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ISSN 2229-5518

a Work Barge

Nitonye Samson

Abstract— A barge is usually a flat bottom vessel mainly used as cargo tanker, equipment supply carriers, crane platform and support

accommodation bases in offshore operations. The work barge considered in this paper has special features like a deck crane, helicopter

landing platform and a pollution department. This work barge serves a multipurpose offshore function for oil and gas industries, marine

establishment and other companies that require manpower to work offshore without possible return of workers daily to shore. To ensure

that this barge has the capacity to withstand all forms of stresses and forces that act on it, a good structural rigidity has to be ascertained.

This work further estimated the weight of all components, machines, machineries, tanks, system etc to obtain the center of gravity which

can be accomplished through a three dimensional analysis. With the help of the classification of ships’ rules and regulations of Lloyd’s

Register various formulae were used to obtain various thickness of plates (side, bulk, deck etc), frame, girder, flanges, pillars etc. This

helped to estimate the weight of the various component of the vessel. This includes all deck plates, frames, flanges, girder, pillars etc. The

selection and positioning of these were in consonance with classification rules. Hence all forms of stresses were analyzed and the

resistance of the vessel calculated. In all the analysis it was deduced that the work barge has the capacity to withstand all forms of stress

and keep the vessel in a safe condition.

Index Terms— Stress analysis, Resistance analysis, Work barge, Plate thickness, Stiffness, Mass, Vessel.

—————————— ——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

IJSER

system etc to ascertain the center of gravity which can be ac-

cargo tanker, equipment supply carriers, crane platform

and support accommodation bases in offshore drilling.

complish through the three dimensional analysis7 fronted by

John in his work. With the help of the classification of ships’

rule and regulation part 2 [2], part 3 [3], No 3 [4] and part 4 [5]

Most work barges do not operate under their own power but of Lloyd’s Register various formulas were used to obtain vari-

require a tugboat to pull or push them to their destination. ous thickness of plates (side, bulk, deck etc), frame, girder,

Only in few cases do we see self- propelled work barges. flanges, pillars etc. hence to estimates the weight of the various

Therefore barges are specially designed for specific purposes, component of the ship, that is, all deck plates (inner bottom

depending on the type of barges, which is characterized by the plates, outer bottom plate, deck plate, 1st floor deck plate, 2nd

function of the said barge, its design procedures are slightly floor deck plate and the plate for the helicopter platform),

different or rather the chosen characteristic may differ in one frames flanges, girder, pillars etc. The selection and position-

way or the other [1]. ing of these were in consonance with the iterative of Robert

[6].

like a deck crane, helicopter landing platform and a pollution The strength calculation of the shear force and the bending

department. She will serve a multipurpose offshore function moment determination and estimate were reviewed from Ed-

for oil and gas industries, marine establishment and other ward [7]. The estimations for tank selection were done from

companies that require manpower to work offshore without Nitonye [8] and Ekpenyong [9] from which insight came for

possible return of workers daily to shore. To ensure that this the first stage of the estimations of tank capacity for the water,

barge has the capacity to withstand all forms of stresses and fuel, ballast etc. The final stage of the work will involve the

forces that will act on it, a good structural rigidity must be analysis of the stability of the entire barge when deck crane is

attained. in offshore working condition, to ensure that the limit of load

to be carried by the crane is not exceeded or points loads does

Therefore obtaining a good structural rigidity and estimation

not exceed a safe value for the vessel. There have been several

of the weight of all components, machines, machineries, tanks,

development or giant strides made in the field of marine engi-

———————————————— neering in general and the design of barge in particular.

• Nitonye Samson, Department of Marine Engineering, Rivers

The design of a work barge of this magnitude with a crane

State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt,

and helicopter- landing platform following rules and regula-

Rivers State Nigeria. E-mail: nitonyes@yahoo.com

tion will yield several results from classification societies,

laws, principles, experiments, calculations and assumptions

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, May-2015 879

ISSN 2229-5518

etc. hence the structure must be strong enough to carry all in- 2.2 Double Bottom Plate Calculations

duced stress (internal and external). Similarly, the structural The depth of the double bottom is given by the formula (in

arrangement of the designed work barge will be taken into millimeters)

consideration in this paper.

(5)

Where d = molded draft

2 MATERIALS AND METHODS B = breadth of the vessel

2.1 Strength Calculations and Analysis By substituting

The calculations of the strength of the work barge are to ena-

ble us to know its ability to withstand the stress (es) or load(s)

imposed on it while in operation. By this we will know and While the center girder thickness is given by the relation

provide adequate strength without the structure(s) of the work

(6)

barge yielding under normal condition of loading and even

by substitution

emergency situation [10]

For transverse frame thickness is given by the relation

KS1

t = (6.5 + 0.02 L)C (1)

Sb

by substitution

t = thickness of plating in mm

L = length 80m

IJSER

D+2/3−T (2)

C = For longitudinal frame thickness is given by the relation

Height Of Deck Above Load Line At F .P.

By

Selected t = 10mm

For the double-bottom plate of this capacity of work barge,

(3) from Lloyds rule and regulation fore the classification of ships

For forward of 0.05L from F.P. from part 4, chapter 1, section 7 and 8. The inner bottom plate

By substituting, we have thickness has the relation

t = 0.00136 ( S + 660) 4 x 2 LT (mm) (7)

t = 0.00136 (600 + 660 ) 4

0.66 x80 x 4.5 = 6.06mm

2

Selected thickness t for inner bottom plate

S 1 = S Spacing of secondary stiffness in mm = 600mm

t = 10mm

K = 0.66 (from table)

Therefore, given parameters

Therefore by substituting into Equation 1

t = 10mm

0.66 x 600

t = (6.5 + 0.02 x 80) 2.53 = 16.65mm L = 78m

600

B = 30m

Hence selected thickness (t) for deck plating fore his nature of

P late number = 1

barge is 17mm.

Steel density = 7.89tonnes/m3

The given parameters

t = 17mm

By substitution

L = 80m

Mass = 0.01x78x30x7.89x1 = 184.63tonnes

B = 30m

Hence, from previous selection, for the outer bottom plate our

Number of plate = 1

selected t = 15mm

Chosen density of steel = 8.5 tonnes/m3

Therefore, given parameters

(4) t = 15mm

By substituting L = 78m

Mass 0.017 x 80 x 30 x 8.5 x 1 = 346.8tonnes B = 30rn

Plate number = 1

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Steel density = 8.5 tonnes/m3 2.4 Bulkheads Calculations

From part 4, chapter 1 section 9 [11] and [12] give the bulk-

By substitution head thickness by this relation;

Mass = 0.015x78x30x8.5x1 = 298.3 5tonnes (9)

t = 0.004 Sf h4 K ( mm)

S

2.3 Side Plate Calculations f = 1.1 −

2500 s

From part 3 chapters 6, section 3 [4], the plate thickness is giv- h A = Tank head = 6m

en by the relation S = Space of member = 15m

KS1 600

t = (6.5 + 0.03L) (8) f = 1.1 −

2500 x 15

= 1.084

Sb

Selected f = 1.0

The parameter given

Substituting these values into Equation 1

t = ?

S1 S = 600mm t= 0.004 x 600 x1 6 x0.66 = 4.78

K = 0.66 Selected thickness for longitudinal bulkhead is t = 8mm

L = 80m Given parameters for

Therefore by substitution into Equation 1, we have

0.66 x 600 = 7.43mm

t = (6.5 + 0.033 x 80) Steel plate thickness (t) = 8mm

600

Selected thickness for side plate t = 10mm Height = 6rn

Length = 80m

IJSER

Density of steel = 7.89tonnes/m3

Steel plate thickness (t) = 10mm

Number of plate = 2

Length (L) = 80mm

Height (D) = 6rn

Number of plate = 2

For Transverse Stiffeners

t = 0.004 Sf h4 K ( mm) (10)

Aft Side Plate 600

Steel plate thickness (t) = 10mm f = 1.1 − = 1.081

2500 x 12.5

Breadth (B) = 30rn

Selected f = 1.0

Height (D) = 6m

Substitute gives values into Equation 2

Number of Plate = 1

t = 0.004 x 600 x1 6 x0.66 = 4.78

Selected thickness for transverse bulkhead is t = 8mm Given

Fore Side Plate 1 parameters for

Steel thickness (t) = 10mmm

Breadth (B) = 30m Steel plate thickness (t) = 8mm

Height (D) = 1.5m Height = 6m

Number of plate = 1 Breadth = 30m

Density of steel = 7.89tonnes/m3

Number of steel = 6

Fore Side Plate 2

From part 4, chapter 6, section 4 [10], we have it that longitu-

Steel plate thickness (t) = 10mm

dinal stiffness for deck;

Breadth (B) = 30m

Longitudinal Stiffness for Deck

Height (D) = 6.73m

Breadth = 30m

Number of plate = 1

Number of stiffness = 50

Density of steel = 7.89tonnes/m3

Section 152 x 102 x 8 = 15.35Kg/m

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Transverse space = 600 2.7 First Floor Deck (Tier) Superstructure Calculations

Length of transverse = 30m For Deck Plating From part 3, Chapter 5 and section 1 and 2

Number of stiffness = 134 For L < 100m is given by the relations

Section = 15.35Kg/m KS (11)

t = 5.5 + 0.02 L

Sb

By substitution (9)

Longitudinal stiffness on side plate

Height = 6m t = (5.5 + 0.02 x 50 )

0.66 x 600

= 5.28mm

Number of longitudinal stiffness = 10 600

Length of stiffness = 80 Selected thickness for deck plating first floor is t = 8mm given

Section 152 x 102 x 8 = 15.35Kg/m parameters

Number of plate =2 t = 8mm

Length = 47m

Breadth = 27m

Transverse Stiffness on Side Plate Plate = 1

Number of transverse stiffness = 134 Density of steel = 7.89tonnes

Length of transverse = 6m

Length of stiffness = 6m

Section = 152x102x8 = 15.35Kg/m Side Plating for 1st Tier

Number of plate = 2 From Lloyd’s

t= [5.0 + 0.01L3 ] K (12)

For L 3 = 49m

IJSER

2.6 Longitudinal Stiffness on Bottom Plate (Double)

K = 0.66

Breadth = 30m By substituting

Length of longitudinal = 75m

Number of bottom plate = 2 t= [5.0 + 0.01 x 49 ] 0.66 = 4.5

Selected thickness for side plate for first tier floor is t = 6.0mm

similarly to obtain the height of the superstructure for first

Transverse Stiffness of Bottom Plate (Double) floor from Lloyd’s section 1.4.2

Breadth = 30rn h = 2.5+ 0.01L 2 (13)

Length of transverse = 30m L 2 = 49m

Number of transverse = 134 h = 2.5 + 0.01 x 49 = 2.99m

Number of plate = 2 Selected height h= 3.0m

Giving parameters to calculate the mass

t = 6m

Longitudinal Stiffness on Bulkhead Length = 49

Number of longitudinal = 10 Height = 3m

Length of longitudinal = 80m Number of plate = 2

Number of bulkheads = 2

Transverse Stiffness on Bulkhead

t = 6.0mm

Number of transverse = 134

Breadth = 27m

Length of transverse = 6m

Height = 3m

Number of bulkhead = 2

Number of plate = 2

Total number of frames = 11 2.8 Bulkheads for First Tier

Total length of web with flange = 92.8mm From Lloyd’s Part 3 Chapter 8, Section 2 Thickness of Bulk-

Flange = 80.28mm head

Total transverse web frame length = 172.56mm t = 0.003S Kh (14)

By substituting

t = 0.003 x600 0.66 x3 = 2.53

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Selected thickness for bulkhead (longitudinal) Density of steel = 7.89 tonnes/m3

t = 5mm Number of plates = 1

Given parameters Transverse Bulkheads Stiffness (Longitudinal)

t = 5mm Height = 3m

Height = 3m Number of transverse = 237

Length of bulkhead = 132m Density of steel = 7.89 tonnes/m3

Density of steel = 7.89tonnes/m3 Number of plates = 1

Selected thickness for bulkhead (transverse)

Height = 3m

t = 5mm

Number of transverse = 395

Height = 3m

Density of steel = 7.89 tonnes/m3

Length of bulkhead = 237rn

Number of plates = 1

Density = 7.89tonnes/m3

Longitudinal Stiffness for Deck Longitudinal frames thickness = 10mm

Longitudinal spacing = 600mm Total frame = 6

Breadth = 27m Total length = 50m

Length = 47m Number of plate = 2

IJSER

Number of longitudinal stiffness = 45

Sections = 7.89 tonnes/m3

Transverse frame thickness = 10mm

Total frame = 3

Transverse Stiffness for Deck Total length = 28mm

Transverse spacing = 600mm Number of plate = 2

Breadth = 27m

Number of stiffness = 78

Section = 7.89 tonnes/rn3 Second Floor (Tier) Superstructure

For Deck Plating

From part 3, chapter 8, section 2(9) for L < 100m is given by the

Longitudinal Stiffness of Side Plates relation;

Height = 3m

KS (15)

Number of longitudinal = 5 t = 5.0 + 0.02 L3

Sb

Length = 47

Number of plates = 2 By substitution

t = (5.0 + 0.02 x 49 )

0.66 x 600

= 4.83mm

600

Transverse Stiffness of Side Plates

Selected thickness for deck plating second floor is t = 6mm

Height = 3m

Given parameters

Number of transverse = 78

t = 6mm

Number of plates = 2

Length = 40m

Breadth = 28m

Longitudinal Bulkhead Stiffness (Longitudinal) Plate = 1

Height = 3m Density of steel = 7.89 tonnes/m3

Number of longitudinal = 5

Length = 132

Density of Steel = 7.89 tonnes/m3 Side Plating for Second Floor

Number of plates = 1 From Lloyd’s

t = [4.0 + 0.01L3 ] K (16)

Height = 3m By substitution

Number of transverse = 220 t = [4.0 + 0.01 x 49] 0.66 = 4.4mm

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, May-2015 883

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Selected side plate thickness t = 5mm From the Tyre print chart

While the height of the second floor is given by the relation When β = 2.1 and v/s > 1.0

α = 8

by substituting Substituting into Equation 2

8 x 600

∴ t1 = = 5.91m

1000 0.66

Selected height for second floor is 2.5m

∴ t = 5.91 + 1.5 = 7.41

Giving parameters to obtain the mass of side plate as:

t = 5m Selected thickness for helicopter landing area thickness is

Length = 49 t = 20mm

Height = 2.5m

Number of plate = 2 Third Floor (Tier) Superstructure For deck plating,

Given parameters

t = 20mm

Fore and Aft Side Plate

Length = 20rn

t = 5.0mm

Breadth = 20m

Breadth = 28m

Plate No. = 1

Height = 2.5m

Density of steel = 7.89 tonnes/m3

Number of plate = 2

Mass = 0.002x20x7.89x20x1 = 63.1 2tonnes

Density = 7.89 tonnes/m3

2.12 Stiffness for Third floor

Longitudinal Stiffness for Deck

IJSER

2.11 Helicopter Landing Area Longitudinal spacing = 600mm

From Part 3, Chapter 9, Section 3 and 5 [4]. The deck plate Length = 20m

thickness t, within the landing area is given by; Breadth = 20m

t = t1 + 1.5 (mm) (17) Number of longitudinal members = 33

αS (18) Section = 7.89 tonnes/m3

where t1 =

1000 K

and ρ1 K 2 7 (19) Transverse Stiffness for Deck

β = log

S 2 x 10

Transverse spacing = 600mm

The plating is to be designed for the emergency landing; case Breadth = 20m

taking No. of transverse = 33

P1 = 2.5φ1φ 2φ3 fyPw tonnes (20) Section = 7.89 tonnes/m3

From tables

n = Type correction factor = 1.0

Pw = load on the type print = 6tonnes The shear force diagram gives a representation of the upward

P1 = corrected patch load = ? and downward forces acting on the work barge as shown in

λ = Dynamic configuration factor = 1.7 figure 1

φ1 2.13 Shear and Bending Moment

= patch aspect ratio correction factor = 1.0

φ2 = Panel aspect ratio correction factor = 1.0

perpendiculars as 75m has the breadth of 30m, depth of 6.0m

φ3 = wide patch load factor = 1.0 and a maximum loading draft as 4.5m. The work barge is as-

f = landing decks over marred spaces =1.15 sumed to be statically stable on a sinusoidal wave, in which

γ = location factor = 0.6 the height of the ware at any point about the still water wave

Substituting the following parameters into Equation 20, gives is given as

H = 0.607 L = 5.43m

Therefore, β from Equation L = Overall Length (21)

10.35 x 0.66 2

β = log10 2

x 10 7 = log10 125.235 = 2.10

600

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ISSN 2229-5518

Wave shear force= 0.429MN

On the other hand, integrating the wave shear force gives the

wave bending moment

Therefore, Wave Bending Moment

= 0.819 x 80 2πx

∫ 2π

Sin

80

dx

at x = 0 gives

0.819 x 80 2

B =

2π 2

At x = 40M

Figure 1: Shear Force Diagram of the Barge. The wave bending moment

0.819 x 80 2

1 + cos

2π 40

= 265.3MNm

(25)

2π 2 80

2.14 Wave Load Distribution

IJSER

Buoyancy moment = 45,937.50 = Still water moment + Wave moment = 360.334 MNm

Still water bending moment = 95,034.375Nm = 95.024MN Yield stress = 230 - 250MN/m2 = 15 -16 Tonnes/m2

When we consider ware as a cosine form and will have the Shearing strength = 22 tonnes/m2

crests at the ends as

We know that

5.43 2πx (22)

H = cos

2 80 1. Stress Force ( Load ) (26)

=

Unit Area (m 2 )

∴ Buoyancy per unit meter

2. Factor Of Safety = YieldStress (27)

= ρbgh ÷ 1000 = 2πx (23)

0.819Cos MNm MaxDesignStress

80

From these equations we derive that

We know that the integration of the force due to the Buoyancy

gives us the shear force due to the wave.

2πx

Factor

=

YieldStress (28)

(24)

∫

= 0.819Cos dx

80

UnitArea Factor of Safety

Force x Factor of Safety (29)

x 80 sin + A

2π 80 YieldStress

at x = 0; A = 0

x = 30m

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Simple beam theory barge and how the stiffness is placed at different sections of

MB = Sinσ the barge as shown in figure 2 and figure 3 shows the struc-

MB = Bending moment tural element of the work barge hull. And the table below

SM = Sectional Modulus shows the calculation of the sections, which helped in the force

σ = Unit Stress analysis of the work barge.

M

∑a

MB ×C = 2.14m above the keel

σ = (31)

1

Second moment of area of half section above base

Where C is the distance from the neutral axis (a line parallel to = Σah 2 + I 0 = 3.3138m 4 (33)

the base line from the Centriod of all the effective longitudinal

strength members comprising the section) ΣParallel axis term = Σa x h 2 NA = 2.046m 4 (34)

1 = Sectional moment of inertia about the Natural axis I NA = Second moment of area of half section about the base –

parallel axis term (35)

= 1.2678m 4

Full area = 0.89364m2

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Z –Deck =

I NA Full

= 0.6569m 3 = (36)

ShipHeight − I NA

= = 0.6569m 3 =

ShipHeight − I NA

Z –Base =

I NA Full

= 1.1849m 4

(38)

h NA

Factor of Safety = 3

Figure 2: Barge Section

Maximum design stress

Factor

=

YieldStress

= 83.33MN / m 2 (39)

UnitArea Factor of Safety

structure

ZP

Stress on base = MB

= 304.1MN / m 2

ZB

it is commended to split this resistance into two components

Figure 3: Structural element of the barge hull [13] 1. The frictional resistance (R P ) basing on Reynolds

number - R n

The barge section gives us an internal representation of the

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2. The residuary resistance (R R ) basing on Froud d = draft of the ship

number F r (that is, the wave-making resistance ∇ = Volume of displacement

and Eddy Resistance). C B = Block coefficient

B = Beam

∴ Total Re sis tan ce RT = RF + RB (40)

2.17 The Air Resistance (RA)

ρv s

2

(41)

RF = CF This resistance is calculated from the experiment of Admiral

2

Taylor’s empirical formula

RR = CR

ρv 2 s (42) R A = 0.004 x 0.5 B 2 x VR2 (51)

2

Where B = Beam of the ship

C T , C F , C R are the total frictional and residuary resistance coef- VR = Relative velocity of the wind

ficient respectively. The frictional resistance is the resistance VV = V (speed of the ship) in still air

due to the motion of the hull through a viscous fluid. It is as

high as 80-85% of the total resistance in slow - speed vessel

R A = C A x 0.5 ρAT x V 2 (52)

and as much as 50% in high-speed vessel. The value of friction

divers in laminar flows and that of turbulent flows is shown Where C A = Resistance coefficient

below. Hence low at laminar flow with Reynolds Number [14] ρ = Mass density of air

AT = Transverse project area of above

Re = VL (43) water hull

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v

V = Ship speed

AT = 0.3A 1 + A 2 (53)

In 1904 Blasins

Where A 1 = Main hull area

CF = RF (44) A2 = super structure area

0.5 ρsv 2

−1

VL

1.327

2

(45) Others supposed to be estimated but considered negligible

V

include

- Wake - making resistance (R W )

- Eddy – making resistance (R e )

While in 1921 Prandtl and Von Karma published the equation

C F = RF (46)

0.5 ρsv 2 Note: because the work barge is not self-propelled it will not

− 15 have appendage resistance. From Guildhammer-Harold

VL (47) method of resistance calculation, usable values include

0.072

V L PP = 75.0m

B = 30m

For turbulent flow T = 4.5m

RF = fsv n (48) ∇ = 4900 tonnes

RF = Resistance L = 4.53

s = total area surface (wetted surface) ∇

1

2

ρ = 10.25kg/m3

The wetted surface area s may be estimated using the Mum-

v = 0.9425 x 10-6 m2/s Kinematics viscosity coeffi-

ford formula cient at

250C seawater

∇ (49)

S = 1.7 LPP × d + Cp = 0.993

d V 6.43

∴ = = 0.742

L 75.0

or Bruckhoffe’s formula

(4d + B) × L Reynolds number R VL = 5.12 x 10 8

S = 2 (16 ) (50) n

v

1.625 − C B

L PP = Length of the ship between perpendicular (ft)

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Coefficient of Frictional Resistance C F R AA = 1.28 x 1 ρAT V R

2

2

C F = C F + dC F (54)

V R = Apparent wind velocity or wind velocity relative to the

From I.T.T.C.

ship In still air, V R = V

Rn = 5.0 x 10B

C F0 = 1.671 x 10-3

ρ of air = 0.00238

Rn = 5.5x108

C FO = 1.65 1 x 10-3 Area of air Resistance A T = 0.3A 1 + A 2 = 2.235m2

For R n = 5.12 x 108

In still water R AA = 14.08

By interpolation

0.12

x 0.02 = 0.0048 Total Resistance C T = C F + C R = 3.35 x 10-3

0.50

(

∴ C FO = 1.6662 x 10 −3 ≈ 1.67 x 10 −3 ) Assuming C T due to other resistances not taken into consider-

But C FO = RF ation, let

1

2

ρV 2 S C T = 3.35 x 10-3

RT = ρV 2

=

0.075 (55) CT = S

[log Rn − 2]

2 2

CF = 2,07 x 10-3

(Taylor’s formulas)

2.18 Coefficient of Residuary Resistance (CRo) but C = 2.6

IJSER

From graph of CR, Vs, V [15]

L L NL = LPP + 3.5% of LPP = 77.625m

L

= 4.53

∇ 3

1

L

∴ RT = CT S

2

∇C RI = 0.12 B [ T

]

− 2.07 x 10 −7

=

5.35 x 10 −3 x 1025 x 6.43 2 x 1603.5

= 181.8 KN

2

By substituting

3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

∇C RI = 0.552 x 10-3 In anticipation of the barge floating in an upright condition at

many different water lines (or draft) in the course of its ser-

Correction for Length of centre of buoyancy F CB - ∇C R 2 vices, it is usual to calculate, in advance, the main geometrical

characteristics of the ship form. This data below shows the

V masses of steel structures and various loads on the barge

For ≤ 0.6, CR2 = 0

L

1. Mass of the steel structure = 1,400 tonnes

V (56) 2. Mass of first floor and loads = 200 tonnes

For < 0.6,

L 3. Mass of second floor and loads = 230 tonnes

V 4. Mass of third floor = 100 tonnes

CR2 = a − 0.6 ∆LPP 5. Mass of Helicopter = 50 tonnes

L

6. Mass of crane load = 300 tonnes

Where a = 0.75 for Cp = 0.993

7. Mass of machinery load = 70 tonnes

3.9.1 Air and Wind Resistance 8. Mass of tanks loads = 1,200 tonnes

9. Mass of cargo loads = 1,000 tonnes

R AA = C AD x 1 ρAT V 2 (57)

2 10. Mass of other loads = 300 tonnes

Admiral Taylor, from experiment in air derived a resistance

coefficient of 1.28. Evenly distributed load along the entire length of the work

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barge

* Weight of steel + weight of tanks = 1,400 + 1,200

= 2,600 tonnes

2600

Therefore; = 32.5 tones/m

80

*Weight at Helideck point = 7.5 tonnes/m

*Weight at first floor point = 4.0 tonnes/m

* Weight at second floor point = 5.75 tonnes/m

* Weight at crane point = 30.0 tonnes/m

* Weight at machinery point = 1.75 tonnes/m

* Weight at cargo point = 33.33 tonnes/m

* Weight at others = 3.75 tonnes/m

Buoyancy force = 65.33 tonnes/m

Figure 4: Draft Vs Centre of Gravity [1]

Table 1 Scantling/Section Calculation of the barge

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The weight of the work barge was estimated to be 3361.1

Figure 5 : Draft Vs Metacentric Height

tanks, pumps, plates, etc. there by having the capacity of car-

rying external load up to 1000 tonnes within the vessel de-

pending on the safety factor and the available space. After de-

sign and estimation, it was observed that the center of gravity

is acting at 2.84m above the keel (bottom) of the barge, 1.39m

fore of the chosen centre (longitudinally) and 19mm port of

the chosen centre (transversely). This is safe in ship design; it

would have been unsafe if the centre of gravity acts above

3.0m from the bottom of the ship.

Looking at the hydrostatic curves, the perfect straight line Figure 6: Draft Vs Displacement

suggests that the draft varies directly with the displacement of

the barge shows its ability to withstand all stresses and float

upright. Figures 4 to 7 shows the stability characteristics of the

work barge with respect to draft and other parameters like the

centre of gravity, meta-centric height, displacement and dis-

tance between center of buoyancy and meta-center

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[5] Lloyd’s Register, (1997) Classification of Ship Rules and Regulations

Part 4: Ship Structure, London.

[6] Robert, T. Ed (1980) Ship Design and Construction. The Society of

Naval Architect and Marine Engineering. New York City

[7] Edward, V. L. Ed (1988) Principle of Naval Architecture Second Revi-

sion: Stability and Strength. Volume I. The Society of Naval Architec-

ture and Marine Engineers. New Jersey.

[8] Nitonye, S. (1996) Design of Power Plant of a tug Boat, Final Year

Marine Engineering Project, Engineering Project, Faculty of Engi-

neering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Har-

court, Nigeria.

[9] Ekpenyong, U. E. (1986) The Design of a Supply Vessel for Offshore

Activities. Final Year Marine Engineering Project, Faculty of Engi-

neering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Har-

court, Nigeria.

Figure 7: Draft Vs Distance between Centre of Bouyance and [10] Constrad, D. (1972) Steel Designers Manual. Constructional Steel

Metacenter Research and Development Organization, Forth Edition Grenade

Publishing Limited, Great Britain.

[11] Douglas, I. E. (1996) Technical Report on Re-design / Design Modifi-

4 CONCLUSION cation on Helideck Platform for the Victory J316 Barge. Oil and In-

The results of this research shows that the deck would be in a dustrial Service Limited, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

compression stress while the bottom would be on a tensile

stress. The stress obtained is within the allowable stress hence [12] Ephraim M.E and Douglas, I. E. (1991) Technical Report on Analysis

the vessel structure would be able to withstand all forms of and Design of Support System for Weatherford Gulf master G 1 5F

IJSER

stresses that the barge will encounter during all offshore oper- Crane on the Anini- 1 Rig.

ations. Also the results of the longitudinal transverse vertical [13] Aluminium Rheinfelden GmbH (2004), Primary Aluminium Casting

centre of gravity and meta-centric height showed that the Alloys, Rheinfelden ALLOYS,Sales and Customer Service, Frie-

barge would be stable at all normal condition of loading. drichstraße 80, 79618, L 2.06/3-KH, Rheinfelden · Germa-

In order to obtain the moment of inertia giving a safe stress ny,www.alurheinfelden.com

with maximum material, the materials are disposed further [14] Air Force Defence Industries, (2003) KA-60 KASATKA (killer Whole)

away from the neutral axis and most efficiently converted to Medium Weight Transport Helicopter (Russia) AirForceTechnolo-

have its designed share of the stress. Hence the (strength) gy(OnlineSerial)3Available .Http :www.Airforce-Technology.com

stress which the structure needed is withstands compare with /proiect/ka6O I. Htrn (2004,June 23)

the maximum allowable yield stressed from Lloyd’s handbook [15] Kirxgstown, S.T, Vincent and The Grenadines (10) Accommodation

indicated that the barge structure would withstand the hog- Offshore Work barge “Europa”. Eesign of Offshore Barge (Online Se-

ging and sagging and six motion of gyration that would un- rial) Available: Http:/www.barge.corn/europa6. Htm (2004 May 11)

dergo during the course of its service.

The analysis revealed that the hull form components weigh a

total mass of 3361.1 ton and the moments along the X, Y and Z

components were within the safe limit. This show that the

barge can withstand a maximum stress of 83.33MN/m2, haven

a bending moment induced on the deck at 548.54MN/m2 max-

imum and on the base at 304.1MN/m2 maximum. Appendix 1

shows the results of all design calculations for the work barge.

5 REFERENCES

[1] Nitonye Samson, Ezenwa Ogbonnaya and Kuvie Ejabefio, (2013)

Stability Analysis for the Design of 5000-Tonnes Offshore Work

Barge, International Journal of Engineering and Technology,(IJET) United

Kingdom Vol.3 No 9: pp849-857 (http://www.ijet.journal.org)

[2] Lloyd’s Register (1997) Classification Ship Rules and Regulations,

Part 2; Manufacture, Testing an d Certification of Material London.

[3] Lloyd’s Register, (1997) Classification of Ship Rules and Regulations

Part 3: Ship Structure, London.

[4] Lloyd’s Register, (1997) Classification of Ship Rules and Regulations

Notice No 3: Effective Dates of Latest Amendment, London.

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ISSN 2229-5518

5 APPENDIX 1

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ISSN 2229-5518

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ISSN 2229-5518

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 5, May-2015 894

ISSN 2229-5518

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