Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.




Article · July 2012


5 6,433

1 author:

Konder Manurung
Universitas Tadulako


Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Konder Manurung View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Konder Manurung on 21 March 2018.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.


Konder Manurung

Recieved on June 2012; Accepted 24 July 2012

The paper aims at discussing how creative teachers and effective teaching strategies mo-
tivate learners to learn. The naissance of active learning where learners have to be active
during the teaching learning process, has altered the subject and the center of the teach-
ing learning processes from teachers to students. The teaching learning process is con-
textual and the emphasis is to fulfill learners’ needs. This teaching mode requires ac-
tive participation of learners. The active learning mode requires creative teacher and
effective teaching strategies so the teaching learning is able to transform knowledge into
effective learning tasks and activities. The learning tasks and activities are designed to en-
able learners to experience the practical application of the knowledge they have learned.
The design of instruction that motivates learners to learn is also presented and discussed.
Key words: creative teacher, effective teaching strategies, motivating learners

Conducting active learning has been a dream about a better motivation for learners to learn
of every professional teacher at every level of because every student is motivated and en-
education. The introduction of active learning gaged in every steps of the teaching process.
alters the role of a teacher during the teaching
learning process. If the conventional teaching Activating and motivating learners during the
strategies put emphasis on the teacher, ac- teaching learning process are among the roles
tive learning puts more emphasis on the ac- of a teacher in active learning mode. Activat-
tive participation of learners and the ability of ing learners indicates that learners are not only
teachers to involve learners’ environment as assigned to receive or listen to what a teacher
a source of learning. This implies that active has explained but they must be involved in
learning intends to contextualize instructional asking or answering questions, working in
materials and the learners are placed as the groups, assisting other learners, and demon-
center of the teaching learning process. The strating critical and creative thinking. Since
placement of learners as the center of teach- the teaching is expected to motivate learners
ing in the Student Centered Learning (SCL) it is necessary to consider the techniques em-
Method and active learning model has brought ployed in the teaching learning process.

* presented on International Seminar and CEISU 2012 Meeting, 03 February 2012, Senate Room, Tadulako University Palu
Volume 2, No. 1, 2012 :1- 8 Indonesian Jurnal of Science Education

It is not recommended to a teacher to transmit active learning to motivate learners such as

knowledge or information only but the teach- thought, fact, and ideas or even the combina-
ing mus t put more emphasis on the develop- tion of thought, fact and ideas. Creativity of a
ment of the student skills (Ragains, 1995; Las- teacher can be seen in his performance during
ley et al. 2002). This indicates that more tasks the teaching learning process and in his daily
and activities for students must be designed activities. Creative teachers are able to per-
and planned properly to allow them to prac- form his teaching learning process effectively
tice what they can apply in their daily lives as by combining various contextual instructional
the results of learning. This kind of teaching materials, instructional strategies, instruction-
model requires creative teachers and suitable al media and real-life experiences. Richard
or effective teaching strategies. (2002) and Moore (2005) argue that the abil-
ity of a teacher to prepare such teaching mod-
Creative Teacher els has a positive effect on learner motivation
The results of conventional learning have because real needs and interest of learners are
been the memorization of theory or conceptu- fulfilled and the learners themselves are en-
al knowledge. The teaching process puts more gaged in the teaching learning process. This
emphasis on the transmission of the knowl- implies that teacher creativities are directly
edge and the teaching processes are heavily related to the way they serve learners as the
dependent on the textbook which do not touch results of learners’ needs analysis.
the real needs of learners. Materials in the
textbook are designed for pedagogical purpos- Teacher creativity is essential to facilitate ef-
es. This kind of situation drives learners to be fective learning. Halliwell (1993) suggests
passive and consequently the teaching learn- creativity as part of normality as part of ev-
ing process is monotonous. On the other hand, eryday actions and ideas. This kind of creativ-
active learning requires teacher to be creative ity is necessary to facilitate effective teaching
not only in the teaching process but also prior in the daily teaching learning process where
to teaching where a teacher can prepare au- a teacher is able to overcome common prob-
thentic materials to motivate learners to learn. lems faced by learners, such as being fright-
It has been noted in the teaching learning pro- ened to ask question or to do presentation,
cess that authentic materials is preferred over being shy to discuss within group, being hesi-
created materials because the authentic mate- tated to play role, and being afraid of making
rials fulfils real needs of the learners (Richard, mistakes. Creative teachers are able to design
2002; Harmer, 2007). joyful teaching where complex things can
be explained in simple ways or uninterested
Creativity in teaching learning process can learners become interested in the teaching
be seen as teacher effort to facilitate learning process, or even able to find out acceptable
to achieve teaching goals. Creative teachers examples to clarify unclear topic for learners.
use everything that he possesses to actualize

Konder Manurung Creatives Teachers and Effective Teaching Strategies ...
In sum, creative teachers provide as much Effective teaching has been defined different-
space as possible for learners in the instruc- ly by different authors. Effective teaching is
tional design to develop the students’ partic- defined as teaching which produces beneficial
ular framework of understanding. Effective and purposeful students learning through the
teaching strategies are continuously inves- use of appropriate procedure (Centra, 1993).
tigated and the results of the investigation While Braskamp and Ory (1994) define ef-
are employed to achieve the maximum per- fective teaching as the creation of situation
formance of the learners both in and out of in which appropriate learning occurs; shaping
classroom activities. Effective teachers keep those situations is what successful teachers
students involved in their lesson and mas- have learned to do effectively. The two defini-
ter a variety of effective teaching strategies tions indicate that effective teaching requires
(Moore, 2005; DBE2, 2010). effective teaching strategies. Effective teach-
ing strategies help learners to apply, analyze,
Effective Teaching Strategies and synthesize, to create new knowledge, and
Researchers have conducted quite a view stud- solve new problems.
ies to find out effective teaching strategies.
The research on effective teaching strategies It has been noted that there are some effective
mostly took students as the sample. Students’ teaching strategies in different field of studies.
evaluation on their teachers has brought about The strategies, in general, put emphasis on the
significant changes in teaching purpose and possibility to apply what have been learned
teaching methodology. Ory’s (1984) findings to real practice to fulfill needs of learners and
for example suggest that faculty members have other stakeholders. Among those strategies
to further develop and improve the teaching are practical examples, show and tell, case
skill. In relation to the decision making on the studies, guided design projects, open-ended
purpose of instruction, Scriven (1995) argues labs, the flowchart technique, open-ended
that students rating are among significant fac- quizzes, brainstorming, question-and-answer
tors to consider. For administration purpose, method, software, teaching improvement, and
Fanklin (2001) and Kulik (2000) indicate that fast feedback form for engineering (Lacey, et,
students’ ratings assist the administrators to al. 1995). For active teaching at higher edu-
design both summative and formative assess- cation, among effective models are coopera-
ments, to provide teaching awards, and to as- tive learning, problem based learning, direct
sign teachers to particular course. More im- instruction, (DBE2, 2010).
portantly, Braskamp (2000) highlights the use
of the results of the assessment to develop and Transformative pedagogy has brought new
improve the teaching effectiveness. These horizons in teaching learning process where
results indicate that there are some important there must be balance between cognitive skills
components to be considered to hold effective and emotional skill. Emotional intelligence is
teaching. the ability to think constructively

Volume 2, No. 1, 2012 :1- 8 Indonesian Jurnal of Science Education

and to act responsibly. Nelson and Low (2005) must be able to make it easy for learners to
note that learners who are emotionally intel- master ideas and fact, and more importantly, a
ligent are skilled in interpersonal communi- teacher must make effort to make the difficult
cation, self-management, goal achievement, parts easy. The third is appropriate assessment
and demonstrate personal responsibility in and feedback. A teacher must be able to de-
completing assignment and working effec- sign proper assessments where the assessment
tively. By keeping the balance in the teaching matches to the material to be learned. When
learning process the results of teaching is not feedback is given, the feedback must be re-
only developing the cognitive skill but also lated to what students still need to study to get
the psychomotor skill. Lasley, at el. (2002) it right. The forth is clear goal and intellectual
strongly recommend that the development of challenge. A teacher must formulate teaching
the cognitive and psychomotor skills helps goals clearly. Clear statements of what is to
learner to apply the knowledge the learners be learned encourage a good fit between stu-
have previously learned. dent effort and course goals. The fifth is inde-
pendence, control and engagement. Teaching
In order to get the best of the teaching learn- learning process has to get students engaged
ing, Ramsdan (2012) highlights six principles with content in a way that enables them to
of effective teaching in higher education. The reach understanding. The teaching process
first is interest and explanation. This principle must provide learners enough space to learn
is to emphasize that it is the job of every teach- at their own pace and in their own sequence.
er to make the subject interesting. A teacher Learners need to feel in control over what
must be able attract the students attention on they’re doing, as well as feeling that a teacher
the subject so that the students are motivated is directing the learners. There must be bal-
to participate in. In other words the student ance for learning well and for enjoying the
curiosity is built up on the subject. The curios- learning itself. The last one is learning from
ity can be built up when a teacher can explain students. To learn from learners is compliment
things or topics in each subject clearly and a to the first five principles. Even though the
teacher remembers to clarify the reasons why first five principles are necessary but it is not
a particular fact or skill is essential for under- sufficient for good teaching in higher educa-
standing the whole. The second is concern and tion without learning from learners. Effective
respect for students and student learning. It is teaching means seeing the relation between
generally believed in conventional teaching teaching, learning and content as problematic,
that teacher is considered as the sole source uncertain and relative. It involves constantly
of knowledge and more ironically a teacher is trying to find out how teaching affects learn-
an expert and students are not. On the con- ing, and adapting it in the light of the evidence
trary, in effective teaching, a teacher must be a teacher collects.
interested in what students know and don’t
know, a teacher must be generous, a teacher

Konder Manurung Creatives Teachers and Effective Teaching Strategies ...
Designing instruction that motivate
learners to learn
Accomplishing instructional purposes needs Planning instruction is important for teachers.
effective teaching strategies. To choose ef- Good instructional materials are able to gain
fective teaching strategies it is important for and maintain learner attention and to arouse
a teacher to consider the content of the in- motivation to learn. It is noted that interest-
structional materials and the achievement of ing instructional materials are the ones which
the purposes and objectives of the teaching. are planned not too long and contain various
Moore (2005) highlights the factors to choose attractive activities. Let’s take an example of
best strategies for effective teaching process a 50 minutes teaching (for a one credit unit
as; students’ needs, students’ age, students in- course), Moore (2005) suggests the time allot-
tellectual’s ability, students’ physical and men- ment as follows; Overview of topic (10 min-
tal characteristics, students’ attention spans, utes), show a film (20 minutes), discussion of
the lesson purpose, and contents to be taught. film (20 minutes), Demonstration (5 minutes),
Taking these factors into account assure the and Wrap up and review (5 minutes). It im-
choice of effective strategies that best serve the plies that effective teaching involves learners
teaching situation. Consequently, motivation from the opening to the closing sections and
of learners to learn will arouse since the in- the teacher keeps the activities done based on
structional materials and the selected strategies the time allocated.
meet their needs and suit their learning styles.

Regarding the design of instruction, Gagne’s design (1985) is still adopted by teachers world-
wide. According to Gagne, there are nine events that are needed for effective instructional
design. The nine events can be diagrammed as follows:

Gagne’s Nine Steps of Instruction

The first step is to gain attention. In this step thing the wrong way (the instruction would
a teacher introduces a problem or a new situ- then show how to do it the right way), and
ation by using an “interest device” that grabs why it is important. In other instructional term
the learner’s attention. The device can be in this first step is known pre-class or appercep-
the form of Storytelling, Demonstrations, Pre- tion.
senting a problem to be solved, Doing some-

Volume 2, No. 1, 2012 :1- 8 Indonesian Jurnal of Science Education

The second step is to inform learner of objec- doing, the learners is able to go through from
tive. In this step a teacher informs the objec- the simple instructional material to a more
tive of the teaching that allows the learners to complex one.
organize their thoughts and around what they
are about to see, to hear, and/or do. It is also The fifth step is to provide guidance for learn-
important for a teacher to describe the goal of ing. In this step a teacher must provide clear
a lesson, state what the learners will be able to instruction and clear concept. The clear in-
accomplish and how they will be able to use struction prevents the learners of loosing
the knowledge. This implies that by knowing time in understanding of what to do during
the learning outcomes the learner will be able the teaching process. The clear concept helps
to pay attention to the particular explanation learners to transfer the theory into practi-
and therefore arouse their attention and instill cal knowledge. Hence, the teaching process
their motivation. avoids boredom and frustration.

The third step is to stimulate recall of prior The sixth step is to elicit performance. In this
knowledge. In this step learners are allowed to step a teacher must provide exercises for prac-
build on their previous knowledge or skills. It ticing what they have just learned. This can
is generally true that it is much easier to build be done by letting the learner do something
on what learners already know by for exam- individually or in small group from what they
ple reminding them prior knowledge which is have just learned. This can be in line with
relevant to the current lesson. This step also what Albert Bandura (Gagne, 1995) argues
allows teachers to provide the learners with that observation learning may or may not in-
a framework that helps them to learn and re- volve imitation. For example if you see some-
member. Part of stimulating recall is having one driving in front of you hit a pothole, and
the learners take notes and drawing mind then you swerve to miss it—you learned from
maps. observational learning, not imitation (if you
learned from imitation then you would also
The forth step is to present the material. In hit the pothole).
this step a teacher is able to put teaching in-
structional materials into smaller part to avoid The seventh step is to provide feedback. In
memory overload. A teacher must be able to this step a teacher shows correctness of the
use the whole information to help learner to learner’s response, analyzes learner’s behav-
recall the information. The best way to put the ior. This can be a test, quiz, or verbal com-
instructional materials to a smaller part is to ments. The feedback needs to be specific, not,
organize the part based on the level of diffi- “you are doing a good job”, a teacher must
culty. This kind of instructional materials or- tell them “why” they are doing a good job or
ganization helps teacher to select which part is provide specific guidance.
to be taught first and which part is next. By so

Konder Manurung Creatives Teachers and Effective Teaching Strategies ...
The eighth step is to assess performance. In nine steps an effective lesson plan is com-
this step a teacher must test learners to deter- pulsory. A lesson plan is used as guide in a
mine if the lesson has been learned.The results teaching learning process. Creative teachers
of assessment can also give general progress prepare lesson plan by formulating appropri-
information. The last step is to enhance reten- ate and clearly written objectives which is de-
tion and transfer. In this step a teacher must fined as a description of a learning outcome.
inform the learner about similar problem situ- According to Farrel (2001), the ability to for-
ations, provide additional practice, put the mulate clear learning objective helps teachers
learner in a transfer situation, and review the to state precisely what learners want to learn,
lesson. help teacher to guide the selection of appro-
priate activities, and help teacher to provide
To support the implementation of the above overall lesson focus and direction.


1. Creative teachers are those who are able to create effective teaching. The role of creative
teachers is started from the preparation of the teaching up to the assessment of the achieve-
ment. The preparation section, in the prior teaching phase, a creative teacher analyzes what
the learners’ needs and the results of the need analysis are used to formulate instructional
goal and design instructional materials in a lesson plan.
2. Effective instructional materials contain tasks and activities that promote not only cognitive
skills but also psychomotor skills.
3. None of teaching strategies is perfect in itself. In order to conduct an effective teaching,
creative teacher chooses a variety of effective learning strategies that underpin each other
to activate learners, to engage learners and to instill motivation to learn. Effective strategies
are those that can transfer knowledge into practical application.
4. Motivation is important to bring about successful learning. Creative teachers, well-designed
instructional materials, and effective learning strategies are among important factors that
motivate learners to learn.

Volume 2, No. 1, 2012 :1- 8 Indonesian Jurnal of Science Education

[1]. __________ 2010. Pembelajaran Aktif The student ratings debate: Are they
di Perguruan Tinggi. Jakarta. DBE2-US- valid? how can we best use them? New
AID. TOT Nasional Ekspansi 2010. directions for Institutional Research,
[2]. Braskamp, L. A., & Ory, J. C. 1994. As- 109. San Francisco, Ca: Jossey-Bass.
sessing faculty work: Enhancing individ- [10].Lasley II, T.J., Matczynski, T.J., and
ual and instructional performance. San Rowley, J.B. 2002. Instructional Mod-
Francisco, CA: Jossey els; Strategy for teaching in a diverse
[3]. Centra, J. A. 1993. Reflective faculty society. USA. Wadswoth Group.
evaluation. San Francisco. CA: Jossey- [11].Moore, K, D. 2005. Effective Instruction-
Bass. al Strategies; From theory to practice.
[4]. Farrel, T.S., 2002. Lesson Planning. USA. Sage Publications.
In Richard, J.C., and Renandya, W.A. [12].Nelson B. D., and Low, R. G. 2005. Emo-
(Eds). Methodology in Language Teach- tional Intelligence; The role of transfor-
ing; An anthology of currect practice. mative learning in academic excellence.
Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Texas. TEXAS STUDY magazine for sec-
[5]. Franklin, J. (2001). Interpreting the num- ondary education.
bers: Using a narrative to help others [13].Ory, J. C. (1980). The Influence of Stu-
read student evaluations of your teaching dents’ Affective Entry on Instructor and
accurately. In K. G. Lewis (Ed.), Tech- Course Evaluations. Review of Higher
niques and strategies for interpreting Education, 4, 13 – 24
student evaluations. New Directions for [14].Ragains, P. 1995. Four variations on
Teaching and Learning, 87. San Francis- Drueke’sactive learning paradigm. Re-
co, Ca: Jossey-Bass search Strategies 13. 40-50.
[6]. Gagne, R. 1985. The condition of learn- [15].Ramsdam, P. University Teaching and
ing and the theory of instruction. New the Students. Retrieved 19 January 2012,
York. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. from http://paulramsden48.wordpress.
[7]. Halliwell, S. 1993. Teacher Creativity com
and teacher education. In Bridges, D. [16].Richard, J.C. 2001. Curriculum develop-
(Ed). Developing teachers profession- ment in language teaching. Cambridge.
ally: reflections for initial and in-service Cambridge University Press.
trainers. Roudlege. [17].Scriven, M. (1995). Student ratings of-
[8]. Harmer, J. 2007. How to teach English. fer useful input to teacher evaluations.
England. Pearson Education Limited. Practical Assessment, Research and
[9]. Kulik, J., A. (2001). Student ratings: Evaluation, 4(7), 1-5. Retrieved Janu-
Validity, Utility, and controversy. In M. ary 19,2012 from http://ericae.net/pare/
Theall, P. C. Abrami, & L.A. Mets (Eds.), getvn.asp?v=4&n=7

View publication stats