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Faculty of Engineering

Department of Computer Science & Engineering

Module: Software Engineering (CSE 2001Y)

Lab-sheet 2: Week 2, Semester 1, 2010/2011

1. Analyze the following program and figure out its output.

public class MoreSausages {

public static void main(String[] args) {

int sausages = 27;





The increment operator ++ can be put after a variable (a++). When this is
done, it is a postfix operator. Same applies for the decrement operator --
(which gives a--).

When the increment operator ++ is put before a variable (++a), it is a

prefix operator. Same applies for the decrement operator -- (which gives

A postfix expression (a++ or a--) produces a pure value that is the value
of the variable before it is incremented or decremented.

A prefix expression (++a or --a) produces a pure value that is the value
of the variable after it has been incremented or decremented.

In summary:
postfix expression → a++ or a--
++a means increment the value before using it.
Same for a--

prefix expression → ++a or --a
a++ means increment the value after using it.
Same for a—

Example 1:
// Prefix increment and postfix increment operators.

public class Increment

public static void main( String args[] )
int c;

// demonstrate postfix increment operator

c = 5; // assign 5 to c
System.out.println( c ); // prints 5
System.out.println( c++ ); // prints 5 then postincrements
System.out.println( c ); // prints 6

System.out.println(); // skip a line

// demonstrate prefix increment operator

c = 5; // assign 5 to c
System.out.println( c ); // prints 5
System.out.println( ++c ); // preincrements then prints 6
System.out.println( c ); // prints 6

} // end main

} // end class Increment

Example 2:
int i = 3, j = 3; //short for int i = 3; int j = 4;//
System.out.println( "i++ produces " + i++);
System.out.println( "++j produces " + ++j);
The above code fragment produces the following output:
i++ produces 3
++j produces 4

Example 3:
int sum = 0;
int counter = 10;

sum = ++counter ;

System.out.println("sum: "+ sum " + counter: " + counter );

This program fragment will print:

sum: 11 counter: 11

This fragment requires careful inspection:

The ++ operator is now a prefix operator.
Now, counter is incremented before the value it holds is used.
The assignment statement is executed in two steps:
1. Evaluate the expression on the right of the = the value is 11
(because counter is incremented before use.)
2. Assign the value to the variable on the left of the = sum gets 11.

The next statement writes out: sum: 11 counter: 11

2. Write a piece of code that provides output based on the age of an infant.
If the age is 1, then the output should be “One year old”, if age is 2, we
obtain “Two years old” and if age is 3, we get “Three years old”.
Otherwise, we should get the message “Not a baby!”. The age should be
input via the keyboard using Scanner.

3. Use an “if” statement to exchange the value of two integer variables, x

and y, but only if x is greater than y. After this if statement has been
executed, we ensure that the value of x is definitely less than or equal to
the value of y.

4. The code below makes use of “nested ifs”, rewrite it using “if else-if”.
Discuss any drawbacks associated with the “if else-if” solution.

import java.util.*;

public class Scholarship {

public static void main(String[] args) {

int mark;

Scanner myscanner = new Scanner(System.in);

System.out.println("Type the value of mark");

//Prompt and read input//

mark = myscanner.nextInt();
if (mark >= 85)
System.out.println("High Distinction");
if (mark >= 95)
System.out.println("Consider applying for a


5. Write down a piece of code which tests whether an integer number is

within the range 5 and 10 (both inclusive) and returns a corresponding
relevant message in case the above condition holds or not.

The Java compiler may find two types of errors: Syntax Errors and
Semantic Errors.

Common Types of Errors (To be read at home. Will be treated in details


Syntax Errors
If you make a typing mistake while entering or editing your program, the
compiler may print out a syntax error. This happens when something you
typed doesn't conform to the rules of the Java language. For example, the
language specifies that each statement in Java must be terminated by a
semicolon. If in Lesson 2 we forgot the semicolon on the statement that prints
"Hello World!", we might see the following error message when compiling:

HelloWorld.java:13: ';' expected

Console.println("Hello world")
1 error

This error states that the problem was found on line 13 and that a ';' was
expected but not found.

Another common syntax error is misspelling the name of a variable or method.

For example, if you wrote printline rather than println in the above code, you
would see the following upon compiling:

HelloWorld.java:13: cannot resolve symbol

symbol : method printline (java.lang.String)
location: class com.otherwise.jurtle.Console
Console.printline("Hello world");
1 error

An error message saying it couldn't resolve a symbol usually means that you
misspelled or misremembered a variable name, method name, or a keyword.

Semantic Errors
Even though your program may be syntactically correct, the compiler may
discover a semantic error (i.e., an error in usage). One example would be if
your program tried to use a variable that has never had an initial value set.
For example, if you had the following code snippet:

public void runTurtle()

int j;

The compiler would complain:

Test.java:12: variable j might not have been initialized

1 error

Cascading Errors
Cascading errors are not a distinct category of errors like syntax and semantic
errors. Nevertheless, this is a situation worthy of some discussion. Sometimes
one error in your program will result in an ambiguity that the compiler cannot
resolve. This may result in several other error messages on the same line or
later lines that may not represent true errors in the code.

For example, in the ASimpleSquare example file there is a for loop. If the
keyword for is accidentally mistyped as in:

fo ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ )

forward( 60 );
right( 90 );

The compiler will generate something like:

ASimpleSquare.java:24: '.class' expected

fo ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ )
ASimpleSquare.java:24: ')' expected
fo ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ )
ASimpleSquare.java:24: not a statement
fo ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ )
ASimpleSquare.java:24: ';' expected
fo ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ )
ASimpleSquare.java:24: unexpected type
required: value
found : class
fo ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ )
ASimpleSquare.java:24: cannot resolve symbol
symbol : variable i
location: class ASimpleSquare
fo ( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ )
6 errors