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CONTENTS :-

Chapter-5 : Conclusion

Chapter-6 : Bibliography

AKNOWLEDGEMENT

Dr. Sr. Marietta D’Mello our principal for giving this opportunity to takes up this

project.

In a special way we are in debated to our lecturer Ms.A.Jyothi for being the

source of inspiration and encouragement to us in every step and also for helping

us in every aspect of this project. We also extended our heart full thanks to Mrs.

Dr. K. L Saraswathi Devi, M.phil head of the department and the members of

the department of Mathematics.

CHAPTER -1

Aim and

Objectives

APPLICATIONS OF TRIGNOMETRY

Aim:-

To study the importance of maths in Trigonometry applications .

Objectives:-

To know how mathematics play an important role in Trigonometric

applications .

navigation, astronomy, etc.

In this project we described how different types of mathematic method were

used in Trigonometry applications such as navigation, astronomy, criminal

justice, architecture.

CHAPTER - 2

INTRODUCTION TO

MATHEMATICS

INTRODUCTION OF MATHEMATICS

Mathematics is the science that deals with the logic of shape, quantity and

arrangement. Math is all around us, in everything we do. It is the building block

for everything in our daily lives, including mobile devices, architecture, art,

money, engineering and even in sports.

been at the fore front of every civilized society, and in use in even the most

primitive of cultures. The needs of math arose based on the wants of society.

The more complex, a society, The more complex the mathematical needs.

Primitive tribes needed little more than the ability to count, but also relied on

math to calculate the position of the sun and physics of hunting.

students and parents discover the wonder of mathematics through applications.

Global Connections:-

Use of mathematics to model situations or events in the

world. Explanations of how the complexity and interrelatedness of situations or

events in the world are reflected in the model to make and defend a decision

and a decision or conclusion supported by the mathematics within the context

of a global communication.

Problem solving:-

The application of appropriate strategies to solve problems. The use

of appropriate mathematical tools, procedures and representations to solve the

problem .the review and proof of a correct and responsible mathematical

solution given the context.

Communication:-

The development, explanation and justification of mathematical

arguments , including concepts and procedures used. Coherently and clear

communication using correct mathematical language and visual representations

. The expression of mathematical ideas using the symbols and conversions of

mathematics.

use mathematical concepts as well as the skills we learn from math problems,

everyday. The laws of mathematics govern everything around us and without a

good understanding of them one can encounter significant problems in life.

Introduction of Trigonometry

Trigonometry is one of the important branches of mathematics

and this concept is given by a Greek mathematician Hipparchus. Basically,

trigonometry is the study of triangles where we deal with the angles and sides of

the triangle. To be more specific, trigonometry is all about a right angled

triangle. It is one of those divisions in mathematics that helps in finding the

angles are either measured in radians or degrees.

This branch divides into two sub branches called plane trigonometry

and spherical trigonometry. Trigonometry, in general, is about the trigonometric

formulas, Trigonometric functions, and rations, right angled triangles etc.

The trigonometric ratios of a triangle are also called the

trigonometric functions. Since, cosine and tangent are 3 important trigonometric

functions and are abbreviated as sin, Cos and tan. Let us see how are these

ratios or functions, elevated in the case of a right angled triangle.

Consider a right angled triangle, where the largest side is called the

hypotenuse, and the sides opposite to the hypotenuse is referred as the

adjacent and opposite.

The Trigonometry ratios are calculated by the below formulas using above

figure.

right angled Triangle

Tangent Function Tan Opposite / Adjacent

Cosine Cos Adjacent / Hypotenuse

Cosecant Cosec Hypotenuse / Opposite

Secant Sec Hypotenuse/ Adjacent

Cotangent Cot Adjacent/ Opposite

T – Ratio 00 300 450 600 900

defined

Sec ϴ 1 2/√3 √2 2 Not defined

defined

Unit circle :-

The concept of unit circle helps us to measure the angles of

Cos, sin and tan directly since the centre of the circle located at the

origin and radius is

Trigonometric identities:-

The trigonometric identities are the eqations which are true

in the case of right angled triangles. Some of the spherical

trigonometric identities are

Pythagorean identities:-

Sin2 ϴ + Cos2 ϴ = 1

Tan2 ϴ + 1 = Sec2 ϴ

Cot2 ϴ + 1 = Cosec2 ϴ

Sin2 ϴ = 2Sin ϴ Cos ϴ

Cos2 ϴ = Sin2 ϴ Cos2 ϴ

Tan2 ϴ = 2Tan ϴ / 1- Tan2 ϴ

Cot2 ϴ = Cot2 ϴ -1 / 2Tan ϴ

Sine laws:

a / Sine A = b / Sine B = c / Sine C

Cosine laws:

c2 = a2+b2-2ab Cos C

a2 = b2+c2-2bc Cos A

b2 = a2+c2-2ac Cos B

Spherical trigonometry:-

It is the branch of trigonometry concerned with the

measurement of the angles and sides of spherical triangles.

It is used for planning long distance routes around the world. This form

of trigonometry helps to get a location faster.

CHAPTER -3

HISTORY OF

TRIGONOMETRY

HISTORY OF TRIGONOMETRY

table, has been described as “the father of trigonometry”.

Sumerian astronomers studied angle measure, using a division

of circles into 360 degrees. They, and later the Babylonians, studied the

ratios of the sides and angles of triangles and discovered some

properties of these ratios but did not turn that into a symmetric method

for sides and angles of triangles. The ancient Nubians used a similar

method.

In the 3rd century bc, Hellenistic mathematicians such as Euclid

and Archimedes studied the properties of chords and inscribed angles

in circles, and they proved theorems that are equivalent to modern

trigonometric formulae although they presented them geometrically

rather than algebraically.

In 140bc Hipparchus gave the first tables of chords, analogous

to modern tables of sine values and used them to solve problems in

trigonometry and spherical trigonometry. In the end century AD, the

Greco-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy used chord length to define his

trigonometric functions, a minor difference from the sine convension

we use today.

Centuries passed before more detailed tables were produced,

and Ptolemy treatise remained in use for performing trigonometric

calculations in astronomy throughout the next 1200 years in the

medieval byzantine, Islamic and later western European worlds.

The modern sine convension is first attested in the surya

siddanta, and its properties further this is documented by the 5th century

(AD) Indian mathematician and astronomer aryabhatta. Thgreek and

Indian works were translated and expanded by medieval Islamic

mathematicians.

By the 10th century, Islamic mathematicians were using all

six trigonometric functions, had tabulated their values, and were

applying them to problems in spherical geometry. The Persian poly

math nasir al-dinal-tusi has been described as the creator of

trigonometry as a mathematical discipline in its own right. He was the

first treat trigonometry into its present form. He listed the six distinct

cases of a right angled triangle in spherical trigonometry, and in his on

the sector figure, he stated the laws of sine for plane and spherical

triangles, discovered the law of tangents for spherical triangles, and

provided proofs for both these laws.

CHAPTER-4

APPLICATIONS OF

TRIGONOMETRY

APPLICATIONS OF TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometry is just as useful in the field of criminal justice as

it would to an engineer. Trigonometry could be used to help uncover

valuable clues, leading to breaks in cases, and also ensure that those in

law enforcement are meeting educational standards. As a prerequisite

and in practice, trigonometry helps add to and regulate many divisions

and sub-divisions of criminal justice. As a vital part of mathematics,

Trigonometry can end up being just as useful as a flashlight in a dimly

lit area. Let’s explore these and other scenarios with three core

examples of how Trigonometry helps criminal justice.

Crime scene investigation dramas on television are all the

rage now, so let’s look at a highly used scenario that, Surprisingly, has

an extremely trigonometric base. Suppose an man fell off a ledge of a

building in an apparent suicide, with a suicide note an everything. The

impact marks on the ground where the man fell are abnormal for

someone his age. This suggests that the speed of the man when he fell

was also highly abnormal, with the rate of increase in speed not making

sense for someone. So old and with barely enough power to jump off

the ledge. Not only that, the distance he flew from the edge of the

building into he open air also abnormal for someone such as himself.

By using the distance b/w the ledge of the building and

where the man fell as on “leg” and the distance from the ledge to the

ground as another, with respect to the speed of the man as he continued

to fall, crime scene investigators could use the Pythagorean theorem,

effectively turning a “hunch” into probable cause upon use of this

trigonometric formula, it is mathematically proven that the man

couldn’t have pushed himself that far off the ledge, and wouldn’t have

fallen at as high speed as he did. Instead of an apparent suicide, crime

scene investigators now have a reasonable suspicion that the man was

murdered

Someone pushed. Him off the building, Since it.

Mathematically proven that he simply couldn’t have done it himself.

Trigonometry can also help turn the tide in civil suits. Let’s

say a man bired a contractor to help refurbish his beach front home

with extra foundational support. Beach front homes rely basically on

wooden “leg”s that keep the house up right after completing work and

accepting payment, the contractor is used under false pretenses that his

work was done shabbily, as the house ended up falling down due to a

lack of support, heerting the man and breaking some of his possess

ions.

Suppose accuser’s lawyers point out that the spacing of the “legs”

was too wide, and ended up being unable to support the weight of the house. By

using the distance “legs” of the house as “legs” of a triangle and the distance

b/w them as the hypotenuse The contractor could prove that his work wasn’t at

fault suppose the average weight support needed to keep the house erect at a

certain point was 1,000 pounds

By using the sin and cosine functions. The “legs” at that point as

legs of a triangle, and the distance b/w them as the hypotenuse, the man

discovers that both legs, combined supported the 1,000 pounds at that point.

He could then have reasonable evidence to delay the suit and

collect further evidence on all of the additional “legs”. In time and with the

paper evidence, mathematically contractor can prove without he slightest hint

of a doubt that his work was flaw less.

There are many other ways that trigonometry effects criminal

justices, most all of them beneficial most positions of low enforcement rezuiie a

certain level of mathematical skill, for example usually, this means that unless

you’ve taken a college course on trigonometry and other related mathematics.

Astronomy:-

Astronomy is a branch of science that deals with celestial objects,

space, and the universe as a whole an expert in astronomy is generally

given the name of as astronomer. Astronomers deal with math,

especially trigonometry, everyday of their lives Trigonometry,

therefore plays an extremely crucial role.

In astronomy, trigonometry is often used to find distances to

nearby stars and other celestial objects using a method of parallax.

Parallax can be defined as the apparent shift of a nearby star

against the fixed background that can be noticed as the earth orbits the

sun.

This is like when you sit you’re sitting in front of your computer,

learn back just a little and bold your thumb in front of you close your

right eye your thumb will appear as if it moved to the right Now the

angle b/w the original position of your Thumb and the apparent

position of your thumb is the parallax.

Though astronomy has been in existence for thousands of years, it

is only recently that. Trigonometry and astronomy have been paired up,

and since then astronomers are not able to do without it.

To find the distance from venues to the Sun, astronomers used

trigonometry. The Earth, Sun and Venus from a triangle.

To solve this problem, astronomers took four years going through

calculations to make sure numbers were accurate. It was determined

that the distance were accurate. It was determined that the distance

from Venus to the sun is about 105,000,000 kilo meters.

This image shows that is astronomy trigonometry can be used to

calculate various distances and critical angle measurements with this

diagram, one could calculate the distance from the Earth to the Sun, as

well as the measures of angles A and C knowing such. Critical

information is essential for the correct placement of telescopes, such as

the HUBBLE telescope.

This diagram provides formulas

1) This formula relates the planet sun base line distance to the size of

the parallax measured.

2) This formula shows how the Sun-Star distance depends on the planet

Sun baseline and the parallax.

How is Trigonometry used in Astronomy:-

Trigonometry is essential for Astronomy, besides 2-D

trigonometry relating to triangles, spherical trigonometry, relating to

spherical triangles is also important is Astronomy.

The planets, surfaces are nearly spherical points on surface can be

spotted by using spherical polar co-ordinates referred to the

geometrical centre, The angular co-ordinates here are longitude and

latitude. Most of the formulas used in related astronomical computation

are trigonometry.

Three great circle’s on the planet’s surface from a spherical

Triangle. Spherical trigonometry formulas connect the lengths of arcs

of this Triangle with the angle of the Triangle. There is similarity

between these formulas and 2-D formulas.

The ships overseas and the planes, at the top altitudes, trace nets

of spherical triangles.

How do astronauts use trigonometry:-

The Study of orbits:-

The study of a particular star or planet’s orbit can be made much

similar by the application of trigonometry should a star appear to be

travelling at a fixed rate in relation to the earth or another known

object, astronauts may use surrounding objects whose distance and

speed are known to create the equations needed, in trigonometry, to

calculate the unknown. Here, the orbit of that unknown body. If two

objects are moving at particular speeds and are known to be a certain

distance apart, that third object can be treated as the X factor of the

equation and its distance and speed in terms by which those others are

known can be calculated with ease.

Mechanical control & Machinery:-

A major aspect of the work done by astronauts involves the use of

mechanical inventions and their manipulations in order to perform

tasks otherwise not possible in the space environment.

For example, robotic space. Pods can be sent into locations where

humans cannot safely go in order to test for air and ground qualities, or

to take samples or photographs for future study controlling these

robotic inventions is a matter of mathematics, and trigonometry plays a

large role in this.

A simple example is that of the robotic arm. If an astronaut

controlling a robotic arm knows the length of the arm and the height of

the base that is supporting it, then the study of trigonometry can tell

him exactly how to mane over the arm in a circular or triangular motion

in order to reach the target he intends to reach. Much of these

calculations of course, are programmed into the machinery but in order

to operate them efficiently and to program them in the first place

trigonometry must be understood and applied.

3) Architecture:

Architects design buildings and other structures. In addition to

considering the way these buildings are structures look, they also

make sure they are functional and safe.

Architects not only draw the plans for the building but they hare

to make sure the building follows safety codes and they also have

to plan budget for the building.

Trigonometry used to solve architectural problems

Trigonometry is used in architecture to ensure that buildings are

built safely

For example, architects have to calculate. Exact angles of

intersection for components of their structure to ensure. Stability

and safety.

Examples of trigonometry use in architecture include arches,

domes, support beams and suspension brideges.

One of the most common architectural uses for trigonometry is

determining a structure’s height. For example, architects can use the

tangent function to compute a building’s height if they know their

distance from the structure and the angle b/w their eyes and the

building’s top, clinometers can help you measure those angles. These

are old devices, But newer ones use digital technology to provide more

accurate readings you can also compute a structure’s distance if you

know a clinometers angle and the structure’s height.

Basic structural theory:

In addition to designing the way a structure looks, architects must

understand forces and loads that act upon those structures. Vectors

which have a starting point, magnitude and direction enable you to

define those forces and loads. An architect can use trigonometric

functions to work with vectors and compute loads and forces. For

instance, you can use sine and cosine functions determine a vector’s

components it express in terms of the angle it forms relative to an axis.

Designing structures that can handle load forces applied to them

is important for architect. They often use trusses in their design to

transfer a structure’s load forces to some form of support. A truss is

like a beam but lighter and more efficient. We use trigonometry and

vectors to calculate forces that are at work in trusses. An architect may

need to determine stresses at all points in a truss with its diagonal

members at a certain angle and known loads attached to different parts

of it.

Examine a modern city’s skyline and we probably see a variety of

aesthetically pleasing and sometimes unusual buildings. In addition to

trigonometry, architects use calculus, geometry and other forms of

math to design their creations. Structures not only have to be sound but

also most satisfy building regulations. Armed with high speed.

Computers and sophisticated computer aided design tools, modern

architects harness the full power of the mathematics.

Navigation:

Trigonometry is used in navigating directions, it estimates in what

direction to place the compass to get a straight direction. With the help

of a compass and trigonometric functions in navigation, it will help to

pin point a location and also to find distance as well as to see the

horizon. It is also used to find the distance of the shore from a point in

the sea.

Purpose:

Trigonometry was developed for use in sailing as a navigation

method used with astronomy. The origins of trigonometry can be traced

to the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and India more than

4000 years ago.

Importance:

Trigonometry is used in navigation in order to pin poinjt a

location. Usuallly this is done by means of three different co-ordinates.

One example of trigonometry in navigation is the sextant. A sextant is a

navigational instrument containing a graduated ro-degrees are used for

measuring altitudes to determine altitude and longitude.

Trigonometry in navigation:

Navigation is the process to accurately determine one’s position

and planning a route for the movement of a craft or vehicle from one

place to another navigation also refers to the specialized knowledge

used by navigators to perform navigational tasks. Navigational

techniques involove locating positions compared to known locations

and patterns as well as determing the distance between places.

Modern navigation rely on satellites to determine positions and to

travel by sea and by air. Trigonometry is fundamental to navigation

Trigonometry is used extensively in calculations referring to ceartesian

co-ordinates. Cartesian co-ordinates are used to represent north, south,

East and wast directions. Through the use of trigonometry the distance

b/w objects, the required direction and a vessel’s or aircraft’s bearings

can be calculated.

Compasses and direction:

A compass is a navigational instrument that shows four direction

points. These points are North, South, East and West. A compass rose,

showing these directions is drawn on the compass with ‘n’ signifying

North. Compasses are essential in navigation for it determines bearings

and which way to travel. Before the compass, the position and direction

at sea was done by the sighting of land marks and celestial bodies(stars)

The invension of compass enabled a heading to be determined

when bad whether occurred in addition to latitulde and longitude.

Without the compass the people could not accurately navigate away

from land and therefore not engage in trade with other nations.

In marine navigation, a bearing is the direction one object is from

other object usually, the direction of an object from one’s own vessel.

In aircraft navigation a bearing is the angle between a line connecting

two points, Bearings are usually measured in degrees.

Trigonometry on land:

The ancient Greeks, Egyptians and other ancient civilizations

developed methods to measure triangles occurately. The Egyptians

used principals of trigonometry to build the pyramids, while the Greeks

developed. Extensive and geometric and trigonometric proofs and

applied them to many surveying and navigational problems. If the

measurement of two angles are known, the Third can always be

calculated. The tangent of a right angled triangle can always be used to

calculate valuable distances such as the height of tall tree or mountain.

Navigation by sea:

Navigation by sea’s is complicated by large distances without

land marks in open ocean. The principles of trigonometry and

triangulation apply. For most of the time humanity has moved through

water for long distances the only land marks have been the positions of

the sun by day and the stars by night, Those angles and distances can

be measured accurately by using devices such as the marine sextant and

the chronometer. Navigation by sea is based on spherical trigonometry.

The exact position of a ship can be determined by the angle the

celestial body makes with the horizon, measured at a precise time. The

angle and precise time measurements are compared with tables of

known values.

GPS Navigation:

GPs is short for global positioning system. It has grown from an

original network of satellites to a network of over so satellites from the

united states. Similar systems are under development from Russia,

China, Japan, The European Union and India & many satellites are

fully operational. Satellites orbit over the same locations everyday, and

emit signals continuously giving the exact time and their location.

Triangulation with particular satellites allows for precise location

mapping.

Trigonometry in action:

A plane leaves an airport and flies 600km on a bearing of 1450

a) how far south of the airport is the plane?

Let x = distance south and missing angle in sap=35o

Cos 35o = x

X = 600 Cos 350

X= 491 km

Therefore the plane is 491 km south of the airport.

Navigation without Trigonometry:

Without trigonometry there would be no bearings meaning that

navigation by sea, air and land will be different. However, the fact that

the knowledge of trigonometry is needed to learn about navigation.

Some aspects of navigation are easy to understand without

trigonometry such as directions, while other fiels such as music theory

needed trigonometry in order to fully understand how it works.

Trigonometry in the form of triangulation is at the heart of

navigation, whether it is by land, sea, on air, GPS systems use

triangulation to find and fix positions, extrapolating what is unknown

from what is know. Triangulation is also used to measure the distances

between earth and distant stars and galaxies, Thus aiding future space

travel

CHAPTER-5

Conclusion

We realized that trigonometry can be used in many areas such as

astronomy arid architecture they can aid in calculating many things

they can also be used in cars desks and beaches. Without really

climbing a tree, we can find the height easily widely useful for most

architects and astronomers.

We can conclude that without trigonometry life would be much

more difficult. Without going through the troubles, we can easily find

something so we think that it was a good invention by Archimedes and

thanks to this many architects need not go through the trouble to

calculate things, so it really helps in real life applications and not only

in our tests and exams.

CHAPTER-6

Bibliography

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