the remainder as being a distillation
mixture of noble gases and
carbon dioxide
• Name the common pollutants in
the air as being carbon
monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides
of nitrogen and lead compounds
• State the source of each of these • Describe and explain the
pollutants: presence of oxides of
• – carbon monoxide from the nitrogen in car engines and
incomplete combustion of their catalytic removal
carbon-containing substances
– sulfur dioxide from the
combustion of fossil fuels which

36
contain sulfur compounds
(leading to ‘acid rain’)
– oxides of nitrogen from car
engines
– lead compounds from leaded
petrol
• State the adverse effect of these
common pollutants on buildings
and on health and discuss why
these pollutants are of global
concern
• State the conditions required for
the rusting of iron
• Describe and explain methods of • Describe and explain
rust prevention, specifically sacrificial protection in
paint and other coatings to terms of the reactivity
exclude oxygen series of metals and
galvanising as a method of
rust prevention
11.3 Nitrogen and • Describe the need for nitrogen-, • Describe and explain the
fertilisers phosphorus- and potassium- essential conditions for the
containing fertilisers manufacture of ammonia
• Describe the displacement of by the Haber process
ammonia from its salts including the sources of the
hydrogen and nitrogen, i.e.
hydrocarbons or steam and
air
11.4 Carbon dioxide and • State that carbon dioxide and
methane methane are greenhouse gases
and explain how they may
contribute to climate change
• State the formation of carbon • Describe the carbon cycle,
dioxide: in simple terms, to include
– as a product of complete the processes of
combustion of carbon- combustion, respiration and
containing substances photosynthesis
– as a product of respiration
– as a product of the reaction
between an acid and a
carbonate
– from the thermal
decomposition of a carbonate
• State the sources of methane,
including decomposition of
vegetation and waste gases from
digestion in animals
12 Sulfur • Name some sources of sulfur • Describe the manufacture
• Name the use of sulfur in the of sulfuric acid by them
12.1 Sulfur manufacture of sulfuric acid • Contact process, including
State the uses of sulfur dioxide essential conditions and
as a bleach in the manufacture reactions
of wood pulp for paper and as a • Describe the properties and
food preservative (by killing uses of dilute and
bacteria) concentrated sulfuric acid

37
• State the uses of sulfur dioxide
as a bleach in the manufacture
of wood pulp for paper and as a
food preservative (by killing
bacteria)
13 Carbonates • Describe the manufacture of
13.1 Carbonates lime (calcium oxide) from
calcium carbonate (limestone) in
terms of thermal decomposition
• Name some uses of lime and
slaked lime such as in treating
acidic soil and neutralising acidic
industrial waste products, e.g.
flue gas desulfurisation
• Name the uses of calcium
carbonate in the manufacture of
iron and cement
14 Organic chemistry • Name and draw the structures •
14.1 Names of of methane,ethane, ethene,
compounds ethanol, ethanoic acid and the
products of the reactions stated
in sections 14.4–14.6
• State the type of compound
present, given a chemical name
ending in ‑ane, ‑ene, ‑ol, or ‑oic
acid or a molecular structure

14.2 Fuels • Name the fuels: coal, natural gas


and petroleum •
• Name methane as the main
constituent of natural g
• Describe petroleum as a mixture
of hydrocarbons and its
separation into useful fractions
by fractional distillation
• Describe the properties of
molecules within a fraction
• Name the uses of the fractions
as:
- refinery gas for bottled gas
for heating and cooking
- gasoline fraction for fuel
(petrol) in cars
- naphtha fraction for making
chemicals
- kerosene/paraffin fraction
for jet fuel
- diesel oil/gas oil for fuel in
diesel engines
- fuel oil fraction for fuel for
ships and home heating
systems

38
- lubricating fraction for
lubricants, waxes and
polishes
- bitumen for making roads

14.3 Homologous series • Describe the concept of • Describe the general


homologous series as a ‘family’ characteristics of a
of similar compounds with homologous series
similar chemical properties due • Recall that the compounds
to the presence of the same in a homologous
functional group • series have the same
general formula
• Describe and identify
structural isomerism
14.4 Alkanes • Describe the properties of • Describe substitution
alkanes (exemplified by reactions of alkanes with
methane) as being generally chlorine
unreactive, except in terms of
burning
• Describe the bonding in alkanes
14.5 Alkenes • Describe the manufacture of • Describe the properties of
alkenes and of hydrogen by alkenes in terms of addition
cracking reactions with bromine,
• Distinguish between saturated hydrogen and steam
and unsaturated
• hydrocarbons:
o from molecular
structures
o by reaction with
aqueous bromine
• Describe the formation of
poly(ethene) as an example of
addition polymerisation of
monomer units
14.6 Alcohols • Describe the manufacture of • Outline the advantages and
ethanol by fermentation and by disadvantages of these two
the catalytic addition of steam methods of manufacturing
to ethene ethanol
• Describe the properties of
ethanol in terms of burning
• Name the uses of ethanol as a
solvent and as a fuel
14.7 Carboxylic acids • Describe the properties of • Describe the formation of
aqueous ethanoic acid ethanoic acid by the
oxidation of ethanol by
fermentation and with
acidified potassium
manganate(VII)
• Describe ethanoic acid as a
typical weak acid
• Describe the reaction of a
carboxylic acid with an
alcohol in the presence of a
catalyst to give an ester

39
14.8 Polymers • Define polymers as large • Understand that different
14.8.1 Polymers molecules built up from small polymers have different
units (monomers) units and/or different
linkages
14.8.2 Synthetic • Name some typical uses of • Explain the differences
polymers plastics and of man-made fibres between condensation and
such as nylon and Terylene addition polymerisation
• Describe the pollution problems • Deduce the structure of the
caused by non-biodegradable polymer product from a
plastics given alkene and vice versa
• Describe the formation of
nylon (a polyamide) and
Terylene (a polyester) by
condensation
polymerisation, the
structure of nylon being
represented as:

and the structure of


Terylene as:

(Details of manufacture and


mechanisms of these
polymerisations are not
required.)
14.8.2 Natural • Name proteins and • Describe proteins as
polymers carbohydrates as constituents of possessing the same
food (amide) linkages as nylon
but with different units
• Describe the structure of
proteins as:
• Describe the hydrolysis of
proteins to amino acids.
(Structures and names are
not required.)
• Describe complex
carbohydrates in terms of a
large number of sugar
units, considered as…………..
joined together by
condensation
polymerisation,
e.g……………………………………
• Describe the hydrolysis of
complex carbohydrates
(e.g. starch), by acids or
enzymes to give simple
sugars

40
• Describe the fermentation
of simple sugars to produce
ethanol (and carbon
dioxide). (Candidates will
not be expected to give the
molecular formulae of
sugars.)
• Describe, in outline, the
usefulness of
chromatography in
separating and identifying
the products of hydrolysis
of carbohydrates and
proteins

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