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# 4

## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction
(Refer to video: Introduction)

a. Electric Charges

Question1. What do you think electrical energy actually is? For what do you pay your electricity bill?

Whole story of electricity and magnetism essentially begins with another property of matter other
than “mass”. And that is “charge”. But charge has some totally different characteristics than mass
like:

 Mass exist in only one type whereas charge exists in two variants and we named them
“positive charge” and “negative charge”.
 Mass always exists on a body but charge may or may not be there on the body.
 Masses always attract (Gravitational Force) whereas charges can attract as well as repel
(Electrostatic force).

We also know that the origin of these charges is protons and electrons. Protons are well bounded
to the nucleus and they never leave the atom while electrons can jump around, in and out of the
atom.

## ‘ ’ or ‘ ’ represents the quantity, “charge” and its SI unit is coulombs(C).

Charge on 1 electron, = =

Charge on 1 proton, = =

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Question2.A glass rod was rubbed with silk and was found to have +5µC of charge. How many
electrons got transferred and from which material?

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric
charge. And in almost all of the cases these moving charges are electrons. Simply put, electricity
is the flow of charges/electrons.

b. Electric Current

We have not yet defined any quantity to compare how “powerful” one source of electricity is
with respect to the other. So let’s define one.

Electric current is expressed as the amount of charge flowing through a particular area
in unit time.

## The SI unit of electric current is Ampere, A. i.e. 1A = 1C/s.

Direction of the flow of positive charges is taken as the direction of current. Hence, the
direction of flow of current is opposite to the direction of flow of electrons as electrons are
negatively charged.

## A typical lightning bolt may transfer electrons in a fraction of a second,

developing a peak current of up to 10 kA.

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Question3.If electrons flow from the black body to the gray body through a copper wire in 8
seconds, what is the amount of current flowing in the copper wire in that time interval?

Question4.The direction of current is opposite to the direction of flow of electrons. So does this mean
current is a vector quantity? Why / Why not?

## 2. Electric Potential and Potential Difference

(Refer to video: Electric Potential and Potential Difference)

## a. Battery as a Source of Potential Difference

Now that we have defined current as the rate of flow of charge, let’s deal with this question,
“Why should a charge flow?”

Charge is a property on a particle and Newton’s first law says that any particle shouldn’t move
from rest unless an unbalanced external force is applied. So if charges move, the force must be
unbalanced electrostatic force (or Coulomb force). And any charge will feel an unbalanced force
if concentration of the charge is different around it.
Potential is the electrical state of a conductor, which determines the direction of flow of charge
when two conductors are either kept in contact or joined by a metallic wire.
The potential at a point is defined as the amount of work done in bringing a unit positive
charge from infinity to that point. Potential is a scalar quantity and its unit is volts (V). The

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

body having an excess of electron is said to be at a negative (or lower) potential, while the one
having a deficit of electrons is said to be at a positive (or higher) potential.

## Did You Know?

Alessandro Volta was the one who discovered that when two strips of different
metals were placed in sulfuric acid and connected through a simple wire,
electricity flowed. Thus, he invented the first electric battery.

## Current always flows from _____________ potential to _____________ potential.

The potential difference between two points in an electric circuit is the work done when a
unit coulomb of positive charge passes between the two points.

##  Misconception: Current flows between two points because of absolute

potentials of the points.
 Clarification: Current flows between two points because of the difference in
potential of the two points.

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Question 5.A charge of 2C moves between two plates maintained at potential difference of 10V.
What is the energy acquired by the charge?

b. Combination of Batteries

Batteries can either be connected in series or in parallel. When batteries are connected in series
with each other (and they are all connected in the same direction), the total potential difference
supplied to the circuit is equal to the individual potential differences added together.

When batteries are connected in parallel with each other the total potential difference supplied to
the circuit is equal to the potential difference of strongest (highest p.d.) battery.

Question 6.A combination of batteries is shown below. What will be the equivalent potential
difference if the potential difference of each individual battery is 2 V?

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## 3. Electric Current and Circuit

(Refer to video: Electric Current and Circuit)

## a. Electric Drift of Electrons

Now that we have defined what an electric current is, let’s look into how the electrons flow to
constitute an electric current inside the conductor. Before a potential difference is applied across
the conductor, the outermost electrons in the atoms chaotically and randomly move in the space
between the atoms of that material. As a result there is no net movement of these electrons and the
current is zero.

When we apply a potential difference across the conductor, the electrons start drifting from
negative terminal of the battery to the positive terminal through the conductor. This is known as
drift velocity. The drift velocity of electrons is about 1 cm/s.

## Did You Know?

Current can be of two types: Direct Current (DC) or Alternating Current (AC).
In case of DC, we have a continuous flow of charge and any electron
completes a cycle of circuit. In case of AC, there is no net displacement of
charge. The electrons initially move in one direction, but then reverse
themselves and move in the other direction. And energy is transmitted by
vibration of these electrons.

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Question 7.How is it so that a bulb glows as soon as it is switched on; though the electrons drift at a
speed of about 1 or 2 cm/s?

## b. Electric Circuit Elements

Now that we have the concept of electric current, potential difference and electrical circuits, it is
important to have some way to conveniently represent the circuits. For this we represent different
components of the circuit using symbols.

## Figure 5: Circuit Symbols for Different Electrical Components

4. Ohm’s Law
(Refer to video: Ohm’s Law)

## a. Relation between Voltage and Current

Ohm’s law states that the current flowing through a metallic conductor is proportional to the
potential difference applied across its ends, provided the temperature and all other conditions
remain constant.

VI

Or,

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Where is the resistance, a constant for a circuit, which is defined as the hindrance to the flow of
charge or electric current. Resistance is represented by the letter “R” and is measured in ohms
(Ω).

## ; Doesn’t this equation remind you of Newton’s 2nd law:

 Acceleration is the effect of the force and mass the quantity that reduces it.
 Current is the effect of potential difference and resistance is the quantity that reduces it.

##  Misconception: All conductors obey Ohm’s Law at a constant

temperature.
 Clarification: Not all conductors obey Ohm’s Law. There are certain
conductors called non-ohmic resistors whose V-I curve is non-linear.
E.g. Bulb filament, LED etc.

## Some materials, called superconductors, offer no resistance at all to the

flow of electric current. There’s just one catch – to display their
superpowers, they need to be kept at a frosty -260 or so degrees Celsius (-
436 degrees Fahrenheit). But recently, we discovered some materials
which can act as superconductors at much higher temperature.

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Question 8.A battery is connected to a bulb of resistance, R. If 180C of charge is passed through the
bulb in 1 minute and 1080J of work was done, what is the value of R?

## b. Factors Affecting Resistance

As it turns out the resistance of a wire (the ability of the wire to oppose current) doesn’t only
depend upon the material of the wire but also on its dimensions.

##  Nature of the material in the conductor

 Length of the conductor
 Area of cross section of the conductor

Where, ρ (rho) is the proportionality constant. It is called the “electrical resistivity” of the
conductor and it depends upon the nature of the material. The SI unit of resistivity (ρ) is Ω m.

Question 9.Resistance of a conductor also increases linearly with the temperature. Why and how does
this happen?

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Question 10.A wire has a diameter of 0.5 mm and a resistivity of Ω cm. How much of this
wire would be required to make a 10 Ω coil?

## 5. Resistance of System of Resistors

(Refer to video: Resistance of System of Resistors)

a. Series Combination

##  Current is same through each of the resistors.

 The potential difference across the entire circuit is equal to the sum of potential
difference across individual resistors.
 The potential difference will get divided between the resistors in direct proportion of
their resistance. That is, more the value of resistance, more voltage drop it will have
across it.

## Figure 7: Series Combination of Resistors

b. Parallel Combination

##  Potential difference remains same across all the resistors.

 The net current in the circuit is equal to the sum of current through individual resistors.
 Current will get divided between resistors and in the indirect proportion. That is, more the
value of resistance, less current it will get.

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## The equivalent resistance of a series combination of resistors is greater than

the greatest resistance. While in parallel combination, it is less than the least
value of resistance.

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## 6. Heating Effects of Electric Current

(Refer to video: Heating Effects of Electric Current)
We know that electricity is the flow of charges, mostly electrons, and when electrons move
through a conductor they collide with the atoms present in it and lose some of the kinetic energy
and that lost energy is converted into heat. This is known as Joule’s heating.

Below is the flow chart of typical energy conversion in case of a simple circuit.

## Joule’s law of heating:

In the numerical question regarding this topic, questions asked will look something like this:
“calculate the heat generated by the circuit” or “calculate the work done by the circuit” or
“calculate the loss in electrical energy”. Just remember that all the three statements are referring
to the same thing.

## Heat generated = Loss in electrical energy = Amount of work done

The S.I. unit of both Energy and Work done is Joule (J).

## An incandescent electric bulb transforms only 5 percent to 10 percent of the

electricity used into visible light. The rest is transformed into heat, which can
eventually increase the temperature of a room. Hence CFL bulbs are
preferred!

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Question 12.An electric heater of resistance 8Ω draws 15 C of charge per second. Suppose it happens
for a period of 2 hours, calculate the amount of heat energy derived by the heater.

##  Misconception: Many people think that electrons are consumed in an electric

circuit. This is wrong!
 Clarification: We pay the electricity board or electric company to provide
energy to move electrons through the electric gadgets like electric bulb, fan and
engines which use kinetic energy of electrons to do some work.

7. Electric Power
(Refer to video: Electric Power)

a. Series Combination

Rate of work done is defined as Power. This is also the rate of consumption of energy. So, electric
power is the electrical work done per unit time.

## The S.I. unit of power is Watt (W).

Since electrical energy is the product of Power and time, it can be expressed in Watt-hour (W-h).
One Watt-hour is the energy consumed when 1 watt of power is used for 1 hour. The commercial
unit of electric energy is kilowatt-hour (kWh).

##  Misconception: The power dissipated by an element in the circuit is equal to

the product of potential difference of the battery and the current supplied by it.
 Clarification: The power dissipated by an element in the circuit is equal to the
product of potential difference across that element and the current through that
element.

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

Question 13.Calculate the power loss in an electrical transmission cable, 15 km long, carrying a
current of 100A at a potential of 200 kV. The resistance per km of the cable is 0.2 Ω.

Question 14.All the bulbs (A-H) are identical. Rate them in decreasing order of brightness.

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## Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1) Give Reasons:
A) Why and how do the electrons flow in a wire when a potential difference is applied across it?
B) Ammeter burns out whenever it is connected in the parallel to the circuit. Why?
A) In a lab experiment, I attached the voltmeter in series and found ammeter reading is always
showing zero. How would you explain that?
B) It takes 45 J of energy to bring ‘n’ electrons from point 1 to point 2 having a potential
difference of 15 V. Calculate the value of ‘n’.
3) The values of current ‘I’ flowing in a given resistor for the corresponding values of potential
difference ‘V’ across the resistor are given below.
I (Current ) 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
V (P.D.) 1.6 3.4 6.7 10.2 13.2
Plot V-I graph to show that Ohm’s law is correct. Also calculate the resistance in the circuit.
A) Resistance of a wire is ‘R’. Now a new wire made up of same material and has same
thickness but twice the length of original wire is taken. What is the resistance of the new
wire?
B) Two wires of equal cross sectional area, one of copper and other of manganin have same
resistance. Which one will be longer?
5) Derek was giving electricity exam and one of the questions was “Three resistors of resistance 4Ω,
8Ω and 12Ω are connected in parallel. Find the equivalent resistance.” He calculated using the
formula and got the answer as 6Ω. He immediately knew that he did some mistake in the
calculation. How could he possibly know that?
6) Calculate current flowing in each of the resistors in the circuit given below:

7) A wire having resistance R is cut into 4 equal parts. Make various combinations of these 4
resistors to show which system of resistors will have highest and lowest value of resistance. Also
calculate the ratio of highest to lowest resistance.
8) Derek recently found that electricity is the movement of electrons in the wire. And he already
knows that everything is made up of atoms. But he couldn’t understand how this process can give
off light like in case of a bulb. How will you explain it to him at the atomic scale?
9) A heater wire whose power is 4kW is connected to 220 V source. Calculate:
A) Electric current in the circuit
B) Resistance of the heater
C) Energy consumed in 2 hours
10) State the three factors on which heat produced by an electric current depends. Derive the formula
for it.

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## X CBSE Physics – Electricity

11) If in a circular circuit the current flows in the clockwise direction then what is the direction of the
flow of positive charges.

## A) Clockwise C) None of these

B) Anticlockwise D) Can’t say
12) Which of the following statements does not represent ohm's law?
A) Current / Potential Difference = Constant
B) Potential Difference / Current = Constant
C) Potential Difference = Current x Resistance
D) Current = Resistance x Potential Difference
13) If two points are maintained at 5V potential each and a resistor of 10 ohms is connected across
them, what is the current across them?
A) 0.5 A C) Zero
B) 50 A D) Infinity
14) On which of the following does resistivity of a material depends ?
A) Nature of material C) Both A and B
B) Temperature D) Can’t be said
15) The sun sends out a coronal mass ejection continuously towards the earth having charged particles
at the constant rate of 1.6 ×(10)^19 coulombs/sec throughout the day. Assuming that the sun and
earth are maintained at a potential difference of 10,000 volts, find the energy (in J) received by
India in 5 days. Given India receives 10 % of the energy received by the face of the earth.
A) 345 ×10-19 C) 3.5×1027
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B) 3.5 ×10 D) 1.6 ×1019

SOLUTION
2. a) Voltmeter has hypothetically infinite resistance
b) 1.875 x 1019
3. a) Almost a straight line
b) 3.33 Ω
6. Currents in the resistors:
R1 = 2 A; R2 = 0.5 A; R3 = 1.5 A ; R4 = 1.5 A; R5 = 2 A
9. a) 200/11 A
b) 12.1 Ω
c) 8 kWh
11. A
12. D
13. C
14. C
15. B

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## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction
(Refer to video: Field and Field Lines)

## a. Magnetic Field and Field Lines

Question 1.Magnets, like every other thing, are made up of atoms. So, why do they behave differently
from other objects as in the case of attracting and repelling one another as well as in attracting
iron?

Magnets have always been a thing of awe, use and attraction for humans. According to the
history, the ancient Greeks discovered the uses of magnets during the period of Greek
Civilization. Chinese sailors employed magnets as navigational compasses approximately 900
years ago. Today, magnets play an increasingly important role in our everyday lives. Electric
motors, electric generators, television sets, speakers and computer hard drives all utilize magnetic
effects of electric currents.

## Did you know?

The power of a magnet is measured in Tesla (named after a brilliant
scientist, who specialized in electromagnetism). Even though the
Earth is massive and is a giant magnet, it is around 1000 times weaker
than a small magnet you might have at home.

If you keep a small magnetic needle near a bar magnet, the magnetic needle will rotate and stop in
one particular direction. If you place the needle at some other position, it will again align in some
other particular direction. This shows that a there is a net force that acts on the magnetic needle,
rotating it in some particular direction.

##  Misconception: All metals are attracted to magnets.

 Clarification: Not all metals are attracted to magnets. Metals like gold, silver,
and aluminum are not attracted to magnets.

The region around the magnet where the magnetic needle experiences a force and aligns in a
specific direction is called a magnetic field. It is a vector quantity having both magnitude and
direction. The direction of magnetic field is represented by magnetic lines of forces.

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## Figure 1: Magnetic Field Lines Due to a Bar Magnet

Question 2.Why does a magnetic bar hung from a string always comes to rest in North-South
direction?

## b. Properties of Magnetic Field Lines

It is important to note that the magnetic field lines are imaginary lines. They are used to help us
visualize the magnetic field and they also provide a measure of the strength of the magnetic field.
Some of the properties of magnetic field lines are:
 They always form complete closed loops.
 The relative strength of the magnetic field is shown by the degree of closeness of the field
lines.
 Two magnetic field lines never intersect each other.

Question 3.Suppose you have two iron bars that look alike but one of them is a bar magnet. How can
you determine which one of them is a magnet? Which one did you make use of, attraction or
repulsion?

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## Did You Know?

Most of the magnets we use are made of iron (like fridge magnets). But
that doesn't always have to be so. They can be made of metals, alloys or
even non-metals e.g. a plastic magnet is made from organic polymers.

Now we are going to discuss in details the magnetic effects of electric current.

## 2. Magnetic field due to a current carrying wire

(Refer to video: Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Wire)

## a. Straight Current Carrying Wire

If an electric current is made to flow through a wire, magnetic field is produced around it. To see
this, you can take a conducting wire (like copper). Now with the help of connecting wires attach
this to the two ends of a battery. Keep a magnetic needle parallel to the conducting
copper wire as shown in figure. When the circuit is complete the magnetic needle shows some
deflection.

## Figure 2: Demonstration of magnetic effect of current carrying wire

Thus, magnetic field is an effect of flow of the electric current through a conducting wire. In the
year 1820 a scientist from Denmark named H.C. Oersted observed this effect for the first time and
he found that the strength and the direction of magnetic field produced depends on the magnitude
and direction of current.

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## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Properties of magnetic field due to straight current carrying wire:
 The magnetic field lines form concentric circles around the wire.
 When the direction of current in the wire is reversed, the magnetic field lines are also reversed
with pattern remaining the same.
 On increasing the current in the wire, magnetic field strength increases and is effective up to a
larger distance and vice versa.

## Did You Know?

Heat and the earth’s spin keep the outer core moving. This movement
causes electrical currents in the core, which is mostly iron. The electrical
currents create a magnetic field that extends into space. On average about
every 300,000 years the earth's magnetic field reverses itself! Amazing,
isn’t it?

## Figure 4: Right Hand Thumb Rule

This rule is also known as Maxwell’s Corkscrew Rule. Assume that the current carrying
conductor is held in the right hand so that our fingers wrap around the conductor and the thumb is
stretched in the direction of current, then the wrapped fingers will show us the direction of
magnetic field lines.

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## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Question 4.Suppose in Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton beam was fired in the tunnel running
from South to North direction. All the detectors attached to tunnel are on the right side of it. Find
the direction of magnetic field detected due to the beam of protons.

We know about the magnetic field lines due to a straight current carrying wire. But how will the field
lines differ if the wire is closed in the form of a circular loop?

## c. Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Circular Loop

Every point on the wire carrying current would give rise to the magnetic field appearing as
straight lines at the center of the loop. By applying the right hand rule, it is easy to check that
every section of the wire contributes to the magnetic field lines in the same direction at the center
of the loop.

## Figure 5: Magnetic Field Due to Current Carrying Circular Loop

When instead of a single loop, a number of turns of wire is used, it is known as a solenoid. If
current is passed through the coils of a solenoid, it behaves as a temporary magnet known as
electromagnet.

d. Electromagnet
An electromagnet is a temporary magnet made from a piece of soft iron in which magnetic field is
produced by the flow of electric current in the coil wrapped around it.
For making electromagnet, take a piece of paper and give it a cylindrical shape. Make several
turns of a copper wire over this from one end to the other end. This is solenoid. When the ends of
the copper wires are attached to the ends of a battery, current starts flowing through the coil and it
starts functioning as a bar magnet. When the flow of current is stopped from the battery, then, its
magnetic property ceases. If the +ve and –ve terminals of the battery are reversed, then the poles
of the magnet are also reversed.

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## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

An electromagnet finds application in various fields like for lifting and transporting heavy iron
scrap, loading furnaces with iron, separating iron pieces from debris and ores, removing iron
pieces from wounds, in scientific research and various electrical devices (like electric bell, electric
motor, relay etc.).

## Figure 6: Magnetic Field due to an Electromagnet

Question 5: How placing an iron core in a solenoid can increase the strength of an electromagnet?

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## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

The rod of soft iron placed inside the solenoid would behave like an ordinary bar magnet when
the current is switched on. The polarity of this electromagnet can be described by the right-hand
grip rule. If you grip the solenoid so that your fingers curl around in the direction of current flow
through the turns of the solenoid, your thumb will point to the “North” pole of the electromagnet.

## Did You Know?

The high-speed maglev trains are developed using electromagnets. These
trains float over a guide way using basic principles of magnets; hence
using fossil fuels, the magnetic field created by the electrified coils in the
guide way walls and the track combine to propel the train.

## 3. Force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field

(Refer to video: Force on a Current Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field)

## a. Straight Current Carrying Wire

You have seen earlier that, when current flows through a conductor, magnetic field is produced
around it. The direction of this field (B) depends upon the direction of flow of electric current (I).
Similarly when a current carrying conductor is placed in some external magnetic field, a force
acts upon it. The following experiment may be done to observe this.
Let us suspend a piece of copper wire between the poles of a horseshoe magnet in such a manner
that the length of the wire is aligned perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field between the
poles. As soon as current is allowed to flow through this wire it becomes taut upwards. With this
becomes clear that a force acts on the current flowing conductor.

## Figure 7: Demonstration of Force Experienced by a Current Carrying Conductor in a

Magnetic Field

This force acts on the wire upwards. If the current flowing through the conductor is increased then
the force also increases. The direction of force acting on a current carrying conductor placed in a
magnetic field can be found according to the Fleming’s left hand rule.

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## b. Fleming’s Left Hand Rule

According to Fleming left hand rule, the direction of force experienced by a current carrying wire
is perpendicular to both the direction of the current as well as the magnetic field.

##  Misconception: A force is exerted on a current carrying wire only when it is

perpendicular to the magnetic field.
 Clarification: A force is exerted on a current carrying wire even if it makes
some angle other than 90°(except when it is parallel or anti-parallel to it, i.e.
the angle being 0° or 180°) with the magnetic field.

John Ambrose Fleming gave this rule in the late 19thcentury as a simple way to work out the
direction of force in an electric motor.

c. Electric Motor
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The working of an electric
motor is based on the fact that when a current is passed through a conductor placed suitably in a
magnetic field, it experiences a force.

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## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

i) Construction:

Question 8.Main components of electric motor are given below. Write down their uses.
Armature

Field Magnet

Split Ring
Commutator

Brushes or
Sliding
Contacts

Battery

## Figure 9: Electric Motor

ii) Working:
The working of an electric motor can be divided into two parts:
 Let us suppose that the battery sends current to the armature in the clockwise direction as seen
from above. Applying Fleming’s Left-Hand Rule, we find that the arm AB experiences a
force, which is acting downwards and perpendicular to it and arm CD experiences a force,
which is acting upwards and perpendicular to it. These two forces form a couple, and make
the armature rotates in the anti-clockwise direction.
 After the armature has completed half a revolution the direction of current in the arm BA and
CD is reversed. Now arm CD experiences a downward force and arm BA experiences an
upward force. The armature thus continues to rotate about its axis in the same anti-clockwise
direction.

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## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Question 9: When the loop becomes perpendicular to the magnetic field, no current flows through it
momentarily as the brush loses contact with the split rings. Then why doesn’t the motor stop in
this position?

Question 10: Can you suggest some ways by which speed of the motor can be increased?

## Did You Know?

The world’s smallest electric motor was announced in 2011,
measuring one nanometer (about 1/60,000 the width of a human
hair) across and consisting of a single molecule. The motor is about as
small as a mechanical device can be, and yet it actually works.

## iii) Uses of an Electric Motor:

These electric motors find use in a number of fields:
 They are used in electric fans for cooling and ventilation.
 They are used for pumping water.
 They are used in electric locomotives, electric cars, electric cranes and electric lifts.
 Small motors are used in various toys.
 They are also used in washing machines.

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## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

4. Electromagnetic Induction
(Refer to video: Electromagnetic Induction)

## a. Theory of Electromagnetic Induction

Previously in this lesson, we have seen that a magnetic field is created when current flows
through a solenoid (a cylindrical core of insulated copper wires). Do you think that the reverse
should also be possible? That is when you provide electricity in a wire and keep it near a magnet,
it moves. But this time, instead of giving electricity to the wire, just move it near the magnet, does
electric current get produced in the wire? And the answer is “yes”.

## Figure 10: Electromagnetic Induction

Michael Faraday gave this theory of electromagnetic induction (EMI) in 1831.It is the production
of an electromotive force across a conductor exposed to time varying magnetic fields. Generators,
transformers are some devices, which work on this principle.

## Question 11: What does Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction state?

 Misconception: Current is produced only when the magnet moves away from
or towards the solenoid.
 Clarification: It is the relative motion between the solenoid and magnet,
which produces a current, irrespective of whether the magnet moves or the
solenoid moves.

Just as there is Fleming’s Left hand Rule to determine the direction of force, Fleming’s Right
Hand Rule is used to determine the direction of current in case of EMI.

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## b. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule

This rule states "Hold out the right hand with the first finger, second finger and thumb at right
angle to each other. If forefinger represents the direction of the line of force, the thumb points in
the direction of motion or applied force, then the index finger points in the direction of induced
current.”
This rule is very helpful and widely used to determine the direction of current in an electric
generator. This rule is derived from the Lenz’s law which in actual sense gives us the idea of the
direction in which it gets produced. Lenz’s law can be stated as “Because of the change in
magnetic field near a conductor, an e.m.f. is induced in the conductor and the polarity of the
induced e.m.f. is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the initial change
which produces it.

## Figure 11: Fleming’s Right Hand Rule

c. Electric Generator
Electric Generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.
Generators are of two types:
 A.C. Generator (Alternating Current Generator): This produces current that flows in such a
manner that its direction and amplitude change constantly with time.
 D.C. Generator (Direct Current Generator): This generator produces current that flows in the
same direction in a continuous manner.

34

## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

i) A.C. Generator

## A.C. generators operate on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Alternating voltage or

current is generated by rotating a coil in the magnetic field or by rotating a magnetic field with a
stationary coil.

## Figure 12: An A.C. Generator

Question 12: Can you explain the working of A.C. generators for both the half rotations?

35

## ii) D.C. Generator

This also works like the AC generator. There is just one difference in its structure. There are half
rings (split-ring commutator) rather than rings R1 and R2 as seen in AC generators so that
unidirectional current is produced. This generator is thus called a DC or Direct current generator.

## Figure 13: A D.C. Generator

Question 13: Give a comparative analysis of differences and advantages of both A.C and D.C.

## Did You Know?

Thomas Edison, in order to popularize direct current, began a campaign
to discredit alternating current. He spread misinformation saying that
alternating current was more dangerous, even going so far as to publicly
electrocute stray animals using alternating current to prove his point.

So we have seen how electricity is generated using AC and DC generators. However we use AC
for power generation. This is because generating and transporting AC across long distances is
relatively easy. At high voltages, less energy is lost in electrical power transmission. The voltage
level of AC can easily be changed using transformers.

36

## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Question 14: What steps would you take, if you had to increase the current output of your electrical
generator?

5. Domestic Circuits
(Refer to video: Domestic Circuits)

## a. Power Transmission and Distribution in House

You may have seen huge electricity poles, transformers, wires etc. around your house. The
production of electricity is done far away from the cities at electricity generation centers. These
power plants produce electricity using water, thermal, wind, nuclear, solar or geothermal energy.
Here electricity is produced usually at 11 KV (voltage), 50Hertz (frequency).
Till the poles near our houses, electricity reaches through the distribution system from power
plants. The voltage is stepped down to 220 V by transformers in a number of steps when it is
delivered to our homes. Two wires from the poles come to our houses: one wire is called as
‘phase’ while the other one is called as ‘neutral’. In the phase wire the voltage is 220V while in
the neutral the voltage is zero; same as that of the earth.

37

## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Question 16: The electrical appliance is connected between the live and neutral wires. Then why
there is a third earth wire? What purpose is served by it?

## Figure 14: Domestic Electric Circuits

These wires (phase, neutral and earth wires) are color coded so that they can be easily identified.

b. Color Coding
The color-coding of wires for domestic circuits is given by:
 Red – Live wire
 Black – Neutral wire
 Green – Earth wire
Electrical circuits carry risk of overheating and potential electric shocks. Hence it is important to
have proper safety devices to minimize the damage in such cases.

If the live and neutral wires come in direct contact or they find some low resistance path, which in
turn bypasses the electrical appliance and a large amount of current starts to flow in the circuit.
This condition is known as short circuit.
In house hold circuits we use parallel combination of different appliances. Whenever a new
apparatus is switched on, it draws more current from the source. If the current drawn by all the
devices connected in a circuit is more than the maximum current rating for the given circuit, a
If any such condition takes place, there is a probability of overheating, fires and other related
damages. To prevent such damages from happening, we use certain safety devices and means.
One such device is an electrical fuse.

38

## X CBSE Physics – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Question 17: How does a fuse prevent possible damage in case of overloading or short circuit? Why
is it always connected to the live wire?

Question 18: Suppose you have two fuses of rating 5 A and 15 A. What will be the rating of the
combination if they are connected i) in series ii) in parallel?

Using our natural resources we produce this electrical energy. Population growth, growing
urbanization is increasing the demand of electricity day by day. This is creating a pressure on our
natural resources. Thus it is important today that we use electricity judiciously and not waste it in
any way.

40

## 1) How would you explain magnetic effects of electric current?

2) How can a solenoid magnetize a piece of magnetic materials, like soft iron, when placed inside
the coil?
3) Draw the pattern of field lined due to a solenoid carrying electric current. Mark the north and the
south poles in the diagram.
4) Lets say a laboratory room has very strong upward magnetic field i.e. towards the ceiling. An
electron gun is fired along a line from one of the vertical wall to the opposite wall. Explain what
will happen to the electrons?
5) What is the difference between “Right hand thumb rule” and “Fleming’s left hand rule”?
6) With a neat diagram, describe the working of electric motor.
7) What is the principle of electromagnetic induction? Explain how do we use this principle in our
day-to-day life.
8) Suppose behind your house you have a very fast and continuous flow of water. How will you use
this to provide electricity to your home? Explain in detail.
9) What are the differences between alternating and direct current? Explain which one is better in
different scenarios.
10) What is “Earthing”? What is the need for it? What is the color of earthing wire?
11) The ways by which the magnetic field of a solenoid can be made stronger are?
A) The number of turns of the solenoid is increased.
B) The current passing through the coil is increased.
C) The length of the solenoid is increased.
D) Both A and B
12) Two parallel wires are carrying electric currents of equal magnitude and in the same direction.
They exert:
A) A rotational torque on each other C) No force on each other
B) A repulsive force on each other D) An attractive force on each other
13) We use Fleming’s right hand rule in which of these cases?
A) While working with electrical motor
B) While working with electrical generator
C) While working with current carrying conductor
D) While determining force on a current carrying conductor
14) The alternating current has the following properties?
A) It reverses its direction periodically. C) AC can be transmitted over countries.
B) Its frequency is 50Hz D) All of the above
15) What should be the rating of an electric fuse for a Micro oven, which is operating on a current
rating of 5A?
A) Zero C) 6 A
B) 5 A D) Anything above 5 A

SOLUTION
11. D 13. B 15. C
12. D 14. A

42

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

## a. Energy and Sources of Energy

(Refer to video: Introduction)

In this chapter, you will not be learning about the laws of physics as such; rather we will be
learning how we make use of those laws of physics on the resources that have been given to us by
the nature. That is this chapter will be more focused on “applied science” and not on “pure
science”.

Question 1.What do you think “energy” is? Why do people say, “Conserve energy” even though we
know that energy is always conserved?

So basically to do some work, you must have some kind of energy. The SI unit of energy is Joule
(J). But for commercial purposes we use kilowatt-hour (kWh) as the unit of energy.

Question 2.Why don’t we use Joule as commercial unit? How many Joules will make up 1 kWh?

But, this chapter is not about energy; it is about “sources of energy”, that is the resources that we
use to produce energy to meet our day-to-day needs.

43

## Figure 1: Some Sources of Energy

There can be good sources of energy as well as bad sources of energy depending upon how much
effort is needed to produce the energy and how much energy are we getting in return as well as on
some other factors.

##  Safe and convenient to use

 Easy to transport
 Easy to store
b. Characteristics of a Good fuel
(Refer to video: What is a Good Fuel)
Fuels are the most common type of sources of energy that we see in our daily life. A fuel is
any substance that can be burnt to produce heat energy. But similarly like other sources of
energy, fuel can be classified as good fuel and bad fuel.

## Did you know?

About 5,000 years ago, the energy people consumed for their survival
averaged about 12,000 kilocalories per person each day. In AD 1400, each
person was consuming about twice as much energy (26,000 kilocalories).
After the Industrial Revolution, the demand almost tripled to an average of
77,000 kilocalories per person in 1875. By 2015, it had tripled again to
240,000 kilocalories per person.

44

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

2. Renewable and Non-Renewable Sources

## a. Renewable Sources of Energy

Renewable sources of energy are those, which are almost inexhaustible i.e. which can be replaced
easily as we use them and can be used to produce energy again and again. Almost all the major
sources of energy except for fossil fuels are renewable. Renewable energy is generally collected
from resources, which are naturally replenished, on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind,
rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

## Figure 2: Renewable Sources of Energy

Question4. Explain the concept of renewable energy resources with the help of an example.

## b. Non-Renewable Sources of Energy

Non-renewable sources of energy are those, which are exhaustible and cannot be replenished
once they have been used or will only get replenished after insurmountable amount of time.
The major example of non-renewable sources of energy is fossil fuels. And they are found in
nature as natural gas, petroleum and coal.

45

## Figure 3: Non-renewable Sources of Energy

Question 5.What are the some advantages of using renewable energy sources over non-renewable
energy sources?

Nuclear energy can be put into any of the above two categories as some conditions make it
renewable and others makes it non-renewable. But if you had to choose only one in the exams,
choose nuclear energy as a non-renewable source.

Question 6.Give some arguments for nuclear energy being a renewable source of energy and also for
nuclear energy being a non-renewable source of energy.

46

## Based on REN's (Renewable Energy Policy Network) report, renewable

resources contributed 19 percent to humans' global energy consumption
and 22 percent to their generation of electricity in 2013.This number is
expected to rise in the future as the dependency of humans on the fossil
fuel is decreasing.

## 3. Conventional and Non-Conventional Sources

We can also categorize sources of energy based on how much time we have been using it for our
purposes.

Question 7. Write down the difference between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.

Now we will go into each individual major source of energy and we will divide that into
conventional and non-conventional sources. For each sources of energy you have to understand 3
basic things.

##  How do we use that particular type of energy?

 What are the advantages of using that energy source?
 What are the disadvantages of using that energy source?

i. Fossil Fuel

## (Refer to video: Fossil fuels and Thermal Energy)

Fossil fuels are the remains of prehistoric plants and animals, which got buried deep inside the
earth millions of years ago due to some natural processes. The harder parts of organisms after
their death, settle down and are covered by sediments and subjected to extreme pressure and
temperature of the earth which converts them into fossil fuels, the process being referred to as
fossilization. Hence whatever fossil fuel we have is the result of million years of decay of species,
which lived long before us e.g. dinosaurs.

47

## Thermal Power Plants

Large amount of fossil fuels are burnt every day in power stations to heat up water to produce
steam, which further rotates the turbine to generate electricity. The transmission of electricity is
more efficient than transporting coal or petroleum over the same distance. That is why in this
chapter we will see that whichever type of energy the source is giving us, we will try to convert it
into electrical energy.

## Figure 4: A Typical Thermal Power Plant

Question 8.Write down the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuel as a source of energy.

48

2. Hydro Energy

## Did you know?

80% of all the electrical energy generated in India comes from fossil fuels.
Coal alone contributes for 69% of total electricity. Oil contributes for 1%
and natural gases contribute 10% of the total.

Question 9.Why are we so obsessed about using every source of energy to produce electricity? What
are the advantages of it? Why not convert it into some other form of energy?

## ii. Hydel Power

Since ancient times, we have been using the running water of the river for various purposes. But
since the discovery of Electromagnetic Induction by Michael Faraday in 1831, we have been
using the flow of river mainly to generate electricity in hydel power stations, which has huge
dams built around it to obstruct the flow of the river.

49

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

When the water flowing in a river is stored in a high-rise dam and allowed to fall from the top of
the dam, the water rushes down with a great force, which can be utilized to rotate large water
turbines. These turbines are connected with electric generators, which generate electricity. The
electricity generated in this process is termed as hydroelectricity. In fact the process involves
transformation of potential energy of water into kinetic energy and then into electric energy.

## Figure 5: Hydel Power Plant

Question 10.Write down the advantages and disadvantages of using flowing water from river as a
source of energy.

50

## The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Yangtze (Brahmaputra)

river in China. In terms of the amount of electricity it generates/year, it’s the
world’s largest power station.At least 1.24 million people had to be relocated,
and some plant species have been endangered. Over 100 towns and
settlements were submerged when the dam was built. In addition, over 1,000
archaeological and historic sites were also submerged and lost.

iii. Biomass

##  Agricultural and forest residues

 Carbonaceous wastes (like sewage, garbage, night-soil, etc.)
 Biodegradable organic affluent from industries.

When biomass undergoes anaerobic decomposition i.e. bacteria breaking down organic matter
into its components in the absence (or very small amount) of air, then a gas called biogas is
produced which is an excellent fuel.

51

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

Question 11.Write down the advantages and disadvantages of biomass as a source of energy.

2. Hydro Energy

## iv. Wind Energy

(Refer to video: Wind Energy)

Windmills have been in use since 2000 B.C. and were first developed in Persia and China.
Ancient mariners sailed to distant lands by making use of winds. Farmers used wind power to
pump water and for grinding grains. Today the most popular use of wind energy is converting it to
electrical energy to meet the critical electrical energy needs of the planet.

A windmill is a large fan having big blades, which rotate by the force exerted by moving wind on
them. These blades remain continuously rotating as long as wind is blowing and can be used to
drive a large number of machines like water pumps, flourmills and also generators.

52

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

Question 12.Write down the advantages and disadvantages of producing electricity from a wind
energy farm.

## The wind energy industry is burgeoning by leaps and bounds. Global

generation saw quadrupling from 2000 to 2006. In 2012, more than 70,000
mega watts of global capacity were generated. A single mega watt is enough to
power 250 homes. The most installed capacity of wind energy is in Germany
followed by Spain. If this growth momentum is sustained, wind energy will be
able to meet one-third of global energy demands by 2050.

## b. Non-conventional Sources of Energy

i. Solar Energy
(Refer to video: Solar Energy)

53

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

Solar cooker

A solar cooker is a device, which utilizes solar energy for cooking food material. It consists of an
insulated wooden box painted black from the inside. The lid of the box is provided with a plane
mirror reflector and a glass sheet. The food to be cooked is placed in a metal container, which is
painted with black from outer side and kept in the box. The container is covered with the glass
sheet. The box is then kept in direct sunlight and its reflector is adjusted in such away that a
strong beam of sun light falls over it.

## Figure 8: A solar cooker

Solar cell

A solar cell is a device, which converts solar energy (light energy) directly into electricity. It is
made of semi-conducting material like silicon, germanium, selenium, orgallium. A modern solar
cell is made from wafers of semi conducting materials containing impurities in such a way that a
potential difference gets generated when light falls on them. A 4 cm, 2 solar cells produce a
potential difference of about 0.4 - 0.5 Volts and generate about 60 mili-amperes of current. To
generate a large amount of current a number of solar cells are arranged together in a definite

pattern in a solar panel. The energy (electric current) generated in a solar panel is stored in a
battery connected to it and can be used for various purposes.

54

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

Question 13.Write down the advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy to meet our needs.

## ii. Energy from the sea

(Refer to video: Energy from the Sea)

There are three common ways in which we harness the heat and kinetic energy of the water of the
sea which are discussed as follows:

## Ocean Thermal energy

The energy available due to the temperature difference between the deeper levels and surface of
an ocean is called as ocean thermal energy. OTEC uses this temperature difference to generate
electricity by exchanging heat with the warm water from the ocean surface and with the cold
water from the deep ocean.

## Ocean Tidal energy

The rise of ocean water due to attraction of the moon and sun is referred to as high tide and its fall
as low tide. The enormous movement of water due to high and low tide provide a large amount of
energy known as ocean tidal energy. This tidal energy can be utilized by constructing a tidal
barrage or dam. And just like in the case of normal dams, we can produce electricity out of it.

55

## Sea wave energy

The energy obtained from the high-speed sea waves is referred to as sea wave energy. In fact
these high-speed sea waves have a lot of kinetic energy associated with them, which can used to
drive dynamos, which convert kinetic energy into electrical energy.

56

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

Question 14.Write down the advantages and disadvantages of harnessing energy from the sea by its
waves, tides or its thermal energy.

57

## iii. Geothermal Energy

(Refer to video: Geothermal Energy)

Geothermal energy is generally referred as the heat of the earth and is the naturally occurring
thermal energy found within rock formations and the fluids held within those formations.

The underground hot water in contact with hot spots changes into steam. As the steam is trapped
between the rocks, it gets compressed to high pressure. At some places, hot water and steam gush
out from the Earth’s surface after making their way through large cracks between the rocks and
form natural geysers. Geothermal energy carried by natural geysers is utilized for generating
electricity.

58

## Many ancient peoples, including the Romans, Chinese, and Native

Americans, used hot mineral springs for bathing, cooking, and heating.
Water from hot springs is now used worldwide in spas, for heating
buildings, and for agricultural and industrial uses. Using geothermal
energy to produce electricity is a relatively new industry. It was initiated
by a group of Italians who built an electric generator at Lardarello in 1904

## iv. Nuclear Energy

(Refer to video: Nuclear Energy)

A reaction in which the nucleus of an atom undergoes a change to form a new atom and releases
an enormous amount of energy is called as nuclear reaction. And the energy produced in the
process is called as nuclear energy. There are two distinct ways of obtaining nuclear energy
depending on whether the nucleus is splitting into two baby nuclei or two small nuclei combine to
form one big nucleus. And based on this they are named as

 Nuclear fission
 Nuclear fusion

59

## Fission Reaction: 92U

235
+ 0n
1
56Ba139+ 36Kr
94
+ 3 0n1 + Energy

Fusion Reaction: 1H
2
+ 1H32He4 + 0n
1
+ Energy

material as a source of energy.

60

## Did you know?

Research on controlled fusion power has now been going on for a half
century with somewhat disappointing results. Some experts argue that
no method will ever be found for making fusion power by a method
that humans can afford. The amount of energy produced by the fusion,
they say, will always be less than the amount of energy put into the
process in the first place. Other scientists disagree. They believe that
success may be soon incoming.

Question 16.As we have seen in case of nuclear energy that some of the mass is getting “converted”
into energy. Does it mean that both conservation of energy and conservation of mass is false?

c. Environmental Consequence

Exploiting any source of energy disturbs the environment in some way or the other. Following
points shows that:

 The combustion of fossil fuels is producing acid rain and damaging plants, crops, soil, land
and aquatic life.
 The burning of fossil fuels is increasing the amount of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere.
 The cutting down of trees from the forest (deforestation) for obtaining firewood is causing
soil erosion and destroying wild life.
 The construction of Hydropower plants is disturbing ecological balance.
 Nuclear power plants are increasing radioactivity in the environment.

It is the 21st century and still more than 80% of our all energy need is met by burning fossil fuels
as you can see in the pie chart next page. We have seen the disadvantages of using fossil fuel as
the source of the energy and also the advantages of using some of the renewable sources of
energy. And that is why we should try to decrease our dependency on fossil fuel and go towards
more clean and environmental friendly sources of energy. And even if we are dependent on the

61

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

fossil fuels we can make some effort to conserve that type of energy or make the production of
energy more efficient and clean.

Figure 12: Pie chart of % wise energy generation from various sources

Question 17: Based on what you have learnt what do you think are the measures we can take to
minimize the bad effect on the environment.

63

## Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1) What is calorific value of a fuel? How does it play a role in choosing a good fuel?
2) What is greenhouse effect? What are its harmful impacts? How to minimize its effect?
3) How do we produce electricity in a thermal power station?
5) What are the differences between the two ways of using solar energy: Solar Cooker and Solar
Cell?
6) 48 kJ of energy is produced per minute in a nuclear reactor. Calculate the number of fissions,
which would be taking place in the reactor per second, if the energy released per fission is 3.2 x
10-11 J.
7) The use of dry wood as domestic fuel is not considered as good; charcoal seems to be a better
fuel. State two reasons for it.
9) Energy is always conserved. Why then environmentalist put so much focus on “Conserving
energy”? Give some steps/examples of doing so.
A) What do you mean by solar constant of sun? What is its value?
B) What type of mirror can be used in Box Type Solar cooker?
C) Why it is difficult to use hydrogen as a source of energy?
D) What is the maximum temperature attained in a concave reflector type solar cooker?
E) Fossil fuels are classified as non-renewable source of energy. Explain why.
11) If energy is always conserved in a chemical or physical process then why is there an energy
crisis?
A) Energy is getting lost in the universe C) Energy is not conserved in real life
B) Energy is dissipated from more usable D) All of these
form to less usable form
12) Choose the correct option:
Statement 1: Coal, petroleum and natural gas all comprise fossil fuels.
Statement 2: They are called fossil fuels as they are made from dead remains of organic matter.
A) Both the statements are correct, but statement 2 is not the reason for statement 1.
B) Both the statements are correct, and statement 2 is the reason for statement 1.
C) Statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect.
D) Both the statements are incorrect.
13) If you are stuck in a forest which source of energy will you prefer and why?
A) Nuclear energy, as it is a clean source.
B) Coal ,as its efficiency is very high
C) Wood, as it is easily available.
D) Wind energy, as it is renewable source.
14) What is the principle behind ocean thermal energy?
Statement 1: The warm water at surface is used to boil ammonia, which vaporizes and then used
to rotate turbine.
Statement 2: Ammonia is vaporized as only then it gains sufficient kinetic energy for power
generation

64

## X CBSE Physics – Sources of Energy

A) Both the statements are correct, but statement 2 is not the reason for statement 1.
B) Both the statements are correct, and statement 2 is the reason for statement 1.
C) Statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect.
D) Both the statements are incorrect.
15) Choose the incorrect statement:
A) We are encouraged to plant more trees so as to ensure clean environment and also provide
bio-mass fuel.
B) Gober-gas is produced when crops, vegetable wastes etc., decompose in the absence of
oxygen.
C) The main ingredient of bio-gas is ethane and it gives a lot of smoke and also produces a lot of
residual ash.
D) Bio-mass is a renewable source of energy.

SOLUTION
6. 2.5 x 10 13
11. B
12. B
13. C
14. B
15. C

66

## X CBSE Chemistry – Chemical Reaction and Equations

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction

## (Refer to video – Introduction)

What is Chemistry?

##  the structure and behaviour of atoms (elements)

 the composition and properties of compounds
 the reactions between substances along with their accompanying energy exchange
 the laws that unite these phenomena into a comprehensive system

## a. Atom and Stability

Atoms differ from one another in the number of protons, neutrons and electrons they contain.
However, their arrangement always follows the same set of principles.

##  protons and neutrons together are placed in the atomic centre

 electrons are placed in shells at different energy levels
 electrons always tend to occupy the lowest energy level possible

## Question1. What do you understand by the stability of atoms?

b. Chemical reactions

## What are chemical reactions?

How chemicals react with each other is dictated by the chemical properties of the element or
compound- the ways in which a compound or element undergoes change in composition.

67

## X CBSE Chemistry – Chemical Reaction and Equations

c. Chemical Equation
A chemical reaction is typically represented by a chemical equation, which represents the change
from reactants to products. The left hand side of the equation represents the reactants, while the
right hand side represents the products. A typical chemical reaction is written with stoichiometric
coefficients, which shows the relative amount of products and reactants involved in the reaction.
Each element/compound is followed by a parenthetical note of the compound’s state: (l) for
liquid, (s) for solid and (g) for gas. The symbol (aq) is also commonly used in order to represent
an aqueous solution, in which compounds are dissolved in water. A reaction might take the
following form:

## A (aq) + B (g) → C (s) + D (l)

In the above example, A and B, known as the reactants, react to form C and D, the products.

Question 1. What are the points to consider while writing an accurate chemical equation?

Question 2. Why is there a need to write down the state of a compound in a chemical reaction?

68

## 2. Chemical reactions and Equations

a. Combination reaction
(Refer to video - Chemical reactions and Equations I)

A combination reaction occurs when two or more compounds combine to form a complex
compound. The simplest equation of combination reaction is illustrated below.

## Question 3. Complete the following combination reactions.

Ag (s) + O2 (g) 

H2 (g) + O2 (g) 

b. Decomposition reaction
(Refer to video – Chemical Reactions and Equations II)

## A decomposition reaction is the opposite of a synthesis (combination) reaction. During a

decomposition reaction, a more complex compound breaks down into multiple simpler
compounds. For example: The digestion of food in our body is accompanied by a number of
decomposition reactions. The major constituents of our food such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
etc, decompose to form a number of simpler substances. These substances further react, releasing
large amounts of energy, which keeps our body working.

A classic example of this type of reaction is the decomposition of water(electrolysis) into oxygen
and hydrogen gas:

69

## What are the different types of decomposition reactions?

Question 4. Write the equation to represent the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate.

Question 5. Give a reaction of the class of compound that undergoes electrolytic decomposition.

Question 6. How is photolytic decomposition used in photography, also write the reaction involved?

## Did you know?

Nuclear energy is the Holy Grail of energy sources in modern world. It has the
power to provide electricity for an entire city and can even annihilate the city if
used destructively. But did you know that it all begins with a set of combination
and decomposition reactions of radioactive elements!

70

## X CBSE Chemistry – Chemical Reaction and Equations

c. Displacement reactions
(Refer to video-Subtopic: Displacement Reactions - Chemical Reaction and Equations II)

## Displacement reactions involve a metal and a compound of a different metal. In a displacement

reaction, a more reactive metal will displace a lesser reactive metal from its compound.

Displacement reactions are easily seen when a salt of a lesser reactive metal is in solution with a
more reactive metal. During the reaction:

##  the more reactive metal gradually disappears as it forms a solution

 the less reactive metal coats the surface of the more reactive metal

## Figure 3 - A Single Displacement Reaction

Question 7. Determine whether the following reaction is feasible. If yes, complete them.

## d. Double Displacement reaction

(Refer to video - Displacement Reactions - Chemical reaction and equations II)

Double displacement reactions may be defined as the chemical reaction in which one component
each of both the reacting molecules are exchanged to form the products. During this reaction, the
cations and anions of the two different compounds switch places, forming two entirely different
compounds.

Double displacement reactions generally take place in aqueous solutions in which the ions
precipitate and there is an exchange of ions.

71

## X CBSE Chemistry – Chemical Reaction and Equations

For example, on mixing a solution of barium chloride with sodium sulphate, a white precipitate of
barium sulphate is immediately formed. These reactions are ionic in nature. The reactants change
into ions when dissolved in water and there is an exchange of ions in solution. This results in the
formation of new product molecules.

## 1. An aqueous solution of lead nitrate is added to sodium sulphate

2. Zinc sulphide pellets are added to an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid

## e. Reduction – Oxidation reaction (Redox reaction)

(Refer to video - Redox Reactions - Chemical Reaction and Equations II)

Fundamentally, redox reactions are a family of reactions that are concerned with the transfer of
electrons between species. Like acid-base reactions, redox reactions are a matched set - you don't
have an oxidation reaction without a reduction reaction happening at the same time. Oxidation
refers to the loss of electrons, while reduction refers to the gain of electrons. Each reaction by
itself is called a "half-reaction", simply because we need two (2) half-reactions to form a whole
reaction. In notating redox reactions, chemists typically write out the electrons explicitly:

Cu (s)  Cu2+ + 2 e-

This half-reaction says that we have solid copper (with no charge) being oxidized (losing
electrons) to form a copper ion with a plus 2 charge. Hence this is the oxidation reaction.

## Cl2 (g) + 2e-  2Cl-

This reaction says that chlorine gas gains two electrons in order to generate two chloride ions.
Hence the complete redox reaction can be written as -

72

## Identify the oxidizing and reducing agents in the given equation:

H2 + Cl2 2HCl

An example of a redox reaction is the reaction between hydrogen gas and fluorine gas:

## H2 (g) + F2 (g) → 2HF (g)

In this reaction, hydrogen is oxidized and fluorine is reduced, and is thus the oxidizing agent.

## Figure 5 - Redox Reaction involving Hydrogen and Fluorine

Question 9.Write down the reduction and oxidation half reactions of the reaction:

## Na (s) + F (g)  NaF

Question 10. Identify the type of the following reactions in the respective order:
a) Al(OH)3 (aq) + 3HCl (aq)  AlCl3 (aq) + 3H2O (l)
b) MnO2 + 4H+ + 2Cl- Mn2+ + 2H2O (l) + Cl2 (g)
c) P4 (s) + 6Cl2 (g)  4PCl3 (l)
d) Ca (s) + 2H2O (l)  Ca(OH)2 (aq) + H2 (g)
e) AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq)

73

## Why is heat released or absorbed in a chemical reaction?

In any chemical reaction, chemical bonds are either broken or formed. And the rule of thumb
is: When chemical bonds are formed, heat is released and when chemical bonds are broken, heat
is absorbed. Molecules inherently want to stay together, so formation of chemical bonds between
molecules requires less energy as compared to breaking bonds between molecules, which requires
more energy and results in heat being absorbed from the surroundings.

3. Catalysts
A catalyst is a substance that:

##  either speeds up or slows down a chemical reaction

 is not used up during the reaction (its mass is the same at the start and end of the reaction)
 is chemically unchanged after the reaction has finished
Only a very small amount of catalyst is needed to increase the rate of the reaction between large
amounts of reactants. Different catalysts are needed to catalyse different reactions.

The table summarises some catalysts and the reactions they catalyse:

## Platinum acts as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of Ethene. Metals can

sometimes capture reactants on their surfaces and reconfigure them in
a way that is favourable to reaction. Adsorbing the reactants also
increases their chances of a favourable collision.

Question 11.When quick lime is put in water it starts boiling violently. Why do you think this
happens?

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Chemical Reaction and Equations

Question 12. Why do Oily and fatty food become inedible when kept out for too long?

## 4. Balancing a Chemical Reaction

(Refer to video – Balancing a Chemical Reaction)

State the law in accordance with which chemical equations are balanced.

##  Misconception: In order to balance equations, the subscripts can be

changed.
 Clarification: When subscripts of a molecule are changed, you are
basically changing the composition of the atoms in that molecule.
According to law of constant proportion, a particular molecule’s
composition stays always the same. Changing its composition will mean
that it is a different molecule, so by doing this you would be altering the
reactants given. Remember, H2O and H2O2 are two different compounds.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Chemical Reaction and Equations

Question 14. Balance first two equations using hit and trial method and rest using algebraic method:

## a. H2O(l) → H2(g) + O2(g)

b. Zn(s) + AgCl(aq) → ZnCl2 (aq) + Ag(s)
c. Fe2O3(aq) + H2O(l) → Fe(OH)3( aq)
d. KMnO4(aq) + HCl(aq) → KCl(aq) + MnCl2(s) + H2O(l) + Cl2(g)

77

## 1. State the law of conservation of mass.

2. Explain exothermic process with an example.
3. Why does white silver chloride turn grey in sunlight?
4. What is endothermic reaction? Give an example.
5. Give an equation for a precipitation reaction.
6. Give an example each for oxidizing & reducing agents with the help of a suitable example.
7. Write an equation to represent a redox reaction. Write the oxidation and reduction half
separately.
8. What are antioxidants?
9. What is rusting of iron?
10. Explain displacement reactions with the help of an example.
11. MnO2 + 4HCl  MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O. Identify the oxidising & reducing agent.
12. Balance the following equations -
(i) HNO3 + Ca(OH)2  Ca(NO3)2 + H2O
(ii) NaCl + AgNO3  AgCl + NaNO3
13. Write any two measures to prevent rancidity.
14. Why is it necessary to balance a chemical equation?
15. What are the different ways to make chemical equation more informative?
16. What are the characteristics of chemical reaction?
17. Because of the formation of which of the following does lime water turns milky when carbon
dioxide is passed in it?
(a) Calcium carbonate (b) Calcium bicarbonate
(c) Calcium hydroxide (d) Sodium carbonate
18. Electrolysis of water is which type of the following reactions?
(a) Endothermic (b) Decomposition
(c) Double decomposition (d) Combination
19. Which of the following is formed when sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid?
(a) Calcium chloride (b) Hydrogen chloride
(c) Sodium hydroxide (d) Sodium chloride
20. When copper oxide is heated with hydrogen, copper metal and water are formed. Which of the
following is the oxidizing agent in this reaction?
(a) Copper oxide (b) Hydrogen
(c) Copper (d) Water

SOLUTION

## 17. (a) Calcium carbonate

18. (b) Decomposition
19. (d) Sodium chloride
20. (a) Copper oxide

79

## X CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction
What are Acids?
The definition of acids and bases has taken shape through the course of almost about a hundred
years as a result of human obsession of identifying common properties and hence categorizing
things. By the end of this chapter, you would have reached the answer. The first of these attempts
to categorise substances into acids or bases began with the study of their physical properties.

## a. The Classical Theory

(Refer to video clip – Introduction I)

##  Acids are sour in taste and corrosive in nature.

 All acids generally have hydrogen as their constituent element in the form of proton (H+)
which dissociates in aqueous solutions.
 Acid turns blue litmus red.

## b. Electropositivity and Electronegativity

(Refer to video clip – Introduction II)
Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself. It's governed by nucleus
size (more protons - more pull!) but also the number of valence shells, farther away an electron is,
lesser the pull.

Question 1. What is electropositivity? What do you think will happen if a highly electropositive
element bonded to another element of high electronegativity?

## The most electropositive elements in the periodic table is Cesium

CCeCesium is the most electropositive of the stable elements.

80

## c. Patterns of electronegativity in the Periodic Table

The distance of the electrons from the nucleus remains relatively constant in a periodic table row,
but not in a periodic table column. The force between two charges is given by Coulomb’s law.

In this expression, Q represents a charge, k represents a constant and r is the distance between the
charges. When r = 2, then r2= 4. When r = 3, then r2 = 9. When r = 4, then r2 = 16. It is readily
seen from these numbers that, as the distance between the charges increases, the force decreases
very rapidly. This is called an inverse square law.
Electronegativity order for some common elements.
F > O > Cl > N > Br > I > S > C > H > metals

## d. Ionic and Covalent Bonds

(Refer to videoclip – Introduction III)
There are many types of chemical bonds and forces that bind molecules together. The two most
basic types of bonds are characterized as either ionic or covalent. In ionic bonding, one of the
atoms transfers electron(s) to the other. Ionic bonds require at least one electron donor and one
electron acceptor. In contrast, atoms with the same electronegativity share electrons in covalent
bonds, because neither atom preferentially attracts or repels the shared electrons.
(i) Ionic bonding

In this example, the sodium atom is donating its 1 valence electron to the chlorine atom. This
creates a sodium cation and a chlorine anion. Notice that the net charge of the resulting compound
is 0.

Question 2. Comment on the nature of bonds present in a molecule of XY when you have these

## 1. The compound exists in the solid state

2. It has a very high melting point
3. Its aqueous solution makes an excellent electrolyte

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Question 3. Show the bonding of atoms in the case of zinc sulphide (ZnS).

## (ii) Covalent bonding

Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between atoms. This type of bonding occurs between
two atoms of the same element or of elements close to each other in the periodic table(having
similar electronegativities). This bonding occurs primarily between non-metallic atoms.

In this example, a single atom of carbon having a valency of four, shares its electrons mutually
with two other oxygen atoms. Note – here electrons are shared between atoms rather than the
complete transfer of electrons. Hence cations and anions are not formed. Also since no electrons
were gained or lost in the process of bonding, the net charge on the compound is 0.

Question 4. Show the bonding between the constituent atoms of methane (CH4).

## 2. What is an Acid and a Base

(Refer to Subtopic – What is an Acid and a Base)

a. Arrhenius Acids
(Refer to video clip –Acids)
In 1884, the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius proposed two specific classifications of
compounds, termed acids and bases. When dissolved in an aqueous solution, certain ions were
released into the solution. Consider the case of HCl.
HCl(aq)  H+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
In this reaction, hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissociates completely into hydrogen (H +) and chlorine
(Cl-) ions when dissolved in water, thereby releasing H+ ions into solution. Formation of the
hydronium ion equation:
HCl(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + Cl−(aq)

82

## What are Arrhenius acids?

Question 5. Pure water does not conduct electricity. Why does adding a few drops of an acid to the
pure water make it conducting ?

## The world’s strongest acid comes from the carborane superacid,

considered to be a million times stronger than concentrated sulphuric
acid.

b. Arrhenius Bases
(Refer to video clip - What is an Acid and a Base - Bases)
Let's zoom into a bar of soap to understand more about the chemical nature of bases.
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is an Arrhenius base that is often used to make soap. When the NaOH
goes into solution, the positively charged sodium ion breaks apart from the negatively charged
hydroxide ion.

Question 6. Write the chemical equation to represent the ionic dissociation of sodium hydroxide
(NaOH) in an aqueous medium.

83

## 3. Limitations to the Arrhenius Theory

The Arrhenius theory has many more limitations than the other theories. The theory suggests that
in order for a substance to release either H+ or OH- ions, it must contain that particular ion.
However, this does not explain the weak base ammonia (NH3), which in the presence of water,
releases hydroxide ions into solution, but does not contain OH- itself.
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq)  NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
NH3(aq) + H2O(aq)  NH4+(aq) + OH- (aq)
NH3(aq) + HCl(aq)  NH4Cl(aq)
In the sodium hydroxide case, hydrogen ions from the acid are reacting with hydroxide ions from
the sodium hydroxide - in line with the Arrhenius theory. However, in the ammonia case, there
are no hydroxide ions!

## 4. The Bronsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases

In 1923, chemists Johannes Nicolaus Bronsted and Thomas Martin Lowry independently
developed definitions of acids and bases based on the compounds' abilities to either donate or
accept protons (H+ ions). In this theory, acids are defined as proton donors; whereas bases are
defined as proton acceptors. A compound that acts as both a Bronsted-Lowry acid and base
together is called amphoteric. This took the Arrhenius definition one step further, as a substance
no longer needed to be composed of hydrogen (H+) or hydroxide (OH-) ions in order to be
classified as an acid or base.

Question 7. Will the compound NH3 acts as an acid or a base. Justify your answer in line with the
Bronsted-Lowry Theory.

In this theory an acid is a substance that can release a proton (like in the Arrhenius theory) and
a base is a substance that can accept a proton. A basic salt such as Na+F- generates OH- ions in
the water by taking protons from water itself (to make HF):

## F−(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ HF(aq) + OH−

When a Bronsted acid dissociates, it increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in the
solution, [H+]; conversely, Bronsted bases dissociate by taking a proton from the solvent (water)
to generate [OH−].

84

## X CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Question 8.Identify the following compounds/ions as acids or bases : Cl-, NH4+, HSO4- .

5. Reactions of Acids
(Refer to video clip – Acid Base Reactions)

Question9. Fill the boxes with complete and balanced chemical equations.

85

## X CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

6. Indicators
(Refer to video clip –What is an Acid and a Base? – Indicators)

Indicators are a class of substances which react differently in the presence of acids and bases. The
change by these compounds is usually consistent and reflects on the physical property of the
substance such as colour and smell. This consistent change in physical properties which is
distinctive for both acidic and basic medium makes these certain substances ideal for use as acid
and base indicators. Some of the common laboratory indicators are given below.

a. Litmus

## Litmus is a weak acid and is one of the oldest forms of a pH

indicator and is used to test materials for acidity.

## It has a complicated structure which we will simplify to

HLit. The "H" is the proton which can be given away to
Figure 1 - Chemical structure of 7- something else. The "Lit" is the rest of the weak acid
hydroxyphenoxazone, the chromophore of
molecule. There will be an equilibrium established when this
litmus components.
acid dissolves in water.

Litmus solution

b. Methyl orange

## Methyl orange is one of the indicators

commonly used in titrations. In an
alkaline solution, methyl orange is
yellow and the structure is:
Figure 2 – A molecule of the active compound in Methyl
Orange
c. Phenolphthalein

## Phenolphthalein is an organic compound used as a laboratory reagent

and pH indicator. Phenolphthalein exerts laxative effects by stimulating
the intestinal mucosa and constricting smooth muscles.
However, phenolphthalein is no longer used as a laxative due to the
suspected carcinogenicity of this compound.

## Question11. Fill the blank spaces in the following table:

Figure 3 - Chemical structure of
Phenolphthalein Test Colour in Acidic solution Colour in Basic solution
Methyl orange
Phenolphthalein

86

## Cochineal is an acid-base indicator made from the bodies of dried female

cochineal insects, found in Mexico and Central America. You'll have to grind
about 70,000 insects to make one pound of dry indicator. The powder is about
10% carminic acid, which is yellow in acidic solution, and deep violet in
alkaline solution.

7. Water
(Refer to Subtopic – Water)
Water, even pure water, has an amphiprotic nature. This means that a small amount of ions will
form in pure water. Some molecules of H2O will act as acids, each donating a proton to a
corresponding H2O molecule that acts as a base. Thus, the proton-donating molecule becomes a
hydroxide ion, OH-, while the proton-accepting molecule becomes a hydronium ion, H3O+.
Water molecules are amphiprotic and can function as both acids and bases. One water molecule
(acting as a base) can accept a hydrogen ion from a second one (acting as an acid). This will be
happening anywhere there is even a trace of water - it does not have to be pure.

## Water should be a gas at room temperature– all similar molecules, such

as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3), are gases. The strong
intermolecular forces of attraction holds them together as a liquid.

87

## X CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

8. pH
The pH of an aqueous solution is the measure of how acidic or basic it is. The pH of an aqueous
solution can be determined and calculated by using the concentration of ions in the solution.

a. Introduction
(Refer to video clip – What is an Acid and a Base? – pH)
The pH of an aqueous solution is based on
the pH scale which typically ranges from 0
to 14 in water. A pH of 7 is considered to be
neutral. A pH of less than 7 is considered
acidic. A pH of greater than 7 is then
considered basic. Acidic solutions have high
hydronium concentrations and lower
hydroxide concentrations. Basic solutions
have high hydroxide concentrations and
lower hydronium concentrations.

## b. Strong Acids and Strong Bases

The ionization of strong acids and strong
bases in dilute aqueous solutions essentially
go to completion. In aqueous solutions of
strong acids and strong bases, the self-
ionization of water only occurs to a small
extent. Since it only occurs to a small extent,
the self-ionization of water is an
insignificant source of hydronium and
hydroxide ions.

88

## c. Weak Acids and Weak Bases

Weak acids only partially dissociate in aqueous solutions and reach a condition of equilibrium,
therefore the degree of dissociation is given by the equilibrium equation for that acid in solution:
where -

##  [H3O+] is the hydronium concentration

 [A−] is conjugate base concentration
 [HA] is the weak acid concentration

Stronger the acid, higher will be its Ka value. Weak bases also only partially dissociate in
aqueous solutions and reach a condition of equilibrium.

##  Misconception : Strong acids are corrosive and dangerous whereas strong

bases are non corrosive and harmless.
 Clarification : Both strong acids and strong bases are dangerous and
corrosive. Bases like NaOH, KOH are very strong and can dissolve flesh.

Home Activity

## Red Cabbage Juice – A natural and home made indicator

We live in a world which is full of dangerous and corrosive acids and alkalis. How do we identify
them? As we have seen, acids and bases have the property of modifying the colour of certain
substances. This is the case with the juice of the red cabbage. This liquid has a blue-violet colour,
but when it comes in contact with acidic substances it becomes red, while in contact with basic
substances it becomes green and even yellow. Let's see how it is possible to use the juice of the
red cabbage to measure the pH of various substances.

Red cabbage is a member of the cabbage family which has a red-violet colour. Buy one of them
and cut it in little slices. Put them in a pot and pour enough water to cover them. Boil for half an
hour, then turn off the heat and let the temperature come down. Pour the blue-violet liquid you
have obtained into a large, low container. The boiled cabbage slices are edible and you can use
them in a recipe.

##  Use of the red cabbage juice as an indicator in the liquid state.

Pour some drops of this liquid on a white surface and observe it change colour when it is
mixed with vinegar or with baking soda. You will see that this liquid becomes red in contact
with vinegar or lemon juice, while it becomes green in contact with baking soda.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Pour one centimetre of the red cabbage juice indicator liquid into a transparent glass. Add
water up to half of the glass. Now, pour vinegar into the glass and observe the colour changes
of the liquid. Repeat the experiment by adding, this time, a little baking soda instead of the
vinegar. Also in this case, you will see colour changes.

##  Preparing red cabbage pH papers

Cut some porous white paper or card sheets into rectangles and soak them in the juice so they
absorb it. After about half an hour, remove the cards and put them away to dry. To do it
quicker, you can also dry them with a hairdryer. Cut the cards in strips. Put away the red
cabbage cards which are not used immediately: they will last some months. If you store them
in a closed envelope to reduce their oxidization, they will last longer.

Add the indicator strips to the given substances and note the colour produced –

## Substance Lemon Cola Vinegar Tap Dishwashing Baking Toothpaste Onion

juice water soap soda solution juice
Colour of
solution

## (Refer to Subtopic – Manufacture of Acids and Bases)

a. Acids

Non metal oxide with water ( complete the reactions to show the products formed )

SO2 + H2O 

CO2 + H2O 

b. Base

Metal oxide with water ( complete the reactions to show the products formed )

CaO + H2O 

## 10. Acids and Bases in Nature

As its name suggests, citric acid is found in citrus fruits—particularly lemons, limes, and
grapefruits. It is also used as a flavouring agent, preservative, and cleaning agent. As a

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

preservative, citric acid prevents metal ions from reacting with, and thus hastening the
degradation of fats in foods. It is also used in the production of hair rinses and low-pH shampoos
and toothpastes.

Question13. Name the acids found in the following natural chemical substances:

Ant stings -

Vinegar -

Curd -
There are plenty of acids found in the human body, including hydrochloric acid or stomach
acid—which, in large quantities, causes indigestion, and the need for neutralization with a base.
Nature also produces acids that are toxic to humans, such as sulphuric acid.

Bases, for instance magnesium sulphate, better known as Epsom salts, which provide a powerful
laxative also used for ridding the body of poisons.

Bases are also commonly used in toothpastes. Tooth decay starts when the pH of the mouth drops
lower than 5.5. To counter the acidic effect, a basic substance is added to toothpastes in order to
neutralize the harmful effect.

## Concentrated sodium hydroxide is as corrosive as strong acids like

hydrochloric acid and it will eat it’s way through an aluminium can in about 20
minutes.

11. Salts

## (Refer to Subtopic – Salts)

Salts are ionic compounds formed as a result of ionic attraction between a cation and an anion.
Since the force of attraction is very high, salts are always found in a solid crystalline state.

a. Neutralization

A salt is any compound which can be derived from the neutralization of an acid and a base. The
word "neutralization" is used because the acid and base properties of H+ and OH- are destroyed or
neutralized. In the reaction, H+ and OH- combine to form HOH or H2O or water molecules. A
neutralization is a type of double replacement reaction. A salt is the product of an acid-base
reaction and is a much broader term then common table salt.

91

## Question14. Complete the following neutralization reaction:

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ⇋

## c. Weak Acid - Weak Base Neutralization

A weak acid, weak base reaction can be shown by the net ionic equation example:

## H+(aq) + NH3(aq) ⇋ NH4+(aq)

The equivalence point of a neutralization reaction is when both the acid and the base in the
reaction have been completely consumed and neither of them are in excess. When a strong acid
neutralizes a weak base, the resulting solution's pH will be less than 7. When a strong base
neutralizes a weak acid, the resulting solution's pH will be greater than 7.

d. Baking Soda

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Question 15. What is the difference between baking soda and baking powder ?

## e. Soda – Acid Fire Extinguishers

A soda acid extinguisher acts by cutting off the supply of air on all types of fire, except fire
created because of electrical and inflammable liquids. How does this happen? This is done by
carbon dioxide that is produced when the acid reacts with baking soda in the extinguisher. Here's
the reaction that takes place :

## 2NaHCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) Na2SO4(ppt) + 2H2O(l) + 2CO2(g)

As you can see, carbon dioxide is produced in the above reaction. Also, you must be knowing that
CO2 gas does not support combustion and hence the fire is extinguished.

Question 16. Heating of water increases the energy of the molecules of water. This leads to an
increase in the dissociation of the molecules. Does this mean the pH of water has changed? Does
it mean that water becomes acidic or basic upon heating. Explain your answer briefly.

Question 17. What is water of crystallization ? What are it’s effects on the crystal of a particular salt ?

93

## X CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Question 18. What have you understood about acids and bases throughout the chapter?

95

## Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1. How would you define acids & bases in accordance with Arrhenius theory?
2. Give an example of a practical application of neutralization?
3. Use the concept of redox reactions to explain corrosion in the case of iron?
4. How do you classify acid as strong & weak acids?
5. Metallic oxides are basic in nature. Give reason
6. Does pH play an important role in normal functioning of human body? Justify your answer.
7. Why is sulphuric acid considered as dehydrating agent? Give an example.
8. Why is gypsum used in manufacture of cement?
9. How do you convert plaster of Paris to gypsum?
10. What is borax?Write the chemical formula.
11. A metal carbonate X on reacting with an acid gives a gas which when passed through a solution of
Y gives a carbonate back. On the other hand, a gas G that is obtained at anode during electrolysis
of brine is passed on dry Y, it gives a compound Z, used for disinfecting drinking water. Identify
X,Y,G and Z.
12. Which of these qualifies as a weak acid?
(a) Nitric acid (b) Acetic acid
(d) Sulphuric acid (d) Hydrochloric acid
13. The solution from the following options whose pH is above 7 is -
(a) vinegar (b) milk
(c) ammonia (d) dil.acetic acid
14. What is antacid? Why is it used?
15. Do acidic solutions have OH- ions? If yes, why are they called as acids?
16. Write the uses of Sodium carbonate.
17. Bleaching powder is produced by action of chlorine on -
(a) slaked lime (b) calcium carbonate
(c) sodium hydroxide (d) sodium hydrogen carbonate
18.Which of the given acids is not classified as a mineral acid. Give reasons.
Hydrochloric acid, citric acid, sulphuric acid and nitric acid
19. Why do farmers check the pH of their soil?
20.The strength of acid depends on the concentration of -
(a) HCO3- & H+ (b) H+ & OH-
-
(c) CO2 & OH (d) H+ & H2O

SOLUTION
12. (b) Acetic acid
13. (c) ammonia
17. (a) slaked lime
20. (b) H+ & OH-

97

## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction
(Refer to Subtopic - Introduction)
Remove all the metallic objects from the world. Whatever is left behind will have striking
similarities to the Stone Age.
Stone Age: Part of the early human timeline. Tools and weapons made up of rocks.
Some rocks contain rich deposits of minerals which lead to the study of properties of metals.
Eventually leading to use as weapons. Further study over the course of hundreds of years has
changed the surface of the Earth and drastically affected our lives.

## a. Physical Properties of Metals

(Refer to Subtopic - Physical Properties)

## Fill in the blanks wherever required -

 Metals have a shiny appearance; this property is known as ____________. Due to their shiny
appearance they can be used in jewellery and decorations. Particularly gold and silver are
widely used for jewellery.
 Metals are mostly hard and rigid. The hardness varies from one metal to another. Somemetals
like sodium, potassium and magnesium are easy to cut.
 Metals on being hammered can be beaten into thinner sheets. This property is called
____________. Gold and Silver metals are the most malleable metals. They can be hammered
into very fine sheets. A single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter.
 Wires are made from copper, aluminium, iron and magnesium. This property of metals which
allows them to be turned into thin wires is called ___________. Most metals are ductile.
Metals are also good conductors of electricity.
 Cooking utensils and water boilers are also made of iron, copper and aluminium, because they
are good conductors of _____________.
 Metals are predominantly sonorous. That is, they make a ringing sound when struck.
Therefore,they are used for making bells. Metal wires are used in musical instruments.
 All metals except mercury exist in the solid form at room temperature. Therefore, they retain
their shapes under normal room temperature conditions.
 Metals have high melting points.
 Metals have high tensile strength i.e. they can be stretched to some degree without breaking.

The physical properties of metals are macroscopic observations. To truly understand these
properties along with the chemical properties of metals, one needs to explore the metallic
world at the atomic level.

98

## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Question 1. State some of the exceptions that the following elements display with respect to the
properties of metals and non-metals.
Gallium -

Mercury -

Iodine -

## Did you know?

Of all the metals known to us, Tungsten has the highest melting
point of 3422°C whereas Mercury has the lowest melting point of -
38.83°C.Now you know why tungsten filaments are used in electric
bulbs.

## b. Metals in the Periodic Table

Metals fall into groups in the periodic table determined by similar arrangements of their
valence electrons and a consequent similarity in chemical properties. Groups of similar metals
include the alkali metals (Group 1 in the periodic table), the alkaline-earth metals (Group 2 in the
periodictable), and the rare-earth metals (the lanthanide and actinide series of Group 3). Most
metals other than the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals are called transition metals. The
oxidation states, or valence, of the metal ions vary from +1 for the alkali metals to as much as +7
for some transition metals.
The systematic distribution of electrons within an atom determines the chemical behaviour of the
substance whereas the bonding between the atoms of the metals themselves determines the
physical properties.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Question 2. What do you understand by valency? What are the valencies of Boron and Xenon?

## Ionization Energy - It is a measure of the amount of energy that needs to be supplied to an

isolated atom in its gaseous state in order to remove its outermost electron. Units of measurement
- kJ/mol.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Question 4. Why does Sodium(Na) have a higher ionization energy compared to Potassium(K)?

c. Metallic Bonding
In metallic bonds,
the valence electrons of the
interacting metal atoms delocalize.
That is to say, instead of orbiting
their respective metal atoms, they
form a "sea" of electrons that
surrounds the positively charged
atomic nuclei of the interacting
metal ions which are arranged in a
3-dimensional crystal structure.
Crystals are composed of three-
dimensional patterns. These
patterns consist of atoms or groups
of atoms in ordered and
Figure 2 - A Crystal Lattice symmetrical arrangements which
are repeated at regular intervals
keeping the same orientation to one another. By replacing each group of atoms by a
representative point a crystal lattice is obtained.
The electrons then move freely throughout the space between the atomic nuclei. This
constant sea of mobile and delocalized electron creates the effect of an electrostatic
glue between the atoms of the metal.
Metallic bonds are mediated by strong attractive forces. This property contributes to
the low volatility, high melting and boiling points, and high density of most metals.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Question 5.Use your knowledge of metallic bonding to explain the physical properties of metals such
as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and malleability.

## 2. Chemical Properties of Metals

(Refer to Subtopic - Chemical Properties)
Chemically, the metals differ from the non-metals in a way that they form positive ions and basic
oxides and hydroxides. Upon exposure to moist air, a great many undergo corrosion, i.e., enter
into a chemical reaction; e.g., iron rusts when exposed to moist air, the oxygen of the atmosphere
uniting with the metal to form the oxide of the metal.

## a. Reaction With Oxygen

(Refer to video clip - Chemical Properties - Reaction With Oxygen)
Most of the metals form respective metal oxides when reacted with oxygen.
Metal + Oxygen  Metal oxide
For example, when copper is heated in air, it combines with oxygen to form copper(II) oxide, a
black oxide.
2Cu + O2 → 2CuO
(Copper) (Copper (II) oxide)
Amphoteric oxides: Oxides which react with both acids and bases to give salt and water.

Al2O3 + 6HCl →
Al2O3 + 2NaOH →

## b. Metals React With Water

(Refer to video clip - Chemical Properties - Reaction With Water)
Metal + Water → Metal oxide + Hydrogen
Metal oxide + Water → Metal Hydroxide.
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) + heat energy

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Metal like Na, K catch fire when treated with cold water. This is due to the large amount of heat
produced during the reaction. The hydrogen gas evolved during the process catches fire due to
heat. Metals like Mg, Fe, Zn, Ca react only with steam to give corresponding oxide and H2 gas.

Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction between calcium and water –

## c. The Reactivity Series

On the basis of their ability to be oxidized, i.e., lose electrons, metals can be arranged in a list
called the reactivity series. Metals toward the beginning of the series, like potassium or sodium,
are more readily oxidized than those toward the end, like silver and gold.

## Figure 5 - The Metal Reactivity Series

NOTE:
(i) Na & K are highly reactive metals. They react with air so vigorously that they catch fire
when kept in open. So they are often stored in kerosene.
(ii) Metals like Al, Zn, Pb, Sn do not react with air at room temp due to formation of thin oxide
layer on their surface.
(iii) Silver and gold do not react with oxygen even at high temp.

## Of all the metallic elements known, the most reactive is Caesium

whereas the least reactive is Gold.

103

## d. Metals React With Acids

Metal + dil. Acid → Salt + H2 gas.
Note: - Only Mn& Mg give H2 gas when treated with dil. HNO3.

Question6. Complete the following equations to show the reaction between metals and strong acids -

i. Mg(s) + HCl(aq) 

## e. Reaction Between Metals and Non-Metals

Fill in the blanks wherever required -
 Reactivity of elements can be understood as a tendency to attain a completely filled valence
shell.
 Atom(s) can lose electrons from valence shells to form __________(+ve ions).
 Atom(s) gain electrons in valence shell to form __________(–ve ions).
 Oppositely charged ions attract each other and are held by strong electrostatic forces of
attraction forming ionic compounds.

3. Ionic Compounds
(Refer to Subtopic - The Why Questions)

## An ionic compound is a chemical compound in which ions are held together in a

structureby electrostatic forces termed ionic bonds.

## a. Properties of Ionic Compounds:

 Are solid and mostly brittle.
 Have high melting and boiling points. High energy is required to break the strong inter-ionic
attraction.
 Generally soluble in water and insoluble in kerosene, petrol.
 Conduct electricity in solution and in molten state. In both cases, free ions are formed and
conduct electricity.
Formation of MgCl2:
Mg → Mg2+ + 2e–
(2, 8, 2) (2, 8) Magnesium ion
Cl2 + 2e -
→ 2Cl-
(2, 8, 7) (2, 8, 8) Chloride ion

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Question 5. You have two unknown samples of compound - A & B. One of them is ionic compound
and one of them is covalent compound.

## a. B is an ionic compound (Since, it has a low melting point)

b. A is an ionic compound (Since, it has a crystal lattice)

Correct option -

Activity

Magic flames

Have you ever seen a blue flame? What about green or purple one? When you're expecting a regular
flame, these colourful changes can be an incredible surprise! What you may not know is these
spectacular colours result from the presence of specific elements. We're going to show you a couple
of materials that you can easily find in your chemistry laboratory which contain metals that are easily
identifiable during a Flame Test!

Materials
 Popsicle sticks
 Boric acid
 Potassium sulphate
 Copper(II) chloride
 Flame source
 Cup of water

Experiment
1. Dip the popsicle stick in water.
2. Dip the wetted popsicle stick into the boric acid.
3. Dim the lights and place the boric acid-covered popsicle stick into a flame. What color does
the flame produce? Write your observation in the table below.
4. Dip another popsicle stick in water.
5. Cover the wetted popsicle stick with potassium sulphate.
6. Again, dim the lights and place a copper(II) chloride covered popsicle stick into a flame.
What colour does the flame produce?

105

Observation

## How Does It Work?

The experiment that you just conducted is called a flame test. A flame test is a procedure used to
detect certain elements in a material. When you stuck the boric acid in the flame, you should have
notice a bright green flame. The green flame denotes the presence of the element Boron. Potassium
sulphate salt should have yielded a purple flame, the colour associated with the presence of potassium
and copper(II) chloride gives the flame a blue-green colour due to the presence of copper atoms.
These element-specific colours are a result of their emission spectrum. The emission spectrum of an
element is the colour emitted when an atom's electrons make a transition from a high energy state to a
low energy state.
Can you now explain the sorcery going on behind those fancy colourful fireworks which you do not
burn because the environment is of a bigger concern to you?

Colour of Flame

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

4. Metallurgy
(Refer to Subtopic - Extraction of Metals and Non-Metals)

We have understood in the covered subtopics, the chemical properties of metals. This knowledge
is used to isolate metals from their compounds that are commonly found in the crust of the Earth.
Metallurgy is the science of economically and profitably obtaining metals from ores.
What does one mean by the term “Ore”?

Minerals: Minerals are naturally-occurring inorganic substances with a definite and predictable
chemical composition and physical properties.
Define the following : Gangue, Flux and Slag:

## Figure 4 - Minerals Vs Ores

a. Introduction
(Refer to video clip - Extraction of Metals and Non-Metals - Introduction)
The metal reactivity series conveniently groups all metals into three neat groups -
i) Metals of low reactivity
ii) Metals of medium reactivity
iii) Metals of high reactivity

Depending upon the metal which is to be isolated from its ore, a defined set of steps is taken,
These steps have been used after a thorough study of chemical properties of the metal.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Question 6. What are the basic steps involved in the process of obtaining metal from its ore.

Enrichment of ore:
 It is done to remove earthy impurities like clay, sand etc. from an ore is called enrichment or
concentration of the ore.
 Ores which are mined often contain many impurities. These impurities are called gangue.
 Gravity separation, hydraulic washing, electromagnetic separation, froth flotation process,
etc. are some examples of the processes which are applied for concentration of ores.

## b. Extracting Metals of Low Reactivity

The metals low in the reactive series are very less reactive. The oxides of such metals can be
reduced to metals by heating alone e.g.

## 2HgS(s) + 3O2 heat

2HgO(s) heat

In this case mercury is a metal of low reactivity, hence it is weakly bounded to the sulphur atom.
Simple heating of the ore is sufficient to provide the energy required to break the bond.

## c. Extracting Metals of Medium Reactivity

(Refer to video clip -Extraction of Metals and Non-Metals - Metals of Medium Reactivity)
Metals like iron, zinc, lead etc. occur as sulphides or carbonates in nature. First the ore is
converted into its oxide form. This is done by either roasting or by calcination.

Roasting: Heating of sulphide ores in the presence of excess air to convert them into oxides is
known as roasting.
2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g) heat 2ZnO(s) + SO2(g)

Calcination: Heating of carbonate ores in the limited supply of air to convert them into oxides is
known as calcination.
ZnCO3(s) heat ZnO(s) + CO2(g)

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Question 7. What are the steps you will take in order to convert an ore of copper carbonate(CuCO 3)
into its oxide?

Question 8. How will isolate copper from the copper oxide obtained above? Mention all possible
processes.

## d. Extracting Metals of High Reactivity

(Refer to video clip - Extraction of Metals and Non-Metals - Metals of High Reactivity)
The metals high up in the activity series are very reactive. They cannot be obtained by reduction
of their oxides by carbon due to the strong ionic bonds. These metals are obtained by the
electrolysis of their molten chlorides.

Question 9. Draw and describe the setup to be used in order to extract sodium out of sodium
chloride(NaCl).

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

e. Refining of Metals
(Refer to video clip - Extraction of Metals and Non-Metals - Refining of Metals)
Impurities present in the obtained metal can be removed by electrolytic refining. Copper and
Aluminium are the common metals obtained using this method.
Consider the following example to understand the refining of copper.

##  Solution – aqueous solution of copper

sulphate with some dilute sulphuric acid.

##  On application of electric current, copper

ions from the anode are released in the
solution and equivalent amount of copper
from solution is deposited at cathode.
Impurities containing traces of silver and
gold get deposited at the bottom of anode Figure 5 - Electrolytic Refining
as anode mud.

5. Corrosion
(Refer to Subtopic - Corrosion)

Metals are attacked by substances in surroundings like moisture and acids.Corrosion is a process
through which metals in manufactured states return to their natural oxidation states. This process
is a reduction-oxidation reaction in which the metal is being oxidized by its surroundings, often
the oxygen in air. This reaction is both spontaneous(does not need the supply of external energy
for the reaction to take place) and electrochemically favoured.

a. Corrosion
(Refer to video clip - Corrosion)
Fill in the blanks for the following statements with respect to corrosion-

 Silver - it reacts with sulphur in air to form silver sulphide and articles develop a black
coating of this _________________.

 Copper - reacts with moist carbon dioxide in air and gains a green coat of ____________.

 Iron-acquires a coating of a brown flaky substance called rust(ferric oxide). Both air and
moisture are necessary for rusting of iron.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Metals and Non-metals

Question 10. Write the chemical reaction to show the rusting of iron.

b. Prevention of Corrosion
(Refer to video clip - Prevention of Corrosion)

##  Corrosion of iron is prevented by painting, oiling, greasing, galvanizing, electroplating,

anodising and making alloys. In short, cutting off the supply of oxygen to the metal surface.

 In galvanization, iron or steel is coated with a layer of zinc because zinc is preferably
oxidized to iron.

##  Misconception: Aluminium does not corrode easily because it has a low

reactivity.
 Clarification: Aluminium is moderately reactive hence a freshly made
aluminium object's surface oxidizes spontaneously creating a protective layer
of aluminium oxide which protects the metal from further corrosion.

111

## Fill in the blanks wherever required -

 Stainless steel is obtained by mixing iron with nickel and chromium. It is hard and doesn’t
rust.
 Mercury is added to other metals to make alloys which are commonly known as _________.
 Brass: alloy of ______ and ______.
 Bronze: alloy of copper and tin. In brass and bronze, melting point and electrical conductivity
is lower than that of pure metal.
 Solder: alloy of ________ and _______ has low melting point and is used for welding
electrical wires.

113

## Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1. Name a non metal which conducts electricity. Can you also explain how does it do so?
2. Why are alkali metals highly reactive in air?
3. Describe the importance of the knowledge of metallurgy for the human race and its evolution.
4. If you put one end of a rod of metal in the hot solution you can feel the heat at other end. What
does it mean? What is this property of metals called?
5. What property of metal makes useful as electrical wires? Explain this property in terms of the
atoms involved.
6. Why is tincture of iodine applied on wounds?
7. Why should food stuff with acid component not be stored in metallic containers?
8. Give reason for the following:
(i) Iron is used in constructing bridges & houses.
(ii) Iron sheets are galvanized before use.
9. Why is aluminium used in manufacture of airplanes and high performance cars?
10. Name a metal that is attacked by cold water, boiling water and steam.
11. What are coinage metals? What factor adds value to metals like gold and silver which make them
expensive?
12. Why do aluminium articles lose their shine soon after use.
13. Metals are hard to cut but one among the following metals can even be cut with a knife: Identify.
(a)Magnesium (b) Tungsten
(c) Potassium (d) Copper
14. What do you mean by ductility?
15. Why doesn’t copper displace iron from an iron sulphate solution?
16. Why do Gallium & Caesium melt when kept on the palm of your hand?
17. Which of the following metals is present in the anode mud during the electrolytic refining of
copper?
(a) Sodium (b) Aluminium
(c) Gold (d) Iron
18. During smelting, an additional substance is added which combines with impurities to form a
fusible product known as
(a) slag (b) mud
(c) gangue (d) flux
19. A greenish coating develops on copper utensils due to formation of
(a) CuCO3 (b) Cu(OH)2
(c) Cu(OH)2.CuCO3 (d) CuO

13. (c) Potassium
17. (c) Gold
18. (d) flux
19. (a) CuCO3

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction

## Question 1. What do you mean by being alive?

Living organisms exhibit certain characters which make them unique and
differentiate them from non-living things. It is a unique and complex organization of
molecules expressing it through chemical reactions, which lead to growth, development,
responsiveness, adaptation and reproduction. Cells are the basic structural and functional units
of life. Cells comprise of many organelles such as nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, etc. to
carry out different life functions.

Question 2. Are all the cellular components alive? Give reason in support of your answer.

The basic functions performed by a living organism to maintain their life on this earth are
called life processes. The basic processes common to all living being are : nutrition,
respiration, transport, excretion, control and coordination, growth, movement and
reproduction. We will discuss all these in detail as the class proceeds. Lets start with nutrition.

2. Introduction to Nutrition
The process of obtaining food and utilizing it is called nutrition. A nutrient can be defined as a
substance which an organism obtains from its surroundings and uses it as a source of energy or
for the biosynthesis of its body constituents. There are mainly two modes of nutrition –
autotrophic and heterotrophic.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

a. Autotrophic Nutrition
Autotrophic nutrition is that mode of nutrition in which an organism makes its own food from the
simple inorganic materials like carbon dioxide and water present in the surrounding. The green
plants have an autotrophic mode of nutrition. Autotrophic bacteria also obtain their food by
autotrophic mode of nutrition.

Photosynthesis
During photosynthesis light energy is converted into chemical energy and is stored in the form of
sugar. Light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and with the help of carbon dioxide, carbohydrate is
prepared. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO2 and
H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts. The total
energy fixed is around 1 % of the total energy available. The gaseous exchange in plants takes
place through tiny pores, present on the surface of leaves, called stomata.

## Question 3. Explain the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata.

Equation-
Sunlight
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
Chlorophyll
 Misconception: Release of oxygen during photosynthesis is due to break down
of CO2 molecule.
 Clarification: Photosynthesis splits hydrogen from water and uses it to
change carbon dioxide into a simple carbohydrate. The byproduct is oxygen,
which is released as gas. Some bacteria can preform the same thing using
hydrogen sulphide. Heat energy is used to drive this process. The byproduct is
pure sulfur and is probably the source of most of this mineral. It is thought
that the first forms of life on earth used geothermal energy to make
carbohydrates using hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. This process still
continues deep underground and at the bottom of the ocean around
hydrothermal vents.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Question 4. What is the purpose of using freshly prepared KOH in the experiment shown below?

## Figure 2: Experimental set-up (a) with KOH (b) without KOH

Question 5. How will you prove that chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis to take place?

b. Heterotrophic Nutrition
It is a mode of nutrition in which organisms obtain ready made organic food from external
source. The organisms that depend on external sources for obtaining organic nutrients are called
heterotrophs, (hetero or heteros meaning other and trophe meaning nourishment). It is a
characteristic feature of all animals and non green plants that are unable to utilize carbon and
synthesise organic compounds necessary for life; but depend upon organic sources of carbon.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

They are thus dependent upon autotrophic or other heterotrophic organisms and are called as
heterotrophs. Heterotrophic nutrition is of the following types.
(i) Saprophytic Nutrition
In this type of nutrition, an organism lives upon dead organic sources such as dead plants and
dead animals. These usually secrete dissolving and digesting enzymes and absorb the
liquidified molecules so formed e.g.; yeast, bread moulds and dung moulds etc.
(ii) Parasitic Nutrition
In this type of nutrition, an organism lives totally at the expense of others and derives its food
material and shelter from the other. These organisms which derive food material are called
parasites and the organism from which food is derived is called a host. This type of nutrition
is termed as parasitic nutrition. It is also known as parasite-host relationship e.g. Cuscuta,
Ascaris etc.
(iii) Holozoic Nutrition
It is a mode of heterotrophic nutrition which involves intake of solid pieces of food. Since solid
food is taken in, holozoic nutrition is also called ingestive nutrition. Holozoic nutrition (Holo-
Whole, Zoon-Animal) is found in animals and protozoan protists. The food may be composed
of another animal, plant or its parts. Depending upon the source of food, holozoic organisms
are of three types- Herbivores, Carnivores, Ominivores.

## (Refer Video: Introduction to Nutrition_Part I)

3. Nutrition in Animals

a. Nutrition in Amoeba

Amoeba is a unicellular animal, so it doesn’t have a mouth for ingestion of food. Amoeba ingests
the food by encircling it with the help of pseudopodia. When the food is completely encircled, the

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

food is engulfed in the form of a bag called food vacuole. Several digestive enzymes react on the
food present in the food vacuoles and break it down into simple and soluble molecules. The food
digested by digestive enzymes is then absorbed in the cytoplasm by the process of diffusion. The
food absorbed by the cytoplasm is used to obtain energy, growth and repair. Undigested food in
the food vacuole is thrown out of the body by exocytosis.

## b. Nutrition in Human Beings

Human beings have holozoic mode of nutrition. They take solid food in and this food is gradually
digested as it moves down the alimentary canal. The alimentary canal is basically a long tube
extending from the mouth to the anus. Various parts of alimentary canal are specialized to
perform different functions. Lets see this process in detail.

120

## (i) Buccal Cavity

The mouth is the first site of digestion. The role of the teeth, tongue and saliva is to break down
food into smaller particles which are more manageable to digest. Digestion begins at the mouth
itself. Smell and taste are senses intimately related to digestion. Taste and smell help us
distinguish food that is good to eat from poisonous and spoilt food. Moreover, these senses help
in signaling the brain about the arrival of food so that it can prepare the rest of the digestive

Question 9. Name the three types of papillae. Which two of these bear taste buds? What is the role of
the third type?

## Question 10. Why is smell important to our sense of flavor?

The intake of food is followed by breaking the food into small pieces by the process of chewing.
The chewing machinery of the human body includes the teeth, supporting muscles and saliva.
Humans have two sets of teeth- Milk teeth or deciduous teeth and permanent teeth. Humans along
with most of the mammals have different types of teeth.

121

## Type of teeth Function

(i) Incisors (a)Tearing
(ii) Canines (b)Grinding
(iii)Premolars (c)Chopping
(iv)Molars (d)Crush and chew

## Question 12. Label the parts of a teeth given below.

Question 13. “Digestion of food begins in the mouth” – Explain this statement by providing which
secretion and enzyme are responsible for digestion.

The next thing that food encounters in the mouth is saliva. Saliva is a viscous mixture of water
and electrolytes. It is slightly acidic with a pH of 6.8 and contains salivary amylase and lysozyme
(antibacterial) enzymes. Saliva along with the action of teeth aids in the formation of circular
masses of food particles called bolus which can then easily enter the oesophagus or food pipe.

Food then moves down the oesophagus by involuntary alternate contraction and relaxation of
muscles called the peristalsis movement.

122

## (ii) The Stomach

The stomach’s primary role is to break down food into even smaller chunks, destroy bacteria and
begin the process of chemical digestion. The stomach’s digestive enzymes help in breakdown of
food and provide an environment to help in that process. The stomach contains epithelial cells
that line its inner walls. These release gastric juices containing enzymes and hydrochloric acid as
well as mucus from structures called pits. The stomach is lined with smooth muscle aligned in
three levels to produce strong contractions that can mix the food with gastric juices. The enzymes
are secreted in an inactive state in the stomach.

HCl
Pepsinogen------------------> Pepsin
(Inactive) (Active)
Pepsin
Proteins----------------------> large peptides

## Did you know ?

A man with a hole in his stomach provided a window into digestion. In 1822,
a 19-year-old fur trapper named Alexis St. Martin got accidentally shot.
Army surgeon William Beaumont successfully patched up St. Martin, but he
was left with a hole in his stomach's abdominal wall, which is called a fistula.
The fistula allowed Beaumont to investigate the workings of
the stomach in entirely new ways.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Question 14. Why do you think is it necessary for the stomach to close its openings at both ends
during digestion? Can you name the muscles responsible for this?

Question 15. Why are protein digesting enzymes in the stomach released as inactive enzymes or
zymogens?

Question 16. Which enzyme is responsible for digestion of proteins? What kind of pH do you think
this enzyme needs? How does the stomach maintain this pH? What is another advantage of having
such a pH?

Question 17. Why do you think the acid in stomach does not digest the stomach itself?

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Question 18. The stomach is wired to the brain via the parasympathetic nervous system. Why do you
believe is it essential for the brain to communicate with the stomach even though digestion is
mostly an involuntary process?

## (iii) The Small Intestine

The small intestine is almost 10 feet long but only 1 inch thick. Its main function is to digest and
absorb nutrients. The structure of the intestine optimizes this function. The digestion in the small
intestine is aided by secretions of the pancreas and liver. The liver secretions are stored in the gall
bladder before being released into the small intestine. The small intestine’s internal surface is
covered by bumps known as villi. Each villus is in turn covered by bumps of epithelial cells
known as microvilli. Each villus has capillaries and lymphatic vessels to absorb nutrients into the
blood stream. The liver plays a role in packaging and segregating absorbed nutrients. It also
repurposes enzymes and gastric juices absorbed in the intestine.

## Did you know ?

Laundry detergents take cues from the digestive system: Laundry
detergents often contain several different classes of enzymes, including proteases,
amylases and lipases. The human digestive system also contains such enzymes.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Question 20. Proteins generally have definite shapes and sizes at particular conditions of pH and
temperature. Enzymes are also proteins. What do you think is the role their shape plays during
hydrolysis of fats, proteins and carbohydrates?

Question 21. Bile and pancreatic juices change the pH of the chyme in the duodenum. What change
occurs in the pH? Can you explain the requirement of changing the pH from the perspective of
enzyme requirements as we saw in the previous question?

Question 22. What are the two important roles that a villus performs for digestion? How do microvilli
help in these roles?

## (iv) The Large Intestine

The large intestine performs the final absorption of nutrients and water. Water is reabsorbed from
the chyme to make it more semisolid and easy to defecate. The chyme in the large intestine is

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

called the feces. The large intestine is home to a large number of bacteria that produce the
characteristic odour and colour of feces. The large intestine also stores the feces so that it can be
defecated at a single time.

## Did you know ?

Flatulence get its smell from bacteria. Intestinal gas, or flatus, is a combination of
swallowed air and the gases produced by the fermentation of bacteria in the
gastrointestinal tract. The digestive system cannot tract, and make their way into the
large intestine. Hordes of intestinal bacteria get to work, releasing a variety of gases
in the process, including carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane and hydrogen sulfide
(which gives flatulence its rotten-egg stench).

Question 23. Does the colon have any digestive role? What other role(s) does it play?

Question 24. Do you think the microorganisms in the colon have a role other than producing odour in
the feces?

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Question 26. Defecation is a combination of voluntary and involuntary processes. Which sphincters
are responsible for this?

(Refer video: Digestion and Excretion_ Small Intestine and Large Intestine)

4. Respiration in Animals

Question 27. The world record for holding breath under water is 22 minutes and 22 seconds. How
long you can hold your breath? Why can’t you hold your breath for a long time?

Respiration is necessary because it provides oxygen for the various cellular reactions. Glucose is
broken down using oxygen to release energy that can be used for cellular processes. Higher
carbon dioxide levels trigger the urge to breathe. The process of acquiring oxygen and expelling
carbon dioxide is known as respiration. The process of external respiration is also known as
breathing. Both respiratory and circulatory systems are essential for respiration.The circulatory
system is responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from cells.

Question 28. List out the differences between respiration and combustion.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Exchange of gases takes place by the movement of gaseous molecules from a region of its
higher concentration to a region of its lower concentration by the process of diffusion.
Nature exhibits great diversity with respect to the way in which exchange of gases take place in
different organisms.

## (a) Bacterium (i) Skin

(b) Earthworm (ii) Spiracles
(c) Insect (iii) Cell membrane
(d) Amphibians (iv) Gills
(e) Fishes (v) Lungs and skin

129

## (i) Nose and Nasal Cavity:

The nose and nasal cavity constitute the main external opening of the respiratory system. They
represent the entryway to the respiratory tract – a passage in the body through which air travels in
order to reach the lungs. Although the nose is typically credited as being the main external
breathing apparatus, its role is actually to provide support and protection to the nasal cavity.

Question 31. What is the significance of presence of mucus and hair in nasal cavity?

(ii) Pharynx
The pharynx is the next component of the respiratory tract, even though most people refer to it
simply as the throat. It resembles a funnel made out of muscles that acts as an intermediary
between the nasal cavity and the larynx and esophagus.

(iii) Larynx
The larynx is the next component, but represents only a small section of the respiratory tract that
connects the pharynx to the trachea. It is commonly referred to as the voice box, and it is located
near the anterior section of the neck.

(iv) Trachea
The trachea is a longer section of the respiratory tract, shaped like a tube and approximately 5
inches in length. It has several C-shaped cartilage rings which are lined with tracheal epithelium.

Question 32. What is the importance of rings of cartilage in trachea? Why it is C- shaped?

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

(v) Bronchi
The lower end of the trachea splits the respiratory tract into two branches that are named the
primary bronchi. These first run into each of the lungs before further branching off into smaller
bronchi. These secondary bronchi continue carrying the air to the lobes of the lungs, then further
split into tertiary bronchi. The tertiary bronchi then split into even smaller sections called
bronchioles that spread throughout the lungs.
(vi) Lungs
The lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and in most other air breathing
vertebrates.

## Question 33. List the importance of presence of lungs in our body.

b. Stages of Respiration
The process of respiration can be divided into three stages- External respiration, Internal
respiration and Cellular respiration. External respiration involves breathing and gaseous
exchange in lungs. Internal Respiration involves the transport of oxygen from the lungs to
different cells and the transportion of carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs.

## (i) External respiration

Breathing is the first step of respiration which includes inflow (inspiration) and outflow
(expiration) of air between atmosphere and the lungs.

Question 34. Fill up the blanks to complete the path that air travels in human respiratory system.

## Primary Bronchioles _____________________________  Tertiary Bronchioles

_________________

131

## Did you know ?

The lungs are the only organs that can float on water. Medical examiners use
the so-called "lung float test" during autopsies to determine if a baby was
stillborn (died in the womb). If the lungs float, the baby was born alive; if the
lungs don't float, the baby was stillborn.

## (Refer video: Respiration_Why do We Need Lungs?)

Alveoli

The main site for gaseous exchange in lungs is the alveoli. Alveoli are made up of single
celled epithelium and are covered with blood capillaries which are also made up of single
celled epithelium

## (ii) Mechanism of Breathing

The process of breathing involves the combined action of ribs, lungs, intercostal muscles
and diaphragm. It involves two stages-inhalation and exhalation. It utilizes the principle
of the movement of air from high pressure to low pressure.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Figure 6: Movement of intercostal muscles and diaphragm during inhalation and exhalation

Question 36. Write the events that takes place during inhalation and exhalation.

## (iii) Internal Respiration

Diffusion of gases from lungs into the blood stream is the process of internal respiration.
A higher concentration of oxygen in lungs enables hemoglobin in RBCs to bind to the oxygen to
be transported. At the cell sites, higher concentration of oxygen in blood causes it to diffuse into
cells. Similarly, a high concentration of carbon dioxide in cells causes it to diffuse into the blood.
Most of the carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonates in blood plasma. A small portion
(~20%) can bind directly to hemoglobin.

133

## (iv) Cellular Respiration

As the name suggests cellular respiration takes place in all living cells to generate energy for
cellular functions.

## C6H12O6 + ________ ------------------------------> _________ + H2O + ATP

The above equation represents cellular respiration and its main goal is to release energy in the
form of ATP.

ATP is a high energy molecule with three phosphate groups. Three phosphates together are
highly unstable. Breaking of these bonds provides us with the desired energy. In this process ATP
is converted to ADP. Cellular respiration includes three steps- Glycolysis, Krebs cycle and
Electron transport chain.

Glycolysis comprises a series of chemical reactions, each involving a different enzyme. The main
objective of glycolysis is to convert glucose which is a six carbon compound to a three carbon
compound called pyruvate.

## Equation representing Glycolysis:

Glycolysis
C6H12O6 --------------------------------> 2 ____________ + 2_________ + 2 ____________

NADH is another energy rich molecule. In later stages ATP is harvested from it.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Question 37. Name the two types of respirations existing in living forms with respect to the
requirement of oxygen.

## (Refer video: Respiration_Kinds of Respiration)

If oxygen is abundantly available in the cell, pyruvate will go through multiple steps of enzyme
activity during the Krebs cycle. During Krebs cycle 2ATP, 8NADH and 2 FADH2 are released.

Question 38. What are the three different ways by which glucose is broken down in living world?

## (Refer video: Respiration_Cellular respiration)

Electron transport chain - Oxygen’s high affinity for electrons is exploited in this stage for
energy generation. NADH and FADH2 donate their high energy electrons which are in turn
accepted by oxygen. This creates an electron imbalance between the mitochondrial membranes
leading to the generation of ATP by the action of the enzyme, ATP synthase.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Question 39. Calculate the total ATP generated by complete break down of 1 glucose molecule.

Kreb’s cycle =

Glycolysis =

Total =

## 5. Gaseous exchange in plants

Process involved in gaseous exchange in plants is diffusion. Direction of diffusion depends on-

## (ii) Requirement of the plant

Day time- Carbon dioxide given out during respiration by most animals is used for
photosynthesis. Therefore, only oxygen is released; which is a major activity during the day.
During night time only respiration takes place. Therefore only carbon dioxide is released during
the night. We have already discussed the role of stomata in gaseous exchange in plants while
discussing photosynthesis.

Question 40. Stomata is absent in roots and stems of woody plants then how gaseous exchange takes
place in this part of plants?

136

## 6. Introduction to Circulatory system

It is the system which carries out the transportation of various substances throughout the body.
The transportation of nutrients, carbon dioxide, oxygen, enzymes, hormones and waste products is
carried out by two major fluids in our body – blood and lymph. Blood is basically a connective
tissues made up of the liquid component i.e. plasma with various cells suspended in it. Ley us
now discuss about the various components of the circulatory system in humans.

a. Blood vessels
Unlike lower creatures which have open circulatory system, we humans have a well defined
network of closed channels for carrying the blood around. These channels are called blood
vessels. We basically have five different types of blood vessels that are as follows.

(i) Arteries
These vessels carry blood away from the heart to the lungs and rest of the body. All the arteries
carry oxygenated blood except the one carrying blood to the lungs. They have thick elastic
wall and carry blood under high pressure.
(ii) Arterioles
The arteries break down to smaller vessels called arterioles. They also help in regulation of blood
flow.
(iii) Capillaries
The arterioles further branch to form capillaries which are the narrowest vessels. They help in the
exchange of gases as diffusion is easy through their thin membrane.
(iv) Venules
The capillaries then lead to comparatively thicker vessels called the venules. These are almost as
narrow as the arterioles but have comparatively thinner walls.
(v) Veins
The venules join to form veins.These are the vessels which carry blood into the heart. All the
veins carry deoxygenated blood except the on which carries blood from the lungs to the heart.
They have walls thinner than arteries and have valves.

Question 41. Identify the parts labeled A, B, C, D and E in the given diagram.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Question 42. Can you guess why capillary walls are only one cell thick? Why do you think there are
pores in capillary walls?

##  Misconception: Arteries are usually defined as vessels which carry oxygenated

blood and veins are usually defined as vessels which carry deoxygenated
blood.
 Clarification: Arteries are the vessels which carry blood away from the heart
and veins are the vessels which carry blood to the heart. Most of the arteries
carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary artery, which carried deoxygenated
blood from the heart to the lungs. Similarly, most of the veins carry
deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood
from the lungs to the heart.

## (Refer video: Circulation_Arteries, Veins and Cappillaries I)

Question 43. Why do you think arteries have thicker walls than veins?

Question 44. When you get hurt, the area around the wound begins to turn red. Similarly, when you
blush, the skin appears to turn red. Can you explain how the structure of arteries facilitates this?

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

Question 45. Varicose veins occur when veins are unable to prevent backward flow of blood in places
where high blood pressure occurs such as in the feet. This causes swelling of the veins and can be
very painful. Malfunctioning of which structural part of the veins lead to this condition?

## (Refer video: Circulation_Arteries, Veins and Cappillaries II)

b. Heart
It is the pumping organ of the body which is located in the thoracic region between the lungs with
its tip slightly tilted towards the left. We human beings have a four chambered heart which is
important for avoiding the mixing up of oxygenated blood with deoxygenated blood. Our heart
consists of two atria and two ventricles. The atria form the upper chambers and the ventricles
form the lower chambers.

The oxygenated blood from the lungs are brought to the left atrium by the pulmonary vein. The
atrium relaxes as it receives the blood from the pulmonary vein. Once the left atrium is filled, the
left atrio-ventricular valve opens and the blood goes to the left ventricle. During this step, the
atrium conracts and the ventricle relaxes. As soon as the blood is transferred, the atrio-ventricular
valve closes and the semilunar valve opens and the left ventricle contracts to send the blood into
the aorta which then delivers the oxygenated blood to rest of the body.

Meanwhile, the deoxygenated blood from all over the body is brought into the right atrium of the
heart by the vena cava. The superior vena cava brings blood from the upper part of the body and
the inferior vena cava brings in blood from the lower part of the body. The right atrium relaxes to
receive all this blood. The right atrio-ventricular valve then opens, the right atrium contracts and
blood is pushed into the right ventricle in this process. The right ventricle relaxes to receive the
blood. It then contracts and the semilunar valve opens sending the blood to the pulmonary artery
which takes the blood to the lungs for gaseous exchange.

Since, pushing the blood to all over the body and into the lungs needs more pressure, the
ventricles have thicker wall compared to atria. In this entire process, the blood enters the heart
twice. Thus, this kind of circulation is called double circulation. We have two kinds of circulation
– Pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation.

139

## Did you know?

Our heart pumps about 5000 litres of
Blood in an hour and we have
Just 5 litres of blood in our body

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

c. Lymphatic System

This is another system of transportation present in our body which consists of lymph, lymph
vessels, lymphatic capillaries and lymph nodes. Lymph is a colourless fluid formed by escape
of plasma, some proteins and cells from the pores present in blood vessels. They get into the
intercellular spaces and form the tissue fluid. Like the blood vessels, the lymphatic capillaries
join to form lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic system is required to perform a number of
functions in the body such as - Collection of intercellular fluid through the lymph vessels and
return it to blood circulation. The lymph vessels present in villi of small intestine absorb
lipids and take them to blood circulation. Lymphatic system also plays a vital role in
providing immunity.

7. Transportation in Plants
Plants require a transportation system to transport the components required for photosysthesis to
the specified site; also to carry the food produced to different parts of the plant. However, due to
the low energy requirement of plants as compared to humans, they have a slower transportation
system.

a. Transport of water
Plants take up water from the soil through roots. The water taken is required by plants to carry
out photosysthesis. It thus has to be transported to the site of photosynthesis. This target is
achieved by xylem. It forms the water conducting system for plants. There are two drivng
forces which together contribute to the conduction of water. The first one is difference in
ionic concentration between the root and soil and the second is transpiration, that is the loss
of water in the form of water vapour from the aerial parts of the plant. This causes a
transpirational pull in the water column.

## b. Transport of food and other substances

Leaves are the site of photosynthesis. The products thus formed by photosynthesis need to be
carried to various parts of the plant. This is achieved by the vascular tissues known as phloem.

Question 47. Transpiration happens in the daytime. How do you think plants conduct water in the
night time?

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

8. Excretion in Humans
During the various life processes carried out in our body as we discussed so far, a number of
waste products are generated. The removal of these metabolic wastes from the system is known as
excretion. Humans have a specialized excretory system to carry out excretion.

The human excretory system is made up of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder
and a urethra. Various nitrogenous wastes like urea or uric acid are removed from the blood in
kidneys.

## (Refer video: Circulation_Excretion)

Nephrons form the basic unit of filtration in kidneys. Kidneys eliminate the nitrogenous waste
from the body in the form of urine. The urine formed in the kidneys undergoes various levels of
filtration as it passes through the nephron. Various useful substances like glucose, amino acids
and salts are absorbed from the urine by the tubes in nephrons . The urine thus formed at the end
is passed on to the ureters and then stored in the urinary bladder until the bladder is full and we
get the urge to urinate.

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## Fig 9. Structure of Nephron

Question 49. Why does the urine sometimes turn more concentrated and sometimes too much
dilute?

## Did you know?

In a single hour, kidneys receive around
120 pints of blood

In the case of kidney failure, one of the solution can be replacing the defected kidney with an
artificial kidney, also known as hemodialysis. In this process, a device is set up to remove the
nitrogenous waste products from the blood through dialysis.

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

9. Excretion in plants

Plants excrete their waste matter in a manner different from animals. Excretion in plants depends
upon the type of plant. Some of the methods of excretion are - Gums, resins, rubber and latex are
exuded from various parts of the plant body. Crystals of certain chemical substances are stored in
the plant body, e.g. calcium oxalate crystals in the leaf of colocasia, calcium carbonate crystals in
the leaf of fig, etc. Some deciduous plants get rid of excretory matter when the leaves fall. In the
bark and wood part of the trunk, tannin is stored. This makes the wood appear dark. Some plants
will actively secrete wastes into the soil. Oxygen can be looked upon as a waste product of
photosynthesis and carbon dioxide a waste product of respiration; water is a waste product of
both. Water will be lost through transpiration.

150

## 1. Choose the incorrect statement:

A. Pressure of blood in arteries is generally more than that in veins.
B. Arteries always carry deoxygenated blood.
C. Wall of arteries are thicker than wall of veins.
D. Arteries carry blood away from heart.
2. An organ that is expected to float in water is:
A. Heart C. Lungs
B. Liver D. Kidney
3. A leaf has to be tested for the presence of starch. Why does it have to be boiled in alcohol?
A. To soften its tissue. C. To dissolve chlorophyll.
B. To make the leaf starch free. D. To dissolve iodine.
4. Which of the following statement is correct regarding breathing?
A. We inhale only oxygen.
B. We exhale only carbon dioxide.
C. Breathing is also called cellular respiration.
D. Inhalation and exhalation are two steps in breathing.
5. The physical process involved in dialysis is:
A. Diffusion C. Plasmolysis
B. Osmosis D. Crenation
6. How does the rate of breathing get affected for athletes while running?
7. If you compare your rate of breathing by feeling your chest movement with the number of times a
fish opens and closes its mouth. Which will be higher and why?
8. In the process of photosynthesis, food A is prepared which gets converted into food B. What are
A and B? Why is A converted to B?
9. While eating you are advised not to talk. Why are you advised to do so?
10. How does respiration in plants differ from that in animals?
11. Chloroplasts are called energy converters. Explain.
12. Why is the rate of breathing much faster in aquatic organisms than those in terrestrial organisms?
13. Autotrophs synthesize food for the living world. Justify this statement in one sentence only by
interconnecting autotrophs and heterotrophs.
14. Name the areas in a woody stem through which respiratory exchange of gases take place.
15. A certain tissue in a green plant somehow got blocked and the leaves wilted. Which was the tissue
that got blocked?
16. Write one feature which is common to each of the following pairs of the term/organs.
(a) Glycogen and starch (c) Gills and lungs
(b) Chlorophyll and hemoglobin (d) Arteries and veins
17. Why don’t lungs collapse even after forceful expiration?
18. The two openings of the pharynx, one leading to trachea the other leading to oesophagus, lie very
close to each other. Yet, food we swallow normally does not enter into our trachea. Why?
19. How would it affect the digestion of proteins and carbohydrates in the duodenum of a man if there
is a blockade in the pancreatic duct?
20. Why is the process of diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirement of human beings?

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## X CBSE Biology – Life Processes

SOLUTION
1. B
2. C
3. C
4. D
5. A
7. Hint – How the process of respiration differs in different organisms.
19. Hint – Think of the functions of pancreatic juice.
20. Hint – Recall the different steps involved in the process of respiration.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction:

In our previous chapters we have learnt about various life processes necessary for being alive. All
these processes are interdependent but have you ever wondered that how the various systems in
our body communicate with each other? Your heart starts beating fast when you are scared but
who tells the heart that you are scared? Who tells the lungs that your body needs more oxygen
which increases the breathing rate?

The working together of various organs of the body of an organism in a proper manner to produce
appropriate reaction to a stimulus is called coordination. But the nervous system alone cannot do
all the control and coordination in complex animals hence the nervous system, in coordination
with the endocrine system communicates, integrates and coordinates with the various organs and
organ systems in the body.The nervous system
The nervous system is composed of specialized tissues; called nervous tissue. The nerve cell or
neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. Neuron is a highly specialized cell which is
responsible for transmission of nerve impulses. A nerve and a neuron can be differentiated as
follows:
Neuron: The specialized cell, which constitutes the nervous tissue, is called neuron.
Nerve: A bundle of axons enclosed in a tubular sheath is called nerve.

a. Structure of Neuron:
As you have seen in the video, that structure of neuron can be compared with the structure of a
tree. A typical neuron in a vertebrate (such as a human) consists of three major regions: a cell
body, dendrites and an axon. Like all cells, the entire neuron is surrounded by a cell membrane.

What functions do you think the three major regions of a neuron serve?

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

Axons generally divide and re-divide near their ends to form the axon terminals. The distal ends of
axon terminals are expanded into bulb – like structures which store chemicals called
neurotransmitters. These are responsible for passing the impulse from one neuron to another or from
one neuron to another tissue.

## Did you know?

Longest axon of a neuron is around 15 feet
(Giraffe’s primary afferent axon from toe to neck)

Question 1. Label the different parts of the neuron shown in the figure given below.

Question 2. If you cut your skin, it can regenerate, but after a stroke or brain injury, you can't replace
neurons. Why is it so? What might be the evolutionary significance of this?

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

Question 3. In which of the following neuron will the impulse transmission be faster – Myelinated or
non-myelinated? Why?

Question 4. The human body contains a large number of cells A which are very long and branched.
The longest branch of this cell is B whereas there are many small branches C. Any two A cells do
not join with one another completely in the human body. There is a microscopic gap, D between
every pair of adjacent A cells through which the impulses can pass.

## a. What are cells A?

b. Name the branches B and C.
c. What is the microscopic gap D known as?

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

Neurons are connected end to end with each other to transmit the nerve impulses. The junction
between two neurons or a neuron and a muscle fibre is called synapse. The points where neurons are
connected with the muscles are also called neuro – muscular junction.

## Figure 1: Neuronal Synapse Figure 2: Neuro-muscular Junction

b. Types of neurons:
There are three types of neurons.
i. The first type is afferent or sensory neurons. These neurons receive signals from a sense
organ. There are five sense organs in our body: eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin. These sense
organs contain receptors. A receptor is a cell (or group of cells) in a sense organ which is
sensitive to a particular type of stimulus.
ii. The second type is the efferent or motor neurons. These neurons send signals to a muscle or a
gland that are also known as the effector organs.
iii. The third type of neuron is the association neuron. These neurons relay the signals between
sensory neuron and motor neuron.

## Question 5. Match the following:

Sense organ Type of receptor Function
I. Eye a. Gustatory i. Detects sound

cold

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## Did you know ?

In some animals, a particular sense develops more.
For example, in dogs the sense of smell is very much developed
that’s why they are used by detectives to solve criminal cases.

c. Working of neurons:
Working of a neuron can be understood by analyzing the situations in the battlefield. Direct
actions on the battlefield are relayed by military officers to those in the position of command. For
example, the squad leaders are like the neurons that are able to effectively convey to those higher
what is happening, just as the neuron is able to interpret signals, sending them to the spinal cord
and brain. The squad leaders transmit information in a similar way as the neurons send
information to the central nervous system for processing. The squad leader on the ground in war
becomes an analog for the neuron.

## Did you know ?

Nerve impulses travel to and from the brain at the
speed of about 274 kilometers per hour. Information travels
at different speeds within different types of neurons.

## 2. Components of Nervous System:

The nervous system can be studied under two subdivisions: one is the central nervous system and
the other is the peripheral nervous system.

## a. Central Nervous System (CNS):

The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain controls all
the functions in the human body. The spinal cord works as the relay channel for signals between
the brain and the peripheral nervous system.

i. The Brain:
The role of brain is like the CPU of a computer. CPU takes the input, processes it and then the
output is displayed on the screen. Similarly, brain gets input from various nerves, processes it and
then sends the signal back to effector organs to work accordingly. Brain is protected by
membranous layers called meninges and it is housed inside a protective cover called the skull. It
is also bathed in a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that acts as a shock absorber. The brain

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

is divided into two hemispheres; left and right hemisphere that coordinate with each other for
proper functioning of the body.

## Question 6. Fill up the blanks with suitable word.

A. ____________________

B. ____________________

C. ____________________

D. ____________________

E. ____________________

## (Refer video : Coordination in Animals_The brain)

Brain can be divided into three parts. The first part is __________ or the cerebrum. It is the main
thinking part of brain. It controls the voluntary actions and stores information in the form of
memory. The second part is the ___________; it includes the hypothalamus and the pituitary
gland that are majorly responsible for the chemical coordination in humans. The third part is the
__________; it includes the cerebellum, medulla oblongata and pons. Cerebellum controls
posture and balance of the body. Medulla is responsible for involuntary actions such as blood
pressure, salivation, vomiting, etc. Pons regulates respiration which is an involuntary action.

## Did you know ?

but uses 20% of the oxygen and energy. It means brain needs a lot of
oxygen for proper functioning. So, practise breathing exercises regularly.

159

## Question 7. Label the parts of the brain.

A. __________________________

B. __________________________

C. __________________________

D. __________________________

E. __________________________

F. __________________________

G. __________________________

H. __________________________

Question 8. Try to tickle yourself. Are you able to do it? Give reason for your experience.

Question 9. Identify the part of your brain that controls the following actions:
Imagination, maintaining body posture, thoughts, digestion, sight, touch smell, heartbeat, hearing,
breathing, learning cycling
Cerebrum Cerebellum Medulla Pons

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

Question 10. The brain itself cannot feel pain because the brain does not have pain receptors. Then
how do you feel the pain when someone hits you on your head?

## Did you know ?

Human brain can store 5 times as much information as the
Encyclopedia Britannica. Storage capacity of the brain in electronic
terms is 3 to 1,000 terabytes (1 terabyte= 1000 gigabytes).

## ii. Spinal Cord:

It is the extension of brain. It is protected within vertebral column. Spinal cord is responsible
majorly for controlling ________________. Reflex action is spontaneous, involuntary and
automatic response to a stimulus to protect us from harmful situations. Before we move ahead
with reflexes, let us understand the meaning of stimulus and response.

## Contraction of pupil when a beam of bright light Contraction of pupil

falls on eyes ____________

## Moving the feet away when we step on Pain caused due to

something sharp. the sharp object __________________

Question 11.Based on the description given in the table above, define stimulus and response.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

Spinal reflex: The reflexes that involve spinal cord are called spinal reflexes. Like the removal of
hand when we touch a hot flame. This can be understood by the diagram given below.

##  Misconception: Only spinal cord controls all the reflexes.

 Clarification: The reflexes that involve the brain are called cerebral reflexes.
Cerebral reflexes occur in the organs present in the head because these organs
are directly connected to the brain. For example – our eyes are present in the
head. The automatic contraction of pupil of our eye in presence of bright light
is an example of cerebral reflex.

## Did you know ?

The most sensitive cluster of nerves
is at the base of the spine.

## b. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):

The peripheral nervous system is composed of all nerves of our body like the cranial nerves and
spinal nerves. The cranial nerves emerge from the ________ and go to the organs in the head
region. The spinal nerves emerge from the _________ and go to the organs which are below the
PNS is divided into somatic nervous system and autonomous nervous system.
i. Somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal
muscle and controls voluntary body movements such as eating, dancing, walking, etc.
ii. Autonomous nervous system is composed of a chain of nerve ganglion which runs along the
spinal cord. It controls all the involuntary actions of the human body. The autonomous
nervous system has two divisions; sympathetic and parasympathetic division.
_____________nervous system prepares the body for violent action against abnormal
conditions. Just like, when a dog chases you. ________________ nervous system is more
concerned with re-establishing normal conditions after the violent act is over. Just like, when
you feel safe from the dog that was chasing you; your heart beat and breathing comes back to
normal rate. Both these systems are antagonistic with each other.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

Question 11. Based on the discussion for sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, write
the impact of sympathetic nervous system on different organs within the space provided.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

4. Movements in Plants

Question 13. Since plants do not have a nervous system they do not show any kind of coordination.
Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?

Unlike animals, plants do not have nervous system and sense organs like eyes, ears, or nose, etc.,
but they can still sense things. This job of sensing and responding is taken by hormones in plant
which are called phytohormones. But before we discuss about the phytohormones, let us study the
different movements in the plants. Plants show different kind of movements towards various
stimuli. There are two types of movements seen in plants – Nastic movement and Tropic
movement.

a. Nastic Movement
The movements which do not depend on the direction of the stimulus are called nastic
movements. For example - folding of leaves of a sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) on touching
it. Here stimulus is touch. Hence this type of movement is called thigmonastic movement.

## Figure 4: Folding of leaves of Mimosa pudica on touching them

Question 14. Explain the mechanism of folding of leaves of Mimosa pudica in response to touch.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

Similarly, the opening up of petals of dandelion flowers in the morning in bright light and closing
in the evening when the light fades is another example of nastic movement. Here, the stimulus is
light so it is called photonastic movement.

b. Tropic Movement
The movements which are in a particular direction in relation to the stimulus are called tropic
movements. If the movement is towards the direction of stimulus it is called positive tropism and
if the movement is away from the direction of stimulus it is called negative tropism.

Question 15. Given below are different types of tropisms seen in plants. You have to identify which is
positive tropism and which one is negative tropism and then try to define them. One example is

## (i) Phototropic movement: This is response of plants towards light.

Positive phototropism: If the plant part moves towards the light it is called positive phototropism.
Negative phototropism: If the plant part moves away from the light it is called negative
phototropism.
(ii) Geotropic movement: This is response of plants to gravity.

Positive geotropism:

Negative geotropism:

165

## (iii) Hydrotropic movement: This is response of plants to water.

Positive hydrotropism:

Negative hydrotropism:

##  Misconception: Shoots are only positively phototropic.

 Clarification: Shoot tips of some vines, such as English ivy, are negatively
phototropic. If vine shoot tips were positively phototropic, they would grow
away from walls or tree trunks, rather than climb them.

Similarly, there are two more tropisms; they are thigmotropism and chemotropism.

(iv) Thigmotropism: This movement of plant part is in response to touch. For example, the tendrils
are positively thigmotropic which means that they grow towards things they happen to touch
as you can see in the given figure.

## Figure 5: Folding of tendril around a support

Roots also rely on touch to navigate their way through the soil. Generally, roots have a negative
touch response, meaning when they feel an object, they would grow away from the object. This
allows the roots to go through the soil with minimum resistance by avoiding obstacles on their
way of growth. In this case it is negative thigmotropism.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

(v) Chemotropism: The growth or movement of a plant or plant part in response to a chemical
stimulus is called chemotropism. You will understand chemotropism better once you answer
this question.

Question 16. The top part A of the flask shaped reproductive organ X in the flower of a plant secretes
a sugary substance into its lower part B. This substance goes towards the bottom part C of the
flask shaped organ. When a tiny grain D coming from the top part E of another reproductive
organ Y in the flower falls on part A , it grows a long tube F through the organ X in response to
the sugary substance and reaches the bottom part C of flask shaped organ to carry out fertilization.

## a. What is organ X and organ Y inside the flower?

b. Name parts A ,B and C of flask shaped organ.
c. Name grain D and part E of organ Y.
d. Name the tube F.

Question 17. Breifly discuss about the significance of the following movements for the plant.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

5. Hormonal Control in Plants
Now that you know about the various movements in plants, let’s go into deeper details of the
topic. The next point of discussion is plant hormones. The plant hormones coordinate the
activities of plant by controlling one or the other aspect of growth of the plant. Cell division, cell
enlargement, cell differentiation, promotion of dormancy, breaking of dormancy, stomatal
control, falling of leaves, fruit growth, ripening of fruit, etc., are controlled by the various plant
hormones. The major types of plant hormones are auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid
and ethylene. Let’s discuss them one by one:

a. Auxins
Auxins promote cell enlargement and cell differentiation in plants. It also promotes fruit growth.
It controls a plant’s response to light and gravity. They are produced by cells at the tip of stem and
roots.

Question 18. Auxins are responsible for growth of shoot towards light. Explain this with the help of a
diagram.

Question 19. How do auxins promote the growth of a tendril around a support?

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

b. Cytokinin

Cytokinin promotes cell division and lateral growth in plants. It helps in breaking of the dormancy
of seeds and buds. It delays the ageing in leaves. It promotes fruit growth. It is found in areas of
rapid cell division such as seeds and fruits.

c. Gibberellins

Gibberellins work along with auxin for the growth of plants. It also helps in breaking of the
dormancy in seeds and buds. It is responsible for production of seedless fruit.

d. Abscisic acid

Abscisic acid promotes the dormancy in seeds and buds. It promotes the closing of stomata. It
promotes the wilting and falling of leaves.

e. Ethylene

## Ethylene is a gas responsible for fruit ripening.

Question 20. If a ripe apple is kept in a basket with unripe apples it causes the ripening of all unripe
ones. How?

## (Refer video: coordination in plants_Main hormones in plants)

6. Hormones in Animals
Remember in the beginning of lecture I, we discussed that in addition to nervous system, the
endocrine system also helps in coordinating the activities of our body. Endocrine system works by
secreting various hormones in the blood. Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted
directly into the blood, which then carries them to target organs and tissues of the body to exert
their functions. There are different hormones that act on different aspects of bodily functions and
processes.

169

## Endocrine System Nervous System

The endocrine glands present in the human body are: Pineal gland, Hypothalamus, Pituitary
gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Thymus, Pancreas, Adrenal glands, Testes (only in
males) and Ovaries (only in females). The location of these glands is shown in the figure given
below.

## (Refer video: Hormones in Animals_ Hormones in Animals)

You will study the details of each gland in your higher grades. Here we will restrict our discussion
to some important glands only.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

a. Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the
____________, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. Pituitary is called the _________ as it
produces hormones that control other glands.

One of the main hormones produced by pituitary is the __________hormone. This hormone is
responsible for growth of the body. Excessive secretion of growth hormone causes gigantism
and lack of growth hormone in a developing child causes dwarfism.

## Figure 7: World’s tallest man Sultan Kösen and

World’s shortest man Chandra Bahadur Dangi

## (Refer video: Hormones in Animals_Pituitary Gland)

b. Thyroid Gland

A large ductless butterfly shaped gland in the neck. It secretes hormones which regulate
growth and development by controlling the rate of metabolism. Functioning of thyroid is
regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) secreted by __________gland.
Iodine is necessary for production of ___________hormone by thyroid gland. Therefore, a
deficiency of iodine in the diet can cause deficiency of thyroxine hormone in the body and
cause a disease known as ______________.

Question 22. Working of thyroid gland is regulated via negative feedback loop. Explain.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

Question 23. There are two packets of salt available in the market: one is iodised salt that costs 15
rupees per kilogram and the other is non-iodised salt that costs 10 rupees per kilogram. Which salt

## (Refer video: Hormones in Animals_Thyroid Gland)

Adrenal glands are located above the __________. They secrete __________ hormone which
is also known as flight or fight hormone. Adrenal glands also secrete aldosterone that serves
as the principle regulator of salt and water balance in our body.

Question 24. Identify the incorrect statement(s) regarding the functions of adrenaline and rewrite the
correct statement(s).

## a. Increase of heart rate.

b. Increase of blood pressure.
c. Increase in breathing rate.
d. Dilation of the pupils.
e. Increased of blood supply to digestive system.

Question 25. Stress kicks the endocrine system into high gear. Justify the statement.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

d. Pancreas
Pancreas plays both endocrine and exocrine functions in our body. As an endocrine gland it
secretes hormones and as an exocrine gland it secretes ________ enzymes. The digestive
enzymes of pancreas are discussed in detail in the chapter life processes. Here we will
concentrate on the endocrine functions of pancreas. The two hormones secreted by pancreas
are _________ and glucagon.

Question 26. Identify the hormone secreted by pancreas in the following cases:

## a. When the blood sugar level increases.

b. When the blood sugar level decreases.

Question 27. If a person is advised to reduce sugar in his diet by a doctor then which disease might he
be suffering from? Also, mention the hormone whose deficiency leads to such condition.

## (Refer video: Hormones in Animals_Pancreas Multitasking Gland)

e. Testes
Testes are a pair of glands which are present only in males (men). They secrete male sex
hormone called _____________. The function of testosterone hormone is to control the
development of male sex organs and secondary sexual characteristics in men such as deeper
voice, moustache, beard, etc.
f. Ovaries
Ovaries are a pair of glands which are present only in females (women). They secrete female
sex hormones called ___________and ___________. The function of __________ hormone
is to control the development of female sex organ and female features such as feminine voice,
soft skin and mammary glands. The function of ______________ hormone is to control the
changes in uterus during menstrual cycle. It also helps in maintenance of pregnancy.

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

You will study testes and ovaries in details in the topic - Reproduction in Humans.

Do you know?
Not all hormones come from the endocrine system. For instance, the
placenta of a pregnant woman secretes a few hormones, including estrogen
and progesterone. And the stomach releases the hunger-inducing hormone
ghrelin and gastrin, which stimulates the secretion of gastric acid.

176

## 1. Electrical impulse travels in a neuron from

A. Dendrite → axon → axonal end → cell body
B. Cell body → dendrite → axon → axonal end
C. Dendrite → cell body → axon → axonal end
D. Axonal end → axon → cell body → dendrite
2. Which is the correct sequence of the components of a reflex arc?
A. Receptors→ Muscles→ Sensory neuron→ Motor neuron→ Spinal cord
B. Receptors→ Motor neuron → Spinal cord → Sensory neuron → Muscle
C. Receptors → Spinal cord → Sensory neuron → Motor neuron → Muscle
D. Receptors → Sensory neuron → Spinal cord → Motor neuron → Muscle
3. Select the miss-matched pair
B. Testosterone: Testes
C. Estrogen: Ovary
D. Thyroxin: Thyroid gland
4. The growth of tendril in pea plants is due to
A. effect of light
B. effect of gravity
C. rapid cell divisions in tendrillar cells that are away from the support
D. rapid cell divisions in tendrillar cells in contact with the support
5. When a person is suffering from severe cold, he or she cannot
A. Differentiate the taste of an apple from that of an ice cream
B. Differentiate the smell of a perfume from that of an agarbatti
C. Differentiate red light from green light
D. Differentiate a hot object from a cold object
6. What is the difference between a reflex action and voluntary action? Given below are two actions,
differentiate them as reflex action or voluntary action.
a) Closing of eye when light is suddenly flashed on our eye.
b) Drinking water when you are thirsty.
7. Why is the system of control and coordination essential in living organisms?
8. Fill in the blanks:
a) ______ is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
b) An automatic response to a stimulus which is not controlled by the brain is called ______.
c) Chemical messengers which play the role of control and coordination in plants and animals
are called ______ .
d) The movement of plant parts in the direction of light is called ______.
e) ______ is the movement of plant part in response to the availability of water.
f) ______ is the movement of plant part in response to the pull of earth’s gravity.
g) The movement of plant part in response to certain chemicals is called ______.
h) ______ is the reflex centre of the brain.
i) ______ is a structure associated with both nervous system and endocrine system.
9. How do we detect the smell of an agarbatti (incense stick)?
10. Match the following
I II
a. Cerebrum i. Motor coordination
b. Cerebellum ii. Reflex Acton
c. Spinal cord iii. Main thinking part of brain
11. a. Label the parts marked A to H in the given figure:

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## X CBSE Biology – Control and Coordination

b. Suppose there is a cyst formation in the part of brain labeled as ‘G’ due to which its activity
becomes partially inactive. In that case, he will face difficulty in performing what kind of
activities?
12. How is brain protected inside the human body?
13. What do you mean by reflex action? Give 2 examples of reflex actions?
14. How is the movement of the leaves of a sensitive plant different from the movement of its root
towards light?
15. Identify the two types of reflexes given below and differentiate between them:
i. When we touch a hot plate, we immediately move away our hand.
ii. Typist is typing a letter without looking at the typewriter keys.
16. What will happen when plant is exposed to unidirectional light?
17. What will happen if intake of iodine in our diet is low?
Or
Why is the use of iodized salt advised?
18. Which hormone is injected into a diabetic patient and why?
Why are some diabetic patients treated by giving injections of insulin?
19. Folding of leaves of touch me not (mimosa) and growth of plants towards light are examples of
tropic movements. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?
20. Identify the endocrine gland shown in the given figure. Also, name the hormone secreted by
them and its function in our body.

SOLUTION

## 1. C 9. Hint – Think of all the sensations we

2. D feel.
3. A 16. Hint:How does light affect the growth
4. C and movements in plant?
5. B

179

## X CBSE Physics – Light

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction
(Refer to video: Introduction)

a. Wave-Particle Duality

Light is a form of energy having both wave and particle nature. Light behaves as a wave,
or as particles, depending on what we do with it, and what we try to observe. To
understand light you have to understand that whatever we call light is only what is visible
to us. Visible light is the light that humans can see. Scientists also call light an
electromagnetic wave. Visible light is only a small portion of whole electromagnetic

Question 1.Suppose you are in an empty room which contains only UV-light. Will you be able to see
the walls? What is the range of wavelength of light we can see?

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## X CBSE Physics – Light

Visible light is only a small portion of whole electromagnetic spectrum that is perceived
by our eyes. A typical human eye responds to wavelengths from about 400 – 700 nm.

## Some animals can see light, which we can’t. Pit vipers

can see infrared light while bees can see ultraviolet.

The key thing to remember is that light and EM radiation carry “energy”. The quantum
theory says that light consists of very small bundles of energy particles. We call those
small particles photons, and the wavelength determines the energy and type of EM
radiation, and the number of photons tells you how much radiation there is. A lot of
photons will give you brighter and more intense type of light. Fewer photons will give
you a very dim and less intense light.

## When power goes dim at our homes, the number of

photons sent from the light bulb is decreased. The
type of light is the same while the amount of it has
changed.

181

## Question 2. What are the conditions in which light will behave as a

Wave

Particle

Ray

But, in this chapter, we will neither study light as a wave nor as a particle. We will study
light just as a “ray”. That is, a straight line moving through space and obeying some laws
of physics. And that is why when you’ll go to higher classes; this chapter will be renamed
as “Ray Optics”.

Question 3. What is the speed of light? Can anything else move faster than light? Explain.

182

## Did you know?

As we know speed of anything is relative. It depends on the frame of
observation. But this is not the case with light. That is the speed of light,
represented as ‘c’, is same for all frames of references. In 2013,
Scientists in Germany succeeded in stopping light – the fastest thing in
the universe - for a total of 60 seconds using a technique called
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency. If you want to know

## b. Fermat’s Principle of Least Time

The one principle that light always obeys is called “Fermat’s principle of least time”. It
says,
“Light always takes the quickest path.”

Question 4. Shortest path is always the quickest path. Is the statement true or false? Explain.

Why does light always take the quickest path? Honestly, we don’t know. We have just
seen light following that rule each and every time. And we made it into a rule.

Question 5. Fermat’s principle of least time can be used to prove the following two statements.
Explain how?
a) Light always travels in a straight line.

183

## b) Light always retraces its path.

When a light ray falls on a surface, it can either get reflected by it or absorbed by it or it
can just pass through it. And the result will depend on the atoms that make up the body
and also on the way that they are arranged in the body.

## Figure 9: Light Ray Falling on a Surface

Let us go to each of the cases one by one. So at first, let us see what happens in case of
reflection.

2. Reflection of Light
(Refer to video: Laws of Reflection)

a. Laws of Reflection

The phenomenon of the bouncing back of light, when it hits a polished surface is
known as the reflection of light. From the earliest recorded history, humans have been
fascinated by reflections. People were bewitched by their own reflection in a pool of
water and reflections were so extraordinary that magic powers were ascribed to the
mirrors in fairy tales. Seeing own image have advanced from reflective pools and
polished metal surfaces to clear glass and bathroom mirrors.

184

## Figure 10: Light Ray Falling on a Reflective Surface

Question 6. Draw a diagram and describe the two laws of reflection of light.

## Did you know?

There is a phenomenon called the photic sneeze
reflex, which causes uncontrollable sneezing in the
presence of bright light, affects roughly 18-35% of the
human population, though nobody is sure why? One
suggested cure: Wear sunglasses.

Question 7. How do we see things around us? How do we see colors? Suppose you are in a room,
which has four boxes – black, white, red and blue. If the room is illuminated by red light, what color
will the boxes appear?

185

3. Plane Mirrors

## Figure 11: Image Formation by a Plane Mirror

There are two types of images that can form after reflection from a mirror, real image and
virtual image.

186

##  Misconception: A shadow is an image (reproduction) of an object.

 Clarification: A shadow is not an image, but absence of light.

## Characteristics of image formed by a plane mirror:

 At same distance from mirror as the object
 Same size
 Erect
 Virtual
 Laterally Inverted

Question 9.Two plane mirrors are kept perpendicularly on x-axis and y-axis meeting at the origin. On
the mirror on the y-axis a ray is incident on it at an angle of 30º from the y-axis. Find the angle from
the x-axis at which the ray will leave the 2nd mirror on the x-axis?

The image produced by a plane mirror is horizontally inverted - that is reversed left to right. Look at
yourself in a plane mirror and raise your right hand - your image raises its left hand. This is called
lateral inversion.

Question 10.What is the cause of lateral inversion? Why is it that the image is flipped only
horizontally but not vertically?

Question 11.A famous artist and scientist, Leonardo da Vinci, hid all of his ideas and inventions by
writing all of his work backward. Use your mirror to decipher Leonardo’s secret code:

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## X CBSE Physics – Light

Question 12.When a plane mirror is rotated through an angle of 10º in clockwise direction and
incident ray is rotated by 5º in the counterclockwise direction, by what angle will the reflected beam
rotate?

## a. Images Formed in a Pair of Plane - Mirrors

The object and images formed by the two inclined mirrors lie on the circumference of a circle
with center at the point of intersection of the two mirrors and radius equal to the distance of
the object from the point of intersection.
If is the angle between them, the number of images formed is equal to

Let us now that we have seen reflections in case of a plane mirror which was quite
simple! Now let us go complicate things and see the kind of images formed due to curved
kind of mirrors.

4. Spherical Mirrors
(Refer to video: Spherical Mirrors)

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## X CBSE Physics – Light

Concave mirror is also known as converging mirror and convex mirror is also known as
diverging mirror.

## Did You Know?

Only a few animal species have been shown to have the ability to
recognize themselves in a mirror, most of them are mammals!

Aperture (A)

Pole (P)

Principal Axis

Focus (F)

189

b. Special Rays

## Did You Know?

Hot mirrors are special type of mirrors that reflect infrared light while
allowing visible light to pass. These can be used to separate useful light
from unneeded infrared to reduce heating of components in an optical
device.

190

## Characteristics of Image Ray Diagram

Object at infinity

Object beyond C

Object at C

Object at F

191

## Characteristics of Image Ray Diagram

Object at infinity

192

## 5. Mirror Formula and Magnification

(Refer to video: Mirror Formula and Magnification)

a. Mirror Formula

Sign Convention

Object is always placed to the left of the mirror. Pole, P is taken as origin, hence all the
distances are measured from the pole. Distances measured

##  Right of the origin (+ x-axis) are taken positive.

 Left of the origin (– x-axis) are taken negative.
 Perpendicular to and above principal axis (+y-axis) are taken positive
 Perpendicular to and below principal axis (–y-axis) are taken negative

Mirror Formula

## Mirror formula gives us a relationship between object distance ( ), image distance ( )

and the focal length ( ) of a mirror.

193

Magnification

## It is the ratio of height of the image to height of the object.

Question 14.An object of height 5cm is placed at twice the radius of curvature of a concave mirror of
focal length 30 cm. Find the position of image, magnification and height of the image formed

194

## a. Uses of Spherical Mirrors

Question 15. List the various uses and applications of spherical mirrors – concave and convex.

## Concave Mirrors Convex Mirrors

Question 16.A spherical mirror forms three times magnified real image of an object placed in front of
it. If the focus is situated at a distance of 9 cm from the pole, calculate how far the image is situated.
What type of mirror is used?

195

## X CBSE Physics – Light

6. Refraction of Light
(Refer to video: Refraction through a Glass Slab and Refractive Index)

## a. Refraction and Refractive Index:

The phenomenon of bending of light when light goes from one medium to another is
known as refraction of light.

## Question 17.What is the cause of refraction?

Speed of light is fastest in vacuum. In air, it has slightly lower speed but in this chapter
we will ignore that and thus we will use air/vacuum interchangeably. When light rays
goes from vacuum/air to any other medium, its speed slows down. Absolute refractive
index of that medium is defined as the “factor by which speed of light is slowed down in
that medium as compared to vacuum”. It is simply called refractive index of the
medium.

Question 18.If light travels with a speed of in medium 1 and in medium 2, how will you
represent refractive index of medium 1 with respect to medium 2?

196

## X CBSE Physics – Light

Question 19. Glass and water have a refractive index of 1.52 and 1.34 respectively. What is the
refractive index of glass w.r.t. water? How much time will light take to pass through a hypothetical
tube of 40,000 km half filled with water and other half filled with glass. Take ‘c’ = 3 x 108 m/s.

Light goes from Rarer to Denser medium: Light goes from Rarer to Denser medium:

## Did You Know?

If you place a glass rod in a liquid having the same
refractive index as the glass, it won’t be visible inside the
liquid! Think about how will you create an invisible
underwater diving suit using this!

197

## Figure 15: Refraction through a Glass Slab

As you can see, here refraction occurs at two surfaces. One when light enters into the
glass and another when it comes out of it. The light ray, which comes out of the glass, is
called emergent ray and the angle it makes with the normal is called as angle of
emergence, .

Question 21.A ray is incident on a glass slab of refractive index √3 from air at an angle of 60º from
the surface. What is the angle of refraction? How much time will light take to come out of glass slab if
slab is 10 cm thick?

198

## Question 22. Define the following terms.

Lateral Displacement:

Angle of deviation:

## Reflection from a plane mirror

Normal refraction

## Refraction through a glass slab

7. Spherical Lens
(Refer to video: Spherical Lens)

two types:
 Convex lens
 Concave lens

199

## Figure 16: Spherical Lenses

Question 24.Why is a concave lens known as a diverging lens and convex as a converging lens? What
can you say about their foci? Why do both the lenses have two center of curvatures while mirrors only

200

Focus (F):

## Focal length is half of the radius of curvature.

Question 26. Prove that focal length is equal to half the radius of curvature. What are the assumptions

201

## X CBSE Physics – Light

b. Special Rays

We call some rays special ray because when these rays pass through any lens, the
outcome is known already. That is for them we know what will be the output refracted
ray without doing any calculations.

Through Focus:

## c. Convex Lens Image Formation

Now let us see the ray diagram and nature of image formed for different positions of objects
from the pole.

202

## Characteristics of Image Ray Diagram

Object at infinity

Object beyond C

Object at C

Object at F

203

## Characteristics of Image Ray Diagram

Object at infinity

##  Misconception: Blocking a part of the lens surface would block the

corresponding part of the image.
 Clarification: Blocking a part of the lens surface will just reduce the
intensity of the image.

## Did You Know?

Lenses don’t always have to be made of plastic or glass. In the 1700s,
spherical glass bottles filled with water were used to focus candlelight
for fine work such as lace making, surgery etc.

204

## 8. Lens Formula, Magnification and Power of Lens

(Refer to video: Lens Formula, Magnification and Power of Lens)

a. Lens Formula

Lens formula gives us a relationship between object distance ( ), image distance ( ) and
the focal length ( ) of a lens.

Sign Convention

Optical center, O is taken as Origin; hence all the distances should be measured from O.
Distances measured
 Right of the origin (+ x - Axis) are taken positive
 Left of the origin (– x-Axis) are taken negative
 Perpendicular to and above principal axis (+y-Axis) are taken positive
 Perpendicular to and below principal axis (–y-Axis) are taken negative

Lens Formula

Magnification

Question 27.Find the position and the nature of image of an object 5 cm high and 10 cm in front of a
convex lens of focal length 6cm.

205

## Concave Lens Convex Lens

c. Power of a Lens

## The degree of convergence or divergence of light ray achieved by a lens is known as

power of a lens. It is defined as the reciprocal of its focal length and is represented by
letter, P. The S.I. unit of power of a lens is "diopter" denoted by 'D' and it is equal to m-1.

## If is given in cm, then

If any optical instrument has many lenses of power then the net power of the
combination of lenses will be

Alternatively,

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## X CBSE Physics – Light

Question 28.Two thin lenses of power +4.5 D and -3.5 D are placed in contact. Find the power and
focal length of the lens combination. Will the combination behave as a concave lens or a convex lens?

Question 29.On a number line, two convex lenses are placed. At origin is the lens 1 with focal length
of 30 cm and on 100 cm on number line is the lens 2 with focal length of 40 cm. An object is placed at
the point of 40 cm. Find the positions of any three images.

208

## 1) Is light a ray, a wave or particle? Comment.

2) What is “Femat’s principle of least time”? How can you use it to prove the principle of
reversibility of light?
3) Define reflection of light stating its two laws.
4) Draw the ray diagram for image formation of an object placed in front of a plane mirror. Also
state characteristics of the image formed.
5) What is “Focus”? Where will the image form, if you put an object at focus in case of a
Concave mirror, Convex mirror and Plane mirror.
6) An object of height 5 cm is placed at 20 cm from a concave mirror of focal length 15 cm.
Find the nature and height of the image formed?
7) A dentist uses a concave mirror of radius of curvature 3 cm and places an object at a distance
of ‘x’ cm from the mirror to get a magnification of +5. What is value of ‘x’?
8) Define absolute refractive index of a medium and relative refractive index.
A) If absolute refractive index of a medium is 1.5, what is the speed of light in that
medium?
B) If speed of light in medium 1 and medium 2 are 2 × 108 m/s and 1.5 × 108 m/s
respectively, then find the refractive index of medium 2 with respect to medium 1.
9) What is “Snell’s Law”? A light ray from a medium having refractive index 1.5 is incident on
another medium at an angle of 30°. If angle of refraction is 60°, find the refractive index of
the second medium.
10) List the conditions under which a light ray travelling from one medium to another, will not
undergo refraction.
11) An object of height 9 cm is placed at a distance of 18 cm from a concave lens of focal length
12 cm. Find the nature and height of the image obtained. Draw a ray diagram showing the
image formation.
12) The size of our eyeball is let’s say, 2.5 cm. When we are reading novel kept at 25 cm from
our eye, what is the power of eye lens at that time?
13) Magnification of a lens is given by and not by . Justify the formula.
14) Derive the expression for mirror formula. Using that show that for a plane mirror object
distance is equal to image distance.
15) List some practical uses of the following:
A) Plane mirror
B) Concave mirror
C) Convex mirror
D) Concave lens
E) Convex lens
16) What is the speed of darkness?
A) Same as the speed of light
B) More than the speed of light
C) Less than the speed of light
D) Question doesn’t make sense

17) If two plane mirrors are perpendicular to each other and 1 = 40°, then find the value of 2.

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## X CBSE Physics – Light

A) 40°
B) 50°
C) 30°
D) 90°
18) The focal length of a concave mirror is 10 cm. The position of the object that is useful for
getting an enlarged image, which can be caught on a screen is
A) Object placed at a distance of 5 cm from the mirror.
B) Object placed at a distance of 15 cm from the mirror
C) Object placed at a distance of 20 cm from the mirror
D) Object placed at a distance of 35 cm from the mirror
19) What is the physical significance of refractive index of a medium?
A) It tells how faster the light is moving in that medium.
B) It tells the material density of the medium.
C) It says how much air resistance the medium has.
D) It doesn’t have any significance.
20) Refractive index of diamond with respect to vacuum is 2.5, and then the velocity of light in
diamond is:
A) 25 × 108 m/s
B) 1.2 × 108 m/s
C) 2.5 × 108 m/s
D) 2.1 × 108 m/s

SOLUTION
6. Real and hi = - 15 cm
7. 6/5
8. a) 2 x 108 m/s b) 4/3
9. 3 / 2√2
11. 3.6 cm
12. +44 D
16. A
17. B
18. B
19. A
20. C

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Human Eye
(Refer to video: Human Eye)

## a. Structure of Human Eye

Eyes are one of the most sensitive sense organs in the human body. Our eyes can interact
with a part of the electromagnetic spectrum (very small range) and thus enabling us to see
this beautiful world.

Question 1.How do we see objects around us? What are the necessary factors to see objects?

## Figure 1: Human Eye

The light rays reflected from the objects/surfaces fall on the exposed portion of the eye.
These rays enter into the eye through the pupil and falls on a crystalline convex lens. The

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

eye lens converges the incident light rays and forms a real and inverted image of the
object on the retina. The image formed on the retina is then converted into nerve impulses
(electrical signals) and sent to brain through the optic nerve, which gives rise to the
sensation of vision.

Sclera

Cornea

Iris

Pupil

Crystalline Lens

Aqueous Humor

Vitreous Humor

Ciliary Muscles

Retina

Optic Nerve

## Did You Know?

Corneas are the only tissues in the eye that don’t have blood. As
it has no blood supply; it gets oxygen directly through the air.

The head of the optic nerve is devoid of photosensitive cells. Hence, no image is formed at
that point and that is called blind spot of the eye.

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

Question 2.How do we see things upright if the image formed on the retina in our eye is an inverted
one?

Question 3.On sunny days, when you enter a dimly lit room, you are unable to see clearly for a
moment. Why does this happen?

 Misconception: The lens is the only part of the eye responsible for
focusing light.
 Clarification: Lens is not the only part that helps to focus the light:
aqueous humor, vitreous humor and lens they all together help in
focusing the light.

b. Color Perception

Retina consists of two types of light sensitive cells – rod cells (RODS) and cone cells
(CONES). The rod shaped cells respond to the intensity or brightness of the focused light

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

whereas the cone shaped cells of the retina respond to the colors. Thus, the cone cells of
the retina make color perception possible.

Question 4.Why is it so that in dim light we are not able to see colors well or distinguish between
them?

Question 5.What do you think will be the image seen by a person who has less than normal number of
CONES in the eye?

a. Persistence of Vision

The image of an object seen persists on the retina for 1/16th second even after the
removal of the object. This sensation in the eye for some time is called persistence of
vision.

Question 6.How does persistence of vision make its use in cinematography? Explain briefly.

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

Question 7.What would be the effect on the image as seen by a human if the person had just one eye

## 2. Power of Accommodation and Defects

(Refer to video: Power of Accommodation and Defects)

a. Power of Accommodation
One of the most amazing things about human eye is that it can change its focal length
depending on the distance of objects. It is the ciliary muscles that can modify the
curvature of the lens to change its focal length. The ability of the eye lens to adjust its
focal length accordingly as the object distances is called power of accommodation.

To see the nearby objects clearly, the focal length of the lens should be ___________. For
this, the ciliary muscles ___________ to ___________ the curvature and thereby decrease
the focal length of the lens. Hence, the lens becomes ___________ to ___________ the
power of the eye.

## Figure 2: Seeing Nearby Objects

To see a distant object clearly, the focal length of the lens should be ___________. For
this, the ciliary muscles ___________ to ___________ the curvature and thereby increase

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

the focal length of the lens. Hence, the lens becomes ___________ to ___________ the
power of the eye.

## Figure 3: Seeing Far Away Objects

The minimum distance of the object by which clear distinct image can be obtained on the
retina is called least distance of distinct vision. It is equal to 25 cm for a normal human
eye and it is also known as near point of our eye.

Question 8. What do you mean by far point? What is the far point of a normal eye?

The loss of power of accommodation of an eye results in the defects of vision. There are
four defects of vision called refractive defects. They are myopia, hypermetropia,
presbyopia and astigmatism.

b. Myopia (Short-sightedness)

Myopia is a defect of vision in which a person clearly sees all the nearby objects, but is
unable to see the distant objects comfortably. A myopic eye has its far point nearer than
infinity. It forms the image of a distant object in front of its retina.Myopia is caused by
 Increase in curvature/power of the lens
 Increase in length of the eyeball

217

## Myopic Eye Myopic Eye with Corrective Lens

Question 9.Let’s say far point of a myopic eye is 50cm. It means that he can only see till 50 cm. So,
what should be the power of the concave lens so that he can see objects placed at infinity?

c. Hypermetropia (Long-sightedness)

Hypermetropia is a defect of vision in which a person can see distant objects clearly and
distinctively, but is not able to see nearby objects comfortably and clearly. A
hypermetropic eye has its least distance of distinct vision greater than 25 cm.

## Hypermetropia is caused due to

 Reduction in the curvature of the lens
 Decrease in the length of the eyeball

218

## Hypermetropic Eye Hypermetropic Eye with Corrective Lens

Let us say the near point of a hypermetropic eye is not 25 cm but 80cm. It means that he can only see
from 80 cm to infinity. So, a convex lens has to be applied which can take an object from 25 cm and
form its image at 80 cm so that our eyes can see it.

Question 10.Find the power of the lens required for the above described case?

## Did You Know?

Some people are born with two differently colored eyes. This is called
“heterochromia” of the eye. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different
color from the other. In sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different
color from its remainder and finally in central heterochromia there are
spikes of different colors.

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

d. Presbyopia (Ageing Vision Defect)

Presbyopia is a common defect of vision, which generally occurs at old age. A person
suffering from this type of defect of vision cannot see nearby objects clearly and
distinctively. A presbyopic eye has its near point greater than 25 cm and far point closer
than infinity.

## Figure 4: Correction of Presbyopia

e. Astigmatism

Astigmatism is an imperfection in the curvature of your cornea — the clear, round dome
covering the eye's iris and pupil — or in the shape of the eye's lens. Normally, the cornea
and lens are smooth and curved equally in all directions, helping to focus light rays
sharply onto the retina at the back of your eye. However, if your cornea or lens isn't
smooth and evenly curved, light rays aren't refracted properly. This is called a refractive
error.

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

Question 12. Write a note on astigmatism and the process by which it can be corrected.

## a. Refraction through a Prism

(Refer to video: Refraction and Dispersion of Light through Prism)

Prism has two triangular bases and three rectangular lateral surfaces. These surfaces are
inclined to each other. The angle between its two lateral faces is called Angle of Prism
(A).

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

Question 13.What do you mean by the angle of deviation? Find it in case of a prism.

Angle of Deviation,

But,

So,

## b. Dispersion Through a Prism

(Refer to video: Refraction and Dispersion of Light through Prism)

Dispersion is the phenomenon of splitting of white light into its constituent colors. These
colors are often observed as light passes through a triangular prism. Upon passage
through the prism, the white light is separated into its component colors – Violet, Indigo,
Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red (VIBGYOR).The band of colors obtained is
known as spectrum.

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

Question 14.Find the deviation obtained by a monochromatic red light incident on an equilateral
triangular prism at an angle of 60º. Given that refractive index of the glass prism is √3.

##  Misconception: A glass slab does not disperse white light into

constituent colors.
 Clarification: In the case of a glass slab, the opposite sides are parallel
and therefore different colors emerge parallel to each other and are
seen simultaneously.

## Question 15.What is the reason behind the phenomena of dispersion of light?

c. Rainbows
(Refer to video: Be More Curious!)

## It is the spectrum of sunlight in nature. It is formed due to the dispersion of sunlight by

the tiny water droplet, present in the atmosphere. Water droplets act like prism. They
refract and disperse the incident sunlight, then reflect it internally (total internal

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

reflection) and finally refract it again, when it emerges out of the water droplet. A
rainbow is always formed in a direction opposite to that of sun.

## Figure 7: Formation of Rainbow

Question 16. What is the reason behind the appearance of a secondary rainbow? Why is it fainter than
the first rainbow?

## Did You Know?

Moonbows or lunar rainbows occur because of the moon’s light. It is
formed in exactly same way as solar rainbow. However this type of
rainbow is not common because the moon’s light usually isn’t bright
enough for formation of a rainbow.

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

4. Atmospheric Refraction
(Refer to video: Atmospheric Refraction)

## It is due to atmospheric refraction of starlight. The temperature and density of different

layer of atmosphere keeps varying. Hence refractive index of our atmosphere at any place
keeps on changing with time. When the starlight enters the earth’s atmosphere it
undergoes refraction continuously, due to changing refractive index. It continuously
bends towards the normal. Due to this the stars appear higher than their actual position.

b. Twinkling of Stars

Distant stars act like a point source of light. As the physical condition of earth’s
atmosphere is not stationary, the beam of light from stars keeps on deviating from its
path. Hence the apparent position of stars keeps on changing and the amount of light that
enters our eyes also fluctuates. This is perceived as the “Twinkling of stars”.

Question 17.Why don’t planets tinkle the same way stars do?

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

c. Advanced Sunrise and Delayed Sunset

Because of atmospheric refraction sun is visible about 2 minutes earlier than actual
sunrise and about 2 minutes after the actual sunset.

## Question 18.Explain the above stated phenomena with a diagram?

5. Scattering of Light
(Refer to video: Scattering of Light)

a. Rayleigh scattering

When light passes through particles of a medium e.g. our atmosphere, the particles of the
medium scatter the light in different directions. This is known as scattering of light.

## Figure 9: Scattering of Light

Selective scattering (or Rayleigh scattering) occurs when certain particles are more effective
at scattering a particular wavelength of light. Air molecules, like oxygen and nitrogen for
example, are small in size and thus more effective at scattering shorter wavelengths of light
(blue and violet).

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

Question 19.Describe how the following set up can be used to study scattering of light?

## Did You Know?

One of the common misconceptions is that the Sun is yellow, or
orange or red. However, the Sun is actually all colors mixed together,
which in turn appear white to our eyes. This can be seen in pictures of
the Sun taken from space.

Now that you understand the phenomenon, answer the following questions.

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

Question 20.Is the sky above us blue or does it just appear blue? Is there even a sky? Explain in brief.

Question 21.What will be color of the sky in the absence of atmosphere, like on the moon?

Question 22.Why do clouds appear white or greyish in color? Why not any other particular color?

Question 23.Why danger signals and stop lights are usually red in color?

228

## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

Question 24.Why does the Sun appear almost white at the noon but red at the time of sunset and
sunrise?

230

## 1) How do we see objects? Explain in detail.

2) In the diagram given below, label the different parts of human eye correctly.

## 3) Write the functions of following parts of human eye:

i. Iris ii. Vitreous humor iii. Cornea iv. Retina
4) What do you mean by power of accommodation of eye? Do all animal’s eyes have that
property or only humans? How our eyes achieve that?
5) What advantages do we have because of two eyes, instead of a single one?
6) What is meant by myopia? What are its causes? How to correct it?
7) Draw diagrams showing both hypermetropia and its correction.
8) What is the cause of presbyopia? Draw diagram of the lens that can be used to correct it.
9) What is dispersion of light? Draw a diagram showing this phenomenon.
10) Is the refractive index of glass same for all the components of white light? Explain your
11) Write short note on how rainbows are formed.
12) How does a primary rainbow differ from a secondary rainbow?
13) What is atmospheric refraction? Explain the following phenomenon:
A) Early sunrise and delayed sunset
B) Stars twinkle but planets don’t.
14) What is scattering of light? What are the factors on which scattering of light depends? What is
Tyndall effect?
15) A person needs a lens of -5.5 D power in order to correct his distant vision. For near vision
however, he needs a lens of +1.5 D. What is the focal length of the lens required for
correcting-
i. Distant vision
ii. Near vision
16) The change in focal length of our eye lens is caused by the action of:
A) Iris
B) Lens itself
C) Ciliary Muscle
17) How does our brain interpret the image that is being formed on the retina?
A) Wherever light falls that area becomes hot and thus by measuring the difference in
hotness, image is formed.

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

B) Light sensitive cells on retina get activated wherever light falls and generate electrical
signals, which are interpreted by the brain.
C) Image is formed on the retina. We do not need the brain to interpret the image.
D) None of these.
18) The near point of a hypermetropic eye is 1 m, what is the power of lens required to correct
this defect? (Assuming that the near point of a normal eye as 25 cm)
A) + 3 D
B) – 3 D
C) + 4 D
D) – 4 D
19) The far point of a myopic eye is 80 cm. What is the power of lens that he should be
prescribed?
A) + 1.25 D
B) – 1.25 D
C) + 0.80 D
D) – 0.80 D
20) Choose the correct option:
Statement 1: On a hot day a highway appears wet sometimes, this phenomenon happens
because of refraction.
Statement 2: On a hot day the air above the road in contact with the road is hot, so less dense
and has less refractive index than the cool air above it so when light comes through denser
medium to rarer medium its totally internally reflected and hence the road appears shiny or
wet.
A) Statements 1 and 2 are correct but statement 2 is not the reason of statement 1.
B) Statements 1 and 2 are correct and statement 2 is the correct reason for statement 1.
C) Both statements are incorrect.
D) Statement 1 is correct but statement 2 is incorrect.

SOLUTION
15)
i. Distant vision
Power of lens required for correction of distant vision = -5.5 D
P = 1/f
So, f = 1/-5.5 = -0.19 m
ii. Near vision
Power of lens required for correction of near vision = +1.5 D
P = 1/f
So, f = 1/1.5 = 0.66 m
16) C
17) B
18) Given that, hypermetropic near point = 100 cm
Hence, image distance, v = – 100 cm
We have the correction formula, 1/f = 1/v + 1/25
Now, P = 1/f = 1/-100 + 1/25
1/f = 0.03,

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## X CBSE Physics – Human Eye and the Colorful World

So f = 33.33 cm = 0.33 m
Hence, P = 1/0.33 = + 3 D

## 19) Given, far point = 80 cm

So, focal point = -80 cm = 0.8 m (myopic eye)
So P = 1/f = 1/-0.8 = - 1.25 D

20) B

234

## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction
(Refer to video: Introduction)

a. Natural Resource

First of all we need to understand what a resource is. Everything available in our
environment, which can be used to satisfy our needs can be termed as a ‘resource’,
provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable.

## Question 1.What is a natural resource? Give some examples.

These natural resources are vital for human survival as well as for maintaining the quality
of life. For years we have taken them for granted and exploited them indiscriminately
which has led to various issues like depletion and degradation of these resources,
accumulation of resources in few hands etc. Indiscriminate exploitation has also led to
global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental
and water pollution, land degradation and many more.

## b. Ganga River Pollution

The quality of water of river Ganga, which runs its course from Gangotri in the
Himalayas to Ganga Sagar in the Bay of Bengal, has degraded because of a number of
reasons. The presence of coliform bacteria in water indicates contamination by disease-
causing microorganisms.

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## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

Question 2.What are some of the factors, which have led to the pollution of river Ganga and other
water bodies?

A number of initiatives have been undertaken to clean the river. The Ganga Action Plan
was launched with this motive in 1985 by the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.

There are some measurable factors, which are used to quantify pollution or the quality of
the water that we use for various activities. One of them is pH, which can be easily
checked using universal indicator.

## c. The Three R’s

It’s high time that we learn to incorporate the three R’s of the environment in our daily
life: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.

Question 3. What do they mean? List some of the ways to implement the 3 R’s in everyday life.

Reduce:
1)
2)

Reuse:
1)
2)

Recycle:
1)
2)

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## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

Question 4.Out of ‘Recycle’ and ‘Reuse’, which is better? Support your answer with valid reason.

Another major issue concerning us is CO2 emission. There are various local and
international emission standards for this, which set quantitative limits on the permissible
amount of CO2 that may be released from specific sources over specific timeframes. They
are generally designed to achieve air quality standards and to protect human health.

## Did You Know?

China and the USA are the largest emitters of CO2. In 2007 they
emitted 6.538 and 5.838 billion tones respectively, over 42% of global
emissions.

## 2. Why Do We Need to Manage Our Resources?

(Refer to video: Why Do We Need to Manage Our Resources?)

Almost everything that we use or consume comes from resources on the earth. Even energy
from the sun is processed by living organisms and various physical and chemical processes on
the earth before we make use of it.

## Question 5.Why is this management of resources necessary?

The management of natural resources requires a long-term perspective so that these will last
for the generations to come and will not merely be exploited to the hilt for short term gains.
The concept of sustainable development encourages forms of growth that meet

237

## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

current basic human needs, while preserving the resources for the needs of future
generations.
Question 6. What would be the advantages and disadvantages of exploiting resources with short-term
aims?

## 3. Forests and Wildlife

(Refer to video: Forests and Wildlife)

## Forests are the ‘biodiversity hotspots’. Biodiversity or biological diversity is measured

by:
 Number of species found there
 The range of different life forms (bacteria, fungi, ferns, flowering plants,
nematodes, insects, birds, reptiles and so on)

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## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

Question 8. With respect to forests, stakeholders are those who can affect or get affected by the
forests.
What are the four types of stakeholders? How do they interact with the forests?

## Did You Know?

More species of plant and animal live in the rainforest than any other land
habitat. The Indonesian rainforest alone is home to one fifth of all plant and
animal life yet it is disappearing at a faster rate than at any other time.

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## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

b. Human Intervention

Human beings are very much a part of forests. There have been many instances of local
people working traditionally for conservation of forests. For instance, the ‘Amrita Devi
Bishnoi National Award for Wildlife Conservation’ is given in the memory of Amrita
Devi Bishnoi, who in 1731 sacrificed her life along with 363 others for the protection of
‘khejri’ trees in Khejrali village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.

Question 10. When the great Himalayan National Park was formed, the practice of grazing by herds
came to an end. What negative impact did it have?

The Chipko Andolan (‘Hug the Trees Movement’) was the result of a grass root level
effort to end the alienation of people from their forests. The movement originated from
an incident in a remote village called Reni in Garhwal during the early 1970s. There was
a dispute between the local villagers and a logging contractor who had been allowed to
fell trees in a forest close to the village. On a particular day, the contractor’s workers
appeared in the forest to cut the trees. The women of the village reached the forest
quickly and clasped the tree trunks thus preventing the workers from felling the trees.
Thus thwarted, the contractor had to withdraw. The Chipko movement quickly spread
across communities and media, and forced the government, to whom the forest belongs,
to rethink their priorities in the use of forest produce.

The damage caused to the forests and wildlife has been immense. It has been because of a
number of reasons:
 Industry needs
 Developmental needs
 Tourist convenience

240

## Question 11. How have these forests been impacted?

Question 12. Suggest some approaches that can help conserve forests and wildlife.

## 4. Water for All

(Refer to video: Water for All)

a. Water Resources

Water is one of the most important natural resources. It is the basic necessity of all forms
of life present on the Earth. However, human intervention changes the quality and
availability of water in various regions. The presence and absence of water affects the
socio-economic conditions of that area.

Rains in India are largely due to the monsoons. This means that most of the rain falls in a
few months of the year. Water can be present in different forms in nature as rainfall,
surface runoff, ground water, rivers, seas etc.

241

## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

Question 13.Despite nature’s monsoon bounty, what are the reasons that have led to depletion of
ground water?

Irrigation methods like dams, tanks and canals have been used in various parts of India
since ancient times. These were managed by local people and assured that the basic
minimum requirements for both agriculture and daily needs were met throughout the
year. The use of this stored water was strictly regulated and the optimum cropping
patterns based on the water availability were arrived at on the basis of experience. The
locals also maintained these irrigation systems. We can say that these irrigation systems
were locale specific.

Question 14. Which irrigation technique was traditionally used in Himachal Pradesh? Explain how it
worked.

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## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

b. Dams

These traditional systems changed with the arrival of British. The conception of large
scale projects – large dams and canals traversing large distances came into being and
were largely implemented.

## Question 15. What are the two purposes served by dams?

The Indira Gandhi Canal has brought greenery to considerable areas of Rajasthan. But the
mismanagement of the water has largely led to the benefits being cornered by a few
people. There is no equitable distribution of water, thus people close to the source grow
water intensive crops like sugarcane and rice while people farther downstream do not get
any water. This has led to the discontentment among the people who have been displaced
by the building of the dam and its canal network. The construction of large dams has
widely been opposed.

The three types of problems that arise due to construction of dams are:
 Social problems
 Economic problems
 Environmental problems

243

## Did You Know?

Many dam failures have occurred in the past, these disasters can cause
significant damage and threaten lives. In 1889 a failure of the South Fork
Dam near Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA, killed over 2200 people.

## Watershed management emphasizes to develop primary resources of land and water, to

produce secondary resources of plants and animals for use in a manner which will not
cause ecological imbalance.

## Question 17. List two purposes served by watershed management.

Question 18. Write the water harvesting techniques practiced in the following states:

Rajasthan

Maharashtra

MP and UP

Bihar

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## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

Jammu

Kerala

Karnataka

The system adopted for rainwater harvesting is highly locale specific and the benefits are
also localized. In largely level terrain, the water harvesting structures are mainly crescent
shaped earthen embankments or low check dams. Monsoon rains fill ponds behind the
structures. Their main purpose is not to hold surface water but to recharge the ground
water beneath.

## Figure 1: Traditional Water Harvesting Technique

Question 19. What are the advantages of ground water as compared to surface water?

245

## 5. Coal and Petroleum

(Refer to video: Coal and Petroleum)

Coal and petroleum are the most common fossil fuels, which are widely used. These are
important source of energy for us. The demand for these resources has increased
tremendously over the years.

Question 20. Why is the management techniques used for coal and petroleum slightly different as
compared to other resources?

Coal and petroleum have been formed from biomass. They contain carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen and sulphur. When these are burnt, the products are carbon dioxide, water,
oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur. The oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and carbon
monoxide are poisonous at high concentrations and carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas.

Question 21. What happens when these fossil fuels are burnt in insufficient supply of oxygen?

246

## Did You Know?

Fossil fuels include coal, natural gas and oil. The current statistics show
that globally, fossil fuels provide for over 85% of all the energy we
consume.

## Figure 2: Percentage-wise usage of natural resources

Question 22.Suggest which of these will you prefer so as to make a little contribution towards
management of natural resources.

walking/cycling

## Wearing an extra sweater or using a heating

device on cold days

248

## Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1) What would be the advantage and disadvantage of exploiting resources with short-term aims
2) Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?
3) List some of the ways by which we can quantify pollution or the quality of water.
4) Over the years, Ganga river has been polluted badly. What factors have led to this pollution?
5) What do you mean by sustainable development? How does it help in management of natural
resources?
6) What are the 3 R’s to save the environment? Explain each of them in details.
7) Why do we need to manage our natural resources? Give three reasons supporting your
8) Why are forests known as biodiversity hot spots?
9) Who are the stake holders when we consider the conservation of forests? How do they affect
forests?
10) Human intervention has been very much a part of the forest landscape. What has to be
managed is the nature and extent of this intervention. How much do you agree with this
11) Give an example of people’s participation in management of forests where it has helped to
save forest resources.
12) The construction of large dams is generally opposed. What are the problems caused because
of them?
13) What do you mean by watershed management? How does it help? Give some examples of
water harvesting techniques that have been used in India.
14) How is water harvesting exercised in largely level terrain? Explain.
15) Why do we need to conserve coal and petroleum? Suggest some ways which can help to save
energy.
16) Ganga Action Plan was launched in the year
A) 1973
B) 1975
C) 1985
D) 1988
17) Why do we need management of natural resource?
A) It ensures equitable distribution of resources
B) It ensures that resources last for future generations
C) Since the human population is exponentially increasing and resources are limited
D) All of these
18) A blue litmus paper turns red when dipped in tap water. What can you conclude about the
nature of water?
A) Acidic
B) Basic
C) Neutral
D) Can’t say

249

## X CBSE Physics – Management of Natural Resources

19) The area in which the wildlife is allowed to survive without the interference of human
activities is called
A) Sanctuary
B) National park
C) Protected zone
D) Wildlife zone
20) Consider the following statements:
Statement I: The management of coal and petroleum involves a slightly different perspective
as compared to other resources.
Statement II: Burning of fuels in insufficient amount of air can increase efficiency and also
reduce air pollution.
A) Statement I is correct; Statement II is incorrect.
B) Statement I is incorrect; Statement II is correct.
C) Both statements are correct.
D) Both statements are incorrect.

SOLUTION
16. C
17. D
18. A
19. B
20. D

251

## X CBSE Chemistry – Carbon and Its Compounds

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction

## Do you know the importance of carbon?

(Refer to video clip - Origin of Life)

Question 1. Why is carbon considered to play a highly significant role in our everyday life ?

2. Bonding in Carbon

Carbon has six electrons. And this is what makes it so special. The two innermost are tightly
bound to the nucleus. And the remaining four are in the outer shell which in accordance with
the laws of nature should have eight electrons.
Every atom of an element in this universe is in search of stability. The state of least energy.
Since carbon has four electrons in the valence shell, it needs four more to attain an octet. This
is the maximum number of bond any atom can make and carbon being a non-metal forms
covalent bonds.

## What is Covalent Bond?

Covalent bond is sharing of electron pair between the atom. This type of bonding occurs
between two non-metals that have similar electronegativity. Neither of the atoms is strong
enough to attract electrons from other. Hence, for stabilization, they share their electrons from
the outermost valence shell.

252

## X CBSE Chemistry – Carbon and Its Compounds

Carbon occurs in different forms in nature which also forms the basic building block and vital
component for earth on life.

## What are Allotropes?

Different forms of same element with different spatial arrangement of carbon atoms bonded
to other carbon atoms forming a two or three dimensional structure.

## Question 3. Name the allotropic forms of carbon.

Question 4. Why does graphite conduct electricity while diamond on the other hand does not?

## Diamond is commonly known as the hardest naturally

occurring substance. But did you know that a single sheet of
graphite called graphene is actually the hardest substance
known.

253

## The number of carbon compounds already known today is around 10 million.

The two characteristics of carbon element which lead to formation of very large number of
organic compounds are: Catenation & Tetravalency
The property of carbon element due to which it can form bonds with other carbon atoms to
form long carbon chains is called catenation.

## Saturated and Unsaturated carbon compounds

Carbon being tetravalent, can form three types of bonds to satisfy its valency. On the types of
bond the carbon makes in the compounds they are classified as saturated & unsaturated.

254

## X CBSE Chemistry – Carbon and Its Compounds

a. Saturated compounds
Ethane

b. Unsaturated Compounds

## Question 7. Why do we classify hydrocarbons as saturated & unsaturated?

Carbon forms multiple bonds with itself and other compounds. If carbon skeleton has four carbon
atoms, we can arrange it in two different skeletons which are possible.

255

## X CBSE Chemistry – Carbon and Its Compounds

The compounds with same molecular formula but different in their structural arrangement called
isomers.

## (Refer to video - Functional Group and Nomenclature)

Many hundreds of new carbon compounds are added every day. These compounds cannot be
memorized, there are certain rules set by International Union of Pure and Applied Science
(IUPAC) in order to identify the name of a certain compound removing any scope of
confusion that comes whenever such a huge group of substances is to be named.

## a. Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds

Question 9. What are the important points that have to be considered in order to name a given carbon
compound?

256

## X CBSE Chemistry – Carbon and Its Compounds

Question 10. Find the name with reference to IUPAC of the given carbon compound.

## a. Nomenclature of Functional Groups

Question 11. What is a functional group? How is it different from a substituent group?

Question 12. Write down the detailed procedure for naming the compound(IUPAC) depicted in the
image below.

257

## Did you know?

Cochineal is an acid-base indicator made from the bodies of dried female cochineal
insects, found in Mexico and Central America. You'll have to grind about 70,000
insects to make one pound of dry indicator. The powder is about 10% carminic acid,
which is yellow in acidic solution, and deep violet in alkaline solution.

258

## (Refer to video - Chemical Properties)

Carbon compounds are considered as the main source of fuels that we use for our daily needs
because all the carbon fuels on combustion produce carbon dioxide with a significant amount
of energy and an availability (of fuel) which till date has no substitute.

## What is incomplete combustion?

When carbon burns in limited supply of air evolving CO (carbon monoxide) in the process, it is
known as incomplete combustion.

Question 14. What are the types of flames you observe when saturated & unsaturated compounds are
burnt?

a. Oxidation

A reaction which involves the addition of oxygen & removal of hydrogen is called as oxidation.

## 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO (addition of oxygen)

H2S + Br2 → 2HBr + S (removal of hydrogen)

Question 15. What are oxidizing agents? What happens to an oxidizing agent in a reaction

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Carbon and Its Compounds

Addition reaction can also be referred to as reduction reaction when the reaction proceeds
with addition of hydrogen and removal of oxygen. This reaction is used in the conversion
of an unsaturated hydrocarbon to a saturated hydrocarbon.

Question 16. Explain an addition reaction with the help of a suitable example.

c. Substitution Reaction

In presence of light.

## 7. Important Compounds of Carbon

Carbon is the fourth most abundant element which has several categories of compounds & has
numerous importance commercially as well as in domestic use.

260

## (Refer to video clip – What is an Acid and a Base? – pH)

Properties of Ethanol -
 Ethanol belongs to the family of alcohol.
 Ethanol is liquid at room temperature.
 Ethanol is water soluble

Reactions of ethanol:

## Reaction with sodium:

Question 18. How would you prove that sulphuric acid acts as dehydrating agent?

b. Ethanoic Acid

## Properties of Ethanoic acid

 Ethanoic acid belongs to family of carboxylic acids
 Carboxylic acid is considered as weak acid
 Ethanoic acid solutions in dilute concentration is commonly called acetic acid

## Reactions of Ethanoic acid

Esterification: The reaction between alcohol & carboxylic acid gives a sweet smelling
product called esters; this reaction is called as esterification.

261

## Soap are water soluble potassium or sodium salts of fatty acids.

Question 20. Explain micelle formation and the cleaning action of soaps and detergents

263

## 1. Write the major uses of carbon & its compounds.

2. Why are alkanes called paraffins?
3. Draw the Lewis dot structure to explain the polar covalent nature of CO2?
4. Why are hydrocarbons distinguished as saturated & unsaturated?
5. Write the side effects of the consumption of alcohol.
6. How do you convert alcohols to respective alkenes?
7. What are esters?
8. Name the reaction used in manufacture of soap.
9. Why does carbon show a high tendency towards catenation?
10. Write the structural formula of 3-Chlorohexanol.
11. Give the IUPAC of the following compound

12. Why does graphite conduct electricity whereas diamond does not? Explain the effect of the
structure and bonding.
13. What is the polymer manufactured using alkenes? Name the polymer.
14. The reactivity of the hydrocarbons in correct sequence is –
(a) alkanes > alkynes > alkenes (b) alkene > alkane > alkynes
(c) alkynes > alkenes > alkanes (d) alkene > alkynes > alkane
15. Carbon forms a cyclic compound known as-
(a) Carboxylic acid (b) Ethyl alcohol
(c) Benzene (d) Ethanoic acid
16. Explain covalent bonding and polar covalent bonds with an example.
17. Why do carbon compounds have low melting & boiling point.
18. What do you mean by functional group? Draw the skeletal structure of 2-methyl hexane-2-ene
19. Briefly explain the mechanism involved in the cleaning action of soap.
20. Write the reaction to show the oxidation of alkanes.

SOLUTION
14. (c) alkynes > alkenes > alkanes
15. (c) Benzene

265

## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction
(Refer to video clip – Introduction)

Whenever humans have been provided with a heap of random entities, we have always shown
a strong tendency towards organizing the entities into neat defined groups. Grouping of any
number of entities always requires a certain common factor or feature of the concerned
entities. It can be colour, size, weight, material, power, money etc.

Organization - the act or process of putting the different parts of something in a certain order
so that they can be found or used easily or even ease the study of a number of different basic
particles.

## Did you know?

Copper, Tin, Silver, Gold, Sulphur, Gold were among the first
elements discovered by humans.

Question 2.What are alkali metals? Why are they called so?

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

Question 3.What are noble gases? Why are they distinctive from all other elements?

## (Refer to video clip – Early Models of Periodic Table)

By the middle of the last century chemists generally understood that chemical elements can
be grouped together in separate classes according to obvious similarities or dissimilarities in
their properties. Thus, flammable alkali metals (that form stable cations) can be naturally
separated from poisonous halogens (that prefer to form anions). It had also been demonstrated
by Doebereiner that some elements may be grouped into triads so that the middle element's
properties can be approximated as the average of the properties of its neighbours. In the
1850s-1890s several workers combined the principle of triads and chemical similarity and
used the atomic weights (really masses) of the elements to formulate the periodic law.

Question 4. Show the bonding between the constituent atoms of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).

(Refer to video clip – Early Models of Periodic Table – Table of Triads)

As the number of elements increased, chemists inevitably began to find patterns in their
properties. In 1829 Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner discovered the existence of families of
elements with similar chemical properties. There always seemed to be three elements in these

Dobereiner also found patterns in the physical properties of the elements in a triad. He noted, for
example, that the atomic weight of the middle element in each triad is about equal to the average
of the atomic weights of the first and third elements.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

Question 5.Lithium, Sodium and Potassium form a Dobereiner’s triad. The atomic weight of Li is 6.9
and that of K is 39.1. Predict the atomic weight of Na.

## The world’s strongest acid comes from the carboranesuperacid,

considered to be a million times stronger than concentrated sulphuric
acid.

b. Newland’s Octaves
(Refer to video – Early Models of Periodic Table – 56 Elements of Periodic Table)

By the mid-19th century, the atomic masses of many of the elements had been
determined. The English chemist John Newlands (1838–1898), hypothesizing that the
chemistry of the elements might be related to their masses, arranged the known elements
in order of increasing atomic mass and discovered that every eighth element had similar
properties (the noble gases were still unknown). Newlands therefore suggested that the
elements could be classified into octaves. A group of seven elements, corresponding to
the horizontal rows in the main group elements (not counting the noble gases, which were
unknown at the time).

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

c. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
(Refer to video – Early Models of Periodic Table – Mendeleev’s Periodic Table)

The next milestone in the development of the periodic table was set by the Russian chemist
Dmitri Mendeleev, who is generally acknowledged as the “father” of the modern periodic table.
Mendeleev wrote out the names of the elements, along with their atomic weights and other
properties, on cards, which he then laid out in rows and columns much like a game of solitaire.
When the elements were ordered according to atomic weight, Mendeleev, like Dobereiner and
Newlands, could see that certain chemical properties were repeated periodically; however, not all
the elements fit this pattern neatly. Mendeleev's solution was to move certain elements to new
positions, despite their accepted weight, in order to group them with other elements sharing
similar properties.

## Figure 1 - Mendeleev's Periodic Table

The groups in Mendeleev's table are determined by how many oxygen or hydrogen atoms are
needed to form compounds with each element. For example, in Group I, two atoms of hydrogen,
lithium, Li, sodium, Na, and potassium form compounds with one atom of oxygen. In Group VII,
one atom of fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, and bromine, Br, react with one atom of hydrogen. Notice how
this approach has trouble with the transition metals.

269

## d. Limitations of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

The position of hydrogen was not correctly defined. It was placed in group I although it resembles
the properties of both the group I elements - the alkali metals and the group VII elements-the
halogens.

270

## 3. The Modern Periodic Table

(Refer to video – Modern Periodic Table)

Henry Moseley, an English physicist discovered in the year 1913 that atomic number, is the most
fundamental property of an element and not its atomic mass. Atomic number (Z), of an element is
the number of protons in the nucleus of its atom. The number of electrons in the neutral atom is
also equal to its atomic number.

## Main features of modern periodic table

 Groups - There are 18 vertical columns in the periodic table. Each column is called a
group. Elements which are in the same group have similar chemical properties.

The groups have been numbered from 1 to 18 from left to right. Group 1 on extreme left
position contains alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr). Group 18 on extreme right
side of the periodic table contains noble gases. Their outermost shells contain 8 electrons
except He as its outermost shell is K shell and it can hold only a maximum of 2 electrons.

All Elements in a group have similar chemical and physical properties because they have
the same number of outer electrons.

 Periods - There are seven(7) periods in periodic table. In periodic table horizontal rows
are used to represent periods. In a period the number of valence electrons and the
nuclear charge increases from left to right. It increases the force of attraction between
them.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

Question 10. Write down the merits of Modern Periodic Table over Mendeleev’s Periodic Table.

## a. Alkali Metals/Alkali Earth Metals

The Alkali metals are comprised of group 1 of the periodic table and consist of Lithium,
Sodium, Rubidium, Cæsium, and Francium. These metals are highly reactive and form
ionic compounds (when a non-metal and a metal come together) as well as many other
compounds. Alkali metals have the largest atom sizes than any of the other elements on
each of their respective periods.

Alkali Earth Metals are located in group 2 and consist of Beryllium, Magnesium,
Calcium, Strontium, Barium, and Radium. Unlike the Alkali metals, the earth metals have
a smaller atom size and are not as reactive. These metals may also form ionic and other
compounds and have a charge of +2.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

Question 11. Why do alkali metals and alkali earth metals show high degrees of reactivity.

b. Transition Metals

The transition metals range from groups IIIB to XIIB on the periodic table. These metals
form positively charged ions, are very hard, and have very high melting and boiling
points. Transition metals are also good conductors of electricity and are malleable.

## c. Lanthanides and Actinides

Lanthanides and Actinides, form the block of two rows that are placed at the bottom of
the periodic table for space issues. These are also considered to be transition metals.
Lanthanides form the top row of this block and are very soft metals with high boiling and
melting points. Actinides form the bottom row and are radioactive. They also form
compounds with most non-metals.

d. Metalloids

Question 12. What are metalloids? How do they compare to the properties of metals and non-metals.

## e. HalogensHalogens are comprised of the five non-metal elements Fluorine, Chlorine,

Bromine, Iodine, and Astatine. They are located on group 17 of the periodic table and
have a charge of -1. The term "halogen" means "salt-former" and compounds that contain
one of the halogens are salts. The physical properties of halogens vary significantly as
they can exist as solids, liquids, and gases at room temperature. However in
general, halogens are very reactive, especially with the alkali metals and earth metals of
groups 1 and 2 with which they form ionic compounds.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

Question 13. Why do halogens show a high tendency to make compounds with alkali metals and
alkali earth metals.

f. Noble Gases

The noble gases consist of group 18 (sometimes referred to as group O) of the periodic
table of elements. The noble gases have very low boiling and melting points and are all
gases at room temperature. They are also very non-reactive as they already have a full
valence shell with 8 electrons. Therefore, the noble gases have little tendency to lose or
gain electrons.

Question 14.What is the common oxidation state of all the elements of alkali metals, halogens and

## 5. Trends in the Modern Periodic Table

(Refer to video clip – Trends in the Modern Periodic Table)

We can never determine the atomic radius of an atom because there is never 100% probability
of finding an electron, and thus never a distinct boundary to the atom. All that we can
measure is the distance between two nuclei (inter-nuclear distance). A covalent

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms. An ionic radius
is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two ions in an ionic bond. A metallic radius
is one-half the distance between the nuclei of two adjacent atoms in a crystalline
structure.

Question 15. What is the trend in the change of atomic radii as one moves across the periods and
down the group in the Modern Periodic Table.\

## b. Ionization Energy (Ionization Potential)

Expelling an electron from an atom requires enough energy to overcome the electrostatic
pull by the positive charge of the nucleus.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

Question 16. What do you understand by ionization energy? How does it vary across the periodic
table.

The highest ionization energies are the noble gases because they all have high
effective charge due to their octet formation and require a high amount of energy
to change that stable configuration.

c. Electron Affinity

Electron affinity (E.A) is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a
gaseous atom. Electron affinity can further be defined as the enthalpy change that results
from the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom. It can be either positive or negative
value. The greater the negative value, the more stable the anion is.
 (Exothermic) The electron affinity is positive
X(g) + e- X− + Energy
 (Endothermic) The electron affinity is negative
X(g) + e− + Energy  X−

It is more difficult to come up with trends that describe the electron affinity. Generally,
the elements on the right side of the periodic table will have large negative electron
affinity. The electron affinities will become less negative as you go from the top to the
bottom of the periodic table. However, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine do not follow this
trend.

Question 17. Why do elements on the right hand side of the periodic table have high (negative)
electron affinities.

276

## X CBSE Chemistry – Periodic Classification of Elements

d. Electronegativity

## Electronegativity is the measurement of an

atom to compete for electrons in a bond.
The higher the electronegativity, the
greater its ability to gain electrons in a
bond. Electronegativity will be important
when we later determine polar and
nonpolar molecules. Electronegativity is
related with ionization energy and electron
affinity. Electrons with low ionization energies have low electronegativities because their
nuclei do not exert a strong attractive force on electrons. Elements with high ionization
energies have high electronegativities due to the strong pull exerted by the positive
nucleus on the negative electrons. Therefore the electronegativity increases from bottom
to top and from left to right.

Question 18.Identify the most electronegative and the most electropositive elements in the modern
periodic table respectively.

e. Metallic Character

The metallic character is used to define the chemical properties that is present in metallic
elements. Generally, metals tend to lose electrons to form cations. Non-metals tend to
gain electrons to form anions. They also have a high oxidation potential therefore they are
easily oxidized and are strong reducing agents. Metals also form basic oxides; the more
basic the oxide, the higher the metallic character.

277

## Importance of understanding the Periodic Properties of Elements

1. Predicting atomic size and radial distribution of electrons in neutral atoms and ions
2. Measuring and comparing ionization energies
3. Comparing electron affinities and electronegativities
4. Predicting redox potential
5. Comparing metallic character with other elements; it’s ability to form cations
6. Predicting what reaction may or may not occur due to the trends
7. Determining greater cell potential (sum of oxidation and reduction potential) between
reactions
8. Completing chemical reactions according to trends

279

## Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1. Why is the position of hydrogen not decided in the modern periodic table?
2. The bond formed between the metals & non-metals is also known as –
(a) ionic bond (b) covalent bond
(c) electrocovalent bond (d) polar covalent bond
3. Why are lanthanides & actinides kept separately in periodic table?
4. Name the most electronegative element in periodic table and justify.
5. Write the name of a few commonly used metalloids and state their uses.
6. Why are d-block elements also known as transition elements?
7. Why are the alkali metals highly reactive?
9. What are the limitations of Mendeleev’s periodic table?
10. Determine the period number & group number of element iodine which has an atomic number
of 53?
11. Which of the following ions is largest?
(a) Na+ (b) K+
2+
(c) Mg (d) Ca2+
12. Which of the following elements are likely to form an ion which carries a charge of -2?
(a) Ca (b) Fe
(c) C (d) S
13. Which of the following elements will have the lowest ionization energy?
(a) sodium (b) potassium
(c) magnesium (d) calcium
14. How many metalloids are there in the modern periodic table? How are they different from
metals?
15. Which element in group 15 has the strongest metallic character?
16. An element that belongs to the halogen family has-
(a) one outer shell electron (b) seven outer shell electron
(c) outer shell is completely filled (d) outer shell electron is half filled.
17. Why does phosphorous have a high first ionization energy?
18. When metallic atoms combine with non-metallic atoms, which one of them loses electron(s)
& which one gains the electron(s)?
19. Which metal is obtained commercially by electrolysis of common salt?
20. Why are most compounds formed by the d-block elements coloured?

SOLUTION

## 2. (a) ionic bond

11. (b) K+
12. (d) S
13. (b) potassium
16. (b) seven outer shell electron

281

## X CBSE Chemistry – Our Environment

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction

The term environment has been derived from a French word “Environia”. It is the complex of
physical, chemical and biotic factors (as climate, soil and living things) that act upon an
organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival.

2. Ecosystem
(Refer video: Ecosystem_ Ecosystem - I)

## An ecosystem consists of two components. _________________________ component which

includes the living organisms and _____________________ component which includes the
physical factors like temperature, rainfall, wind, soil and minerals.

We obtain energy from the food that we eat. This is used for the various functions of the
body. Energy flows in the ecosystem by the process of eating and being eaten. The sequence
of who eats whom in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutrition is called
_________________________. When this chain is interconnected, it becomes a food web.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Our Environment

The primary source of energy is the ______________.

Question 3. How much energy from the sun is used by the plants?

Plants use the energy from the sun to prepare food by a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis
converts ____________ energy to ____________________ energy.

According to second law of thermodynamics, energy conversions are never 100% efficient.

## Question 4. What is ecological efficiency?

The total efficiency at any level of consumption is the product of efficiencies of all the converters up
to that level.

## (Refer video: Ecosystem_ Ecosystem - II)

The feeding positions in a food chain or web are called tropic levels. These levels are represented in
the form of a pyramid.

Tertiary Consumers

Secondary Consumers

Primary Consumers

Primary Producers

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Our Environment

Question 5. Write the functions of each tropic level in the ecological pyramid with examples of each.

## (Refer video: Ecosystem_ Ecosystem - III)

The place or function of a given organism within its ecosystem is its niche.

Tertiary consumers can be decomposers or predators. Predators are organisms that prey upon other
organisms.

## (Refer video: Ecosystem_ Ecosystem - IV)

3. Early Age
(Refer video: Early Age)

Our ancestors were hunter gatherers. They lived in small groups, did not have homes and
practiced methods to control population. They discovered a form of energy known as
____________________ which helped them in surviving in any weather condition. This
resulted in an increase in population. With time and knowledge of technology, they developed
tools for hunting and became super predators. They drastically reduced the prey population
and caused extinction of many species which caused a shortage of food. This is when
agriculture started.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Our Environment

4. Agriculture
(Refer video: Agriculture)

Agriculture or farming means radical simplification and reorganization of the flow of energy.
In this, the farmers occupied a piece of land and obtained crops for their consumption out of
that land. Population again increased exponentially and people started social organization.

## Question 7. What is division of labor?

They also started domesticating animals to meet their food requirements. Farming is
extractive because
____________________________________________________________________.

Farmers gradually found ways of replenishing the lost nutrients. Some of these methods
include usage of manure, planting leguminous crops etc. Soil erosion also results in the loss of
the nutrient rich top soil. Trees bind the soil and help in solving this problem.

5. Commercial Hunting
(Refer video: Commercial Hunting_ Commercial Hunting - I)

Around 1.5 million species have been identified on earth till date. There are many more but
still unidentified. The tropic region of earth has a large variety of flora and fauna. Madagascar
provides shelter to around 10% of all known species. Many species of animals and plants
have become extinct due to human invasion in these lands.

Question 8. Give examples of a few animals that became extinct due to human activities.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Our Environment

Question 9. What is commercial hunting? List a few animal products that you use in your daily lives.

## (Refer video: Commercial Hunting_ Commercial Hunting - II)

6. Industrial Revolution
(Refer video: Industrial Revolution)

People of ancient and medieval times had to spend long, tedious hours of hand labor even on
simple objects. The energy or power, they employed in work came almost wholly from their
own and animals' muscles. The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the movement in
which machines changed people's way of life as well as their methods of manufacture. Steam
engine was invented which converted ____________________ into mechanical work.
Similarly other forms of energy were converted from one form to another to produce work.
Coal was also discovered during this time.

7. Pollution
(Refer video: Pollution_ Pollution - I)

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse
change.

a. Air Pollution

## Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules or other harmful

materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, allergies, and death to humans,
damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops or the natural or built
environment.

Nitrogen oxides, Sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide are the major gases that cause air
pollution.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Our Environment

Question 10. Write a note on sources of air pollution.

Smog is a kind of air pollution, originally named for the mixture of smoke and fog in the air.

Figure 2: Smog

## Did you know?

Breathing the air in Mumbai for one whole day is equivalent to smoking 100 cigarettes.

287

## X CBSE Chemistry – Our Environment

Question 11. Name some of the equipment used to control air pollution.

Acid rain is a rain that has been made acidic by pollutants in the air as a result of fossil fuel and
industrial combustions that mostly emits Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Sulfur Dioxide (SO2). It
releases metal ions in soil and causes leaching of elements like aluminum, cadmium, mercury into
aquifers.

A layer of ozone is present in the layer of stratosphere of the atmosphere. This layer protects life on
earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiations of the sun.
__________________________________________ are nontoxic, nonflammable chemicals
containing atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. They are used in the manufacture of aerosol
sprays, blowing agents for foams and packing materials, as solvents and as refrigerants. CFCs are a
major source of inorganic chlorine in the stratosphere following their photolytic decomposition by
UV radiation. In addition, some of the released chlorine would become active in destroying ozone in
the stratosphere and cause skin cancer in humans.

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Our Environment

Question 12. Why did the ozone depletion start in the Antarctic regions?

## (Refer video: Pollution_ Pollution - II)

Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse
gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane.

290

## Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1. Pollution of the environment leads to:
a) Improvement in the environment
b) Detrimental conditions
c) No changes
d) change in the environment
2. Energy and nutrients enter a community by
a) Primary consumer
b) Producer
c) Decomposer
d) Sunlight
3. Which of the following word is related to Homo Sapiens?
a) Herbivore
b) Carnivore
c) Autotroph
d) Omnivore
4. Protective layer of ozone in the atmosphere exists in which layer?
a) Troposphere
b) Ionosphere
c) Stratosphere
d) Atmosphere
5. Disposable plastic plates should not be used because
a) they are made of materials with light weight
b) they are made of toxic materials
6. Why are herbivores considered similar to predators in the ecological context? Explain.
7. What will happen to an ecosystem if
a) All producers are removed
b) All organisms of herbivore level are eliminated
c) All top carnivore population is removed
8. How will invasion by an alien species reduce the species diversity of an area?
9. What are e-wastes?
10. Compare the grazing and the detritus food chain.
11. Where is the world’s greatest biodiversity?
12. Construct an ideal pyramid of energy when 1,000,000 joules of sunlight is available. Label all
its tropic levels.
13. Define species.
14. Why is commercial hunting practiced?
15. Number of vultures is decreasing remarkably which is a matter of concern.
1. Vultures belong to which category of animals?
2. What is their role in nature to maintain ecological balance?

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## X CBSE Chemistry – Our Environment

16. Acid rain causes damage to monuments / buildings and also harms the flora and fauna. What
is the cause of acid rain?
17. Explain some harmful effects of agricultural practices on the environment.
18. What are the advantages of cloth bags over plastic bags during shopping?
19. Only ____ % of the energy can be transferred from one trophic level to the next trophic level.
20. When is world environment day celebrated?

SOLUTION
1. (b) Detrimental conditions
2. (b) Producer
3. (d) Omnivore
4. (c) Stratosphere

293

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction
(Refer video: Introduction)

Reproduction is the process in which new organisms are produced from their parents. It is
essential for the survival of species. All living things ensure that they pass down their genes
through reproduction.

## Question 1. How is sexual reproduction advantageous over asexual reproduction?

Types of reproduction

2. Fission

It is a type of asexual reproduction in which reproduction occurs by splitting the body into
parts. Fission is of two types- Binary and Multiple. Binary fission results in formation of
______________cells from a single parent while multiple fission results in formation of
________________ cells. Fission requires replication and division of genetic material. Most
bacteria and protozoa divide along a specific plane during division. For amoeba, this can
occur along any plane. Multiple fission usually occurs during ______________________
conditions producing many daughter cells within a protective covering called cyst. When

294

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

conditions become more_________________, the cyst breaks and daughter cells are
liberated.

Question 2. Identify whether binary fission occurs on a single plane or along any plane in the
organisms shown below?

Question 3. If an amoeba undergoes reproduction after every 3 months, how many amoebas will be
formed after 12 months of this cycle? How?

## (Refer video: Fission)

3. Fragmentation
(Refer video: Fragmentation)
Fragmentation occurs in colonial organisms or simple multi-cellular organisms. Organism
split into fragments and each fragment develops into new organism which is clone of the
parent. Splitting may be intentional or accidental. Examples of organisms that can undergo
fragmentation are ________________________________________________.

295

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

Regeneration is the process in which a part of an organism can completely generate an entire
individual or some parts of its body. Regeneration is used as a mode of reproduction only by
simple organisms with less complexity of organization. Starfish, lizards, planaria and hydra
all exhibit some form of regeneration. More complex organisms only have limited
regeneration capacity.

## Question 4. How is regeneration different from fragmentation?

When organisms are born they start with a single cell. This cell can grow into any cell in the
body. Such cells are called________________________. The process in which stem cells
become specialized cells is called _______________________.

4. Budding
(Refer video: Budding)

Budding generally results in offspring that is smaller than its parent. Budding is possible in
both unicellular and multi-cellular organisms. A new offspring results when a bud breaks
away from its parent.

Parent hydra Hydra with bud Bud grows into a new hydra New hydra detaches

296

## Question 6. Draw a neat labeled diagram to show budding in yeast.

5. Spore Formation
(Refer video: Spore Formation)

Spore formation occurs in simple multicellular organisms. In algae, the protoplast divides to form
small motile spores known as ___________________. These spores when released in the surrounding
develop into new individuals.

297

## Question 7. Identify the fruiting bodies that produce spores?

Figure 3: Rhizopus

## Question 8. Why are spores covered in a protective layer?

6. Vegetative Propagation

## Vegetative propagation is a type of ______________________ reproduction in plants in

which new plant can develop from vegetative parts of plant. It can be natural or artificial.

a. Natural Methods

This occurs naturally in which new plant comes from roots, stems or leaves of the existing
plant for example buds on root of sweet potato grow into new plants. Stems can also bear
buds such as in grasses. Leaves and tubers also bear buds in many plants.

298

## Did you know ?

During the 1600s, tulips were so valuable in Holland that their bulbs
were worth more than gold. The craze was called tulip mania, or
tulipomania, and caused the crash of the Dutch economy.
Tulips can continue to grow as much as an inch per day after being cut.

299

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

b. Artificial Methods
(i) Grafting

Grafting involves taking two plants of different breeds and producing superior quality
plant. The plant whose root system is taken is called _____________________ and
the plant whose shoot system is taken is called ________________________.

## Figure 5: Method of Grafting

Question 10. Is it possible to graft different species of plants together? If yes, what should be the
characteristics of the two species? If no, why not?

## (ii) Stem cutting

Stems with nodes and internodes are planted in soil which grow roots and become
fully fledged individuals.

300

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

Question 11. Apples, pears, avocados, oranges and roses are commonly grown by stem cutting. Why
this method is preferable as compared to using seeds obtained by sexual reproduction?

(iii) Layering

In layering a stem is buried in the soil while it is still attached to the parent plant.
Roots develop in the buried stem and can grow into individual plants. E.g.
______________. In air layering the bark from a small part of stem is removed,
covered with soil and wrapped with a cloth. Water is sprinkled on this part regularly.
When the stem develops root it is cut from the parent plant and planted as a new
plant.

## (iv) Tissue Culture

A small tissue, generally from a bud or growing area, is cut from a plant and kept
in a dish containing aseptic growing medium. The tissue soon develops a mass of
cells known as a callus. The callus is then placed in a medium that causes it to
differentiate and produce baby plants. Orchids, chrysanthemum, asparagus,
carnations, etc. are usually grown by this method.

301

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

Question 12. Write the advantages of tissue culture? How is it better than stem cutting?

## 7. Sexual Reproduction in Plants

The flower is the reproductive organ of a plant. Most plants have both male and female
reproductive organs in the same flower. Others may produce different male and female
flowers.
a. Structure of Flower

302

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

The male part of the flower is ___________________. The female part of the flower is
_________________. The male gametes of the plant are known as ________________ and are
contained within the _________________. The stigma receives pollen grains in a process known as
_____________________. The style bears the stigma and the ovary. Ovary contains ovules. Ovules
are structures where embryo sacs develop and mature into seed.

## Did you know ?

Saffron is used as a flavoring agent in cooking.
It is harvested from the stigmas of a type of fall-blooming
crocus - Crocus sativus.

b. Pollination

The transfer of pollens from anther to stigma of flowers is called pollination. Pollination
can be self pollination or cross pollination.

## Question 13. Identify the type of pollination in each case.

A B

c. Fertilisation

The pollen grain grows a pollen tube in the stigma and style releasing the male gametes.
The tip of the pollen tube ruptures in the ovule to release two male gametes. One of the
male gametes fertilizes the egg cell in the ovule to form a zygote. The second gamete

303

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

fuses with the secondary nucleus to form the endosperm nucleus. The zygote forms
________________. The endosperm nucleus becomes the endosperm of seed. The ovule
forms the _______________.

## Figure 8: Growth of pollen tube

 Misconception: In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the fruit develops before
the seeds.
 Clarification: Upon union of the female gamete (in the ovule) with the male
gamete (from the pollen), the seed is formed, and only after that, the fruit
develops from the ovary. In other words, the fruit is developed only after the
process of fertilization which results in the seed formation, as a by-product of
the reproductive process. The fruit develops to protect the seeds, and in some
cases, develop to become "attractive" to animals that will be the agents of seed
dispersal.

Question 14.Some plants like apple and pear have flowers that do not develop into seeds unless
cross fertilized. What advantages does such a mechanism provide? Can it be a disadvantage?

304

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

Question 15. What are the thin green structures below the sepals called?

305

## Cell division serves the following functions: ______________, _____________

and___________. Mitosis helps in ___________,
___________and________________. DNA replication happens once
during__________ followed by_____________. Humans have___________
chromosomes i.e. diploid condition.

## In meiosis, parent cells are _______________ while daughter cells are

______________________. Meiosis occurs with two cell divisions – first is reduction
division and second is mitotic division. In simple organisms all germ cells are generally
similar. In complex organisms, germ cells take on differential roles. The egg is generally large
and contains a food source. The sperm is small and mobile. Conventionally,
__________________ germ cells are called the male gamete.

Question 16. “Gametes must be produced by meiosis for sexual reproduction”. Why is it so?

## Did you know?

The reproductive system contains the largest and smallest
human cells. The largest cell is the female’s ovum while the
smallest cell is the sperm.

306

## 9. Male and Female Reproductive System

Question 17. Label the given diagram of the male reproductive system.

The testes are the site of sperm production and are housed in a sac protruding out of the body
known as the scrotum.

Question 18. Why are the testes located outside the body?

The testes release the male sex hormone __________________________. The epididymis
collects the haploid cells produced in the testes. It is here that they turn into mobile sperm.
The sperm moves into the vas deferens and then into the ejaculatory duct.
The ejaculatory duct connects to the urethra from which sperm is ejected through the male
copulatory organ, the _________________________. The accessory glands such as the
prostate and _____________________________ provide nutrition to the sperm and also aid
in the movement of sperm in the female reproductive system. The fluid coming out during
ejaculation is called semen.

307

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

Question 19. Label the given diagram of the female reproductive system.

The female analogue of the testes is _________________________. This organ produces the
female sex hormones _______________________ and _____________________________.
This organ produces eggs, the female gamete. The eggs enter the oviduct/ fallopian tube
where they may get fertilized. The fertilized egg is implanted into the endometrium wall of
the uterus. The uterus opens into the cervix and vagina which receives the semen.

##  Misconception: Ova and eggs are same.

 Clarification: All ova are eggs but all eggs are not just ova.

308

## 10. Menstrual Cycle

The female reproductive system undergoes two cycles known as the _________________ and
menstrual cycles almost every 28 days in preparation for probable fertilization.

a. Ovarian Cycle

FSH stimulates one of the follicles in the ovaries to enlarge and mature. The enlarged
follicle stimulates the production of _________________________________. This
hormone triggers ovulation, or release of the egg from the follicle at about day 14. The
ruptured follicle disappears if fertilization does not occur.

b. Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle prepares the uterus to receive the fertilized egg. Sex hormones
progesterone and ___________________ prepare the uterine lining the endometrium.
Upon ovulation, the endometrium becomes more velvety and becomes richer in blood
vessels.

Question 21. Why do you think the uterine lining becomes thick?

If fertilization does not occur, the lining is flushed from the uterus at about day 28. The cycle
then repeats until fertilization occurs.

## Hormones controlling the female reproductive system

Pituitary gland

Follicle Progesterone
Stimulating
hormone (FSH)

309

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

11. Fertilization

The sperm has a sleek design with a long tail to propel it. The head contains the genetic
material: the chromosomes.

## Question 22. Draw and label the different parts of a sperm.

Question 23. Why do you think mitochondria are clumped near the tail of the sperm?

Sperms mature in the epididymis and they take about a month to do so. A few sperm reach the
cervix of the female after ejaculation and swim into the acidic environment there. The cervix
is covered with mucus and becomes alkaline during ovulation. After fluids from the semen
meet the mucus, it becomes more alkaline and suitable for sperm to survive.
Sperm live only for 24-72 hrs. Only a few hundred to thousand sperms make it to the egg in
the fallopian tube.

310

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

Question 24. What are the two barriers that the sperms encounter on reaching the egg?

The barrier layer present over the ovum is removed by the _________________ enzymes released
by sperm. Only one sperm makes its way into the nucleus of the egg. Upon fertilization, the egg
prevents other sperm cells from reaching the egg. The nuclear membranes of both gametes
dissolve allowing chromosomes to pair up. The resulting zygote is _________________ though
both gametes are haploid.

311

## Question 27. Differentiate between oviparous and viviparous organism?

Question 28. How is carbon dioxide and urea excreted by the fetus removed?

## (Refer video: Fertilization)

12. Contraception

312

## Question 30. Name the methods in which contraceptives prevent pregnancy.

a. Permanent Contraception
_____________________________________ is the procedure of tying or cutting the vas
deferens in males to prevent release of sperms. Tubectomy is done in females by tying up the
fallopian tubes to prevent release of eggs.

## b. Other Forms of Contraception

Birth control pills and injections tamper with the hormonal cycle of women to prevent
ovulation or to prevent the blastocyst from embedding in the endometrium. Male and female
condoms physically prevent ___________________ from reaching the egg. Abstinence from
copulation (from weeks 2-4 of the menstrual cycle) i.e. during ovulation prevents pregnancy.
Spermicides prevent fertilization by ___________________________. Morning after pills
disrupts the uterine walls and prevents a fertilized egg from embedding.

313

316

## 1. Choose the correct statement.

A. Stamen is the male part of the flower
B. Stamen is the female part of the flower
C. Carpel is the male part of the flower
D. Corolla is the male part of the flower
2. Spore found in fungi are:
A. Tiny cells protected by thick walls to survive unfavorable conditions
B. Outgrowths from the parent organism
C. Buds formed in a long chain
D. None of these
3. Match the following:
i. Testes a. estrogen
ii. Ovary b. site of implantation
iii. Sperm c. testosterone
iv. Uterus d. male gamete
4. The number of ova released at a time in female human being is:
5. Site of fertilization in a mammal is
A. Uterus
B. Vagina
C. Urethra
D. Fallopian tube
6. Sperms have a tail whereas eggs do not. Why so?
7. A pregnant woman visits a doctor to determine the sex of her child. The doctor refused to
perform the test. Why was she denied?
8. Which method will you use for growing jasmine and rose plant?
9. Elaborate - Variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual.
10. Differentiate between binary fission and multiple fission?
11. Which process of reproduction is found in the organism shown in the image below? What are

12. Capacity to regenerate decreases with increase in complexity of the organism. Why?

317

## X CBSE Chemistry – How do Organisms Reproduce?

13. Differentiate between pollination and fertilization? Mention the site and product of
fertilization in a flower. Draw a neat, labeled diagram of a pistil showing pollen tube growth
and its entry into the ovule?
14. How does the embryo get nourishment inside the mother’s body?
15. A woman can use copper-T to protect herself from sexually transmitted diseases? Why or
why not?
16. Leaves of bryophyllum fallen on the ground produces new plants whereas the leaves of neem
do not. Why?
17. What are the different methods of contraception?
18. In tobacco plant, the male gametes have twenty four chromosomes. What is the number of
chromosomes in the female gamete? What is the number of chromosomes in the zygote?
19. A couple wants to space the birth of their second child. Suggest one preventive method which
could be observed
a) By the husband
b) By the wife for the same.
20. Why does bread mould grow profusely on a moist slice of bread rather than on a dry slice of

SOLUTION

1. A
2. A
3. i – c, ii – a, iii – d, iv – b
4. A
5. D
20.Hint – How does water help in supporting life?

319

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

Instructions: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the
videos proceed.

1. Introduction
(Refer video: Introduction)

Question 1. Why all the children born to same parent look different? Why do twins look alike? Do all
twins look alike? What is the difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins?

2. Heredity
(Refer video: Heredity_ Chromosomes)

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## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

Question 3. Do the babies look exactly like their parents? If no, what are these differences called?

Chromosomes are present inside the nucleus of cells. There are ___________ pairs of chromosomes
found in human beings. A pair of corresponding chromosomes of the same size and shape is called a
__________________ pair. In the pair both parents contribute one chromosome.

## Did you know?

If all 46 chromosomes were combined and arranged lengthwise,
the total length would be 1.8 meters. If all the chromosomes from
all the nuclei in the human body were to be arranged
lengthwise, it would measure around 180 000 million kilometres.

Question 4. How many pairs of homologous chromosomes do we have? Is the number same in males
and females?

Haploid cells have only ______________ the chromosomes of diploid cells. If an organism has more
than a pair of homologous chromosomes, the organism is said to be
______________________________. E.g.: ____________________________. The number of
chromosomes varies from organisms to organisms.

321

## Figure 1: Chromosomes in Humans

a. Sex Determination

Sex of a child is determined by the type of sex chromosomes present in them which in turn
depends on the type of sperm that fertilizes the ovum.

Mother Father

XX XY

XY XX

## Sex of the child

Chromosomes constitute genes which in turn form the functional units of heredity. Allele is a variant
form of a gene. Humans are called diploid organisms because they have two alleles for each gene,
with one allele inherited from each parent.

322

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

Question 6. Differentiate between genotype and phenotype.

b. Mendel’s Experiments
(Refer video: Heredity_ Mendel’s Pea Experiment)

Mendel is known as the father of genetics this is because the basic principles of genetics were
discovered by Mendel. He studied the inheritance pattern of characters in garden pea.

Question 7. Why did Mendel choose garden pea for his experiments?

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## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

Question 8. How did Mendel ensure that his experiments on peas were isolated from external
influences or chance? In other words how did he control the parameters of experiments?

There are seven pairs of contrasting traits found in pea. All of them are shown in the following table

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## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

Question 9. Differentiate between dominant and recessive trait.

Question 10. A mother with green eyes and a father with black eyes (who has alleles only of black
eyes) have children who only have black eyes. Which trait do you think is dominant and which is
recessive?

##  Misconception: A dominant trait is the most likely to be found in the

population.
 Clarification: “Dominant” refers only to the allele’s expression over another
allele. Human genetics includes examples of dominant traits that do not affect
the majority of the population.

325

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

When two pure breeding varieties of parental plants that differ only in one character are crossed, such
a breeding is called a monohybrid cross. A typical monohybrid cross is depicted in the following
figure.

## Monohybrid ratio in F2 generation: Genotypic – 1:2:1 and Phenotypic – 3:1.

Question 11. If yellow colour of seeds (Y) is a recessive seed trait while green colour of seeds (G) is a
dominant trait, fill up the table for the characteristics of all possible combinations. Calculate the ratio
of the number of yellow seed plants possible to the green seed plants possible if a randomized trial is
taken using the Punnett squares given below:

YY X YG Y Y

Ratio:

326

GG X YY G G

Ratio:

## (Refer video: Heredity_ Introduction to Punnett Square)

When two pure breeding varieties of parental plants that differ in two characters are crossed, it is
called a dihybrid cross.

Question 12. Use the Punnett square below to find the genotypic and phenotypic ratio for the case of
wrinkled (r)/round (R) and Yellow (Y)/Green (y) peas. Use the crossing of the combination given in
box.

RRYy x Rryy

327

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

3. Variation
(Refer video: Variation_ Evolution and Darwin’s Story)

Phenotypic variation leads to favorable and unfavorable traits in the environment. This
influences natural selection. Evolution is mostly driven by natural selection.

## Question 13. Explain the theory of natural selection with an example.

Darwin formulated his theory of evolution by natural selection by observing finches on the
___________________Islands which now belongs to Ecuador. The beaks of different species of
finches were adapted to the food they ate. These variations were essential for the finches to adapt to
their environment.

328

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

Genetic drift occurs when random natural (may be artificially induced) phenomena wipe out most of
the individuals of a population containing a certain phenotype. The surviving phenotype may or may
not be a dominant or preferable phenotype for the environment in which the species population lives.
The genetic variations that do appear generally tend to be small as ___________________________.
Thus individuals tend to be very similar.

## Question 14. Define bottlenecking.

This genetic similarity can be particularly problematic for the survival of species as there is little
chance of variation that can help the species adapt to changes in the environment. If a population is
isolated for a long time, the population may become a new species. This is a process known as
___________________.

329

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

Question 16. List the differences between natural selection and genetic drift.

Question 17. The Stephen’s Island wren was wiped out from all islands except Stephen Island due to
the introduction of rats by the Maori people. The species became extinct in the late 1800s when the
local light house keeper’s cat, Tibbles ate the last of the Stephen Island wrens. The image on the right
is a chewed up specimen. Can you explain this in the light of Genetic drift about small populations
and genetic similarity? Why is it so important to have many healthy populations of endangered
animals?

330

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

Acquired traits are traits gained by an individual as a result of his interaction with the environment.
These traits do not change the genetic make-up of an organism and hence are not carried down by
heredity. Any random error in gene, that occurs while replication is known
as________________________.

Question 18. A population of mice was made to fear cheese by making the mice associate cheese with
cats. (The mice were scared with cats when provided with cheese by scientists). This fear of cheese
was found to be inherited by the next generation of mice. Do you think this trait was passed down as
heredity due to changes in genes? Which clue presents this?

The process of introducing preferable or useful traits in a species by selectively breeding individuals
with those traits is called artificial selection.

Question 19. The blood hound is a breed of dog that was originally bred to track down deer for
hunting. Which trait was artificially selected for breeding this dog?

331

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

4. Speciation
(Refer video: Speciation)
Two organisms are generally considered to be of the same species if they can interbreed to
produce fertile offspring (children capable of breeding). If organisms of two different species
are made to reproduce they give rise to sterile species. For example: Liger, Mule, Tigon,
Zonkey, Pizzly bears. When two different species interbreed their offspring are called
________________.

## Question 20. Define the following types of speciation.

Allopatric
speciation

Sympatric
speciation

Peripatric
Speciation

Parapatric
Speciation

Temporal isolation

Sympatric speciation usually occurs in plants due to change in chromosomal number. Peripatric and
parapatric speciation is characterized by a smaller population of the new species in comparison to the
main ones.

332

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

5. Evolution and Fossils
(Refer video: Evolution and Fossils_ Process of Fossilisation)
Evolution tells that the distribution of genes changes over time.
Question 21. Write down the steps in the process of fossilization.

All mammals have the same limb structure because they have descended from the same ancestor.
Homologous structures are parts of the body that are similar in structure to other specie’s comparative
parts while ________________________________ are similar features of different animals that have
evolved due to convergent evolution.

##  Misconception: Evolution claims that we evolved from monkeys.

 Clarification: It doesn’t even claim that we evolved from
chimpanzees! Rather, evolution predicts that all life on the planet is related.

Question 22. Wings of bird and wings of insect-are these organs homologous or analogous? Give one

Question 23. What proof can you give for evolution? What structures do we share with bacteria that
tell us that mammals share an ancestry with bacteria?

333

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

DNA sequencing allows us to compare DNA sequences of different organisms to find out similarities.
This has revealed that we share genetic information with almost all life on earth which means that
humans like other living species have descended from a common ancestor.

6. Human Evolution
(Refer video: Human Evolution)

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited purely from the mother’s side. Using this tool we can trace
back the lineage of all humans to Africa. Human populations migrated all across the world in
search of greener pastures to Europe, Asia, America, Australia and the Pacific Islands.

## Did you know?

Our fists have constantly evolved to give a punch. Our fingers
and palms have become shorter while our thumbs have become
stronger and more flexible.

Question 24. Genealogical evidence suggests that Native Americans are related to people from
Eastern Siberia and Northern Asia. From where do you think the early Native Americans migrated
from?

334

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

Question 25. What is the relationship between apes and humans?

336

## Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1. If a round, green seeded pea plant (RRyy) is crossed with wrinkled, yellow seeded pea plant,
(rrYY) the seeds produced in F1 generation are:
A. round and yellow
B. round and green
C. wrinkled and green
D. wrinkled and yellow
2. In human males all the chromosomes are paired perfectly except one. This/these unpaired
i. Large chromosome
ii. Small chromosome
iii. Y-chromosome
iv. X –chromosome
A. (i) and (ii)
B. (iii) only
C. (iii) and (iv)
D. (ii) and (iv)
3. Select the incorrect statement.
A. Frequency of certain genes in a population changes over several generations.
B. Reduction in weight of the organism due to starvation is genetic.
C. Low weight parents can have heavy weight progeny.
D. Traits which are not inherited over generations do not cause evolution.
4. Select the group which shares maximum number of common characteristics.
A. Two individuals of a species
B. Two species of a genus
C. Two genera of a family
D. Two genera of two families
5. Identify the following pair as homologous or analogous organ:

## A. A is homologous pair and B is analogous organ

B. B is homologous pair and A is analogous organ

## C. Both are homologous pair

D. Both are analogous organ

337

## X CBSE Biology – Heredity and Evolution

6. Name two human traits which show variation.
7. What type of reproduction give rise to more number of successful variations?
8. What is the basis of evolution?
9. Older fossils are found closer to the surface-True or False.
10. Differentiate between homologous organs and analogous organs. Give one example of each.
11. How will you determine the age of fossils?
12. Dead remains of two organisms A and B were buried. Later, only B's fossils were found, but
not A's. Give reasons
13. Do all variations in a particular species have equal chances of survival in an environment?
14. Explain the terms: (i) Speciation (ii) Natural selection
15. Explain how equal genetic contribution of male and female parents is ensured in the progeny.
16. Discuss law of segregation or purity of gametes.
17. When is a recessive trait capable of expressing itself? Write its expression with respect to
height of plant (Genotype).
18. When a pesticide is sprayed on a population of insects, all insects do not get killed. Give
reason.
19. What is the percent of ab gamete produced by AaBb gamete?
20. A normal pea plant bearing colored flowers suddenly starts producing white flowers. What
could be the possible cause?

SOLUTION

1. A
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. A
17. Hint – Think of the effect of dominant trait on recessive trait.