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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTI0N

This chapter presents the background of the study,

theoretical/conceptual framework, statement of the problem,

hypothesis, importance of the study, definition of terms

and other variables.

Background of the Study

Gambling has been a feature in many cultures

throughout history. It has served as a pastime for people

seeking excitement and, of course, the possibility of

winning money or other rewards. Though the ways that humans

gamble have changed—from games like Tabula (the Roman

version of checkers) to today’s online sports betting and

the emergence of betting on e-games—one thing has not

changed: the possibility of losing money while gambling.

(Forsstrom, 2017).

Gambling is sometimes referred to as “gaming.”

Depending on the language of state laws, gambling and

gaming can mean different things or the two terms can be

used synonymously. “Gaming” typically refers to playing

games for wagers, such as craps, card games, slot machines,

and roulette. “Gambling” may refer to these same types of

games, but it also includes other types of activity such as


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sports wagers. Gambling can be dangerously addictive. Some

players cannot resist the associated thrill, and those who

lose may be tempted to risk money they cannot afford in a

futile attempt to recover their losses (Crisostomo, Shila

2017).

Most gamblers are willing to take this risk in order

to experience excitement, pass time, or play in a social

setting. However, for some individuals, gambling is

associated with risk. This risk comes with negative impact

on their physical and psychological well-being. A gambler’s

family and friends may also be negatively affected. In some

cases, individuals need professional help to limit their

gambling, but only a few seek it. Low rates of treatment

seeking are linked to experiences of stigma and shame among

gamblers. In addition, some gamblers have the capability to

self-recover. Regardless, recovery comes with a high

personal cost for the individual and people that are close.

In the light low incidence of treatment seeking and high

costs of recovery, preventive strategies to help

individuals limit their gambling are essential. Strategies

to this effect have been in place for decades in various

arenas of gambling, but with the advent of online gambling,

the possibilities for creating effective preventive


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measures have become much greater. (Forsstrom, et.Al,

2017).

Gambling in the Philippines has been present since the

sixteenth century, and is still prevalent in the country

today. Currently, it takes on various legal and illegal

forms found almost all over the archipelago.

During the Spanish occupation, gambling became

institutionalized in the forms of cockpits, card parlours,

billiard halls, and the like. Around the early to mid-19th

century, lotteries and horse racing had been introduced.

Casinos had also been established at that time. It had then

become a problem for the Spanish colonizers; it was noted

in the account of Antonio Morga that men in Manila had

grown accustomed to gamble for enormous and excessive

stakes, and gambling had become prevalent in all sectors of

society. Due to its detrimental effects, the colonial

government took steps to suppress these activities, but

this had little effect and by majority of the 19th century,

this had become a national phenomenon.

It must be emphasized that all individuals, whether

government officials or not, are prohibited by Philippine

laws to engage in any form of illegal gambling. The latest

law related to illegal gambling is Republic Act (RA) 9287,

entitled “An Act Increasing the Penalties for Illegal


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Number Games, amending certain provisions of Presidential

Decree (PD) No. 1602, and for Other Purposes.” Thus, it is

stated under section 1 of the law that, “It is the policy

of the state to promote a just and dynamic social disorder

that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the

nation and free the people from poverty through policies

that provide adequate social services, promote full

employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved

quality of life for all. It is, likewise, the policy of the

state that the promotion of social justice shall include

the commitment to create opportunities based on freedom of

initiative and self-reliance.” It then proceeded by

stating, “the state hereby condemns the existence of

illegal gambling activities, such as illegal number games,

as this has become an influential factor in an individual’s

disregard for the value of dignified work, perseverance and

thrift since instant monetary gains from it are being

equated to , thereby becoming a widespread social menace

and source of corruption.

This research also focused on the perceived

detrimental effects of gambling on both gamblers and non –

gamblers.
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Thus, the researchers would like to know the perceived

detrimental effects of gambling among the two groups of

participants in terms of their economic status.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

This study was anchored on the theory about why human

beings gamble. These explanations encompassed evolutionary,

cultural, religious, financial, recreational,

psychological, and sociological perspectives (Wildman,

1998).

A current and widely disseminated theory is that

people engage gambling because it has the capacity to

create excitement (Boyd, 1976; Steiner, 1970). People seek

optimize their subjective experience by shifting

sensations. Sensation-seeking and shifting these

experience, and enduring human drive, can be compared to a

child’s explorations of his or her to environment to

develop fundamental mastery of skills and satisfy

curiosity. The experience that humans regularly seek

includes novelty, recreation and adventure. (Zuckerman,

1979; Ebstein et al., 1996; Benjamin et al., 1996).

To paraphrase William Arthur Ward, a 20th philosopher,

the person who risk nothing, has nothing. Indeed, it is

common for individuals to risk in life. Risk-taking


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underlies many human traits that have high significance for

evolutionary survival, such as wanting and seeking food

(Neese and Berridge, 1997).

Moreover, risk-taking is reinforced by the emotional

experiences that follow, such as relief from boredom,

feelings of accomplishment, and the “rush” associated with

seeking excitement. Individuals vary considerably in the

extent in which they take risks.


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Perceptions Detrimental

of Effects of
Gambling
Participants

Socio-Demographic Profile

 Monthly Family Income


 Members of Family
engaged in Gambling

Figure1. Schematic Diagram of the study


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Statement of the Problem

This study was conducted to determine the detrimental

effects of gambling on a selected Barangay in one of the

municipalities in the province of Zamboanga del Sur.

The study aimed to answer the following questions;

1. What is the socio – demographic profile of the

participants in terms of monthly income and members of

family engaged in gambling?

2. What are the common gambling practices engaged by the

participants?

3. What are the detrimental effects of gambling as

perceived by the two groups of participants?

4. Is there a significant difference among the groups of

participants on the perceived detrimental effects of

gambling?

5. Is there a significant difference among the groups of

participants on the perceived detrimental effects of

gambling according to economic status?


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Importance of the Study

The researchers conducted this study for people’s

awareness with regards to the detrimental effects of

gambling in one of the Barangay in Molave Zamboanga del

Sur.

This study is significant to the following

beneficiaries:

LGU Official. This study will help LGU officers in planning

and implementing fun and worthy activities in the

Barangay to avoid residents in engaging into gambling.

Barangay Official. This study will certainly help its

Barangay officials for them to plan an alternative way

on how to lessen the actual gambling problem within

their jurisdiction.

Community. This study will certainly help the residents of

the community to be able to find collaborative ways

infighting for the eradication on the occurrence of

gambling or at least reduce it.

Gamblers. This study will benefit the gamblers in order for

them to be aware of its severity index of any gambling

practice.
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Criminology Student. This study will benefit the

criminology students of JHCSC as an advocate of anti-

gambling activities that need to be reduced if not

eliminated.

Future Researchers. This study adds to the growing body of

information in the field of educational research. The

result of the study will serve as guide of other

researchers to perform studies that may open in the

progress of this study.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

There are weaknesses and limitations associated with

the study. First, the findings are limited to self-report,

which can be subject to problems of reliability and the

external validity. Steps to improve the reliability of

self-report include the assurance of anonymity.

Second, this study used a cluster sampling; which

often do not represent the population from which they came.

Therefore, these results might not generalize to the entire

population.

Third, the study only focuses on the participants’

perceptions of common gambling practices engaged by the

participants and its detrimental effects of gambling. A

time constraint of 15 minutes for administering the surveys


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in the classes necessitated eliminating this type of

analysis.

Definition of Terms and other Variables

To provide understanding to the readers of this study,

the following terms are defined operationally and/or

conceptually:

Behavioral. This refers to the action or reaction of any

material under given circumstances.

Cockfighting. This refers to a contest in which gamecocks

usually fitted with metal spurs are petted against

each other inside cockpit arenas until one dies or is

unable to go on and the people bet their money on

which cock will win.

Detrimental. This is an undesirable or harmful person or

thing.

Economic. This refers to the interaction of the individual

and the group, or the welfare of human beings as

members of society.

Effects. It is refers to a change, reaction, or impression

that is caused by something or it is the result of

something.
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Gambling. This refers to series of activities of gaming and

betting; it is an act of spending money as bet to a

particular game.

Practices. It is a phenomenon in which a person's abilities

continue to improve, even without practicing.

Gaming. This is an action or habit of playing games of

chance for stakes; gambling.

Jueteng. It refers to an illegal number game in the form of

local small time lottery (STL),also known as Suertres

Perception. It refers to the information that the body is

able to discern from the outside world.

Social. It is relating to activities in which

you meet and spend time with other people and that

happen during the time when you are not working

Tong-its or tongits. This is a 3 player rummy type of game

that gained popularity in the 1990s in Luzon, the

largest island of the Philippines.


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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the literature and studies

reviewed by the researchers which have relevance and direct

bearing on the study.

Related Literature

Gambling can be defined as the activity or practice of

playing a game of chance for money or other stakes (Wykes&

Berwick, 1964). Skill is also associated with gambling, but

chance is however the main component that determines the

outcome. Gambling has been and still is a common feature in

most civilizations (Wykes& Berwick, 1964), which indicates

its importance as a practice and pastime. Ancient Greek

literature, for example, contains accounts of gambling

(McMillen&McMillen, 1996). Through history, various types

of gambling activities (e.g., Poker, dice games, etc.) have

been conceived, but the essential features of gambling have

not changed. The individual who gambles always risks the

wagered money and is, in most cases, likely o lose it.

Throughout most of its existence, gambling has been

carried out in the same way. Bets are placed either at the

physical location where the event being gambled upon is

taking place (e.g., race tracks or sports arenas) or at


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locations designated for placing bets (e.g., betting

shops).There are also specialized gambling venues, such as

casinos, that allow patrons to access electronic gambling

machines (EGMs) and other games (e.g., Blackjack, Poker and

Roulette). However, since 1995, the way that gambling

activities are carried out has undergone a major change; in

that year, it became possible to gamble over the Internet.

The number of gambling websites has since grown

exponentially as has the number of individuals gambling

online (Williams, Wood, &Parke, 2012). Also, the use of

block chain (open source peer-to-peer network) and crypto

currency (e.g. Bitcoin) are pushing the boundaries for how

gambling is carried out over the Internet (S. M. Gainsbury

& Blaszczynski, 2017) and indicating the advent of yet a

revolutionizing development in gambling. The next evolution

of gambling might be in the areas of gamification and E-

sports. Components of gamificationare already present in

gambling. E-sport betting is now a rapidly growing market

for betting. One study found that the boundaries between

gambling and gaming are still in effect among consumers,

but the boundaries are blurring (Teichert, Gainsbury,

&Mühlbach, 2017).

For some individuals, gambling develops from a source

of excitement and enjoyment into an activity that can be


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labeled as maladaptive and associated with problems, which

result in negative consequences. These include both

psychological and physical consequences. Pathological

gambling has been a diagnosis since the Diagnostic and

Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) was

published in 1980(American Psychiatric Association, 1980).

However, problem gambling has probably existed as a

condition long before the introduction in the DSM. It was,

at first, classified as an impulse control disorder.

Pathological gambling remained a diagnosis within the

section covering impulse control disorders in the

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV

(DSM-IV) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders IV Text Revision (DSM-IV TR). Many of the

studies that have used the diagnosis have used the

definition provided in the DSM-IV, which was published in

1994 (fourth ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association,

1994). By this definition, which is also present in the

updated version published in 2000, a patient is diagnosable

as a pathological gambler if he/she meets five out of ten

of the following criteria: he or she is preoccupied with

gambling; increases the amount of money spent on gambling

to achieve the desired excitement level; is unable to

control, cut back on, and/or stop gambling; gets irritable


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and restless when trying to stop or cut down on gambling;

gambles to flee from problems or to relieve low moods

(e.g., feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety, and

depression);“chases” his or her losses, attempting to win

back money lost the previous day; is untruthful about

his/her gambling involvement towards family members and/or

the therapist; has committed illegal acts to provide

economic means with which to gamble; has lost a significant

relationship, job, or educational opportunity due to

gambling; and needs others to pay for necessities that

money spent gambling should have covered (American

Psychiatric Association, 2000).

As mentioned, a majority of studies have used this

definition and criteria to establish the presence of the

disorder in outcome studies. Some examples are Jiménez-

Murcia et al. (2016), Boughton, Jindani, and Turner (2016),

Campos, Rosenthal, Chen, Moghaddam, and Fong(2016), N.

Harris and Mazmanian (2016) and Petry, Rash, and

Alessi(2016). In 2013, the Diagnostic and Statistical

Manual of Mental Disorders5 (DSM-5) was published (fifth

ed.; DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013),

changing the placement and the criteria used for diagnosis.

The diagnosis was re-categorized from “Impulse – control

disorders not elsewhere classified” to “Substance-related


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and addictive disorders”. The name of the diagnosis was

changed from “Pathological gambling” to “Gambling

disorder”. Also, one criterion used in the DSM-IV and DSM-

IV TR (the patient has committed illegal acts, such as

forgery, fraud, theft, or embezzlement, to finance

gambling) was dropped. Finally, in the new edition, a

patient only needed to meet four out of nine criteria in

order to receive the diagnosis.

Studies have investigated the effect of the changes in

the number of criteria that need to be fulfilled and the

elimination of the illegal acts criteria. Petry, Blanco,

Jin, and Grant (2014) found that eliminating the illegal

acts criteria did not affect the validity of diagnosis but

that lowering the threshold from five to four criteria

resulted in a small increase of the rate of the diagnosis.

Also, Petry, Blanco, Stinchfield, and Volberg (2013) and

Stinchfield et al. (2016) concluded that the illegal acts

criteria was not necessary from a statistical standpoint

and that using four criteria instead of five resulted in a

better classification of disordered gambling. However, the

illegal acts criteria might have practical use in a

clinical setting.

Aside from the definitions in the DSM-III, DSM-IV,

DSM-IV TR andDSM-5, there are other definitions of problem


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gambling and gambling associated with risk that also entail

negative consequences for the individual and that introduce

a classification of different levels of gambling. One such

definition is found in the comprehensive review by

Williams, Volberg, and Stevens (2012)

Problem gambling is defined as having difficulties

limiting money and/or time spent on gambling which leads to

adverse consequences for the gambler, others, or for the

community. It includes ‘pathological gambling’ (equivalent

to severe problem gambling) that is characterized by severe

difficulties in controlling gambling behaviour leading to

serious adverse consequences. Using that as a definition,

Williams, Volberg, et al. (2012) reviewed the available

prevalence studies between 1975 to 2012 (the definition

above also encompasses pathological gambling according to

the DSM-criteria). The highest standardized prevalence rate

was found in Hong Kong in 2001 (7.6%) and the lowest rate

was found in the Netherlands in 2004 (0.5%).

Another definition of risk has been used in prevalence

studies carried out in Sweden. Two prevalence studies have

been carried out in Sweden as part of the Swedish

longitudinal gambling study (SWELOGS) carried out by The

Public Health Agency of Sweden. As mentioned, SWELOGS

employed different criteria for gambling associated with


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risk and problem gambling. The PGSI was used to define

risk. The questionnaire is based on the DSM-IV-criteria.

The questionnaire contains sine questions and has a maximum

score of 27 points. Elevated risk was defined as a score of

3-7 and problem gambling was defined as score of eight and

above. The prevalence levels for elevated risk were 1.9% in

2008/2009 and 1.3% in 2016. The rates of problem gambling

were 0.3% in 2008/2009 and 0.4% in 2016.

The previous risk assessments explained were based on

self-report or on expert assessments based on the DSM-IV-

criteria. The RG tool Playscan, which is the focus of this

thesis, employs a different conception of risk. It employs

the term “risk of developing an excessive gambling

pattern.” This assessment is based on gambling behavior in

the form of transaction data, such as time and money spent

on gambling. Also including different behavior markers for

excessive gambling, such as “night owling” (gambling late

at night) and “chasing losses” (trying to win money to

offset previous losses), were also used to determine risk.

The risk assessment also includes the results from a16-item

questionnaire focused on negative consequences of gambling.

A higher score on the questionnaire indicates a higher

level of risk. The assessment, thus, is a combination of an


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individual’s gambling data and the results of the

questionnaire.

Whether an individual fulfills the criteria for

pathological gambling/gambling disorder or has a gambling

pattern associated with the risk of developing excessive

gambling, the individual will, in most cases, experience

negative consequences/harm in the long and short term. The

most obvious negative consequence of excessive gambling is

the loss of money, but the loss of time can also be a major

negative consequence. Negative psychological (e.g. anxiety

and depression) and physiological consequences (e.g. high

blood pressure and stress) are also common (Lorenz &

Yaffee, 1988). However, individuals with pathological

gambling/gambling disorder and at-risk gamblers are not the

only ones who experience negative consequences. Two studies

have shown that low-level gambling is also associated with

harm: Canale, Vieno, and Griffiths (2016), who investigated

harm among adult gamblers, and Raisamo, Halme, Murto, and

Lintonen (2013), who investigated harm among adolescents.

One other aspect of gambling is that the gambler is not the

only one who experiences negative consequences. A review

including 30 studies have shown that significant others

(e.g. family member or partner)also experience adverse

effects due to gambling of a relative(Kourgiantakis, Saint-


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Jacques, & Tremblay, 2013). Another finding is that

individuals close to the gambler (not relatives, e.g. close

friends) also suffer from negative consequences (Svensson,

Romild, &Shepherdson, 2013). Thus, helping an individual

with problems due to gambling is perhaps at the same time

providing help and relief for significant others and

individuals close to the gambler. In a qualitative study by

Downs and Woolrych (2010) the results indicated that the

impact of problem gambling is large for the gambler and

family and friends. Besides overall debt, deceit and

secrecy that the gambler engaged in were the aspects that

created problems in their relationships. Harm or negative

consequences of gambling are present for individual sat a

pathological level, for individuals that engage in gambling

associated with risk, and for leisure low-level gamblers.

These three levels of gambling exist on a continuum,

and it is hard to draw distinct lines between them. What is

clear is that gamblers at different levels of gambling have

different needs in terms of preventing and limiting the

harm from gambling activities. Different preventive and

harm minimization strategies have been developed to meet

the needs of these groups (mainly for at-risk and problem

populations). However, for the most excessive gamblers

treatment is a viable option.


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This is a review of the literature on pathological

gambling prepared for the work group on disorders of

impulse control, not elsewhere classified of the American

Psychiatric Association. It introduces the new DSM-IV

criteria as well as outlines the phases of the career of

the pathological gambler. Research discussed includes that

on pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders,

substance, abuse, family issues, children, finances, and

crime. Psychoanalytic, personality, behavioural,

sociological, psychologically based addiction theories, and

physiological research are also summarized. Finally,

treatment outcome studies are outlined.

This paper offers an overview of the existing

literature concerning problem gambling and families and

identifies gaps in current research knowledge on this

topic. Relevant theoretical perspectives are outlined and

the role of familial factors in the development of problem

gambling. This is followed by a focused review of the

effects of problem gambling on family members, specifically

the spouse, children and parents. Available treatments and

therapies for family members are also reviewed. The paper

concludes by identifying the limitations of existing

knowledge and some directions for future research on this

topic.
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Epstein, (1992) study as cited in Lesieur, both

problem and pathological gambling are characterized by

destructive behaviors that can disrupt or damage careers,

personal relationships, and families. The human costs and

suffering prove most difficult to quantify. Researchers

have found that those families affected by gambling

disorders function in an inferior manner compared 2 to the

general population with regards to problem solving,

communication, roles and responsibilities.

Related Studies

Gambling is very big in the Philippines. “gambling is

not a sin,” a government officials said. ”even priest and

nuns come to the casinos asking for jobs for their

parishioner.” Gambling in the Philippines is generally

restricted in the government laws. Illegal forms gambling

include jueting, masiao and last two. There are no laws

prohibiting online gambling in particular, therefore legal.

The Philippines amusement and gambling corporation is a

government run agency that controls legal gambling and run

casinos and other gambling ventures. Charity sweepstake and

lotteries are also managed by the government through the

Philippines charity sweepstakes office.


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Alecks P. Pabico of the Philippines Center for

investigation journalism wrote; “are Filipino natural-born

gamblers? Marvin Castell and Joel Tanchuco, economics

professor at the De la Salle University, posed the question

in a paper they wrote in 2004 on they described as a

“habitual and pervasive social activity” among pinoys.

“from the humblest barrios to the affluent villages,

Filipinos are into gambling,” they observed, citing the

abundance of casinos, lotto and bingo outlets, municipal

cockpit arena, card games, and “cara y cruz” on city

street, and bookies that go house for the illegal numbers

game called jueteng.

Gambling in the Philippines has been present since the

sixteenth century, and is still prevalent in the country

today. Currently, it takes on various legal and illegal

forms found almost all over the archipelago. The government

handles gambling through the Philippine Amusement and

Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR) which aims to regulate and

operate games of chance, and to generate government funds,

but there are also several other public and private

agencies that handles specific forms of gambling. In

particular, casino gambling under PAGCOR is essential to

the country's tourism and revenue. The Philippines has more


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casinos than Macau, with twenty found in Metro Manila

alone.

Cockfighting, in particular, was a favorite past time

in the Philippines. Nearly every village had its own

cockpit, and the activity had its own system for how it is

to be played, as well as the fees paid, days performed, and

others. Visitors in the country would note the amount of

care which the roosters were treated, and most visitors

would attend a cockpit during their stay. According to the

number of arrests made by the police in the late 19th

century, it is probable that the presence of cockfighting

may have encouraged other forms of gambling. This led to

even more edicts, enforcement, and penalties, where the

government set certain days and times of the day for it to

be allowed. This, however, still proved difficult to

control due to its prevalence, and was significantly

decriminalized later on when the government opened the

country to foreign trade and overseas markets due to the

need for internal sources of revenue.


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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains the research design, research

setting, participants of the study, sampling design,

research instrument, data–gathering procedure and

statistical technique used.

Research Design

This study utilized descriptive-comparative design

using survey method in gathering data and the needed

information to accomplish the purpose of this study.

Research Setting

This study was conducted in one of the barangay of

Molave, Zamboanga del Sur on the first semester of school

year 2018-2019.

Research Participants

The participants of the study were the 90 residents of

Bogo Capalaran, Molave Zamboanga del Sur, represented only

by 30 participants in each cluster, the total of 90

participants in 3 clusters.
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Sampling Design

The researchers used cluster sampling for

participants. This meant that the thirty (30) households

every cluster was represented by one member as the

participant.

Research Instrument

The researchers adapted and constructed a

questionnaire – checklist from the work of Custer & Milt

“Impacts of gambling problems on families” (1985), and

Forsstrom, David “The Use and Experience of Responsible

Gambling Tools” (Nov. 2017)

This was composed of three parts:

Part I dealt on the socio-demographic profile of the

participants in terms of family monthly income

and members of the family engaged in gambling.

Part II dealt on common gambling practices engaged by

the participants.

Part III dealt on detrimental effects of gambling as

perceived by two groups of participants.

To determine the responses of participants on the

detrimental effects of gambling, the five likert scale, the

adjectival equivalent and interpretation were used.


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Numerical Weight Adjectival Interpretation


Rating Scale Continuum Equivalent

5 4.20-5.00 Strongly Agree (SA) Very


Favorable (VF)
4 3.40-4.19 Agree (A) Favorable (F)

3 2.60-3.39 Fairly Agree (FA) Less


Favorable (LF)
2 1.80-2.59 Disagree (D) Unfavorable (Un)

1 1.00-1.79 Strongly Very


Disagree (SD) Unfavorable (VU)

Data Gathering Procedure

Before the administration of the questionnaire, the

researchers asked permission from the School Head through

an official communication. Upon approval, the researchers

sent a letter to the Barangay Captain asking permission to

conduct their study, upon its approval, the researcher

administer the questionnaire to the respondents. The

questionnaire was retrieved immediately after answering.

The data was tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted.

Statistical Technique Used

The data gathered in this study was organized and

tabulated for statistical treatment in order to answer the

specific problems of the study. The frequency count, mean


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and percentage, and t Test was used to arrive at the

specific result.

Numerical Continuum Interpretation

Scale

5 4.20 - 5.00 Strongly Agree


4 3.40 – 4.19 Agree
3 2.60 – 3.39 Fairly Agree
2 1.80 – 2.59 Disagree
1 1.00 – 1.79 Strongly Disagree

Frequency Counts and Percentage. This was used to

determine number of observations.

f
Frequency Count 𝐟 = x 100%
N

where:

n = sample size

N = total population

f
Formula for percentage: 𝐏 = N x 100%

where:

P - refers to percentage coefficient

f - refers to frequency

N - refers to the number of respondents


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Mean. This was used to determine the average of each

response. The formula used for the mean was adapted from

Downie and Heath, 1984.

Where: X= Mean

Σx= sum of scores

N= number of cases

To test the hypothesis on the detrimental effects of

gambling, t-test was used.

Hypothesis of the study was tested at 0.05 level of

significance.

To test the significant difference between the two

variables, t-test was used.

𝑥1 − 𝑥2
𝑡=
𝑣𝑎𝑟1 𝑣𝑎𝑟2
√ +
𝑛1 𝑛2

Where: t = t-test
X1= mean of sample 1
x2= mean of sample 2
var1 = variance 1
var2 = variance 2
n1 = sampling size 1
n2 = sampling size 2
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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION DATA

This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the

data gathered from the study which are arranged according

to the following:

Socio – demographic profile;

Common gambling practices;

Perceived detrimental effects of gambling;

Significant difference among the groups of

participants on the perceived detrimental effects of

gambling; and

Significant difference among the groups of

participants on the perceived detrimental effects of

gambling according to economic status.

Socio-demographic Profile of the Participants

Table 1 presents the participants socio-demographic

profile in the municipality of Molave, Zamboanga del Sur.

As to the gambler participants, the results shows that

22 or 62.86% of participants whose family income were 7,000

below; 8 or 22.86%, 7,000-10,000; and 5 or 14.29%, 10,000

above. This means that most of the gamblers are those

family monthly income are 7,000 below of the participants.


32

As to the members of the family who engaged in

gambling, 8 or 72.73%, the father; 2 or 18.18%, mother; and

1 or 9.09% others. This means that the majority of the

participants who gamble were the father.

Table 1

Profile of the Respondents

Non – Gambler Gambler


Profile
F % F %

Family Monthly Income

7,000 below
31 56.36 22 62.86
7,001 - 10,000
13 23.64 8 22.86
10.000 and above
11 20.00 5 14.29

Family Member engaged in


Gambling
Father 32 57.14 8 72.73
Mother 14 25.00 2 18.18
Brother 9 16.07 0 0.00
Sister 1 1.79 0 0.00
Others 0 0.00 1 9.09
33

Common Gambling Practices

Table 2 presents the data on the common gambling

practices of the 55 participants. Suertres of small time

lottery has a frequency of 36 which rank first. Followed by

tong-its with a frequency of 24, third is cockfighting a

frequency of 17, and lastly a frequency of 3, majhong.

Therefore suertres was the most common gambling practiced

of the participants.

Table 2

Common Gambling Practices

Gambling Practices F Rank

Cockfighting 17 3rd

Tong-its 24 2nd

Mahjong 3 5th

Suertres 36 1st

Billiards 7 4th

Perceived detrimental effects of gambling

Table 3 displays the detrimental effect of gambling as

perceived by the two groups; the gambler and the non-

gambler. On Family-socio economic condition, gambler has a

WAM 3.27 which means “Fairly Agree” while non-gambler has a

WAM of 1.33 which means “Strongly Disagree”. The overall

mean of family-socio economic condition is 4.12 with an


34

adjectival equivalent of “Agree” and interpreted as

“Favorable”.

On the social effects of the participants, gambler has

a WAM of 2.41 which means “Disagree” while non-gambler has

a WAM of 1.19 which means “Strongly Disagree”. The overall

mean of Social Effects is 3.17 with an adjectival

equivalent of “Fairly Agree” and interpreted as “Less

Favorable”.

On the behavioral effects of participants, gambler has

a WAM of 3.45 which means “Agree” while non-gambler 1.30

which means “Strongly Disagree”. The overall mean of

behavioral effects is 4.28 with an interpreted adjective

value of “Strongly Agree” and interpreted as “Very

Favorable”. The overall grand mean is 3.85 with an

adjectival equivalent of “Agree” and interpreted as

“Favorable”.

Table 3

Perceived Detrimental Effects of Gambling

Non- Over
Statement AE Gambler AE All I
Gambler
Mean

Family Socio-
3.27 FA 1.33 SD 4.12 F
economic condition

Social Effects 2.41 D 1.19 SD 3.17 LF


35

(Table 3 continued)

Behavioral Effects 3.45 A 1.30 SD 4.28 VF

Grand Mean 3.85 F

Legend:
Numerical Weight Adjectival Interpretation
Rating Scale Continuum Equivalent

5 4.20-5.00 Strongly Agree (SA) Very


Favorable VF)
4 3.40-4.19 Agree (A) Favorable (F)
3 2.60-3.39 Fairly Agree (FA) Less
Favorable (LF)
2 1.80-2.59 Disagree (D) Unfavorable (Un)
1 1.00-1.79 Strongly Very
Disagree (SD) Unfavorable (VU)

Table 4

Significant difference among the groups of respondents on


the perceived detrimental effects of gambling

tvalue
Groups N mean variance df
tobs tcrit

Non-Gambler(x) 55 3.0448 0.3513


88 18.1483 1.663
Gambler (y) 35 1.2724 0.1103

As shown in Table 4, the sample size, mean and

variance of the non-gambler and gambler. The gamblers’

sample size, mean and variance are 55, 3.0488 and


36

0.3513respectively. The non-gamblers’ sample size, mean and

variance are 35, 1.2724 and 0.1103 respectively.

To test the significant difference between the two

variables, t-test was used.

The absolute computed value of t is 18.1483 at 0.05

level of significance with 88 as the degrees of freedom,

the critical value of t is 1.663. Thus the computed value

of t is greater than the critical value, hence, the null

hypothesis was rejected which means that the study shows

that there is significant difference between the

perceptions of gamblers and non-gamblers on the detrimental

effects of gambling.

Table 4 Significance of the difference among the groups of

respondents on the perceived detrimental effects of

gambling according to economic status.

Table 4.1 shows the summary of the detrimental effects

of gambling according to economic status.

Table 4.1
Summary of Detrimental Effects of Gambling according
to Economic Status
Groups Count Sum Average Variance

10,000 above 15 240 16 657.2857


7,001 - 10,000 15 315 21 122.5714

7,000and below 15 795 53 640.5714


37

Table 4.2
Perceived Detrimental Effects of Gambling according to
Economic Status.

ANOVA

Source of

Variation SS Df MS F P-value F crit

Between Groups 12090 2 6045


12.77 4.66E-05 3.22
Within Groups 19886 42 473.48

Total 31976 44

The computed value of F is 12.76727 and the critical

value of F, at 0.05 level of significance is 3.219942. The

absolute computed value of F is greater than the critical

value, therefore null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, there

is a significant difference among the groups of respondents

on the perceived detrimental effects of gambling according

to economic status.
38

Chapter 5

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter contains the summary, findings,

conclusions, and recommendations which are briefly but

concisely stated.

Summary

The study was conducted to determine the detrimental

effects of gambling in Molave Zamboanga del Sur.

The study looked the detrimental effects of gambling

in Molave Zamboanga del Sur; the socio-demographic profile

of the participants in terms of monthly income and members

of the family engaged in gambling; common gambling

practices engaged by the participants; perceived

detrimental effects of gambling; significance difference

among the group of participants on the perceived

detrimental effects of gambling; and the significant

difference among the group of participants on the perceived

detrimental effects of gambling according to economic

status.

The research design used in this study was the

descriptive-survey method with the questionnaire checklist

as the main instruments in gathering the data vital for the

accomplishment of the study.


39

This was conducted in Barangay Bogo Capalaran, Molave

Zamboanga del Sur. Thirty participants each cluster served

as the participants, total of 90 participants.

Moreover, the statistical technique used in

interpreting the data gathered were: Weighted Arithmetic

Mean and t=test.

Findings

Based on the data gathered, the following are the

significant findings of the study:

1. Majority of the gamblers were those with monthly

family incomes 7,000 and below and the fathers were

the ones who were major gamblers.

2. Suertres is the number one game played by the

participants.

3. The participants fairly agreed with the detrimental

effects of gambling.

4. There was significant difference between the

perceptions of gamblers and non-gamblers on the

detrimental effects of gambling.

5. There was significant difference among the groups of

respondents on the perceived detrimental effects of

gambling according to economic status.


40

Conclusion

On the basis of the findings of this study the

following conclusions are hereby drawn:

1. The father of the family gamble most of the time and

the family income of gamblers is 7000 and below.

2. Majority of the participants play the number games

called suertres.

3. The participants perceive that their family’s

economic, social and behavioural conditions are

affected by gambling.

4. The gambler and non-gambler participants’

perceptions on the detrimental effects of gambling

do not differ.

5. The gambler and non-gambler participants’

perceptions vary on their detrimental effects of

gambling according to their economic status.

Recommendations

On the basis of findings and conclusions of the study the

researchers offered the following recommendations:

1. That the Local Government Unit of Molave Zamboanga del

Sur should limit to legal gambling practices.


41

2. That the local police officers and barangay officials

conduct surveillance in implementing the ordinance and

monitor the gambling activities.

3. That a similar study be conducted with an increased

number of variables.
42

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45

“Appendix A”
J.H. Cerilles State College
Molave Offsite Class
Molave, Zamboanga del Sur

October 26, 2018


DR. CANDELARIO P. SUGANOB
Academic Head, JHCSC- Molave
Molave, Zamboanga del Sur

Sir:

We, undersigned 4th year BSCRIM students, are currently


conducting a research entitled “DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF
GAMBLING” as a requirement for Criminology 6:
Criminological Research and Statistics this semester.

With this, we would like to request your good office


to allow us to distribute our survey questionnaires to our
participants who are the households of Barangay Bogo
Capalaran, Molave Zamboanga del Sur.

We are hoping for your affirmative response on this


matter.

Yours truly,

(Sgd.)ARWIN L. ADLAON
(Sgd.)JENNYCEL A. ANDRADA
(Sgd.)FERNANDO C. BERIOSO JR.
(Sgd.)SEAN FLYNN BOSMEON
(Sgd.)DINNIS MARK H. HALASAN
Researchers

Noted:

(Sgd.)KREMIR A. ALICAWAY MaEd.


Research Instructor

APPROVED:

(Sgd.)DR. CANDELARIO P. SUGANOB, Ed.D.


Academic Head
46

J.H. Cerilles State College


Molave Offsite Class
Molave Zamboanga del Sur

October 26, 2018


HON. RODELIO A. ESTILLORE
Barangay Captain
Bogo Capalaran
Molave, Zamboanga del Sur

Sir:

We, undersigned 4th year BSCRIM students, are currently


conducting a research entitled “DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF
GAMBLING” as a requirement for Criminology 6:
Criminological Research and Statistics this semester.

With this, we would like to request your good office


to allow us to distribute our survey questionnaires to our
participants who are the households of Barangay Bogo
Capalaran, Molave Zamboanga del Sur.

We are hoping for your affirmative response on this


matter.

Yours truly,

(Sgd.)ARWIN L. ADLAON
(Sgd.)JENNYCEL A. ANDRADA
(Sgd.)FERNANDO C. BERIOSO JR.
(Sgd.)SEAN FLYNN BOSMEON
(Sgd.)DINNIS MARK H. HALASAN
Researchers
Noted:

(Sgd.)DR. CANDELARIO P. SUGANOB,Ed.D


Academic Head

APPROVED:

(Sgd.)HON. RODELIO A. ESTILLORE


Barangay Captain
47

Appendix “B”

Republic of the Philippines


J.H. CERILLES STATE COLLEGE- Dumingag Campus
Molave Offsite Class
Molave, Zamboanga del Sur

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

Name: ________________________(Optional ) gambler non-gambler

_________________________________________________________

Directions: Please answer the following questions.


Put a check () the box that corresponds to your
answer on the space provided of each item.

Part I. Socio-Demographic profile of the Respondents.

1. Monthly Family Income

7,000 below 7,001 – 10,000

10,000 above

2. Member(s) of the family engaged in gambling

Father Mother

Son Daughter

Others:

Please specify:__________________
48

Part II. Common Gambling Practices:

Cockfighting Bingo

Mahjong Others

Tong-its Please specify:

STL/Suertres

Part III. Detrimental Effects of Gambling

Legend: 5 – Strongly Agree 2 – Disagree

4 – Agree 1 – Strongly Disagree

3 – Fairly Agree

5 4 3 2 1
STATEMENTS
SA A FA D SD

Family Socio-economic Condition


1. Preoccupied with gambling and has
no time for the family
2. Spent all their saving into
gambling that leads to loss of
financial support to their family
3. Struggled to pay their bill and
over time the payment accumulated
4. Gambled with money that really
should have been used for
children’s education
5. Became untruthful about his/her
gambling involvement towards family
49

members

Social Effects
1. Tended not to show up at their
office and skip work to gamble
2. Stole money from their employer

3. Lost their job due to habitual


tardiness and excessive absences
4. Borrow money from friends/
relatives to gamble
5. Isolated himself/herself in his/her
room especially when lost in
gambling
Behavioral Effects
1. Became restless and irritated if
didn’t have opportunity to gamble
2. Got irritable and restless when
trying to stop or cut down on
gambling
3. Did not want to tell people about
how much time and money are spent
on gambling
4. Felt bad when thinking of how much
is lost in gambling

5. Committed crimes such as robbery


which led to jail times

Source: Adapted from Custer & Milt “Impacts of gambling


problems on families” (1985), Forsstrom, David “The
Use and Experience of Responsible Gambling Tools”
(Nov. 2017)
50

“Appendix C”

RAW DATA

Part III. Detrimental Effects of Gambling

Legend: 5 – Strongly Agree 2 – Disagree

4 – Agree 1 – Strongly Disagree

3 – Fairly Agree

5 4 3 2 1
STATEMENTS
SA A FA D SD

Family Socio-economic Condition


1. Preoccupied with gambling and has
4 5 8 50 23
no time for the family
2. Spent all their saving into
gambling that leads to loss of 3 8 15 36 28
financial support to their family
3. Struggled to pay their bill and
over time the payment accumulated 6 16 25 17 26

4. Gambled with money that really


should have been used for 19 26 7 15 23
children’s education
5. Became untruthful about his/her
gambling involvement towards family 8 24 22 13 23
members
Social Effects
6. Tended not to show up at their
0 4 5 33 48
office and skip work to gamble
7. Stole money from their employer
0 1 2 27 60

8. Lost their job due to habitual 1 2 5 29 53


tardiness and excessive absences
9. Borrow money from friends/
15 19 11 18 27
relatives to gamble
51

10. Isolated himself/herself in


his/her room especially when lost 3 17 24 16 30
in gambling
Behavioral Effects
6. Became restless and irritated if
didn’t have opportunity to gamble 18 21 14 13 24

7. Got irritable and restless when


trying to stop or cut down on 11 18 24 19 18
gambling
8. Did not want to tell people about
how much time and money are spent 16 28 8 14 24
on gambling
9. Felt bad when thinking of how much
is lost in gambling 15 25 15 8 27

10. Committed crimes such as


1 0 0 30 59
robbery which led to jail times

Source: Adapted from Custer & Milt “Impacts of gambling


problems on families” (1985), Forsstrom, David “The
Use and Experience of Responsible Gambling Tools”
(Nov. 2017)
52

“Appendix D”

PICTORIALS

The Researchers
53

Participants answering the questionnaire-checklist with the


researchers.
54

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Background

Name : Arwin L. Adlaon

Address : Tusik, Bonifacio


Misamis Occidental

Date of Birth : August 19, 1998

Age : 20

Place of Birth : Bolinsong, Bonifacio Misamis


Occidental

Gender : Male

Civil Status : Single

Religion : Roman Catholic

Father’s Name : Felipe S. Adlaon

Mother’s Name : Perla P. Luna

Educational Background

Tertiary : JH Cerilles State College-Dumingag


Molave offsite Class
Molave, Zamboanga del Sur
2015-2019

Degree : Bachelor of Science in Criminology

Secondary : Diwat National High School


Tusik, Bonifacio Misamis Occidental
2011-2015

Elementary : Tusik Elementary School


Tusik, Bonifacio Misamis Occidental
2005-2011
55

CURRICULUM VITAE
Personal Background

Name : Jennycel A. Andrada

Address : Ebarle, Josefina,


Zamboanga del Sur

Date of Birth : November 24, 1998

Age : 20

Place of Birth : Ebarle, Josefina, Zamboanga del Sur

Gender : Female

Civil Status : Single

Religion : Roman Catholic

Father’s Name : Exequil N. Andrada Sr.

Mother’s Name : Jocelyn C. Albrando

Educational Background

Tertiary : JH Cerilles State College-Dumingag


Molave offsite Class
Molave, Zamboanga del Sur
2015-2019

Degree : Bachelor of Science in Criminology

Secondary : Leonardo National High School


Leonardo, Josefina, Zamboanga del
Sur
2011-2015

Elementary : Ebarle Integ. Elementary School


Ebarle, Josefina, Zamboanga del Sur
2005-2011
56

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Background

Name : Fernando C. Berioso Jr.

Address : Tusik, Bonifacio


Misamis Occidental

Date of Birth : December 19, 1998

Age : 20

Place of Birth : Tusik, Bonifacio Misamis Occidental

Gender : Male

Civil Status : Single

Religion : Aglipay

Father’s Name : Fernando D. Berioso Sr.

Mother’s Name : Rudelina M. Cuizon

Educational Background

Tertiary : JH Cerilles State College-Dumingag


Molave offsite Class
Molave, Zamboanga del Sur
2015-2019

Degree : Bachelor of Science in Criminology

Secondary : Diwat National High School


Tusik, Bonifacio Misamis Occidental
2011-2015

Elementary : Tusik Elementary School


Tusik, Bonifacio Misamis Occidental
2005-2011
57

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Background

Name : Sean Flynn Bosmeon

Address : San Antonio, Tubod Lanao


del Norte

Date of Birth : January 13, 1998

Age : 20

Place of Birth : San Antonio, Tubod Lanao del Norte

Gender : Male

Civil Status : Single

Religion : Roman Catholic

Father’s Name : Francisco G. Bosmeon

Mother’s Name : Helen P. Dingal

Educational Background

Tertiary : JH Cerilles State College-Dumingag


Molave offsite Class
Molave, Zamboanga del Sur
2015-2019
Degree : Bachelor of Science in Criminology

Secondary : Lanao del Norte National


Comprehensi veHigh School
Baroy, Lanao del Norte
2011-2015

Elementary : Tubod Central Elementary School


Tubod Lanao del Norte
2005-2011
58

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Background

Name : Dinnis Mark H. Halasan

Address : Bogo Capalaran, Molave


Zamboanga del Sur

Date of Birth : December 02, 1997

Age : 20

Place of Birth : Bogo Capalaran, Molave Zamboanga del


Sur

Gender : Male

Civil Status : Single

Religion : Iglesia ni Cristo

Father’s Name : Gelacio N. Halasan Jr.

Mother’s Name : Barsilisa G. Hamili

Educational Background

Tertiary : JH Cerilles State College-Dumingag


Molave offsite Class
Molave, Zamboanga del Sur
2015-2019

Degree : Bachelor of Science in Criminology

Secondary : Molave Vocational Technical School


Molave Zamboanga del Sur
2011-2015

Elementary : Bogo Capalaran Elementary School


Bogo Capalaran, Molave Zamboanga del
Sur
2005-2011