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APPENDIX - A

SCORE CARD FOR SENSORY


Topic: “Quality Evaluation And Value Addition Of Basundi Fortified With Aloe Vera Gel And
Dried Betel Leaf”
Work of: - Anuj Kumar

Date: -

Trial/Sample:-

Name of Judge:-
Test the sample and check how much you like or dislike each one. Use appropriate scale to
show your attitude by checking at the point that best describe your feeling about the sample.

Hedonic Table
Hedonic Rating Score

Excellent 9

Very good 8

Good 7

Fair 6

Neither good nor bad 5

Slightly undesirable 4

Poor 3

Very poor 2

Unacceptable 1

Treatments T0 T1 T2 T3

Flavor & Taste

Body & Texture

Color & Appearance

Overall acceptability
Remarks Signature

APPENDIX – B

Formula used for statistical analysis

The experimental was conducted by adopting completely randomized block design the data
recorded during the course of investigation were statistically analyzed by the analysis of variance
suggested by S.R.S. Chandel (1972)

Analysis of variance: G= T1+T2+T3……..+Tn


= R1+R2+R3…………+Rn

1.Correction factor (C.F.)= G2/rt

2. Treatment S.S.= T12+T22+T32……..+Tn2 – C.F.


R

3. Replication S.S. = R12+R22+R32…………+Rn2 – C.F.


T

4. Total S.S. = Sum of square of each observation – C.F.

5. Error S.S. = Total S.S. - S.S. due to treatments – S.S. due to replications

Whereas,
G = Grand,
T = Treatment,
R = Replication,
S.S. = Sum of squares
SKELETON OF ANOVA TABLE FOR ORGANOLEPTIC
CHARACTERISTICS OF PRODUCTS

Sources of d.f. S.S. M.S.S. F cal. F Tab Result


variation

Due to t-1 S.S. Tr S.S. Tr/t-1= MSS Tr M.S.S.tr./E.M.S.S.= F


treatments

Due to r-1 R.S.S. R.S.S./r1=MRSS M.R.S.tr./E.M.S.S.= F


replication

Due to error (t-1) E.S.S. E.S.S./(t-1) (r-1) = EMSS

(r-1)

Total S.S. rt-1 T.S.S.

Critical difference (CD): -

S.E. =  2x EMSS/r

C.D. = S.E. x t (5%) on error d.f.

Where,

S.E. = Standard error

E.M.S.S = Error mean sum of squares


APPENDIX – C

Physico-chemical analysis

The Physico-chemical analysis i.e. fat, protein, carbohydrate, total solids, ash and pH were
estimated by using standardized procedures. Each Physico-chemical analysis was replicated five
times.

1. Moisture content

Moisture content of sample was determined using official methods of AOAC (2000).
About 3 g of sample were weighed in dried and pre weighed petri dish. With the help of glass
rod, the sample was spreaded evenly and distilled water was also added to wash the glass rod so
that no sample loss was occurred. Petri dishes were kept in hot air oven maintained at 102˚C
±1°C for 4.5 h. Then the dish was transferred to desiccator for cooling and the weights were
recorded. The process of heating, cooling and weighing was repeated till consecutive weights did
not differ by > 0.5 mg.
Moisture content was calculated by using the following formula.

W1 − W2
Moisture(%db) = × 100
W2 − W

Where, ‘W’ is the empty weight of dish (g), ‘W1’ is the initial weight of dish along with
Sample (g) and ‘W2’ is the weight of sample and dish after drying (g).

2. Determination of ash content

Ash content (AOAC Method 900.02A) was determined by placing 2 g of sample in a


pre-weighed crucible and kept in a muffle furnace for 4 h at 550˚C for complete ashing.
Final weight of crucible − initial weight of crucible
Ash content(%) = × 100
weight of sample
3. Determination of fat content

The Fat content of the sample was analyzed by Soxhlet method (AOAC Method 934.01)
by using given formula 2 gm of sample was taken in a pre-dried extraction thimble, with porosity
permitting a rapid flow of ethyl ether. Weighed pre-dried round bottom flask and filled with 200
mL petroleum ether. Soxhlet apparatus was setup and the flask was heated. Fat was extracted at
the rate of 5-6 drops per second condensation for 4 hours by heating solvent in a boiling flask.
The flask with extracted fat was dried in a water bath and weighed.

final weight of flask − initial weight of flask


Fat content(%) = × 100
weight of sample

4. Determination of protein content


Protein content of the sample was determined by Kjeldahl method. 2 g of sample was
taken for digestion. The sample was digested with sulphuric acid and ferrous sulphate was used
as a catalyst. After digestion the digested sample was diluted with distilled water. The solution
was distilled with small amount of sodium hydroxide. The amount of Nitrogen present was then
determined by back titration. The end of the condenser was dipped into a solution of boric acid
containing 3 drops of mixed indicator. The condensed solution obtained was titrated against 0.1N
HCl.
Titre value × N of HCl × 14 × 10
%Nitrogen(N) = × 1000
weight of sample

%Protein = %N × 6.25

1. Determination of total carbohydrate


Total carbohydrate was determined by using following formula:-
Carbohydrate (%) = [100-(% fat + % ash + % moisture + % protein)]

MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

The microbiological analysis i.e. standard plate count, coliform and yeast and mould test was
done by using standard procedure laid down in I.S. 1947 PART III.

1- Preparation of glass ware:

All the glass wares were washed thoroughly with detergent or sulfuric acid. Glass wares after
drying were wrapped with paper and kept in an electric hot air oven for sterilization at 1600 C -
1800 C for 3-4 hours and media sterilized in autoclave at 151 lb pound pressure at 121 0C and
opened only in laminar flow. Laminar flow was sterilized with the help of violet lamp for 30
minutes at room temperature. All necessary precaution was taken to avoid the contamination
from outside.

2- Nutrient agar:-

Nutrient agar was prepared as per the procedure given in ‘APHA Standard Methods for the
Examination of Dairy Products’ (1992).

Constituents:

Beef extract 3.0 g

Peptone 5.0 g

Sodium chloride 5.0 g

Agar 15.0 g

Distilled water 1 litre


HCl 1.0 N

NaOH 1.0 N

Procedure:

 Beef extract, peptone and sodium chloride were heated in one litre of distilled water.

 Then boiled, agar was added to the above mixture and stirred constantly.

 pH was adjusted to 7.2 by using 1.0 N HCl or NaOH dropwise.

 The media in the conical flask was plugged with cotton and sterilized in autoclave at 15
lbs pressure for 15-20 minutes.

 When the media was cooled, it was stored in the refrigerator and heated whenever
required.

3- McConkey’s agar:

McConkey’s agar was prepared as per the procedure given in ‘APHA Standard Methods for the
Examination of Dairy Products’ (1992)

Constituents:

Peptone 20 g

Lactose 10 g

NaCl 5g

Bile salt 5g

Neutral red solution (1 % aqueous solution) 10 ml

Distilled water 1000 ml


Procedure:

 Peptone, NaCl and bile salt were dissolved in 1 litre of distilled water in a pan over the
flame.

 pH was adjusted to 8.0 and boiled for 20 minutes.

 After cooling and filtering the pH was adjusted to 7.4.

 Lactose and 1% aqueous solution of neutral red were added.

 5 ml of media was transferred in each test tube and Durham’s was put in the test tubes in
inverted position Each test tubes were plugged with non-absorbed cotton and autoclaved
at 115 0C for 10-15 minutes.

4- Potato Dextrose agar.

Composition
Potato (peeled) - 200gm
Dextrose - 20gm
Agar –agar - 15gm
Distilled water - 1000 ml

Procedure

1. Peeled off the skin of potato, cut in to pieces and boil in 500 ml of water, till are
easily penetrated by the glass rod.
2. Filter through cheesecloth.
3. Added dextrose to the filtrate.
4. dissolved agar in water and bring up to required volume by the addition
5. Autoclaved at 15lb pressure or 15 minutes.

Microbial analysis:-

1- Standard Plate Count:

Standard Plate Count (colony count) of sample was determined as per the procedure given in
‘APHA Standard Methods for the Examination of Food Products’ (1992).

Procedure:

 3 test tubes were labeled as 10-1, 10-2, 10-3 and 10-4 respectively.

 9 ml of ringer’s solution was taken in each test tube.

 1ml of the product was added to the test tube labeled 10-1.

 1ml of the diluted product was taken from 10-1 dilution and poured into the 10-2 dilution
and the process of serial dilution was continued till the dilution had reached up to 10-4.

 3 petri-dishes each for 10-1, 10-2, 10-3 and 10-4 were labeled.

 1ml of diluted product was poured from 10-1 into 3 petri-dishes each. The same was
repeated for the dilution 10-2, 10-3 and 10-4.

 Then the sterilized melted nutrient agar was poured in each petri-dish.

 Petri-dish was incubated at 37C for 24-48 hours.

 Finally the colonies were counted and the average was calculated.
2- Coliform Count:

Coliform Count in determined as per the procedure given in ‘APHA Standard Methods for the
Examination of Food Products’ (1992).

Procedure:

 5 ml of McConkey’s broth was taken in six test tubes and two of each 10-1, 10-2, 10-3and
10-4 and Durham’s tube were slipped in test tubes in inverted position.

 Then, the above test tubes were autoclaved at 15 lbs pressure for 15-20 minutes.

 9ml of ringer’s solution was taken in three test tubes and was labeled 10-1, 10-2, 10-3 and
10-4.

 1 ml of the product was added in the above 10-1

 1 ml of the diluted product was taken from 10-1 and poured into the 10-2 dilution and the
process of serial dilution was continued till the dilution had reached up to 10-4.

 From the above test tubes 1 ml of the diluted product was added to test tubes containing
Mac Conkey’s broth.

Finally the test tubes were incubated at 37C for 24-48 hours and examined for the Coli
form.
3- Yeast and Mould Count

Yeast and mould count of sample was determined as per the procedure given in ‘APHA Standard
Methods for the Examination of Food Products’ (1992).

Procedure:

 3 test tubes were labeled as 10-1, 10-2, 10-3 and 10-4 respectively.

 9 ml of ringer’s solution was taken in each test tube.

 1ml of the product was added to the test tube labeled 10-1.

 1ml of the diluted product was taken from 10-1 dilution and poured into the 10-2 dilution
and the process of serial dilution was continued till the dilution had reached up to 10-4.

 3 petri-dishes each for 10-1, 10-2, 10-3 and 10-4 were labeled.

 1ml of diluted product was poured from 10-1 into 3 petri-dishes each. The same was
repeated for the dilution 10-2, 10-3 and 10-4.

 Then the sterilized Potato Dextrose agar was poured in each petri-dish.

 Petri-dish was incubated at 37C for 24-48 hours.

 Finally the colonies were counted and the average was calculated.