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Product: EXCAVATOR
Model: 320 GC EXCAVATOR KTN
Configuration: 320 GC Excavator KTN00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY C4.4 Engine

Systems Operation
320 GC, 320 and 323 Excavator Machine Systems
Media Number -M0081158-01 Publication Date -01/03/2018 Date Updated -13/03/2018

i07317914

Electronic Control (Machine System)


SMCS - 1400; 5050

Electronic Control Module (ECM)

Illustration 1 g06246556
Machine ECM
(1) Controller
(2) J1 Connector
(3) J2 Connector

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Illustration 2 g06246551
Connectors of Machine ECM
(2) J1 Connector
(3) J2 Connector

The output from the machine ECM is based on input information from the sensors. The output
commands are based on the software programmed into the control module. After the machine ECM
receives the input information, the ECM sends a corresponding response to the outputs. The inputs
and outputs of the ECM are connected to the machine harness by two connectors (J1 and J2). The
inputs and outputs to the ECM can be viewed through the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (Cat ET).
Input and output information can also be viewed using the Operator Monitor.

The ECM also communicates with sensors and other control modules via the Controller Area
Network (CAN) data link. The data link is bi-directional, allowing the machine ECM to both receive
and send information with the engine ECM. The machine ECM also communicates to input and
output components that are directly connected to the Body Control Module. The Body Control
Module is used to link input and output components to the machine ECM via the CAN data link.

Note: Only the complete ECM is serviced (no lower levels components). The ECM must be replaced
if the ECM is damaged. Replace the ECM if a failure is diagnosed.

Pin Locations

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Table 1
Machine ECM #1 Connector J1 Contact Descriptions (1)
No. Function Type
1 Ground Ground
2 PRV 8-10 Return PRV Return
3 PRV 4-7 Return PRV Return
4 + Battery Battery (+)
5 PRV 1-3 Return PRV Return
6 Aux Pedal RH PWM/Freq In 25
7 J1939 for CGC CAN3 +
8 Machine Can Data Link CAN2 +
9 J1939 CAN1 +
10 Location Code1 Switch To Ground 1
11 Location Code2 Switch To Ground 2
15 5V Supply 5V Supply 1
20 8V Supply 8V Supply 1
22 Hydraulic Lock Solenoid PRV 1
23 EH - Boom 2 Up PRV 2
24 EH - Boom Up PRV 3
26 J1939 for CGC CAN3 -
27 Machine Can Data Link CAN2 -
28 J1939 CAN1 -
29 Left Joystick Switch 3 Switch To Ground 8
30 Left Joystick Switch 4 Switch To Ground 9
34 Analog & PWM Return 1 Analog & PWM return 1
35 Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor Analog Passive In 1
37 Fuel Level Sensor Fuel Level Sender
38 Analog & PWM Return 2 Analog & PWM return 2
41 Key Switch Key Switch

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42 EH - Boom Down PRV 4


43 EH - Stick Out PRV 5
44 Ether 2 TX + Ethernet
45 Ether 2 TX - Ethernet
46 Ether 2 RX + Ethernet
47 Ether 2 RX - Ethernet
48 Location Code 3 Switch To Ground 3
49 STG Return 1 STG Return 1
50 Location Code Enable/Disable Switch To Ground 4
51 OLWD Warning Alarm Enable Switch Switch To Ground 5
52 Seat Switch Switch To Ground 6
53 Left Joystick Switch 2 Switch To Ground 7
54 Pump 1 Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 1
55 Pump 2 Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 2
56 Stick Cylinder Head Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 3
57 Stick Cylinder Rod Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 4
58 Hydraulic Lock Status Switch To Battery 1
59 Start Detection / Neutral Started Status Switch To Battery 2
60 Fan Diagnostic Switch To Battery 3
61 EH - Stick In PRV 6
62 EH - Bucket Curl PRV 7
63 Ether 1 TX + Ethernet
64 Ether 1 TX - Ethernet
65 Ether 1 RX + Ethernet
66 Ether 1 RX - Ethernet
67 Capsule Filter Plugged Switch Switch To Ground 10
68 STG Return 2 STG Return 2
69 Left Joystick Switch 5 (SVAB) Switch To Ground 11
70 Right Joystick Switch 5 (SVAB) Switch To Ground 12

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73 Boom Cylinder Head Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 5


74 Boom Cylinder Rod Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 6
75 Swing Sensor A PWM/Freq In 7
76 Swing sensor B PWM/Freq In 8
77 Bucket angle PWM/Freq In 16
79 EH - Bucket Un-curl PRV 8
80 EH - Swing left PRV 9
81 EH -Swing Right PRV 10
(1)
Contacts that are not listed are not used.

Table 2
Machine ECM #1 Connector J2 Contact Descriptions (1)
No. Function Type
82 Right Joystick Switch 1 Switch To Ground 15
83 Right Joystick Switch 2 Switch To Ground 16
84 Engine Start Switch (PTS) Switch To Battery 4
85 Right Joystick Switch 3 Switch To Ground 17
86 Right Joystick Switch 4 Switch To Ground 18
87 Analog & PWM Return 4 Analog & PWM Return 4
88 EP Pump Solenoid 1 PRV 17
89 EP Pump Solenoid 2 PRV 18
90 Machine ECM data sharing network (MDTP) CAN4 +
91 Machine ECM data sharing network (MDTP) CAN4 -
92 8V Supply 8V Supply 2
93 STG Return 3 STG Return 3
95 Aux Pedal RH PWM/Freq In 15
96 EH - Stick 2 In PRV 15
97 EH -Swing Priority PRV 16
98 Joystick RH-X PWM/Freq In 11
99 Joystick RH-Y PWM/Freq In 12

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100 Analog & PWM Return 3 Analog & PWM Return 3


101 5V Supply 5V Supply 2
102 Travel L Pedal Sensor PWM/Freq In 13
103 Travel R Pedal Sensor PWM/Freq In 14
104 EH - Travel Right Fwd PRV 13
105 EH - Travel Right Rev PRV 14
110 Joystick LH-X PWM/Freq In 9
111 Joystick LH-Y PWM/Freq In 10
112 EH - Travel Left Fwd PRV 11
113 EH - Travel Left Rev PRV 12
114 PRV 17-18 Return PRV 17-18 Return
115 Ground Ground
116 Ground Ground
117 PRV 13-14 Return PRV 13-14 Return
118 PRV 15-16 Return PRV 15-16 Return
119 PRV 11-12 Return PRV 11-12 Return
120 + Battery Battery (+)
121 + Battery Battery (+)
(1)
Contacts that are not listed are not used.

Table 3
Machine ECM #2 Connector J1 Contact Descriptions (1)
No. Function Type
1 Ground Ground
2 PRV 8-10 Return PRV Return
3 PRV 4-7 Return PRV Return
4 + Battery Battery (+)
5 PRV 1-3 Return PRV Return
7 CGC: Can 3 + CAN3 +
8 Roto Tilt Can Network: Can 2 + CAN2 +

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9 J1939: Can 1 + CAN1 +


10 Location Code 1 Switch To Ground 1
11 Location Code 2 Switch To Ground 2
12 Thumb Wheel 1 -LH PWM/Freq In 17
13 Thumb Wheel 1 -RH PWM/Freq In 18
14 Ele Blade Lever PWM/Freq In 19
15 5V Supply 5V Supply
16 Aux Pedal LH PWM/Freq In 20
20 8V Supply 8V Supply 1
22 ATT Stem 1 Retract EPRV ATT Stem 1 Retract EPRV
23 ATT Stem 1 Extend EPRV ATT Stem 1 Extend EPRV
24 ATT Stem 2 Retract EPRV ATT Stem 2 Retract EPRV
26 CGC CAN3 -
27 Roto Tilt Can Network CAN2 -
28 J1939 CAN1 -
34 Analog & PWM Return 1 Analog & PWM Return 1
38 Analog & PWM Return 2 Analog & PWM Return 2
41 Key Switch Key Switch
42 Att Stem 2 Extend EPRV Att Stem 2 Extend EPRV
43 Att Stem 3 Retract EPRV Att Stem 3 Retract EPRV
44 Ether 2 TX + Ethernet
45 Ether 2 TX - Ethernet
46 Ether 2 RX + Ethernet
47 Ether 2 RX - Ethernet
48 Location Code 3 Switch To Ground 3
49 STG Return 1 STG Return 1
50 Location Code Enable/Disable Switch To Ground 4
51 Foot Switch Switch To Ground 5
52 Quick Coupler Switch Switch To Ground 6

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54 CTWT Removal Cylinder Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 1


55 Aux Pedal LH PWM/Freq In 2
56 Bucket Cylinder Rod Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 3
57 Bucket Cylinder Head Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 4
58 +B for PRV1 power supply Switch To Battery 1
61 Att Stem 3 Extend EPRV Att Stem 3 Extend EPRV
63 Ether 1 TX + Ethernet
64 Ether 1 TX - Ethernet
65 Ether 1 RX + Ethernet
66 Ether 1 RX - Ethernet
73 Thumb Wheel 1 - LH PWM/Freq In 5
74 Thumb Wheel 2 - LH PWM/Freq In 6
75 Thumb Wheel 1 - RH PWM/Freq In 7
76 Thumb Wheel 2 - RH PWM/Freq In 8
77 Ele Blade Lever PWM/Freq In 16
80 ATT Line 1 RERV ATT Line 1 RERV
81 ATT Line 2 RERV ATT Line 2 RERV
(1)
Contacts that are not listed are not used.

Table 4
Machine ECM Connector J2 Contact Descriptions (1)
No. Function Type
87 Analog & PWM Return 4 Analog & PWM Return 4
88 VAB Down VAB Down
89 Stick Unload Valve Stick Unload Valve
90 Machine ECM Data Sharing CAN4 +
91 Machine ECM Date Sharing CAN4 -
92 8v Supply 8v Supply
96 QCPLR Lock/Unlock Solenoid 2 QCPLR Lock/Unlock Solenoid 2
97 VAB Up VAB Up

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99 PWM/Freq in 12 PWM/Freq in 12
104 QCPLR Lock/Unlock Solenoid 1 QCPLR Lock/Unlock Solenoid 1
110 Squeeze Head End Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 9
111 Squeeze Rod End Pressure Sensor PWM/Freq In 10
112 Swing Brake Solenoid (On/Off) Swing Brake Solenoid (On/Off)
113 Boom Down Ele Check Boom Down Ele Check
114 PRV 17-18 Return PRV 17-18 Return
117 PRV 13-14 Return PRV 13-14 Return
118 PRV 15-16 Return PRV 15-16 Return
119 PRV 11-12 Return PRV 11-12 Return
(1)
Contacts that are not listed are not used.

Illustration 3 g06191389
Body Control Module
(1) Controller
(2) J1 Connector

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Illustration 4 g06191390
Connectors of Body Control Module
(2) J1 Connector

Table 5
BCM Connector Contact Descriptions (1)
No. Function Type
1 -B Power Supply
2 Driver Return 9-12 PRV Return
3 Driver Return 5-8 PRV Return
4 +B Power Supply
5 Driver Return 1-4 PRV Return
8 J1939 CAN2 +
9 Machine Can Data Link (Local Can) CAN1 +
13 CTWT Removal Switch CTWT Removal Switch
16 Engine Start Button LED (Green) Low Current Driver 1
17 Engine Start Button LED (Red) Low Current Driver 2
18 ECM (Wake Up) Low Current Driver 3
19 Dome Light / Foot Light Low Current Driver 4
20 8V Supply Power Supply
21 Wake Up Input 1 Wake up 1 (Switch To Battery)
22 Wake Up Input 3 Wake up 3 (Switch To Ground)
23 Main power relay On/Off Driver / Relay 1
24 M-ECM (Primary) Key Switch On/Off Driver / Relay 2
27 J1939 CAN2 -
28 Machine Can Data Link (Local Can) CAN1 -
29 Travel Alarm Cancel Switch Switch To Ground 7
30 Washer Fluid Level Switch Switch To Ground 8
31 STG Return 7-8 STG Return 7-8
33 Beacon Switch Beacon Switch

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36 Refuel Pump Relay Low Current Driver 5


37 Engine Key Switch Low Current Driver 6
38 Boom Light Relay Low Current Driver 7
39 Chassis / Cab Light Relay Low Current Driver 8
40 Wake Up Input 2 Wake up 2 (Switch To Ground)
41 Key Switch (On-Detect) Key Switch
42 Straight Travel Solenoid On/Off Driver / Relay 3
43 QCPLR Solenoid On/Off Driver / Relay 4
44 Electric Fan Control 1 High side PWM output 1
45 Electric Fan Control 2 High side PWM output 2
59 Heavy Lift Solenoid On/Off Driver / Relay 5
60 Travel Alarm On/Off Driver / Relay 6
61 Caution Lamp (for Crane) On/Off Driver / Relay 7
62 Boom Up Electric Check Solenoid On/Off Driver / Relay 8
63 Electric Fan Control 3 High side PWM output 3
64 Seat Belt Caution On/Off Driver / Relay 9
67 Att Hydraulic Oil Filter Switch Switch To Ground 5
68 STG Return 5-6 Switch To Ground Return
69 Refuel Start Switch Switch To Ground 6
77 Key Switch (Off-Detect) Switch To Battery 8
78 Travel Speed Solenoid On/Off Driver / Relay 10
79 Fine Swing Solenoid On/Off Driver / Relay 11
80 Engine Start Signal On/Off Driver / Relay 12
81 Hydraulic Reverse Fan Solenoid On/Off Driver / Relay 13
(1)
Contacts that are not listed are not used.

Inputs
The inputs describe the status of the machine systems. Two types of inputs exist. The inputs can be
either a switch type or a sensor type. Switches provide an open, a ground, or a + battery signal to the

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inputs of the controller. Sensors (frequency, PWM, or voltage) provide a changing signal to the sensor
inputs of the controller. The controller will recognize the following types of sensor signals:

Analog - The sensor will produce a voltage signal that changes as the conditions that the sensor is
sensing, changes.

Frequency - The sensor will produce an AC signal (sine wave or square wave) that varies in
frequency (Hz) as the condition changes.

Pulse Width Modulated - The sensor produces a digital signal and varies the duty cycle as the
condition changes. The frequency of the signal will remain constant.

In some cases the operator is provided a manual switch that can be used to change a condition of the
machine.

Sensors

High-Pressure Sensors

Illustration 5 g02263513

Note: The values in Table 6 are for bench testing only. Values may not represent parameters for
machine systems specifications.

Table 6
Operating Pressure 50 MPa
Supply Voltage +7V ~ +14V
Output Signal 500 ± 100 Hz (PWM)

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Output Range 5% ~ 95%

The high-pressure sensors include:

• Boom Cylinder Head End Pressure Sensor

• Boom Cylinder Rod End Pressure Sensor

• Bucket Cylinder Head End Pressure Sensor

• Bucket Cylinder Rod End Pressure Sensor

• Stick Cylinder Head End Pressure Sensor

• Stick Cylinder Rod End Pressure Sensor

• Pump 1 Pressure Sensor (drive pump)

• Pump 2 Pressure Sensor (idler pump)

Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensor

Illustration 6 g06244828

Note: The values in Table 7 are for bench testing only. Values may not represent parameters for
machine systems specifications.

Table 7
Constant Voltage Temperature Restance (Ohms)
12V DC 0° C (32° F) 3268 Ω
25° C (77° F) 1000 Ω
35° C (95° F) 653 Ω

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50° C (122° F) 360 Ω


75° C (167° F) 148 Ω
100° C (212° F) 68 Ω
125° C (257° F) 34 Ω

The temperature sensor for the hydraulic oil informs the ECM of the temperature of the hydraulic oil.
The sensor sends an analog signal to the Machine ECM indicating hydraulic oil temperature.

Switches

Hydraulic Oil Filter Switch

Illustration 7 g06244823

The hydraulic filter switch is a differential pressure switch. The switch measures the pressure
differential between the return port at the hydraulic tank and the hydraulic tank pressure. If the
pressure differential is greater than the specification the switch OPENS. A "Hydraulic Return Filter
Plugged" warning message will be displayed on the monitor.

One Touch Low Idle Switch

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Illustration 8 g06192943
Right Joystick (1-Button) (Monitor configured input)
(1) One Touch Low Idle Switch (Monitor configured input)
(2) One Touch Low Idle Switch Connections

Illustration 9 g06192908
Optional Right Joystick (3-Button, Trigger Switch, Monitor configured inputs) and Schematic Symbol
(1) One Touch Low Idle Switch (SW-3) (Monitor configured input)
(2) One Touch Low Idle Switch (SW-3) Connections

Note: SW-2 is a trigger switch and is not shown in Illustration 9.

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The one-touch low idle switch (1) is located on the top or on the front of the right joystick (see
Illustrations 8 and 9). The one-touch low idle switch is a monitor configured input. The one-touch low
idle switch will automatically reduce engine speed to 1150 RPM. Both the right and the left joysticks
must be in the neutral position before the engine speed is reduced.

Horn Switch

Illustration 10 g06192900
Left Joystick (4-button, Slide)
(1) Horn Switch (SW-3)
(2) Horn Switch (SW-3) Connections

When horn switch is depressed, power is sent to the horn relay. The horn relay sends power to the
horn.

Right Side Control Panel

Note: Your machine may not be equipped with all the controls that are described in this topic.

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Illustration 11 g06178333
Right side switch panel
(10) Engine speed / power mode control
(11) Light switch
(12) Window washer
(13) Operator Information
(14) Jog dial
(15) Heating and air conditioning
(16) Next menu
(17) Travel alarm mute
(18) Home
(19) Radio control
(20) Radio mute switch
(21) Window wiper
(22) Travel speed control

Note: In addition to the intended functions, the buttons on the switch panel are numbered from 0-9.
The numbered buttons can be used to enter numbers into the monitor for screens such as the passcode
screen.

(10)" Engine Speed / Power Mode Control" This switch is used for the selection of the engine speed.
The position of the engine speed dial is indicated on the operator monitor. Engine speed dial (10) is a
7-position switch. The selected position is displayed on operator monitor. Push in the dial to change
the power mode settings. The Power Mode Control allows the operator to choose what power mode to
operate the engine. The modes that can be selected are: "ECONOMY", "SMART", and "POWER".

(11)" Light Switch" Press this switch once to active the work light mounted on the chassis and the
work lights mounted on the cab. Press this switch a second time to active the work light mounted on
the chassis, the work lights mounted on the cab, and the work lights mounted on the boom. When the
switch is pushed a third time, all the work lights are off.

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(12)" Window Washer" As long as this switch is depressed, the window washer fluid will spray from
the nozzle. The window wiper will also operate while the switch is depressed. After the switch is
released for approximately 3 seconds, the window wiper will stop.

(13)" Help Button" Press and hold this button to view the operator information screen.

(14)" Jog Dial" This dial can be used to select items displayed on the monitor screen. The dial can be
rotated 360 degrees. The dial can also be moved left, right, up, and down. The dial can be pushed in to
make a selection.

(15)" Heating and Air Conditioning" Press this button to bring up the air conditioning and heating
menu.

(16)" Next Menu" Press the this button to access the next higher menu. If there is not a menu above
the current screen being viewed, the button will not do anything.

(17)" Travel Alarm Mute Switch" Press this switch to mute the travel alarm.

(18)" Home" Press this button to return to the default display at any time.

(19)" Radio Control" Press this button to display the radio controls on the monitor.

(20)" Radio Mute" Press the switch to mute the radio. Press the switch again to un-mute the radio.

(21)" Window Wiper" Press this switch one time to activate the long window wiper interval function.
Press this switch a second time to activate a short interval window wiper function. Press this switch
three times to activate a continuous window wiper function. Press this switch four times to stop
window wiper function.

(22)" Travel Speed Control" This switch is used to select the travel speed of the machine. When the
LOW SPEED position is selected, the "turtle" indicator will illuminate. When AUTO position is
selected, the "rabbit" indicator will illuminate. When the engine start switch is on, the travel speed
control switch is always set at the LOW SPEED position.

Engine Start Switch

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Illustration 12 g06192996
Engine Start Switch
(A) Off
(B) On
(1) Engine Start Ring
(2) Start Button

Turn the engine start ring (1) to the OFF position (A) to stop the engine.

To activate the electrical circuits in the cab and enable engine starting, turn the engine start ring (1)
clockwise to the ON position (B).

The start button (2) is an input of the engine and pump controller. The pressed start button informs the
ECM of an attempt to start the engine. Then, the ECM initiates the start procedure.

Pressing the start button with the engine on will also turn off the engine.

Power Mode Selection

The Power Mode Setting screen in the monitor allows the operator to choose what power mode to
operate the engine. The status indicator area of the monitor indicates what power mode the machine
will operate. The power modes available are

• Smart Mode

• Economy Mode

• Power Mode

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Smart Mode - This indicator shows


that the machine is set to operate in the
SMART mode.

Economy Mode - This indicator shows


that the machine is set to operate in the
Economy mode.

Power Mode - This indicator shows


that the machine is set to operate in the
Power mode.

Outputs
The ECM responds to decisions by sending electrical signals to the outputs. The outputs can create an
action or the outputs can provide information to the operator or the service technician.

Solenoids

On/Off Solenoids

Illustration 13 g06191494

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Note: The values in Table 8 are for bench testing only. Values may not represent parameters for
machine systems specifications.

Table 8
Rated Voltage 24 VDC
Coil Resistance 32.5 ± 1.6Ω (T=20° C)

The On/Off solenoids include:

• Swing brake solenoid

• Travel speed solenoid

• Straight travel solenoid

• Hydraulic lock solenoid

Proportional Reducing Solenoid Valve

Illustration 14 g06191521

Note: The values in Table 9 are for bench testing only. Values may not represent parameters for
machine systems specifications.

Table 9
Rated Voltage 12 VDC
Coil Resistance 8.15 ± 0.4Ω (T=20° C)

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Illustration 15 g06237029
A - Port pressure (kPa) vs Current (mA)

The proportional reducing solenoid valve is used on machines equipped with tool control. The P-Port
is blocked and does not allow pressure to the A-port. Therefore, the machine ECM must apply current
to the PRV to sent pressure to the A-port of the PRV.

The PRV's include:

The proportional reducing solenoid in Illustration 14 includes:

• Boom 1 Up Solenoid

• Boom 1 Down Solenoid

• Bucket Close Solenoid

• Bucket Open Solenoid

• Boom 2 Up Solenoid

• Left Travel Forward Solenoid

• Left Travel Backward Solenoid

• Right Travel Forward Solenoid

• Right Travel Backward Solenoid

• Stick 1 In Solenoid

• Stick Out Solenoid

• Stick 2 In Solenoid

• Stick Unload Solenoid

• Swing Left Solenoid

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• Swing Right Solenoid

• Swing Priority Solenoid

Data Link
The data link is a controller network used to pass information back and forth. The data link is
designed to carry communications between the various controllers and the monitor. The data link is
not a visible component. The network consists of internal control circuits and a wiring harness. The
data link is bidirectional. The controllers can receive information and send information. Two 120
Ohm terminating resistors must be installed in the wiring harness in order for each data link to
function properly.

An example of how the data link works would be the fuel level information. The fuel level sensor is
connected to machine ECM 1. The ECM then sends the fuel level information over the data link to the
monitor. The monitor uses this information to display the fuel level.

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Illustration 16 g06184624
Schematic of the data link circuit

Action Alarm
The action alarm sounds to alert the operator when a high emergency condition is present. For
example, the engine oil pressure decreases below a set value.

Travel Alarm

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The travel alarm sounds to alert the area that the machine is moving.

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