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Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Entering college is a thrilling experience to many. Before that, one has to think

about what course to choose based on his ambitions. Deciding what course to take in

college is an extremely important endeavor. Not only does it affect the next four years of

a student’s life, it also plays a major role in their career. The essence of who that student

is will revolve around what the student wants to do with his life-long work. Work is one

of life’s greatest blessings. “Everyone should have an honest occupation”, Caspillo

(2006) quoted Rosenstock & Steinberg (1996).

The goal of the country’s educational system is anchored on giving the necessary

assistance to every Filipino youth to attain his maximum potential as human being by

way of providing the necessary educational tools that will develop him to become a

productive and responsible citizen. However, for one to attain his maximum potentials,

there is a need to know himself – his personal attributes. Oftentimes, choosing a course is

the parent’s wish basically because of the fact that children are dependent on them (De

Guzman 2005). But sometimes, students follow what they want which is considered as

one of the influences in choosing a course.

The youth must realize as early as possible the course or degree that are fitted for

them. Even the choice of what college or university to go to is affected by this. The

consequences of wrong decisions can be very disappointing. In the long run, employees
and workers who are not fitted in their occupations, because their educational

qualifications have led them to unsatisfying career paths, fail to achieve self-fulfillment.

Hence, they do not give the best of their capacities. Eventually, they become liabilities

rather than assets in society. Because of these, there is a need to assist students in their

course preference (Astrologo 2006).

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to provide information about the relationship between the

influences of course preferences and academic performance of freshmen at Sultan

Kudarat State University (SKSU) – Tacurong Campus.

Specifically, it aimed to answer the following:

1. What is the profile of the freshman students in terms of:

1.1 Age

1.2 Gender

1.3 Course

1.4 High school grade point average (GPA)

2. What is the level of influence of the following factors in pursuing the course taken

in terms of:

1.1 Self

1.2 Family

1.3 School

1.4 Peers

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1.5 Employment opportunity

3. What is the level of academic performance of freshmen?

4. Is there a significant difference between students’ academic performance when

classified according to their course preference?

Importance of the Study

The results of this study may serve as the basis of information to incoming first

year students to focus on the course that they want to have. Those students, who had

taken their first year, may orient the incoming to follow their choice in selecting their

course.

For the parents, the results of this study may serve as reminder for them to be just

and careful in guiding their children on choosing their career.

The results of this study may become basis of curricular offerings, determining

the scholastic performance of the students may be of great help for the school

administrators in creating innovative programs and policies. These would encourage and

assist the incoming first year college students in choosing and enrolling in a course in

which students can fully enhance their skills and interests.

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Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study is focused on the factors in pursuing the course taken in terms of self

or personal choice, family, school, peers and job opportunity with the freshman students’

as respondents. It was also limited in assessing the academic performance of freshmen

based on their first semester GPA and evaluation of School Year 2009-2010 grades.

Time and Place of the Study

This study was conducted at Sultan Kudarat State University Tacurong Campus at

Alunan Highway, Tacurong City covering the second semester of Academic Year 2009-

2010.

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

This part contains definition of some terms that help for the better understanding

of the study.

Academic Performance refers to the level of scholastic achievement or the grade point

average of the freshman student at the end of the semester.

Course refers to the degree or major field the respondents are taking up and studying in

college, as an academic preparation for future career

Course Preference refers to choosing what degree or program to enroll in and take up by

a student in college.

Civil Status refers to the status of the respondents whether they are single, married,

separated, or widow/widower.

Family Factor refers to the aspect of choosing a course as influenced by parents and/or

other relatives.

High School GPA refers to the freshman students’ final grade at the end of their high

school year.

Peer Factor refers to the aspect of choosing a college course as influenced by friends or

kind of social lifestyle.

School Factor refers to the aspect of choosing a college course as influenced by the

educational institution that the respondents intends to enroll in.

Self Factor refers to the aspect of choosing a college course as influenced by personal

aspirations, ambitions, and capabilities.

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Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This part contains excerpts from other studies, reading, and literature related to

this research, helping understand and simplify what the study is all about.

The Right Choice

The most important piece of advice given by Prof. Hansen (2009) regarding

choosing a major in college is “Don't panic”. Choosing a major, thinking about a career,

getting an education – these are the things college is all about. Yes, there are some

students who arrive on campus and know exactly their major and career ambitions, but

the majority of students do not, thus there is no need to rush into a decision about your

major as soon as you step on campus. A majority of students in all colleges and

universities change their major at least once in their college careers; and many change

their major several times over the course of their college career.

In the research of Owen & Jensen (2004), they used a broad sample of students to

provide insight into the course selection process. Consistent with a learning model, they

found that students with more years of college experience select courses that are a better

match because they make better use of the information available to them. There was

evidence for a social learning process in that students rely heavily on advice from peers

in selecting courses. Finally, students appear to be learning how to learn: As they gain

college experience, they become more sophisticated in the use of social learning.

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One of the most difficult decisions facing graduating high school students is what

course to choose. Going to college is much more than just preparing yourself for a career.

The three or four years students spend at third level is often life changing - the final year

student and graduate is very often a different person to the one who entered college in

first year. Kennedy (2007) advised the following guidelines to follow before making the

final decision: (1) Assess yourself and your interests. (2) Investigate different universities

and colleges. (3) Think about what you hope to gain from going to college. (4)

Investigate what you will be looking for in a career. (5) Realistically evaluate your

options. (6) Pick your Top 10 colleges and courses.

There is no set formula for students choosing a course they wish to study. Below

are four common reasons as to why students choose a specific course: (1) They need a

certain degree to pursue their chosen career — for example medicine or pharmacy. (2)

They enjoyed studying the subject at A-level. (3) They are interested in a subject they

haven’t studied in school or college e.g. journalism, archaeology, philosophy. (4) They

want to study more than one subject and decide to study a combined degree e.g. History

and Politics, Law and French, Chemistry and Physics. The content of a degree course and

the way it is delivered can, however, vary from university to university (UCAS

Advertisement 2008).

Family Factor

The hope of every parent is to have children who are responsible, concerned

members of society. Discipline is, of course, part of this effect. Research has repeatedly

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shown that, despite the importance of the peer group, parents usually have much more

influence than they realize. Disciplining children takes a great deal of effort, but the main

idea is that children and parents can change.

Changing behavior requires much time and well-though-out reactions. Some

parents simply do not have the time, energy or patience to attempt to motivate change in

the child or even in themselves (Sierra 2002).

According to Sharp (1996), as cited by De Guzman (2006), a number of

important relationships in a student’s background, such as parents’ desire for a child to

attend college and parents’ socio-economic status, are determinants of student’s college

choices.

Based on the facts that children are physically dependent on their parents,

students follow what their parents want considered as home influence in choosing a

career. However, the most significant factors which affect the career plans of the students

is the financial status of the family. Students select a career, which they think affordable.

But somehow, there are deserving and resourceful students who do not depend everything

they need from their parents (Astrologo 2006).

There are many psychological and sociological factors that influence the choice

of education. Among those factors, normative referents have long been recognized as one

of the major factors that influence students’ decision-making processes. Park & Lessig

(1977) described family and other non-family groups as normative referents who provide

the individual with norms, attitudes, and values through direct interaction. Normative

referents allow for a significant amount of interaction that impact on individual’s choice.

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Familial and non-familial referents could influence each stage of the whole

choice-making process. However, different people could differently influence their

choices directly and indirectly. Familial referents can influence students’ choice through

their financial, informational, expectation, and encouragement influence. Non-familial

referents, on the other hand, can influence the choice of international education through

their informational and encouragement influence (Pimpa 2001).

Although many students explain that information from their families is not the

most important factor on their decision-making processes, it is convincing enough for

some students. Informational influence occurs when the influencing person provides

useful information that facilitates or alters the choices the influence student makes. Many

students express that information influence is reflected in the family members’

enumeration of specific information concerning the various alternatives (Pimpa 2001).

Self Factor

Caspillo (2005) mentioned that if a person is very shy and has a dread of speaking

in public, he would not make a good trial lawyer.

In considering any occupation, one must decide whether his nature will permit

him to fit into the life of the occupation he is pursuing. The first step on the journey of

choosing a course should be an examination or self-assessment of interests – types of

things that give excitement, types of jobs or careers that are appealing. The second step is

an examination of your abilities – strengths and weaknesses, kind of skills possessed, best

subjects, kinds of extracurricular activities liked to participate, and kinds of things

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learned from part-time or summer jobs. The third step involves examining the value in

work – helping society, working under pressure, group affiliation, stability, security,

status, pacing, working alone or with groups, having a positive impact on others, and

many others (Graham-Brown 1999).

Individual choice and life’s work are the most important things to consider in

planning for future living (Torres 1997).

The assessment of self and own interests is crucial in choosing a course in

college. The more interested a student is in a subject, the more likely he is to study it and

achieve a strong result. This is particularly important at college when one is responsible

for his own study. Guidance counselors in school will be able to provide him with access

to different interest tests (Kennedy 2007).

Experts told students that the major chosen in college does not set the course for

the rest of their life; it's merely a starting point. What's important is following their

interests and discovering what they love to do (Kimme 2007). Are there fields of study

that spark interest, or are there particularly enjoyable subjects taken?

Some students take a ‘gap year’ after school which provides an opportunity to

work and/or travel. Some students like to use the year to save money prior to going to

university; others may use it to gain experience relevant to their career choice. This is

generally accepted by universities, However, it is always advisable for students wishing

to take a gap year to check beforehand. It is also advisable for these students to apply to

university for a ‘deferred’ place, so that their place is ready for them when they return

from their gap year (UCAS Advertisement 2008).

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School Factor

Astrologo (2006) quoted in his study that education is the act of educating

systematic development or training of the mind, the capabilities and character through

instruction. It is the acquisition of knowledge and skills. Formal schooling is an

instruction of learning. It is one of the most powerful tools than man slowly forgets in

this quest to understand controlled environment. It plays a vital role in the economic

development of a country.

Moving from high school to college is a major social change. For most students,

it is the first time they are separated from family and friends and live entirely on their

own. Some parents prefer their children to attend colleges close to their homes than

colleges far from home. Similarly, female college-bound students choose colleges

because of the influence of their parents (Sierra 2002).

For some courses there will be only one or two colleges to choose from, however

for the majority of incoming freshman students there are a range of colleges offering

courses in their chosen area (Kennedy 2007). Attending college open days gives the

opportunity to tour the campus, see the lecture halls, sporting facilities and

accommodation, meet the lecturers and other students and to ask questions about the

college, investigate the different clubs and societies on offer and ask about the

destinations of their graduates and other matters.

Once a son or daughter has decided which course(s) they wish to study they will

need to choose where they want to study. One easy way of finding out which universities

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offer their chosen course(s) is to use the website. There are lists of the universities

posting course offerings (Kennedy 2007).

Schools and colleges usually provide guidance for students applying to university

and have libraries with relevant information. Career teachers within the school/college

will have up-to-date information on courses at university and can provide advice. Once

children have an idea of which universities offer the course they are interested in, they

should order a prospectus from the individual universities (free of charge) which will give

further details. University websites usually contain on-line prospectuses and/or the

facility to order one — the websites can be found using an internet search engine like

Google. Prospectuses will provide valuable information on the course and the entry

requirements. It also gives useful information on accommodation, sports clubs and

facilities, the location of the university, dates of open days and much more, allowing a

student to build up a picture of what the university and the place is really like (UCAS

Advertisement 2008).

Peers Factor

Berscheid (2008) referred to a peer as an agemate, intellectual peer, and friend.

Common interests in a talent area can create a bond that underlies relationships within the

peer group. This conception is supported by other researchers who have suggested that

decisive factors for formulating one's peer group include similarity in likes and dislikes,

reciprocity; compatibility, physical proximity; and one's potential status as a role model.

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Psychologists have long recognized that there are critical periods in a person's life

in which some specific person or agency serves as a driving force toward a higher level

of human development. Concerned with individual development, Bloom & Erikson

(2002) noted that peers play particularly a critical role in children's development during

adolescence, a period in which children tend to be more actively involved outside their

home environments with nonfamily members. Peers, indeed, have favorable influences

on the academic and creative talent development of students in 4 areas: competition,

support, motivation, and role modeling. A discussion of these findings and the various

factors that may have contributed to them are presented along with implications for

parents, teachers, and counselors.

Today, fellow students are depending on one another to help with the choices they

make in life. Various studies, including those by Zanjoe (2000), demonstrated that

emotions are more easily influenced when one is not aware that the influence is

occurring. This means that people are making choices and they do not know why!

“Emotional entertainment is the heart of influence,” Goleman (2009) stated.

Job Opportunity

Cox & King (2006) demonstrated an innovative approach to embedding

employability in the design of a university degree scheme using skill sets. Employers can

identify skill sets that relate to long-term employability as opposed to short-term

employment. These definitions can usefully inform the design of a degree scheme. The

approach of their paper may benefit the design of degree schemes that aim to educate a

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graduate to fulfill an identifiable role in industry. This approach is based on defining the

continuing intellectual and critical thinking skills that enable a graduate to fulfill a role,

rather than the immediate task-related skills that enable a graduate to fulfill a job. The

involvement of employers in formulating a portfolio of graduate skills can be applied to

the design of other schemes.

Kennedy (2007) added that students often say they attend college to secure a

good job but one of the myths behind choosing a particular course is that it locks you into

a specific career path. The college course you choose is only one of many factors that will

shape your career path

Although some careers require a particular course (e.g. medicine), over 60% of

graduate employers are more interested in the course result and transferable skills

students have gained than the subject of the course.

Employers pay a premium to recruit graduates because of the transferable skills

they gained in college. These skills include teamwork, communication, time

management, commercial awareness, planning and organizing, problem solving,

leadership and flexibility.

A number of colleges have introduced programmes that accredit extra-curricular

activities for students. To assist students in developing these "employability" skills, a

number of colleges have introduced programmes that accredit extra-curricular activities.

Others have personal development plans, mentoring systems and internship opportunities

in place.

Exploring one’s self what career to look for gives one an excellent insight into the

full range of options graduates pursue.

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What types of careers are appealing? Research the careers in interest to ensure

one’s career will meet one’s expectation. If interested in a certain career, do some

research to see if a particular course is essential, or will give an advantage. Check to see

also what professional recognition and exemptions are entitled to students.

If it is felt that the necessary points will not be achieved to get into the chosen

field, investigate other ways of getting in after graduation, like a postgraduate or higher

diploma in law or psychology will bring to course standard in the subject.

However, as stated previously around 60% of graduate opportunities are open to

graduates from any field so there is no need to worry if a career path is not decided. There

are numerous examples of zoology graduates pursuing careers in human resources, social

science graduates becoming accountants and IT graduates going on to study medicine

(for example). This will give an excellent insight into the full range of options graduates

pursue.

Academic Performance

Higher expectations for student achievement, Barton (2005) emphasized, need to

be matched by greater efforts and success in getting students through to graduation,

thereby opening doors for more educational opportunities or decent paying jobs.

Beishuizen (2004) uses ‘communities of learners’ as a concept that describes

collaborative research by students in which inquiry-based learning is the predominant

strategy for knowledge development. This can also be helpful in the activities of young

people making their way in modern society. Students perform better when they use

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concepts of evidence. A feasible and effective design for a teaching-learning sequence for

the concept of ‘evidence’ can be developed using the contexts of the science disciplines

in college education.

According to Gregorio (1996), as cited by Gaborne (2009), performance of the

students are based on the techniques and principles of a teacher, that a good technique is

skillful and rapid, it gets the task at hand done according to the plans, specifications, or

objectives associated with it. A technique may be simple, such using a mimeograph

machine to duplicate announcements or reports to be sent to teachers or it may be

complicated, such as helping teachers to evaluate their work. For a simple task, probably

the best way to perform it is on the technique level, but when complex arises, governing

principles must be kept in mind. Techniques to be effective must be based upon sound

principles. Principles are guides by which one proceeds from one situation to another.

Nathins (1995), as cited by Villanueva (2008) said that Filipinos have shown that

good grades in school are influenced solely by the child’s intelligence.

Academic performance improves when a child sees himself as responsible for his

own success and failure rather than attributing those outcomes to mere background and

other outside forces.

As revealed in the study of Cordero (1985), as cited by Quirol (2008),

intelligence is not the only factor in an achievement. There are other factors such as

motivation, interest and attitudes which play important role in academic performance.

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Chapter III
METHODOLOGY

This part contains the research design, respondents, data gathering procedure,

instrument, and statistical treatment utilized to answer the objectives of the study.

Research Design

This study used descriptive type of research method through the use of a survey

questionnaire. It centered on the influences surrounding college course preferences and

the students’ academic performance in SKSU-Tacurong Campus.

Respondents of the Study

Out of 797 freshman students of SKSU-Tacurong Campus enrolled in the

different courses during the School Year 2009-2010, only 266 were chosen using random

sampling through Sloven’s formula (Appendix 2).

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Degree No. of Freshmen Sample
BS Accounting Technology 131 43
BS Accountancy 84 28
BS Biology 35 12
BS Criminology 237 79
BASS Economics 33 11
BASS Political Science 26 9
BS Hotel & Restaurant Management 251 84
Total 797 266

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher asked permission (Appendix 1) from the Campus Dean of SKSU-

Tacurong Campus to conduct the study among the freshman students. After the approval

was given, the survey was done.

The researcher prepared a survey questionnaire to evaluate the factors influencing

course preference of selected freshman students and personally administered the survey.

To get the GPA of the respondents, the researcher obtained the records with permission

from the registrar.

Data Gathering Instrument

A survey questionnaire was used as the main instrument in collecting the data

needed (Appendix 3). The questionnaire was validated through referendum. The panelist

read and improved the content of the instrument. The questionnaire contained

information or statements asking about the respondents’ personal profile and influencing

factors in course preference.

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The following five-point scale was used by the respondents in answering the

questionnaire:

Rate Description

5 To a Very Great Extent

4 To a Great Extent

3 To Some Extent

2 To a Little Extent

1 Not at All

The mean which was computed from the responses was interpreted based on the

scale below:

Mean Interval Interpretation

4.20-5.00 Extremely Influenced

3.40-4.19 Highly Influenced

2.60-3.39 Moderately Influenced

1.80-2.59 Less Influenced

1.00-1.79 Not Influenced

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To interpret the level of academic performance of the selected freshmen, this scale

was used:

Mean Interval Description

1.00 Excellent

1.25 – 1.50 Very Good

1.75 – 2.0 Above Average

2.25 – 2.50 Average

2.75 – 3.0 Passing

4.00 Conditional

5.00 Failed

Statistical Treatment

Statistical tools were necessary for the interpretation of data collected and

drawing of conclusions. In this study, data were analyzed using the percentage and

frequency count for the profile of the freshmen. Arithmetic mean was used to analyze

their academic performance and the factors influencing their course preference. Analysis

of variance was utilized to determine the significant difference among classifications of

academic performance in terms of course preference.

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Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the results and discussions of statistical analysis on the data

collected. It also presents the interpretation of the results of the analysis.

Profile of the Freshman Students

There were 266 freshman students who were surveyed for this study. Their profile

is summarized below.

Table 1.1 Profile of Freshman Students in terms of Age


Age (Years) Frequency Percentage (%)
16 69 25.94
17 106 39.85
18 57 21.43
19 and older 34 12.78
Total 266 100.00

Table 1 shows that 106 freshman students are 17 years of age which is 39.85% of

the total respondents. It implies that the typical age of freshman students is 17 years old.

Table 1.2 Profile of Freshman Students in terms of Gender


Gender Frequency Percentage (%)
Male 105 39.47
Female 161 60.53
Total 266 100.00

Table 2 illustrates that one hundred sixty one (161) or 60.53% of the respondents

are female; and 105 or 39.47% are male.

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Table 1.3 Profile of Freshman Students in terms of Course

Degree No. of Freshmen Percentage (%)


BS Accounting Technology 43 16.54
BS Accountancy 28 10.53
BS Biology 12 4.51
BS Criminology 79 29.69
BASS Economics 11 4.13
BASS Political Science 9 3.38
BS Hotel & Restaurant Management 84 31.57
Total 266 100.00

Table 1.3 shows that eighty-four (84) or 31.57% of the respondents are enrolled in

HRM and 79 students or 29.69% of the respondents are under Criminology course.

Political Science got the lowest enrollee of 9 students only.

Table 1.4 Profile of Freshman Students in terms of High School GPA


GPA Frequency Percentage (%)
99 – 100 0 0.00
93 – 98 6 2.25
87 – 92 116 43.61
81 – 86 109 40.98
75 – 80 22 8.27
Total 266 100.00

Table 1.4 presents that 116 or 43.61% of the respondents have a GPA within the

interval of 87 to 92. However, six (6) or 2.25% of the respondents have high school GPA

ranging from 93 to 98.

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Factors Influencing Course Preference

According to the survey, 121 students enrolled in courses of their choice, 79 said

their family helped them decide, 25 of them were influenced by the quality of the school,

and 43 students chose the course that can give them more employability.

Table 2.1 The Level of Influence of Self in Pursuing the Course Taken
Items Mean Interpretation
1. This course is my field of interest. 3.79 Highly Influenced
2. My attitudes and behaviors influence
3.33 Moderately Influenced
my choice.
3. I find the course easy. 2.96 Moderately Influenced
4. I get high grades in subjects related to
2.85 Moderately Influenced
my course.
5. I believe my skills will be further
3.85 Highly Influenced
developed here.
Section Mean 3.35 Moderately Influenced

Table 2.1 shows students’ perception regarding the influence of their selves on the

course preference. Items 1 and 5 got the means of 3.79 and 3.85 respectively. The courses

they presently take is their field of interest and they believed in their skills that are rated

“Highly Influenced”. This also means that students can decide on their own. Items 2, 3,

and 4 with means ranging from 2.96 to 3.33, were rated “Moderately Influence”. The self

factor has mean of 3.35 belonging to the “Moderately Influence” level.

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Table 2.2 The Level of Influence of Family in Pursuing the Course Taken
Items Mean Interpretation
1. My parents want me take this course. 3.47 Highly Influenced
2. They want me to follow their footsteps
2.47 Less Influenced
or career paths.
3. Our family can appropriately afford the
3.37 Moderately Influenced
financial requirements of this course.
4. Parents give their full support if I enroll
4.02 Highly Influenced
in this course.
5. I can take over my parents’ occupation
3.58 Highly Influenced
or family livelihood in the future.
Section Mean 3.38 Moderately Influenced

The data above presents the students’ perception on the influence of their family

in choosing their course. Item 4 got the mean 4.02 that interpreted as “Highly

Influenced”. Some parents are deciding what course to be taken by their son/daughter.

Item 2 got the lowest mean of 2.47 as rated as “Less Influenced”. Some students

are minimally persuaded to take up the course that their parents dictate.

Family factor has a mean of 3.38 belonging to the “Moderately Influenced”,

which implies that the students consider the opinions and advice of their parents

regarding course choices.

Table 2.3 The Level of Influence of School in Pursuing the Course Taken
Items Mean Interpretation
1. The quality of education offered in this
school convinced me to enroll in this 3.39 Moderately Influenced
course.
2. The rate of tuition and other school fees
3.27 Moderately Influenced
is appealing.
3. The location of the school fit my
3.32 Moderately Influenced
lifestyle and traveling routine.
4. The curricular offering I look for can be
3.03 Moderately Influenced
found here.
5. Learning facilities in the course I want
3.28 Moderately Influenced
are available or adequate.
Section Mean 3.25 Moderately Influenced

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Table 2.3 displays students’ perception on the influence of school to their course

preference. Quality of education, accessibility, facilities and tuition fees offered in this

institution were rated as “Moderately Influenced” with the mean of 3.25. Students

perceived that the school fees are affordable and learning facilities are available and

adequate.

Table 2.4 The Level of Influence of Peers in Pursuing the Course Taken
Items Mean Interpretation
1. Friends encourage me take this course. 2.20 Less Influenced
2. Friends chose this course for me. 1.93 Less Influenced
3. My peers or clique are studying here
2.20 Less Influenced
also.
4. I find the people enrolled in this course
2.64 Moderately Influenced
interesting.
5. My social life with classmates, etc.
2.74 Moderately Influenced
thrives in this course.
Section Mean 2.34 Less Influenced

The table shows how peers of the respondents influenced the students. Item 5

garnered the mean of 2.74 with the interpretation of “Moderately Influenced”. Students

were satisfied in choosing this course because they can fit in with their classmates.

Item 2 with the mean of 1.93 was rated as “less influenced”. These freshman

students were not mainly affected by what their friends are telling what course to choose.

. Peers factor has mean of 2.34 belonging to the “less influenced” level. Peers are

not a great influence in choosing a course.

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Table 2.5 The Level of Influence of Job Opportunity in Pursuing the Course Taken
Items Mean Interpretation

1. I can find a job easily after I finish this


3.78 Highly Influenced
course.
2. I notice many people succeed having
3.32 Moderately Influenced
this degree.
3. This is the in-demand course
3.45 Highly Influenced
nowadays.
4. Employment is assured after I graduate
3.25 Moderately Influenced
from this course.
5. With this course, I can be flexible in
3.39 Moderately Influenced
any job.
Section Mean 3.43 Highly Influenced

The table presents how job opportunity influences the students in choosing a

course. Items 1 and 3 got the means 3.78 and 3.45 respectively which is interpreted as

“Highly Influenced”. Students believe that they can easily find a job after they finished

their course. Item 4 got the mean of 3.25 which is interpreted as “Moderately

Influenced”, showing the students’ apprehension about being able to land a good job after

they graduate.

Job opportunity factor has a mean of 3.43 belonging to the “Highly Influenced”

level. Students are very hopeful and they stay positive that they can find employment

after they graduate.

Table 2.6 Summary of the Factors Influencing Freshman Students in Course


Preference
Items Mean Interpretation
Self 3.35 Moderately Influenced
Family 3.38 Moderately Influenced
School 3.25 Moderately Influenced
Peers 2.34 Less Influenced
Job Opportunity 3.43 Highly Influenced
Grand Mean 3.15 Moderately Influenced

26
Among the five factors considered on choosing a course, students perceived that

their course preference is highly affected by job opportunity. The least influential factor is

the peers, which implies that these students preferred more the opinions of family rather

than their friends when it comes to choosing a course in college.

Table 3 The Level of Academic Performance of Freshman Students

Interval f Interpretation
1.00 0 Excellent
1.25 – 1.50 2 Very Good
1.75 – 2.00 47 Above Average
2.25 – 2.50 105 Average
2.75 – 3.00 106 Passing
4.00 5 Conditional
5.00 1 Failed
Total 266
Mean 2.48

Table 3 presents the academic performance of freshman students in SKSU. The

majority of the students belong to the “passing” level of performance, while a substantial

number of students belong to the “average” level. It shows that these students need to

improve their academic performance.

Table 4 Summary of Analysis of Variance on the between Students’ Academic


Performance classified according to factors.
Sum of Mean
Source of variance df F Probability
squares squares
Between-column 3 0.4359 0.1453
Within-column 262 68.937 0.2631 0.5522 0.6471
Total 265 69.3729
∞ = 0.05 level of significance

27
Table 4 shows the results of one-way ANOVA for the comparison of means of

students’ academic performance classified according to factors that influences their

course preference. The F- computed is equal to 0.5522, tested at 0.05 level of significance

resulted to a probability of 0.6471. The results indicate that there is sufficient statistical

evidence to declare that students’ academic performance is not influenced by their course

preference. It means that the results warrant to stress that there is possibility that the

academic performance of students’ influenced by themselves to enroll in their present

course is as good as those who enrolled by influenced of their family, school, peers, and

employment opportunity. The results reveal that the factors influencing students’ course

preference have nothing to do with their academic performance.

28
Chapter V
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter details the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations

derived from the research.

This research focused on the relationship between the influences of course

preferences and academic performance of freshmen at Sultan Kudarat State University –

Tacurong Campus. The 266 respondents were surveyed on their profile in terms of age,

gender, course, and high school grade point average (GPA); the level of influence of the

factors such as self, academic performance, family, peers and employment opportunity;

and the level of academic performance of freshmen.

Data were analyzed using the percentage, frequency count, arithmetic mean, and

Analysis of Variance.

Findings

The findings are summarized as follows:

1. The freshman students of SKSU – Tacurong Campus are mostly 17 years old,

female, and enrolled in BS Hotel and Restaurant Management. Their average

grade in high school is within the range of 87 to 92.

2. In terms of the factors influencing the course preference of freshmen students, job

opportunity garnered the highest mean of 3.43 or “Highly Influenced”, followed

by family that got the mean of 3.38 “Moderately Influenced”, self with mean of

29
3.35 or “Moderately Influenced”, school with 3.25 or “Moderately Influenced”,

and peers that received the mean of 2.34 or “Less Influenced”. Overall, the factors

got the grand mean of 3.15 or “Moderately Influenced”. Among the five factors

that can influence a student’s course preference, job opportunity is perceived to be

the most influential.

3. The academic performance of students got the mean of 2.48, which denotes

“Average” level. However, most of them falls under the “Passing” level.

4. The differences of means of the academic performance of freshman students

classified according to factors influencing their course preference, the F-computed

value of 0.5522 is less than the probability value of 0.6471.

Conclusions

Based on the findings, the following conclusions are drawn:

1. Mostly of freshman students are on their typical age as they enter college level of

education. Nearly sixty percent (60%) of the total respondents are female.

Majority of the freshman students involve in this study are enrolled in BS HRM

course, hence, the high enrollment rate in that course. More than ninety percent

(90%) of the total number of respondents have high school GPA not exceeding 92.

2. The students perceived that job opportunity is one of the factors which highly

affect their decision of choosing a course for tertiary education. They believe that

choosing a course can be based on the probability to land a good job after they

graduate.

30
3. The academic performance of the students is not affected by their course

preference.

Recommendations

Based on the conclusions of the study, the following are recommended:

1. The freshman students are encouraged to study hard in order to elevate their

academic performance.

2. Students’ friends and classmates should help them with the choices they make in

life. Through their motivation and favorable influence, the students must also

consider advices from their peers and family but still make their own decisions.

3. The university should have predictive measures to identify highly demand courses

every year as basis of curricular offerings.

4. Further studiers should be conducted to determine other reasons for the

decreasing enrolment in BS Mathematics course.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

31
A. News Articles

BLOOM, P. & O. ERIKSON. 2002. “The effects of peers on the academic and
creative talent development of a gifted adolescent male” Journal of
Secondary Gifted Education.

GRAHAM-BROWN, S. 1999. “Education in the Developing World”. The ALS


Chronicles.

PARK, C. W. & P.V. LESSIG. 1977. "Students and Housewives: Differences in


Susceptibility to Reference Group Influences," Journal of Consumer
Research, 4, 102-110.

B. Theses

ASTROLOGO, L. 2006. “Career Choice: Its Implication to the Career Plans of


Senior Students of Tacurong National High School”. Unpublished
Undergraduate Thesis. SKPSC-Tacurong City Campus. City of Tacurong

CASPILLO, I. 2006. “Determinants of Career Choice Among Freshman Students


of SKPSC: Its Effect to Their Academic Performance”. Unpublished
Undergraduate Thesis. SKPSC-Tacurong City Campus. City of Tacurong.

DE GUZMAN, L. 2005. “Determinants of Career Choice Among Freshman


Students of SKPSC-College of Arts and Sciences, Tacurong City
Campus”. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. SKPSC-Tacurong City
Campus. City of Tacurong.

QUIROL, S.C. 2008. “Students’ Capabilities towards Classroom Activities and


Performance in College Algebra”. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis.
SKPSC-Tacurong City Campus. City of Tacurong.

TORRES, R., Sr. 1997. “Factors in Relation to the Educational Level of


Aspirations of the Students of Notre Dame of Matalam, SY 1996-1997”.
Master’s Thesis. Central Mindanao College, Kidapawan City.

VILLANUEVA, J. 2008. “Weaknesses in Problem Solving Procedures and


Academic Performance in Mathematics”. Unpublished Undergraduate
Thesis. SKPSC-Tacurong City Campus. City of Tacurong.

C. Internet

32
BARTON, P.E. 2005. One Third of a Nation. Policy Information Center
Educational Testing Service. Retrieved September 23, 2009. From
www.ets.org/research/pic

BEISHUIZEN, 2004. Knowledge development of students. Retrieved June 19,


2009. From http://www.onderwijscentrum.vu.nl/

BERSCHEID, T. 2008. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from


http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-2145590.

COX, S. & D. KING. 2006. Skill sets: an approach to embed employability in


course design. Retrieved November 6, 2009. From
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.

GOLEMAN, W. 2009. Choosing your course. Retrieved July 30, 2009. From
http://www.cant-col.ac.uk/studying-with-us.

KENNEDY, C. 2007. Six steps to choosing the course that's right for you.
Retrieved September 15, 2009 from http://www.independent.ie.

KIMME, A.C. 2007. How to Choose a Major in College. Retrieved September


16, 2009 from http://www.ehow.com/.

HANSEN, R.S. 2009. Choosing a College Major: How to Chart Your Ideal Path.
Retrieved September 15, 2009. From
http://www.quintcareers.com/choosing_major.html.

OWEN, A.L. & E. JENSEN. 2004. Learning About Learning: Students' Course
Choice. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=651003.

PIMPA. N. 2001. The Influence of Normative Referents on Thai Students’ Choice


of International Education. Monash University, Australia. Retrieved
November 6, 2009 from http://www.aare.edu.au/01pap/pim01016.htm.

SIERRA, M. 2002. Factors influencing course choice. Date Retrieved September


15, 2009 from http://www.yahoo.com.

UCAS Advertisement. 2008. Choosing a course and university. Retrieved


September 15, 2009 from
http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/simplyparents/choosingcourse/index.html.

ZANJOE, W. 2000. Choosing your course. Retrieved: July 30, 2009 from
http://www.cant-col.ac.uk/studying-with-us/Courses.

33
Appendix 1. Letter of Permission

Republic of the Philippines

34
SULTAN KUDARAT STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Mathematics
Tacurong Campus, Tacurong City

January 13, 2010

ALBERTO T. BARQUILLA I, Ph.D.


Dean, College of Arts and Sciences
Sultan Kudarat State University
Tacurong Campus

Sir:

Greetings!
The undersigned is a student of Sultan Kudarat State University – Tacurong
Campus and currently undertaking her undergraduate thesis entitled: “FACTORS
INFLUENCING THE COURSE PREFERENCE AND ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN AT SULTAN KUDARAT STATE
UNIVERSITY – TACURONG CAMPUS” as a partial fulfillment of the course BS
Mathematics.
The general purpose of this study is to provide information about the relationship
between the influences of course preferences and academic performance of freshmen at
SKSU–Tacurong Campus. A survey questionnaire will be used to collect data.
In this regard, I seek permission from your good office to conduct the study among
my respondents in the campus, and also to obtain necessary data from the Campus Registrar.
Rest assured that records obtained will be used for research purposes only.
Hoping that this request will merit your kind approval. Thank you very much.

Respectfully yours,

ANA LIZA A. CATALAN


Researcher
Noted by:

REYNALDO H. DALAYAP, JR., Ph.D.


Adviser

Approved by:

ALBERTO T. BARQUILLA I, Ph.D.

Dean

Republic of the Philippines


SULTAN KUDARAT STATE UNIVERSITY

35
Department of Mathematics
Tacurong Campus, Tacurong City

January 13, 2010

VIOLETA T. PICO
Campus Registrar
Sultan Kudarat State University
Tacurong Campus

Dear Ma’am,

Greetings!
I am currently undertaking my undergraduate thesis entitled: “FACTORS
INFLUENCING THE COURSE PREFERENCE AND ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN AT SKSU – TACURONG CAMPUS” as a
partial fulfillment of the course BS Mathematics.
The general purpose of this study is to provide information about the relationship
between the influences of course preferences and academic performance of freshmen at
SKSU–Tacurong Campus. A survey questionnaire will be used to collect data.
In this regard, I seek permission from your good office to obtain necessary data
regarding the academic grades of my respondents. Rest assured that the information obtained
will be used for research purposes only.
Hoping that this request will merit your kind approval. Thank you very much.

Respectfully yours,

ANA LIZA A. CATALAN


Researcher

Noted by:

REYNALDO H. DALAYAP, JR., Ph.D.


Adviser

Approved by:

ALBERTO T. BARQUILLA I, Ph.D.

Dean

Appendix 2. Computation of Sample of Respondents

36
Degree No. of Freshmen Sample
BS Accounting Technology 131 43
BS Accountancy 84 28
BS Biology 35 12
BS Criminology 237 79
BASS Economics 33 11
BASS Political Science 26 9
BS Hotel & Restaurant Management 251 84
Total 797 266

N BS Accounting Technology
n= 33% of 131 = 43
1 + Ne2
BS Accountancy
797 33% of 84 = 28
n=
1 + (797) (0.05)2
BS Biology
33% of 35 = 12
797
n= BS Criminology
1.99
33% of 237 = 79

n = 266.33 = 266 BASS Economics


33% of 33 = 11

266 is 33% of 797 BASS Political Science


33% of 26 = 9

BS Hotel & Restaurant Management


33% of 251 = 84

Where: n = sample size


N = population size
e = margin of error at 0.05

Appendix 3. Survey Questionnaire

37
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COURSE PREFERENCE AND ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN AT SKPSC –
TACURONG CAMPUS

PART I. PROFILE
Name (optional): _______________________________________ Age: __________
Gender: male female
Course: _______________________________________________
High School Grade Point Average: _________________________

PART II. FACTORS INFLUENCING COURSE PREFERENCE


What greatly influenced your choice of course? (Please check one box.)
Self – personal choice, own interest
Family – parents’ choice, family’s financial status
School – available courses, good facilities, near home
Peers – enrolled with friends
Job Opportunity – easy employability

Direction: Rate how you perceive each item below that pertains to your academic
performance. Check the box that corresponds to each item.
To a very great extent …….…… 5
To a great extent …....….……... 4
To some extent …….…………… 3
To a little extent…..……….…… 2
Not at all …….…………………. 1

A. Self 5 4 3 2 1

1. This course is my field of interest.


2. My attitudes and behaviors influence my
choice.
3. I find the course easy.
4. I get high grades in subjects related to my
course.
5. I believe my skills will be further developed
here.
B. Family 5 4 3 2 1
1. My parents want me take this course.
2. They want me to follow their footsteps or
career paths.

38
3. Our family can appropriately afford the
financial requirements of this course.
4. Parents give their full support if I enroll in this
course.
5. I can take over my parents’ occupation or
family livelihood in the future.
C. School 5 4 3 2 1
1. The quality of education offered in this school
convinced me to enroll in this course.
2. The rate of tuition and other school fees is
appealing.
3. The location of the school fit my lifestyle and
traveling routine.
4. The curricular offering I look for can be found
here.
5. Learning facilities in the course I want are
available or adequate.
D. Peers 5 4 3 2 1
1. Friends encourage me take this course.
2. Friends chose this course for me.
3. My peers or clique are studying here also.
4. I find the people enrolled in this course
interesting.
5. My social life with classmates, etc. thrives in
this course.
E. Job Opportunity 5 4 3 2 1
1. I can find a job easily after I finish this course.
2. I notice many people succeed having this
degree.
3. This is the in-demand course nowadays.
4. Employment is assured after I graduate from
this course.
5. With this course, I can be flexible in any job.

39
Appendix 4. Form 7
Republic of the Philippines
SULTAN KUDARAT STATE UNIVERSITY
Department of Mathematics
City of Tacurong

__February 25, 2010___


Date

APPLICATION FOR THESIS FINAL DEFENSE EXAMINATION

Name: ANA LIZA A. CATALAN Degree/Major: BS MATHEMATICS


Thesis Title: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COURSE PREFERENCE AND
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN AT SKSU –
TACURONG CAMPUS
Check whether first ( ), second ( ), or third ( ) examination
Date of Exam: __March 3, 2010____ Time: __10 – 11 a.m.___ Place: Research Office

MEMBERS OF THE EXAMINING COMMITTEE


(at least 3 including the adviser)

Name Signature Date


REYNALDO H. DALAYAP, JR., Ph.D.___________________ February 25, 2010
SUSIE D. DAZA, MS ___________________ March 1, 2010
CRISELDA M. JEREZ ___________________ February 25, 2010
RECOMMENDING APPROVAL:

RODELYN M. DALAYAP, Ph.D. APPROVED:


Research Chairman
ALBERTO T. BARQUILLA I, Ph.D.
Campus Dean
_______________________________________________________________
REPORT ON THE RESULT OF EXAMINATION
(Indicate whether passed or failed under remarks)

Signature Date Remarks


_____________________ March 11, 2010 _____Passed____

_____________________ March 12, 2010 _____Passed____

_____________________ March 12, 2010 _____Passed____

RECOMMENDING APPROVAL:

40
RODELYN M. DALAYAP, Ph.D. APPROVED:
Research Chairman
ALBERTO T. BARQUILLA I, Ph.D.
Campus Dean
Appendix 5. Form 9

Republic of the Philippines


SULTAN KUDARAT POLYTECHNIC STATE COLLEGE
City of Tacurong

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

____March 12, 2010__


Date

CERTIFICATION OF ENGLISH CRITIC

This to certify that the thesis on “FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COURSE


PREFERENCE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN AT SKSU –
TACURONG CAMPUS” of ANA LIZA A. CATALAN was edited by the undersigned
on March 15, 2010.

MARJORIE P. LUMOGDANG
Name & Signature of English Critic

41
Note: This certificate should be submitted to the Research Chairman prior to the
approval/reproduction of this manuscript.
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

The researcher was born on July 4, 1989 in Mabini Street, Tacurong, Sultan

Kudarat. She is the youngest of the six children of Mrs. Lydia Catalan. When she was

barely 1 year old, their father left them without saying any reason. Then her mother

strived harder to support, finance and provide the needs of her children. She grew up fine

without the presence of her father.

She started schooling at the age of 5 at Purok XI Daycare Center. At the age of 6,

she started her kindergarten and elementary education at Tacurong Pilot Elementary

School.

She spent her secondary education at Tacurong National High School. She joined

some organizations and clubs such as the Science Club, Math Club, and Filipino Club.

Presently, she is taking up Bachelor of Science in Mathematics at Sultan Kudarat

State University in Tacurong Campus. She is hoping to be one of the graduates this year

2010.

ANA LIZA A. CATALAN


Researcher

42
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COURSE PREFERENCE AND ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN AT SULTAN KUDARAT STATE
UNIVERSITY–TACURONG CITY CAMPUS

ANA LIZA A. CATALAN

Thesis Manuscript Submitted to the Department of Mathematics,


Sultan Kudarat State University, Tacurong City Campus, City of Tacurong,
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MATHEMATICS

MARCH 2010

43
44
TRANSMITTAL

The thesis attached entitled “FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COURSE

PREFERENCE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN AT SULTAN

KUDARAT STATE UNIVERSITY – TACURONG CITY CAMPUS”, prepared and

submitted by ANA LIZA A. CATALAN in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MATHEMATICS, is hereby accepted.

REYNALDO H. DALAYAP, JR., Ph.D.


Adviser

________________________________
Date

Accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of

Science in Mathematics.

RODELYN M. DALAYAP, Ph.D.


Research Chairman

___________________________
Date

ii
45
Form 8
Republic of the Philippines
SULTAN KUDARAT STATE UNIVERSITY
City of Tacurong

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

APPROVAL OF THESIS MANUSCRIPT

Name: ANA LIZA A. CATALAN Degree/Major: BS MATHEMATICS


Major: MATHEMATICS Specialization: ____________________
Thesis Title: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COURSE PREFERENCE AND
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN AT SKSU –
TACURONG CAMPUS

APPROVED BY THE GUIDANCE COMMITTEE

REYNALDO H. DALAYAP, JR., Ph.D. March 11, 2010


________________
Adviser Date

CRISELDA M. JEREZ March 12, 2010


________________
Member Date
March 10, 2009
SUSIE D. DAZA, MS March 12, 2010
________________
Member Date

OMAR C. HILBERO March 15, 2010


________________
Statistician Date

REYNALDO H. DALAYAP, JR., Ph.D. March 11, 2010


________________
Department Head Date

RECOMMENDING APPROVAL:

RODELYN M. DALAYAP, Ph.D.


Research Chairman

APPROVED:

ALBERTO T. BARQUILLA I, Ph.D.


Campus Dean

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

iii
46
The researcher wants to express her sincere gratitude and warm thanks to the

following persons for their patience, effort and support in this manuscript.

Prof. Reynaldo H. Dalayap, Jr., thesis adviser and Department Chairman, for his

comments, encouragement to pursue this study.

Prof. Susie D. Daza and Prof. Criselda M. Jerez, for the advice; guidance and

suggestions related to this study being her panelists.

Prof. Marjorie P. Lumogdang, English critic reader, who gave some ideas to

improve this study. Prof. Omar C. Hilbero who helped the researcher to compute and

analyze the data. Prof. Rey S. Fuentebilla for sharing his knowledge and funny jokes.

Dr. Alberto T. Barquilla I, Campus Dean of Sultan Kudarat State University

-Tacurong City Campus, and Prof. Violeta T. Pico, Campus Registrar, for letting the

researcher conduct her study.

Ate Zee for patience in improving this manuscript.

Her best friends and classmates during high school: Melisa, Pacita, Daryl,

Thaddy, Ailyn, Glenny, Greg, Bheng, Imee, Che Aguirre, Charmis, Charlot and especially

to Quenny C. for their care, encouragements and praises.

To her best friends and classmates during college: Krisol as “Pangit”, Michael as

“Bakla”, Kuya Michael, Kuya Carlos, Leonard the “Leopardo Rapido”, Hazel, Jory,

Eleonor, and to their special adopted child Janet, for the shared unforgettable moments,

laughter, understanding, moral support to each other in spite of some misunderstandings

they encountered.

iv
47
To her friends in BS Biology, BS PolSci and in other courses for helping her to

conduct and getting the grades of the students.

To her R.M.E. for the inspiration.

To her brothers and sisters: Ronald, Roland, Ruben, Ruby and her full-blooded

brother, John Alfred, for their love, care and understanding.

To her sisters and brothers-in-law for lending their ears and happy moments.

Finally, to her dearest and loving mother for the patience and for molding her to

be a good person. Above all, to God Almighty for his unfailing love.

ANA LIZA A. CATALAN


Researcher

v
48
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Page
Preliminaries
Title Page i
Transmittal ii
Approval of Thesis Manuscript iii
Acknowledgment iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables vii
List of Appendices viii
Abstract ix

Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 2
Importance of the Study 3
Scope and Limitations of the Study 4
Time and Place of the Study 4
Definition of Terms 5

Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES 6


The Right Choice 6
Family Factor 7
Self Factor 9
School Factor 11
Peers Factor 12
Job Opportunity 13
Academic Performance 15

Chapter III METHODOLOGY 17


Research Design 17
Respondents of the Study 17
Data Gathering Procedure 18
Data Gathering Instruments 18
Statistical Treatment 20

Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


OF DATA 21

Chapter V SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS


AND RECOMMENDATIONS 29

BIBLIOGRAPHY 32

34
APPENDICES
42
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

vi
49
LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page

1.1 Profile of Freshman Students in terms of Age 21

1.2 Profile of Freshman Students in terms of Gender 21

1.3 Profile of Freshman Students in terms of Course 22

1.4 Profile of Freshman Students in terms of High School GPA 22

2.1 Level of Influence of Self in Pursuing the Course Taken 23

2.2 Level of Influence of Family in Pursuing the Course Taken 24

2.3 Level of Influence of School in Pursuing the Course Taken 24

2.4 Level of Influence of Peers in Pursuing the Course Taken 25

2.5 Level of Influence of Job Opportunity in Pursuing the Course


Taken 26

2.6 Summary of the Factors Influencing Freshman Students in


Course Preference 26

3 Level of Academic Performance of Freshman Students 27

4 Summary of Analysis of Variance on the between Students’


Academic Performance according to Factors 27

vii
50
LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix Title Page

1 Letters of Permission 35

2 Computation of Sample of Respondents 37

3 Survey Questionnaire 38

4 Application for Final Thesis Defense Examination 40

5 Certification of English Critic 41

viii
51
ABSTRACT

CATALAN, ANA LIZA A., Department of Mathematics, Sultan Kudarat State

University, Tacurong City Campus, City of Tacurong, Sultan Kudarat. March 2010

“FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COURSE PREFERENCE AND ACADEMIC

PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN AT SULTAN KUDARAT STATE

UNIVERSITY – TACURONG CAMPUS”.

Adviser: REYNALDO H. DALAYAP, JR., Ph.D.

This research is focused on the relationship between the influences of course

preferences and academic performance of freshmen at Sultan Kudarat State University –

Tacurong Campus. The 266 respondents were surveyed on their profile in terms of age,

gender, course, and high school grade point average (GPA); the level of influence of the

factors such as self, academic performance, family, peers and employment opportunity;

and their level of academic performance.

In this study, data were analyzed using the percentage and frequency count for the

profile of the freshmen. Arithmetic mean was used to analyze their academic

performance and the factors influencing their course preference. One-way analysis of

variance was utilized to determine the significant difference among students’ academic

performance classified according to their course preference.

According to their profile, the freshmen students of SKSU – Tacurong Campus

are mostly 17 years old, female, and enrolled in BS Hotel and Restaurant Management.

Their average grade when they graduated in high school is between 87 and 92.

ix
52
The factors influencing the course preference of freshmen students, job

opportunity garnered the highest mean of 3.43 interpreted as “Highly Influenced”.

Family, self, and school factors were rated “Moderately Influenced”, while peers factor

received the “Less Influenced” rating. Overall, the factors got the grand mean of 3.15 or

“Moderately Influenced”. Job opportunity is perceived to be the most influential. The

academic performance of students got the mean of 2.48, which denotes “Average” level.

Using the one-way ANOVA on the difference of factors that influence the

students’ course preference and its academic performance at 0.05 level of significance,

the F-computed value of 0.5522 with a probability of 0.6471. The students do not differ

in academic performance as classified according to factors that influence their course

preference. The results reveal that the factors influencing students’ course preference

have nothing to do with their academic performance.

Based on the conclusions of the study, it is recommended that the school must

enhance the curriculum and programs of other courses to attract more students. Schools

must offer courses based on the employment opportunity. Parents of students must guide

their children properly and give sound advices that motivate the students to choose the

right course that will fully develop their skills and knowledge. Freshman students should

study harder and learn to love the field of study or career they have chosen.

x
53