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Product: EXCAVATOR
Model: 320 GC EXCAVATOR KTN
Configuration: 320 GC Excavator KTN00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY C4.4 Engine

Systems Operation
320 GC, 320 and 323 Excavator Machine Systems
Media Number -M0081158-01 Publication Date -01/03/2018 Date Updated -13/03/2018

i07475750

Boom System
SMCS - 1400; 5050-BM

Boom Raise (High Speed)

Illustration 1 g06215799

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Hydraulic schematic for BOOM RAISE (high speed)


(1) Return port
(2) Accumulator
(3) Boom 2 cylinder extend solenoid
(4) Main relief valve
(5) Boom 1 cylinder retract solenoid
(6) Port to boom cylinder head end
(7) Line relief valve (boom cylinder head end)
(8) Pilot pressure reducing valve
(9) Center bypass passage
(10) Main control valve
(11) Boom 2 control valve
(12) Parallel feeder passage
(13) Return passage
(14) Boom 1 control valve
(15) Line relief valve (boom cylinder rod end)
(16) Boom drift reduction check valve
(17) Boom drift reduction valve spool
(18) Return passage
(19) Center bypass passage
(20) Parallel feeder passage
(21) Hydraulic lock solenoid
(22) Pressure port (pump 2)
(23) Pressure port (pump 1)
(24) Pump 2 pressure sensor
(25) Pump 1 pressure sensor
(26) Boom 1 cylinder extend solenoid
(27) Port to boom cylinder rod end
(28) Boom cylinders
(29) Boom cylinder head end pressure sensor
(30) Pump 1
(31) Pump 2
(32) Hydraulic tank
(33) Passage
(34) Passage
(35) Passage
(36) Passage

A BOOM RAISE operation at high speed is accomplished when the oil delivery from both pump 1
(30) and pump 2 (31) is supplied to the head end of boom cylinders (28). Boom 1 control valve (14)
and boom 2 control valve (11) operate during the high-speed operation. A BOOM RAISE operation at
low speed is accomplished when the oil delivery from only pump 1 (30) is supplied to the head end of
boom cylinders (29). During the low speed operation, boom 1 control valve (14) operates alone.

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Illustration 2 g06194247
Main control valve
(3) Boom 2 cylinder extend solenoid
(5) Boom 1 cylinder retract solenoid
(11) Boom 2 control valve
(14) Boom 1 control valve with regeneration
(26) Boom 1 cylinder extend solenoid

Pump 1 (30) and pump 2 (31) supply oil to main control valve (10) through ports (22) and (23). The
oil flows to the various valve spools through center bypass passages (9) and (19), and parallel feeder
passages (12) and (20) for use upon activation. The oil also flows to pilot pressure reducing valve (8).
The valve reduces the pressure of the oil for use in the pilot circuit. The pilot oil flows to hydraulic
lock solenoid (21). When the hydraulic lock solenoid is energized, pilot oil flows to the control
solenoids. Pilot oil from the hydraulic lock solenoid (21) flows through passage (33). The pilot oil
flow then divides into two flow paths. Part of the pilot oil flows through passage (34). The remainder
of the pilot oil flows to passage (35) and to passage (36) to the solenoids.

The oil delivery from pump 1 (30) flows through parallel feeder passage (20) to boom 1 control valve
(14). The oil delivery from pump 2 (31) flows through parallel feeder passage (12) to boom 2 control
valve (11).

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Illustration 3 g06197674
Boom 1 and boom 2 control valves (BOOM RAISE position)
(3) Boom 2 cylinder extend solenoid
(5) Boom 1 cylinder retract solenoid
(6) Port to boom cylinder head end
(7) Line relief valve (boom cylinder head end)
(9) Center bypass passage
(13) Return passage
(18) Return passage
(19) Center bypass passage
(26) Boom 1 cylinder extend solenoid
(27) Port to boom cylinder rod end
(41) Check valve
(42) Spring
(43) Port
(44) Spool
(45) Passage
(46) Port
(47) Spool
(48) Spring
(49) Passage
(50) Passage

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When the joystick for the boom is moved to the BOOM raise position, an input signal is sent to the
Machine Electronic Control Module (ECM). The ECM sends an output signal to boom 2 cylinder
extend solenoid (3) and boom 1 cylinder extend solenoid (26). The pilot oil from the boom 1 cylinder
extend solenoid (26) enters the main control valve at port (43). The pilot oil flow from port (43) shifts
spool (44) of boom 1 control valve (14) against the force of spring (42).

Delivery oil from pump 1 (30) in parallel feeder passage (20) flows through load check valve (41),
and passage (45). The oil flows through boom 1 control valve (14). The oil then shifts valve (16) in
boom drift reduction valve. Oil then flows through line (6) to the head end of boom cylinders (28).

Note: For more information on the boom drift reduction valve, refer to Systems Operation, "Boom
Drift Reduction Valve".

The pilot oil from the boom 2 cylinder extend solenoid (3) enters the main control valve at port (46).
The pilot oil flow in port (46) of boom 2 control valve (11) shifts spool (47) against the force of
spring (48).

Delivery oil from pump 2 (31) in parallel feeder passage (12) now flows through boom 2 control
valve (11), passage (50), and flows out of port (6). The oil combines with the oil delivery from pump
1 (30) at passage (50). The combined pump oil flows through port (6) and to the head end of boom
cylinders (28).

Return oil from the rod end of boom cylinders (28) flows to port (27). The oil then flows through
boom 1 control valve (14), return passage (13), and to the hydraulic tank.

Boom Raise (Low Speed)


During a gradual BOOM RAISE function, low pilot oil pressure is supplied from boom 1 cylinder
extend solenoid (26) to boom 1 control valve (14). During a gradual BOOM RAISE function, low
pilot oil pressure is supplied from boom 2 cylinder extend solenoid (3) to boom 2 control valve (11).

When the boom is raised at a low speed, boom 1 control valve (14) shifts and boom 2 control valve
(11) does not shift. The force of the spring in boom 1 control valve (14) is less than the force in of the
spring in boom 2 control valve (11).

The oil delivery from pump 1 (30) now flows to the head end of boom cylinders (28). Without the oil
delivery from pump 2 (31), the cylinder rod movement slows down when the boom is raised. The low
speed operation of the boom is performed.

Boom Lower

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Illustration 4 g06194822
Hydraulic schematic for BOOM Lower
(1) Return port
(2) Accumulator
(3) Boom 2 cylinder extend solenoid
(4) Main relief valve
(5) Boom 1 cylinder retract solenoid
(6) Port to boom cylinder head end
(7) Line relief valve (boom cylinder head end)
(8) Pilot pressure reducing valve
(9) Center bypass passage
(10) Main control valve
(11) Boom 2 control valve
(12) Parallel feeder passage
(13) Return passage
(14) Boom 1 control valve
(15) Line relief valve (boom cylinder rod end)
(16) Boom drift reduction valve
(17) Boom drift reduction valve spool
(18) Return passage
(19) Center bypass passage
(20) Parallel feeder passage
(21) Hydraulic lock solenoid
(22) Pressure port (pump 2)
(23) Pressure port (pump 1)

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(24) Pump 2 pressure sensor


(25) Pump 1 pressure sensor
(26) Boom 1 cylinder extend solenoid
(27) Port to boom cylinder rod end
(28) Boom cylinders
(29) Boom cylinder head end pressure sensor
(30) Pump 1
(31) Pump 2
(32) Hydraulic tank
(37) Passage
(38) Passage
(39) Passage
(40) Passage
(51) Passage

During a BOOM LOWER operation, the oil delivery from only pump 1 (30) is supplied to boom
cylinders (28) through boom 1 control valve (14). Boom 1 control valve (14) operates alone. Boom 2
control valve (11) is not operational in the BOOM LOWER operation.

The BOOM LOWER operation contains a regeneration circuit. During a BOOM LOWER function,
boom 1 control valve (14) acts as a regeneration valve. The return oil flow from the head end of boom
cylinders (28) flows through the boom 1 control valve (14). Oil then flows through to the rod end of
the boom cylinders.

When the joystick for the boom is moved to the BOOM LOWER position, an input signal is sent to
the Machine Electronic Control Module (ECM). Pilot oil from the hydraulic lock solenoid (21) flows
through pilot line (33) to boom cylinder retract solenoid (5). The ECM sends a signal to boom 1
cylinder retract solenoid pilot control valve (5). The pilot oil flows through valve (5) then divides into
two flow paths. Part of the pilot oil flows through passage (40) to boom 1 control valve (14). The
remainder of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (39) to boom drift reduction valve spool (17).

The pilot oil flow from passage (40) shifts the spool in boom 1 control valve (14) against the force of
the spring. The oil delivery from pump 1 (30) in parallel feeder passage (20) flows through the load
check valve to boom 1 control valve (14). The oil then flows through port (27) to the rod end of boom
cylinders (28).

Since, the pilot oil pressure has caused the spool in boom 1 control valve (14) to shift against the force
of the spring, the oil delivery from pump (30) that flows through the center bypass passage (19) is
restricted by the orifice.

The return oil from the head end of boom cylinders (28) flows through line (6) into boom drift
reduction valve (16). The return oil pressure in the passage increases. The return oil flows through the
boom drift reduction valve (16). A portion of the return oil flows into the boom 1 control valve (14).
The return oil flow is restricted by the orifice. The return oil is now supplied to the rod end of boom
cylinders (28).

The return oil from the head end of boom cylinders (28) flows through line (6) into boom drift
reduction valve (16). The head end oil flows through the boom drift reduction valve (16). The head
end oil returns to boom 1 control valve (14) and is regenerated to the rod end of the boom cylinders
(28).

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Boom Regeneration Valve

Illustration 5 g06331532

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Illustration 6 g06331503
Boom 1 control valve (BOOM Lower position)
(5) Boom 1 cylinder retract solenoid
(6) Port to boom cylinder head end
(13) Return passage
(14) Boom 1 control valve
(16) Boom drift reduction valve
(18) Return passage
(19) Center bypass passage
(27) Port to boom cylinder rod end
(28) Boom cylinders
(30) Pump 1
(40) Passage
(44) Spool
(52) Regeneration orifice
(53) Regeneration check valve
(54) Regeneration orifice
(55) Spring
(56) Passage
(57) Passage

The boom hydraulic circuit contains an integrated regeneration circuit. The regeneration circuit allows
the return oil from the head end of boom cylinders (28) to be supplied to the rod end of boom
cylinders (28). The regeneration circuit functions when lowering the boom.

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When lowering the boom, the ECM sends a signal to the boom 1 cylinder retract solenoid (5). The
solenoid shifts allowing the pilot oil to flow through the solenoid valve. Pilot oil then flows through
passage (40) to boom 1 control valve (14), and shifts the spool in the boom 1 control valve (14).

Return oil from the head end of boom cylinders (28) flows through passage (56) into boom drift
reduction valve (16). This oil then returns to the boom 1 control valve. The oil then divides within the
control valve. Part of the oil goes through an orifice (54) to the return system. Part of the oil flows
through an orifice (52) and check valve (53) combining with the oil flow in passage (57) to the rod
end of the cylinders.

The oil delivery from only pump 1 (30) is used for the lowering of the boom. Since the boom 1
control valve provides a boom regeneration system and supplies return oil from the head end to the
rod end of boom cylinders, more efficient use of the oil from pump 1 is achieved.

Copyright 1993 - 2019 Caterpillar Inc. Sat Jul 13 22:39:12 UTC+0700 2019
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