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The Skeletal System Bones are classified on the basis of shape into four groups

Parts of the skeletal system 1. Long

- Bones (skeleton) 2. Flat
- Joints 3. Short
- Cartilages 4. Irregular
- Ligaments
*** Figure 5.2 Classification of bones on the basis of shape.
Two subdivisions of the skeleton
1. Axial skeleton Classification of Bones
2. Appendicular skeleton
Long bones
Functions of the Bones - Typically longer than they are wide
1. Support the body - Shaft with enlarged ends
2. Protect soft organs - Contain mostly compact bone; spongy bone at ends
- Skull and vertebrae protect brain and spinal cord - All of the bones of the limbs (except wrist, ankle, and
- Rib cage protects thoracic cavity organs kneecap bones) are long bones
3. Attached skeletal muscles allow movement Examples:
4. Store minerals and fats - Femur
- Calcium and phosphorus - Humerus
- Fat in the internal marrow cavity
5. Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) *** Figure 5.2a Classification of bones on the basis of shape.
Classification of Bones
Classification of Bones Flat bones
- The adult skeleton has 206 bones - Thin, flattened, and usually curved
- Two basic types of osseous (bone) tissue - Two thin layers of compact bone sandwich a layer of spongy
1. Compact bone: Dense, smooth, and homogeneous bone between them
1. Spongy bone: Small needlelike pieces of bone and Examples:
has many open spaces - Most bones of the skull
- Ribs
*** Figure 5.1 Flat bones consist of a layer of spongy bone - Sternum
sandwiched between two thin layers of compact bone.
***Figure 5.2b Classification of bones on the basis of shape.
Short bones 3. Epiphysis (ends)
- Generally cube-shaped - Composed mostly of spongy bone enclosed by thin layer of
- Contain mostly spongy bone with an outer layer of compact compact bone
bone 4. Articular cartilage
- Sesamoid bones are a type of short bone that form within - Covers the external surface of the epiphyses
tendons (patella) - Made of hyaline cartilage
Examples: - Decreases friction at joint surfaces
- Carpals (wrist bones) ***Figure 5.3b The structure of a long bone (humerus of arm).
- Tarsals (ankle bones) 5. Epiphyseal line
- Remnant of the epiphyseal plate
***Figure 5.2c Classification of bones on the basis of shape. - Seen in adult bones
Classification of Bones 6. Epiphyseal plate
- Flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young, growing bone
Irregular bones - Causes lengthwise growth of a long bone
- Irregular shape ***Figure 5.3a The structure of a long bone (humerus of arm).
- Do not fit into other bone classification categories 7. Endosteum
Examples: - Lines the inner surface of the shaft
- Vertebrae - Made of connective tissue
- Hip bones 8. Medullary cavity
- Cavity inside the shaft
***Figure 5.2d Classification of bones on the basis of shape. - Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults
Structure of Bone - Contains red marrow for blood cell formation in infants until
age 6 or 7
Long bone anatomy ***Figure 5.3a The structure of a long bone (humerus of arm).
1. Diaphysis (shaft)
- Makes up most of bone’s length Structure of Bone
- Composed of compact bone Bone markings
2. Periosteum - Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments
- Outside covering of the diaphysis - Passages for nerves and blood vessels
- Fibrous connective tissue membrane Categories of bone markings
- Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers secure periosteum to - Projections or processes—grow out from the bone surface
underlying bone - Terms often begin with “T”
***Figure 5.3a The structure of a long bone (humerus of arm) - Depressions or cavities—indentations
***Figure 5.3c The structure of a long bone (humerus of arm) - Terms often begin with “F”
***Table 5.1 Bone Markings (1 of 3) 7. Perforating (Volkmann’s) canal
***Table 5.1 Bone Markings (2 of 3) - Canal perpendicular to the central canal
***Table 5.1 Bone Markings (3 of 3) - Carries blood vessels and nerves
*** Figure 5.4b Microscopic structure of bone.
Structure of Bone
Microscopic anatomy of spongy bone Structure of Bone
- Composed of small, needlelike pieces of bone called 1. Bone is relatively lightweight and resists tension and other
trabeculae and open spaces forces
- Open spaces are filled by marrow, blood vessels, and nerves 2. Organic parts (collagen fibers) of the bone make bone
***Figure 5.4a Microscopic structure of bone. flexible and have great tensile strength
3. Calcium salts deposited in the bone make bone hard to
Structure of Bone resist compression
Microscopic anatomy of compact bone
1. Osteocytes Bone Formation, Growth, and Remodeling
- Mature bone cells situated in bone matrix  Bone formation and growth
2. Lacunae - Ossification is the process of bone formation
- Cavities in bone matrix that house osteocytes - Occurs on hyaline cartilage models or fibrous membranes
3. Lamellae - Long bone growth involves two major phases
- Concentric circles of lacunae situated around the central Two major phases of ossification in long bones
(Haversian) canal 1. Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) cover hyaline
4. Central (Haversian) canal cartilage model with bone matrix
- Opening in the center of an osteon (Haversian system) 2. In a fetus, the enclosed cartilage is digested away,
- Runs lengthwise through bone opening up a medullary cavity
- Carries blood vessels and nerves ***Figure 5.5 Stages of long-bone formation in an embryo, fetus,
5. Osteon (Haversian system) and young child.
- A unit of bone containing central canal and matrix rings ***Figure 5.6 Growth and remodeling of long bones.
- Structural and functional unit of compact bone
***Figure 5.4b Microscopic structure of bone.  By birth, most cartilage is converted to bone except for
***Figure 5.4c Microscopic structure of bone. two regions in a long bone
6. Canaliculi 1. Articular cartilages
- Tiny canals 2. Epiphyseal plates
- Radiate from the central canal to lacunae  New cartilage is formed continuously on external face of
- Form a transport system connecting all bone cells to a these two cartilages
nutrient supply  Old cartilage is broken down and replaced by bony matrix
*** Figure 5.6 Growth and remodeling of long bones. Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization
 Closed reduction: bones are manually coaxed into position
 Appositional growth by physician’s hands
- Bones grow in width  Open reduction: bones are secured with pins or wires
- Osteoblasts in the periosteum add bone matrix to the during surgery
outside of the diaphysis Healing time is 6–8 weeks
- Osteoclasts in the endosteum remove bone from the inner
surface of the diaphysis Repair of bone fractures involves four major events:
 Bone growth is controlled by hormones, such as growth 1. Hematoma (blood-filled swelling, or bruise) is formed
hormone and sex hormones 2. Fibrocartilage callus forms
 Bones are remodeled throughout life in response to two - Cartilage matrix, bony matrix, collagen fibers splint the
factors broken bone
1. Calcium ion level in the blood determines when 3. Bony callus replaces the fibrocartilage callus
bone matrix is to be broken down or formed - Osteoblasts and osteoclasts migrate in
2. Pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton 4. Bone remodeling occurs in response to mechanical stresses
determines where bone matrix is to be broken
down or formed ***Figure 5.7 Stages in the healing of a bone fracture.
 Calcium ion regulation ***Table 5.2 Common Types of Fractures
- Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
 Released when calcium ion levels in blood
are low Axial Skeleton
 Activates osteoclasts (bone-destroying cells) Forms the longitudinal axis of the body
 Osteoclasts break down bone and release Divided into three parts
calcium ions into the blood 1. Skull
- Hypercalcemia (high blood calcium levels) prompts calcium 2. Vertebral column
storage to bones by osteoblasts 3. Bony thorax

Bone Fractures *** Figure 5.8a The human skeleton.

Fracture: break in a bone *** Figure 5.8b The human skeleton.
Types of bone fractures
1. Closed (simple) fracture is a break that does not penetrate
the skin
2. Open (compound) fracture is a broken bone that penetrates
through the skin
Two sets of bones form the skull Paranasal sinuses
1. Cranium bones enclose the brain - Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity
2. Facial bones - Functions of paranasal sinuses
 Hold eyes in anterior position o Lighten the skull
 Allow facial muscles to express feelings o Amplify sounds made as we speak
Bones are joined by sutures *** Figure 5.13a Paranasal sinuses.
Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint *** Figure 5.13b Paranasal sinuses.
Hyoid bone
8 cranial bones protect the brain - Closely related to mandible and temporal bones
1 Frontal bone - The only bone that does not articulate with another bone
2 Occipital bone - Serves as a movable base for the tongue
3 Ethmoid bone - Aids in swallowing and speech
4 Sphenoid bone *** Figure 5.14 Anatomical location and structure of the hyoid
5, 6 Parietal bones (pair) bone.
7, 8 Temporal bones (pair)
Vertebral Column (Spine)
14 facial bones > Vertebral column provides axial support
1, 2 Maxillae (pair) o Extends from skull to the pelvis
3, 4 Palatine bones (pair) 26 vertebral bones are separated by intervertebral discs
5, 6 Lacrimal bones (pair)  7 cervical vertebrae are in the neck
7, 8 Zygomatic bones (pair)  12 thoracic vertebrae are in the chest region
9, 10 Nasal bones (pair)  5 lumbar vertebrae are associated with the lower back
11 Vomer bone  Sacrum (formed by fusion of 5 vertebrae)
12, 13 Inferior nasal conchae (pair)  Coccyx (formed by fusion of 3–5 vertebrae)
14 Mandible *** Figure 5.15 The vertebral column.

*** Figure 5.9 Human skull, lateral view. Primary curvatures

*** Figure 5.10 Human skull, superior view (top of cranium  Spinal curvatures of the thoracic and sacral regions
removed).  Present from birth
*** Figure 5.11 Human skull, inferior view (mandible removed).  Form a C-shaped curvature in newborns
*** Figure 5.12 Human skull, anterior and posterior views.
Secondary curvatures *** Figure 5.20a The bony thorax (thoracic cage).
 Spinal curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions *** Figure 5.20b The bony thorax (thoracic cage).
 Develop after birth
 Form an S-shaped curvature in adults Appendicular Skeleton
*** Figure 5.16 The C-shaped spine typical of a newborn.  Composed of 126 bones
o Limbs (appendages)
Parts of a typical vertebra o Pectoral girdle
 Body (centrum) o Pelvic girdle
 Vertebral arch *** Figure 5.8a The human skeleton.
 Pedicle *** Figure 5.8b The human skeleton.
 Lamina
 Vertebral foramen Bones of the Shoulder Girdle
 Transverse processes  Also called pectoral girdle
 Spinous process  Composed of two bones that attach the upper limb to the
 Superior and inferior articular processes axial skeletal
1. Clavicle
*** Figure 5.17 A typical vertebra, superior view. 2. Scapula
*** Figure 5.18a Regional characteristics of vertebrae.  Light, poorly reinforced girdle
*** Figure 5.18b Regional characteristics of vertebrae.  Allows the upper limb a exceptional flexibility
*** Figure 5.18c Regional characteristics of vertebrae.
*** Figure 5.18d Regional characteristics of vertebrae. *** Figure 5.21a Bones of the shoulder girdle.
*** Figure 5.19 Sacrum and coccyx, posterior view. *** Figure 5.21b Bones of the shoulder girdle.
*** Figure 5.21c Bones of the shoulder girdle.
Thoracic Cage *** Figure 5.21d Bones of the shoulder girdle.
 Bony thorax, or thoracic cage, protects organs of the
thoracic cavity Bones of the Upper Limbs
 Consists of three parts Humerus
1. Sternum - Forms the arm
2. Ribs - Single bone
 True ribs (pairs 1–7) - Proximal end articulation
 False ribs (pairs 8–12) o Head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the
 Floating ribs (pairs 11–12) scapula
3. Thoracic vertebrae - Distal end articulation
- Trochlea and capitulum articulate with the bones of the Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
forearm  Formed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bones
*** Figure 5.22a Bones of the right arm and forearm.  Composed of three pairs of fused bones
*** Figure 5.22b Bones of the right arm and forearm. 1. Ilium
2. Ischium
Bones of the Upper Limbs 3. Pubis
The forearm has two bones  Pelvic girdle = two coxal bones, sacrum
1. Ulna—medial bone in anatomical position  Pelvis = two coxal bones, sacrum, coccyx
o Proximal end articulation  The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis
 Coronoid process and olecranon articulate  Pelvis protects several organs
with the humerus o Reproductive organs
2. Radius—lateral bone in anatomical position o Urinary bladder
o Proximal end articulation o Part of the large intestine
 Head articulates with the capitulum of the *** Figure 5.24a The bony pelvis.
humerus *** Figure 5.24b The bony pelvis.
*** Figure 5.22c Bones of the right arm and forearm.
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Bones of the Upper Limbs The female’s pelvis
Hand  Inlet is larger and more circular
 Carpals—wrist bones  Shallower, on the whole, and the bones are lighter and
o 8 bones arranged in two rows of 4 bones in each thinner
hand  Ilia flare more laterally
 Metacarpals—palm bones  Sacrum is shorter and less curved
o 5 per hand  Ischial spines are shorter and farther apart; thus, the outlet
 Phalanges—fingers and thumb is larger
o 14 phalanges in each hand  Pubic arch is more rounded because the angle of the pubic
o In each finger, there are 3 bones arch is greater
o In the thumb, there are only 2 bones *** Figure 5.24c The bony pelvis.
*** Figure 5.23 Bones of the right hand, anterior view.
Bones of the Lower Limbs
Femur—thigh bone Arches of the feet
 The heaviest, strongest bone in the body - Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches
 Proximal end articulation - Two longitudinal
o Head articulates with the acetabulum of the coxal - One transverse
(hip) bone *** Figure 5.27 Arches of the foot.
 Distal end articulation
o Lateral and medial condyles articulate with the tibia Joints
in the lower leg  Joints are articulations
*** Figure 5.25a Bones of the right thigh and leg. Occur where two or more bones meet
*** Figure 5.25b Bones of the right thigh and leg.  Functions of joints
Hold bones together securely
The lower leg has two bones Allow for mobility
1. Tibia—shinbone; larger and medially oriented  Two ways joints are classified
 Proximal end articulation Functionally
o Medial and lateral condyles articulate with the Structurally
femur to form the knee joint  Functional joint classifications
 Distal end articulation Synarthroses
o Medial malleolus forms the inner part of the ankle o Immovable joints
2. Fibula—thin and sticklike; lateral to the tibia o Slightly movable joints
 Has no role in forming the knee joint Diarthroses
 Distal end articulation o Freely movable joints
o Lateral malleolus forms the outer part of the ankle  Structural joint classifications
*** Figure 5.25c Bones of the right thigh and leg. Fibrous joints
o Generally immovable
Foot Cartilaginous joints
 Tarsals—7 bones o Immovable or slightly movable
Two largest tarsals are the: Synovial joints
o Calcaneus (heel bone) o Freely movable
o Talus Fibrous joints
 Metatarsals—5 bones form the sole of the foot  Bones are united by fibrous tissue
 Phalanges—14 bones form the toes  Types
*** Figure 5.26 Bones of the right foot, superior view. 
- Sutures *** Figure 5.28g Types of joints.
o Immobile *** Figure 5.28h Types of joints.
- Syndesmoses
o Allow more movement than sutures but still Synovial joints (continued)
immobile  Bursae—flattened fibrous sacs
o Found on the distal ends of tibia and fibula - Lined with synovial membranes
- Gomphoses - Filled with synovial fluid
o Immobile - Not actually part of the joint
o Found where the teeth meet the facial bones  Tendon sheath
*** Figure 5.28a Types of joints. - Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
*** Figure 5.28b Types of joints.

Cartilaginous joints Types of synovial joints based on shape

 Bones are connected by fibrocartilage 1. Plane joint
 Types 2. Hinge joint
- Synchrondrosis 3. Pivot joint
o Immobile 4. Condylar joint
o Found in epiphyseal plates of growing long bones 5. Saddle joint
- Symphysis 6. Ball-and-socket joint
o Slightly movable *** Figure 5.29 General structure of a synovial joint.
o Found in the pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints *** Figure 5.30a Types of synovial joints.
*** Figure 5.28c Types of joints. *** Figure 5.30b Types of synovial joints.
*** Figure 5.28d Types of joints. *** Figure 5.30c Types of synovial joints.
*** Figure 5.28e Types of joints. *** Figure 5.30d Types of synovial joints.
*** Figure 5.30e Types of synovial joints.
Synovial joints *** Figure 5.30f Types of synovial joints.
 Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity
 Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity
 Four distinguishing features of synovial joints Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton
1. Articular cartilage 1. Birth to adulthood
2. Articular capsule - First “long bones” of a fetus are hyaline cartilage
3. Joint cavity - Earliest “flat bones” of the fetal skull are fibrous
4. Reinforcing ligaments membranes
*** Figure 5.28f Types of joints. - As fetus grows, all bone models are converted to bone
Figure 5.31 Ossification centers in the skeleton of a 12-week-old
fetus are indicated by the darker areas. 6. Older adults
- Osteoporosis
2. Fetal skull o Bone-thinning disease afflicting:
- Fontanels are fibrous membranes connecting the cranial  50 percent of women over age 65
bones  20 percent of men over age 70
- Known as “soft spots” o Disease makes bones fragile, and bones can easily
- Allow skull compression during birth fracture
- Allow the brain to grow during later pregnancy and infancy o Vertebral collapse results in kyphosis (also known as
- Usually ossify by 2 years of age “dowager’s hump”)
*** Figure 5.32a The fetal skull. o Estrogen aids in health and normal density of a
*** Figure 5.32b The fetal skull. female skeleton
3. Growth of cranium after birth is related to brain growth *** Figure 5.34 Osteoporosis.
- Increase in size of the facial skeleton follows tooth *** Figure 5.35 Vertebral collapse due to osteoporosis.
development and enlargement of the respiratory
4. Size of cranium in relationship to body
- 2 years old—skull is three-fourths the size of adult skull
- 8 or 9 years old—skull is near adult in size and proportion
- Between ages 6 and 11, the face grows out from the skull
5. Skeletal changes
- At birth, the head and trunk are proportionately much
longer than the lower limbs
- During puberty:
o Female pelvis broadens
o Entire male skeleton becomes more robust
- By the end of adolescence:
o Epiphyseal plates become fully ossified
*** Figure 5.33a Differences in the growth rates for some parts of
the body compared to others determine body proportions.
*** Figure 5.33b Differences in the growth rates for some parts of
the body compared to others determine body proportions.

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