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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Out of 108 million Filipinos, nine million rely on unimproved, unsafe and

unsustainable water sources and 19 million lack access to improved sanitation.

Families without a safe water source in or near their home often spend significant

time and energy collecting water. Many house, many citizen of the Philippines are

lacking safe water and suffering the crises. We want to offer a solution the will

ensure the safeness of other people’s health. Distilled Solar Water, our product

can be use in times of emergency. This does not use a lot of work but a lot of

patience. Making distilled water is not easy to do or to collect, it is a slow process

but worth it after it is done. The materials we use are just recycled, it is cheap and

can be made easily. This will give you a drinkable water for it is filtered and

purified. 19 million Filipino will have no problem in water ever again. The product

is simple yet so helpful on a lot of Filipinos that lack access to clean water.

Background of the Study

The earliest onset of solar energy use to desalinate water is widely

accredited to Aristotle during the fourth century B.C.E Earlier attributions

reference the Bible & Moses’ use of a piece of wood to remove the “bitterness”

from water (Exodus 15:25, English Standard Version). The first documented
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account of solar distillation use for desalination was by Giovani Batista Della Porta

in 1958.However, no solar distillation publication of any repute leaves out the

Father of solar distillation, Carlos Wilson, the creator of the first modern sun-

powered desalination plant, built in Las Salinas (The Salts), Chile in 1872.

The practice of distillation was developed in Alexandria, Egypt, during the

Hellenistic period and Bittel (1959) gives a detail description of various distillers

(alembics) developed that time. There were developed various types of alembics.

The two pots alembic (Διβικος) was used for vapor condensation. The head of the

still in Greek was called “ambix.” This name was applied often to the still as a

whole. The Arabs named it “Al-Ambiq” from which the worldwide known “alembic”

was developed.

During the mediaeval times, solar energy was used to fire alembics in order to

concentrate dilute aquatic solutions, thus solar distillation was mainly used to

concentrate alcoholic solutions, herbal extracts for medical applications, to

produce wine, various perfume oils, etc.

Nebbia and Nebia-Menozzi (1966, 1967), in their historical desalination review,

say that the most important scientist of Renaissance was undoubtedly Giovanni

Batista Della Porta (1535–1615) who mentions three desalination systems and a

solar distillation apparatus for brackish waters. From the time of Della Porta, no

special reference can be found on solar distillation, but in 1870 the first American
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patent on solar distillation was granted to N.W. Wheeler and W.W. Evans (1879).

The patent, based on experimental work, describes almost all basic operations

and features of solar still including corrosion problems. Two years later, in 1872,

the first large-scale solar distillation plant was erected in Chacabuco (Las

Salinas), Chile. It was the first worldwide industrial size solar distillation plant.

Harding (1883) gives a detail description of the plant and Telkes (1955) reports

that the plant was in operation continuously for about 40 years.

Since then and until the beginning of the decade of 1960, many references exist

about small-scale solar stills but not of large solar distillation plants. The 50’s

American Office of Saline Water (OSW) erected in Daytona Beach, FL, USA, a

Solar Station to study operation parameters of various types of solar stills such as

thin water layer still, deep basin still, glass-covered still, and plastic-covered still.

The Station was operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, Cleveland, OH. The

experience obtained and the solar distillation plants constructed by this

experience are outlined in Reports and papers by Bloemer et al. (1961, 1965a,b,

1966, 1970). A detail description of these stills, up to 1970, and many other

worldwide detailed studies can be found in the Battelle Memorial Institute report

by Talbet et al. (1970). In fact since that time few improvements have been made

in solar stills.
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Statement of the Problem

The focus of this study, is to know the efficiency of the outcome of the water

What is the profile of respondents as to:

1.1 Name;

1.2 Age;

1.3 Gender:

2 Is there a difference between the distilled water and purified water

3 water in terms of:

3.1 Aroma;

3.2 Taste;

3.3 Color;

3.4 Hp Level;

4 Is the solar water effective and safe to drink?

5 Is the solar water safe to smell?

6 Can the used product can distill any water?


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Hypothesis

The product can distill anything and can make any liquid safe to drink. This

product can be use anytime anywhere. The product also works during

night time because of the sunlight of the moon. This product is more easier

to use and easier to make than a purification. Distilled water in any store

are more expensive that the other because of its difficulty to collect the

condense from the evaporated water.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study aimed to test the effectiveness of producing distilled water using

the heat energy from the sun by the use of recyclable materials like plastic bottles

and a pipe.

This study focuses on the comparison and testing its effectiveness in terms

of quality. The time range of the experiment is about a day to the final outcome. In

this way, generation of non-biodegradable plastics can be reused and the

ecological problem with breaking down plastics will be lessen.


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Significance of the Study

This study will benefit the following sectors:

Future Researchers. This will provide the baseline of the future

researchers who desire to conduct a study of similar topic. It may serve to connect

the gap that may left unresolved. This study may have certain deficiency, at least.

This may give some insights and encouragement to take a validation and follow

up study.

Community .This would help the community to look for an alternative


source of plastics for different things and purposes.
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Definition of Terms

The following terminologies were conceptually and/or operationally defined

for better understanding of this research.

Plastic bottle- constructed from high density plastic. Plastic bottles are

typically used to store liquids such as water, soft drinks, motor oil, cooking oil,

medicine, shampoo, milk, and ink. The size ranges from very small

sample bottles to large carboys.

functions as a carbohydrate store and is an important constituent of the

human diet. an odorless, tasteless white substance occurring widely in plant

tissue and obtained chiefly from cereals and potatoes. It is a polysaccharide which

functions as a carbohydrate store and is an important constituent of the human

diet.

Polyvinyl chloride pipe (VPC)- a synthetic thermoplastic material made

by polymerizing vinyl chloride. The properties depend on the added plasticizer.

Ecological- relating to or concerned with the relation of living organisms to

one another and to their physical surroundings.