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Chapter-1 : Aim and Objectives

Chapter Introduction of Trigonometry

Chapter History of Trigonometry

Chapter-4 : Applications of Trigonometry

Chapter-5 : Conclusion

Chapter-6 : Bibliography

We Wish to express our gratitude to

Dr. Sr. Marietta D’Mello our principal for giving this opportunity to takes up this

In a special way we are in debated to our lecturer Ms.A.Jyothi for being the
source of inspiration and encouragement to us in every step and also for helping
us in every aspect of this project. We also extended our heart full thanks to Mrs.
Dr. K. L Saraswathi Devi, M.phil head of the department and the members of
the department of Mathematics.
Aim and
To study the importance of maths in Trigonometry applications .

 To know how mathematics play an important role in Trigonometric
applications .

 To acquaint how trigonometry is existing in one or several ways in

navigation, astronomy, etc.

In this project we described how different types of mathematic method were
used in Trigonometry applications such as navigation, astronomy, criminal
justice, architecture.
Mathematics is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and
arrangement. Math is all around us, in everything we do. It is the building block
for everything in our daily lives, including mobile devices, architecture, art,
money, engineering and even in sports.

Since the beginning of recorded history, mathematic discovery has

been at the fore front of every civilized society, and in use in even the most
primitive of cultures. The needs of math arose based on the wants of society.
The more complex, a society, The more complex the mathematical needs.
Primitive tribes needed little more than the ability to count, but also relied on
math to calculate the position of the sun and physics of hunting.

There is a growing sense of excitement & anticipation as teachers,

students and parents discover the wonder of mathematics through applications.

Global Connections:-
Use of mathematics to model situations or events in the
world. Explanations of how the complexity and interrelatedness of situations or
events in the world are reflected in the model to make and defend a decision
and a decision or conclusion supported by the mathematics within the context
of a global communication.
Problem solving:-
The application of appropriate strategies to solve problems. The use
of appropriate mathematical tools, procedures and representations to solve the
problem .the review and proof of a correct and responsible mathematical
solution given the context.

The development, explanation and justification of mathematical
arguments , including concepts and procedures used. Coherently and clear
communication using correct mathematical language and visual representations
. The expression of mathematical ideas using the symbols and conversions of

Math is incredibly important in our lives and without realizing it, we

use mathematical concepts as well as the skills we learn from math problems,
everyday. The laws of mathematics govern everything around us and without a
good understanding of them one can encounter significant problems in life.
Introduction of Trigonometry
Trigonometry is one of the important branches of mathematics
and this concept is given by a Greek mathematician Hipparchus. Basically,
trigonometry is the study of triangles where we deal with the angles and sides of
the triangle. To be more specific, trigonometry is all about a right angled
triangle. It is one of those divisions in mathematics that helps in finding the
angles are either measured in radians or degrees.

This branch divides into two sub branches called plane trigonometry
and spherical trigonometry. Trigonometry, in general, is about the trigonometric
formulas, Trigonometric functions, and rations, right angled triangles etc.

Trigonometry functions and Ratios:-

The trigonometric ratios of a triangle are also called the
trigonometric functions. Since, cosine and tangent are 3 important trigonometric
functions and are abbreviated as sin, Cos and tan. Let us see how are these
ratios or functions, elevated in the case of a right angled triangle.

Right angled triangle:-

Consider a right angled triangle, where the largest side is called the
hypotenuse, and the sides opposite to the hypotenuse is referred as the
adjacent and opposite.
The Trigonometry ratios are calculated by the below formulas using above

Functions Abbreviation Relations to sides of a

right angled Triangle

Sine Function Sin Opposite / Hypotenuse

Tangent Function Tan Opposite / Adjacent
Cosine Cos Adjacent / Hypotenuse
Cosecant Cosec Hypotenuse / Opposite
Secant Sec Hypotenuse/ Adjacent
Cotangent Cot Adjacent/ Opposite


T – Ratio 00 300 450 600 900

Sin ϴ 0 1/2 1/√2 √3/2 1

Cos ϴ 1 √3/2 1/√2 1/2 0

Tan ϴ 0 1/√3 1 √3 Not defined

Cosec ϴ Not 2 √2 2/√3 1

Sec ϴ 1 2/√3 √2 2 Not defined

cot ϴ Not √3 1 1/√3 0

Unit circle :-
The concept of unit circle helps us to measure the angles of
Cos, sin and tan directly since the centre of the circle located at the
origin and radius is
Trigonometric identities:-
The trigonometric identities are the eqations which are true
in the case of right angled triangles. Some of the spherical
trigonometric identities are
Pythagorean identities:-
Sin2 ϴ + Cos2 ϴ = 1
Tan2 ϴ + 1 = Sec2 ϴ
Cot2 ϴ + 1 = Cosec2 ϴ
Sin2 ϴ = 2Sin ϴ Cos ϴ
Cos2 ϴ = Sin2 ϴ Cos2 ϴ
Tan2 ϴ = 2Tan ϴ / 1- Tan2 ϴ
Cot2 ϴ = Cot2 ϴ -1 / 2Tan ϴ
Sine laws:
a / Sine A = b / Sine B = c / Sine C
Cosine laws:
c2 = a2+b2-2ab Cos C
a2 = b2+c2-2bc Cos A
b2 = a2+c2-2ac Cos B
Spherical trigonometry:-
It is the branch of trigonometry concerned with the
measurement of the angles and sides of spherical triangles.
It is used for planning long distance routes around the world. This form
of trigonometry helps to get a location faster.

Hipparchus , credited with compling the first trigonometric

table, has been described as “the father of trigonometry”.
Sumerian astronomers studied angle measure, using a division
of circles into 360 degrees. They, and later the Babylonians, studied the
ratios of the sides and angles of triangles and discovered some
properties of these ratios but did not turn that into a symmetric method
for sides and angles of triangles. The ancient Nubians used a similar
In the 3rd century bc, Hellenistic mathematicians such as Euclid
and Archimedes studied the properties of chords and inscribed angles
in circles, and they proved theorems that are equivalent to modern
trigonometric formulae although they presented them geometrically
rather than algebraically.
In 140bc Hipparchus gave the first tables of chords, analogous
to modern tables of sine values and used them to solve problems in
trigonometry and spherical trigonometry. In the end century AD, the
Greco-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy used chord length to define his
trigonometric functions, a minor difference from the sine convension
we use today.
Centuries passed before more detailed tables were produced,
and Ptolemy treatise remained in use for performing trigonometric
calculations in astronomy throughout the next 1200 years in the
medieval byzantine, Islamic and later western European worlds.
The modern sine convension is first attested in the surya
siddanta, and its properties further this is documented by the 5th century
(AD) Indian mathematician and astronomer aryabhatta. Thgreek and
Indian works were translated and expanded by medieval Islamic
By the 10th century, Islamic mathematicians were using all
six trigonometric functions, had tabulated their values, and were
applying them to problems in spherical geometry. The Persian poly
math nasir al-dinal-tusi has been described as the creator of
trigonometry as a mathematical discipline in its own right. He was the
first treat trigonometry into its present form. He listed the six distinct
cases of a right angled triangle in spherical trigonometry, and in his on
the sector figure, he stated the laws of sine for plane and spherical
triangles, discovered the law of tangents for spherical triangles, and
provided proofs for both these laws.

Trigonometry in criminal justice:-

Trigonometry is just as useful in the field of criminal justice as
it would to an engineer. Trigonometry could be used to help uncover
valuable clues, leading to breaks in cases, and also ensure that those in
law enforcement are meeting educational standards. As a prerequisite
and in practice, trigonometry helps add to and regulate many divisions
and sub-divisions of criminal justice. As a vital part of mathematics,
Trigonometry can end up being just as useful as a flashlight in a dimly
lit area. Let’s explore these and other scenarios with three core
examples of how Trigonometry helps criminal justice.
Crime scene investigation dramas on television are all the
rage now, so let’s look at a highly used scenario that, Surprisingly, has
an extremely trigonometric base. Suppose an man fell off a ledge of a
building in an apparent suicide, with a suicide note an everything. The
impact marks on the ground where the man fell are abnormal for
someone his age. This suggests that the speed of the man when he fell
was also highly abnormal, with the rate of increase in speed not making
sense for someone. So old and with barely enough power to jump off
the ledge. Not only that, the distance he flew from the edge of the
building into he open air also abnormal for someone such as himself.
By using the distance b/w the ledge of the building and
where the man fell as on “leg” and the distance from the ledge to the
ground as another, with respect to the speed of the man as he continued
to fall, crime scene investigators could use the Pythagorean theorem,
effectively turning a “hunch” into probable cause upon use of this
trigonometric formula, it is mathematically proven that the man
couldn’t have pushed himself that far off the ledge, and wouldn’t have
fallen at as high speed as he did. Instead of an apparent suicide, crime
scene investigators now have a reasonable suspicion that the man was
Someone pushed. Him off the building, Since it.
Mathematically proven that he simply couldn’t have done it himself.
Trigonometry can also help turn the tide in civil suits. Let’s
say a man bired a contractor to help refurbish his beach front home
with extra foundational support. Beach front homes rely basically on
wooden “leg”s that keep the house up right after completing work and
accepting payment, the contractor is used under false pretenses that his
work was done shabbily, as the house ended up falling down due to a
lack of support, heerting the man and breaking some of his possess
Suppose accuser’s lawyers point out that the spacing of the “legs”
was too wide, and ended up being unable to support the weight of the house. By
using the distance “legs” of the house as “legs” of a triangle and the distance
b/w them as the hypotenuse The contractor could prove that his work wasn’t at
fault suppose the average weight support needed to keep the house erect at a
certain point was 1,000 pounds
By using the sin and cosine functions. The “legs” at that point as
legs of a triangle, and the distance b/w them as the hypotenuse, the man
discovers that both legs, combined supported the 1,000 pounds at that point.
He could then have reasonable evidence to delay the suit and
collect further evidence on all of the additional “legs”. In time and with the
paper evidence, mathematically contractor can prove without he slightest hint
of a doubt that his work was flaw less.
There are many other ways that trigonometry effects criminal
justices, most all of them beneficial most positions of low enforcement rezuiie a
certain level of mathematical skill, for example usually, this means that unless
you’ve taken a college course on trigonometry and other related mathematics.
Astronomy is a branch of science that deals with celestial objects,
space, and the universe as a whole an expert in astronomy is generally
given the name of as astronomer. Astronomers deal with math,
especially trigonometry, everyday of their lives Trigonometry,
therefore plays an extremely crucial role.
In astronomy, trigonometry is often used to find distances to
nearby stars and other celestial objects using a method of parallax.
Parallax can be defined as the apparent shift of a nearby star
against the fixed background that can be noticed as the earth orbits the
This is like when you sit you’re sitting in front of your computer,
learn back just a little and bold your thumb in front of you close your
right eye your thumb will appear as if it moved to the right Now the
angle b/w the original position of your Thumb and the apparent
position of your thumb is the parallax.
Though astronomy has been in existence for thousands of years, it
is only recently that. Trigonometry and astronomy have been paired up,
and since then astronomers are not able to do without it.
To find the distance from venues to the Sun, astronomers used
trigonometry. The Earth, Sun and Venus from a triangle.
To solve this problem, astronomers took four years going through
calculations to make sure numbers were accurate. It was determined
that the distance were accurate. It was determined that the distance
from Venus to the sun is about 105,000,000 kilo meters.
This image shows that is astronomy trigonometry can be used to
calculate various distances and critical angle measurements with this
diagram, one could calculate the distance from the Earth to the Sun, as
well as the measures of angles A and C knowing such. Critical
information is essential for the correct placement of telescopes, such as
the HUBBLE telescope.
This diagram provides formulas
1) This formula relates the planet sun base line distance to the size of
the parallax measured.
2) This formula shows how the Sun-Star distance depends on the planet
Sun baseline and the parallax.
How is Trigonometry used in Astronomy:-
Trigonometry is essential for Astronomy, besides 2-D
trigonometry relating to triangles, spherical trigonometry, relating to
spherical triangles is also important is Astronomy.
The planets, surfaces are nearly spherical points on surface can be
spotted by using spherical polar co-ordinates referred to the
geometrical centre, The angular co-ordinates here are longitude and
latitude. Most of the formulas used in related astronomical computation
are trigonometry.
Three great circle’s on the planet’s surface from a spherical
Triangle. Spherical trigonometry formulas connect the lengths of arcs
of this Triangle with the angle of the Triangle. There is similarity
between these formulas and 2-D formulas.
The ships overseas and the planes, at the top altitudes, trace nets
of spherical triangles.
How do astronauts use trigonometry:-
The Study of orbits:-
The study of a particular star or planet’s orbit can be made much
similar by the application of trigonometry should a star appear to be
travelling at a fixed rate in relation to the earth or another known
object, astronauts may use surrounding objects whose distance and
speed are known to create the equations needed, in trigonometry, to
calculate the unknown. Here, the orbit of that unknown body. If two
objects are moving at particular speeds and are known to be a certain
distance apart, that third object can be treated as the X factor of the
equation and its distance and speed in terms by which those others are
known can be calculated with ease.
Mechanical control & Machinery:-
A major aspect of the work done by astronauts involves the use of
mechanical inventions and their manipulations in order to perform
tasks otherwise not possible in the space environment.
For example, robotic space. Pods can be sent into locations where
humans cannot safely go in order to test for air and ground qualities, or
to take samples or photographs for future study controlling these
robotic inventions is a matter of mathematics, and trigonometry plays a
large role in this.
A simple example is that of the robotic arm. If an astronaut
controlling a robotic arm knows the length of the arm and the height of
the base that is supporting it, then the study of trigonometry can tell
him exactly how to mane over the arm in a circular or triangular motion
in order to reach the target he intends to reach. Much of these
calculations of course, are programmed into the machinery but in order
to operate them efficiently and to program them in the first place
trigonometry must be understood and applied.
3) Architecture:
 Architects design buildings and other structures. In addition to
considering the way these buildings are structures look, they also
make sure they are functional and safe.
 Architects not only draw the plans for the building but they hare
to make sure the building follows safety codes and they also have
to plan budget for the building.
Trigonometry used to solve architectural problems
Trigonometry is used in architecture to ensure that buildings are
built safely
 For example, architects have to calculate. Exact angles of
intersection for components of their structure to ensure. Stability
and safety.
 Examples of trigonometry use in architecture include arches,
domes, support beams and suspension brideges.

How to use trigonometry in Architecture:

One of the most common architectural uses for trigonometry is
determining a structure’s height. For example, architects can use the
tangent function to compute a building’s height if they know their
distance from the structure and the angle b/w their eyes and the
building’s top, clinometers can help you measure those angles. These
are old devices, But newer ones use digital technology to provide more
accurate readings you can also compute a structure’s distance if you
know a clinometers angle and the structure’s height.
Basic structural theory:
In addition to designing the way a structure looks, architects must
understand forces and loads that act upon those structures. Vectors
which have a starting point, magnitude and direction enable you to
define those forces and loads. An architect can use trigonometric
functions to work with vectors and compute loads and forces. For
instance, you can use sine and cosine functions determine a vector’s
components it express in terms of the angle it forms relative to an axis.

Truss analysis and Trigonometry:

Designing structures that can handle load forces applied to them
is important for architect. They often use trusses in their design to
transfer a structure’s load forces to some form of support. A truss is
like a beam but lighter and more efficient. We use trigonometry and
vectors to calculate forces that are at work in trusses. An architect may
need to determine stresses at all points in a truss with its diagonal
members at a certain angle and known loads attached to different parts
of it.

Modern architects and technology:

Examine a modern city’s skyline and we probably see a variety of
aesthetically pleasing and sometimes unusual buildings. In addition to
trigonometry, architects use calculus, geometry and other forms of
math to design their creations. Structures not only have to be sound but
also most satisfy building regulations. Armed with high speed.
Computers and sophisticated computer aided design tools, modern
architects harness the full power of the mathematics.

Trigonometry is used in navigating directions, it estimates in what
direction to place the compass to get a straight direction. With the help
of a compass and trigonometric functions in navigation, it will help to
pin point a location and also to find distance as well as to see the
horizon. It is also used to find the distance of the shore from a point in
the sea.

Trigonometry was developed for use in sailing as a navigation
method used with astronomy. The origins of trigonometry can be traced
to the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and India more than
4000 years ago.

Trigonometry is used in navigation in order to pin poinjt a
location. Usuallly this is done by means of three different co-ordinates.
One example of trigonometry in navigation is the sextant. A sextant is a
navigational instrument containing a graduated ro-degrees are used for
measuring altitudes to determine altitude and longitude.

Trigonometry in navigation:
Navigation is the process to accurately determine one’s position
and planning a route for the movement of a craft or vehicle from one
place to another navigation also refers to the specialized knowledge
used by navigators to perform navigational tasks. Navigational
techniques involove locating positions compared to known locations
and patterns as well as determing the distance between places.
Modern navigation rely on satellites to determine positions and to
travel by sea and by air. Trigonometry is fundamental to navigation
Trigonometry is used extensively in calculations referring to ceartesian
co-ordinates. Cartesian co-ordinates are used to represent north, south,
East and wast directions. Through the use of trigonometry the distance
b/w objects, the required direction and a vessel’s or aircraft’s bearings
can be calculated.
Compasses and direction:
A compass is a navigational instrument that shows four direction
points. These points are North, South, East and West. A compass rose,
showing these directions is drawn on the compass with ‘n’ signifying
North. Compasses are essential in navigation for it determines bearings
and which way to travel. Before the compass, the position and direction
at sea was done by the sighting of land marks and celestial bodies(stars)
The invension of compass enabled a heading to be determined
when bad whether occurred in addition to latitulde and longitude.
Without the compass the people could not accurately navigate away
from land and therefore not engage in trade with other nations.

What are bearings ?

In marine navigation, a bearing is the direction one object is from
other object usually, the direction of an object from one’s own vessel.
In aircraft navigation a bearing is the angle between a line connecting
two points, Bearings are usually measured in degrees.

Trigonometry on land:
The ancient Greeks, Egyptians and other ancient civilizations
developed methods to measure triangles occurately. The Egyptians
used principals of trigonometry to build the pyramids, while the Greeks
developed. Extensive and geometric and trigonometric proofs and
applied them to many surveying and navigational problems. If the
measurement of two angles are known, the Third can always be
calculated. The tangent of a right angled triangle can always be used to
calculate valuable distances such as the height of tall tree or mountain.
Navigation by sea:
Navigation by sea’s is complicated by large distances without
land marks in open ocean. The principles of trigonometry and
triangulation apply. For most of the time humanity has moved through
water for long distances the only land marks have been the positions of
the sun by day and the stars by night, Those angles and distances can
be measured accurately by using devices such as the marine sextant and
the chronometer. Navigation by sea is based on spherical trigonometry.
The exact position of a ship can be determined by the angle the
celestial body makes with the horizon, measured at a precise time. The
angle and precise time measurements are compared with tables of
known values.
GPS Navigation:
GPs is short for global positioning system. It has grown from an
original network of satellites to a network of over so satellites from the
united states. Similar systems are under development from Russia,
China, Japan, The European Union and India & many satellites are
fully operational. Satellites orbit over the same locations everyday, and
emit signals continuously giving the exact time and their location.
Triangulation with particular satellites allows for precise location

Trigonometry in action:
A plane leaves an airport and flies 600km on a bearing of 1450
a) how far south of the airport is the plane?
Let x = distance south and missing angle in sap=35o
Cos 35o = x
X = 600 Cos 350
X= 491 km
Therefore the plane is 491 km south of the airport.
Navigation without Trigonometry:
Without trigonometry there would be no bearings meaning that
navigation by sea, air and land will be different. However, the fact that
the knowledge of trigonometry is needed to learn about navigation.
Some aspects of navigation are easy to understand without
trigonometry such as directions, while other fiels such as music theory
needed trigonometry in order to fully understand how it works.
Trigonometry in the form of triangulation is at the heart of
navigation, whether it is by land, sea, on air, GPS systems use
triangulation to find and fix positions, extrapolating what is unknown
from what is know. Triangulation is also used to measure the distances
between earth and distant stars and galaxies, Thus aiding future space

We realized that trigonometry can be used in many areas such as
astronomy arid architecture they can aid in calculating many things
they can also be used in cars desks and beaches. Without really
climbing a tree, we can find the height easily widely useful for most
architects and astronomers.
We can conclude that without trigonometry life would be much
more difficult. Without going through the troubles, we can easily find
something so we think that it was a good invention by Archimedes and
thanks to this many architects need not go through the trouble to
calculate things, so it really helps in real life applications and not only
in our tests and exams.